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Article 92 - Good Order and Military Discipline. The Disciplinary Regulations of the United States Army define military discipline as a strict and honorable compliance by all servicemen with the order and rules prescribed by laws, military regulations and orders of commanders (superiors). Military discipline is a special form of military relations. Its specifics lie in coordinating the conduct and actions of military personnel and in serving to establish such relations as are required for successful joint activity. The Modern World Essay. The conduct of servicemen is regulated by special rules and standards of essay on the of j. alfred, behavior set forth in laws, military regulations and orders of commanders (superiors) and reflecting the war in essay specific features of the military organization and the state's requirements on the behavior of military personnel. Military discipline as the order of relations and behavior of pro life, servicemen constitutes a key component of the modern world essay, internal order in military units and detachments.

By regulating serviceman's relations and behavior, military discipline forms the very basis and structure of admissions assignment, internal order as the mode of organization of the life and activity of the Armed Forces, permeating all its elements, since the maintenance and war in the modern essay, enhancement of internal order is based on compliance with the prescribed rules and standards of behavior. It is known that functioning and development are inextricably linked together and, at on early the same time, are qualitatively distinct, each being governed by its own specific laws. The functioning process proceeds according to war in world essay, the laws of a relatively stable state, the system's mode of existence and its movement in the given qualitative state, whereas the laws of development are laws governing the system's transition from one state to another, i. e. , a change of states which results in marketing the system's transition to a qualitatively different level of functioning. The unity of functioning and development is an expression of the contradictory mode of existence of the military organization (just as of any system in war in general), in which functioning corresponds to pro life scholarship, relative rest, and development, to absolute motion. The interconnection and specifics of the functioning and development of the military organization as an integrated system determine the war in the modern world essay common character of military discipline and military control, and the difference between them.

What they have in common is that both of them are kinds of organizational relations and act as parts or aspects of the military organization. Thesis. And the difference between them is that discipline ensures the functioning of the Armed Forces as a system, whereas control ensures their development. In other words, military discipline is a mechanism for maintaining, and military control is a mechanism for war in transforming the military organization. Discipline is the aspect of the avid military organization that ensures a stabilization of its level, whereas control is the aspect that carries the Armed Forces to a higher level of development. Currently there is a fully shaped view on the psychological foundations of discipline as a specific set of personal and interpersonal structures and processes in mental regulation, which secure normative behavior in servicemen. The set includes the following: individualized personal sense of discipline (structure, development, conditions of functioning, causes and war in, forms of disciplinary deviations), social psychology of group (interpersonal) disciplinary processes and avid, structures, managerial psychological mechanisms for discipline, etc. Enhancing the normative component in behavior, including that of enlistees, is a continuous joint endeavor by the entire personnel, from war in world commanders to subordinates, as for that matter is the effort to keep this kind of behavior at a required level. Also participating in the endeavor are collective--formal and informal--structures of the essay military public. The latter, as the the modern world present writer sees it, impact on the state of discipline mostly in the negative fashion because they possess a normative system of their own, which is incompatible with the one based on the army regulations. All enlistees, both as personalities and members of definite service and avid, public structures (including those with a negative impact on discipline), their relations and world, degree of activity form in the aggregate the disciplinary system of an element (unit).

Psychological support for troops has emerged as a necessity because this kind of work can deal, to accounting management admissions, a considerable extent, with a set of specific psychological problems arising within disciplinary systems at all levels, not the lower echelons alone, as is often believed. Occasionally it is just the matter of an enlistee being unprepared for war in discipline-abiding lifestyle (ignorance of man, army regulations, orders and regulatory documents). Sometimes, however, psychological problems stem from clearly expressed anti-disciplinary attitudes in some or other serviceman, which attitudes tend to essay, disorganize military activities, mixing, and off-duty routine. Two groups of disciplinary psychological problems are identified. First, inadequacy (weakness, instability, incompleteness, and unfinished nature) of individual, group or organizational mechanisms for normative behavior and control thereof as is revealed by practice; certain enlistees lack the required disciplinary motivation and/or they cannot behave in an organized way in conformity with the regulations, rules, laws, and military traditions.

Military command and control agencies, for their part, do not have enough energy and skills to consistently and confidently regulate the activities of their subordinates. This group of of dorian, disciplinary and psychological problems is subdivided into three components: motivation problems of the modern world essay, discipline, problems of normative or organizational incompetence, and mental disorganization problems, both personal and group, including managerial. The second group of disciplinary and psychological problems is linked with the existence of overt or covert alternative and pro life essay, shadow disciplinary systems, both individual and war in essay, group, complete with the essay rubric ways and rules of their own, which are incompatible with the army regulations, laws, and even human morality. Conscription-based military units are characterized by different forms of extra-regulation relations (barracks-room hazing, friendly societies of persons coming from the modern world same district), which are unlikely to disappear completely with the conversion to enlistment. On The Song Of J. Alfred Prufrock. Separate servicemen, too, may impose their own regulations within elements, something that forms part of their behavioral strategy directed at strengthening their leadership within the system of relations along with their informal power. As is to be regretted, it is war in the modern world society's current disrespect for thesis law, things legal and war in the modern world, the authorities, its revulsion for measures aimed at maintaining law and accounting assignment, order that are the general social source of psychological problems in the area of military discipline. This kind of negative sociological consciousness is war in the modern responsible for the situation where people are not prepared to accept certain restrictions of scholarship essay, their freedom and needs for the sake of general organization and security. Daily observations and specialized studies show that the enlistees are likely to display in full measure one of the regularities that more often than not tends to ascribe indiscipline to others rather than oneself (this means that an undisciplined soldier doesn't see himself as such). The unfavorable tendencies are enhanced by the sick sociopsychological background created by social deviations in society, like alcoholism, drug addiction, crime, abuse of power, etc. As a result, the RF Armed Forces acquire enlistees possessing a definite experience of war in the modern world, this kind as well as stable negative motivation attitudes Some other reasons generating disciplinary and psychological problems are the conditions, factors, events, as well as such decisions and actions coming from senior chiefs as will prevent a soldier from implementing his normative motivation. If willingness to avid rubric, obey discipline is not encouraged and contrasts with the war in world essay behavior of other servicemen, if obeying some ordinary rule takes an almost heroic effort, the inner resources of discipline are dissipated quite rapidly.

Military discipline is a daily concern of the military district commander, his deputies, the essay on early military council, and unit and war in the modern, formation commanders at all levels in pro life scholarship essay the district. Only a short while ago it was believed that crime, alcohol and drug abuse, suicides and other deviations from social norms were survivals of the distant past and that at a certain point in the development of society they would disappear altogether. Back in the early 20th century, the French sociologist Emile Durkheim came to the conclusion that social deviation, including crime, is a phenomenon which has never been and can never be eliminated altogether in any society. In other words, every society has always had and will continue to have a certain number of individuals who, for various internal or external reasons or a combination of such reasons, tend to violate (to deviate from) the established social norms. Society's most important task is to ensure that social deviations do not reach a critical mass that would endanger its very existence.

A natural question arising in this context is whether this social deviation phenomenon is characteristic of the Armed Forces? It certainly is, because the the modern essay armed forces are an integral part of the state and society, and servicemen are a part of the people. First, all the positive and negative behavioral trends and regularities intrinsic to society fully manifest themselves in essay rubric the behavior of world, servicemen. Second, the picture of dorian Army is one of society's social organisms which can itself be liable to distortion, hence the social deviations in the behavior of servicemen. Third, the world armed forces with strictly regulated military service are a social institution with its own specific social norms (in addition to those existing in society). In the army, the behavior of servicemen is more tightly regulated compared with other social units and institutions. In view of man, that, servicemen are more likely to depart from the established norms, since the war in the modern essay normative value system of the armed forces allows them a lesser degree of freedom in choosing a line of behavior. The task we face today is to work out and introduce into the combat training process the most effective and sometimes unconventional forms and methods of thesis, maintaining the required standards of personal officer and nco training so as to keep the the modern world essay most promising of them in the Armed Forces.

It is also clear that an officer, nco (or soldier for that matter) working hard at picture his professional job simply has no time to commit any offenses. Military discipline is one of the main factors determining the army's combat readiness and combat efficiency. This truth has stood the test of history on war in the modern world essay many occasions. It is no accident that military leaders and commanders have always regarded a tightening of discipline among the troops as a task of paramount importance. A. V. Suvorov called discipline the mother of victory. On following a Direct Order; Technically there is no such thing as a direct order. Orders are either lawful or unlawful. The informal term direct order tends to accounting management, mean an order given face-to-face from a person in authority to a subordinate.

It has zero meaning under the UCMJ as the direct order still has to be lawful to war in world, have effect. Upon enlisting each soldier swore the following oath; I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the pro life essay Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and war in the modern world, domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and that I will obey the marketing paper orders of the President of the war in the modern world United States and the orders of the officers appointed over me, according to regulations and the Uniform Code of Military Justice. A general order or regulation is lawful unless it is contrary to the Constitution, the laws of the United States, or lawful superior orders or for on early some other reason is beyond the essay authority of the official issuing it. In the armed forces of the United States, officers (Both commissioned and non-commissioned. ) are expected to issue orders to subordinates, in order to carry out thesis, assigned duties. These orders are assumed (By them. The Modern. ) to be lawful (i. e. - not promoting illegal actions. ), and a subordinate whom disobeys them does so at his peril ( Risking legal sanction. ) Recruits are taught to obey, immediately and without question, orders from their superiors, right from day-one of boot camp. Military members who fail to obey the lawful orders of their superiors risk serious consequences. Article 90 of the Uniform Code of rubric, Military Justice makes it a crime for a military member to WILLFULLY disobey a superior commissioned officer. Article 91 makes it a crime to the modern, WILLFULLY disobey a superior Noncommissioned or Warrant Officer.

Article 92 makes it a crime to disobey any lawful order (the disobedience does not have to be willful under this article). Gray. In fact, under Article 90, during times of war, a military member who willfully disobeys a superior commissioned officer can be sentenced to death. Seems like pretty good motivation to obey any order you're given, right? Not necessarily. These articles require the obedience of LAWFUL orders. An order which is unlawful not only does not need to be obeyed, but obeying such an order can result in criminal prosecution of the the modern world one who obeys it. Military courts have long held that military members are accountable for their actions even while following orders -- if the order was illegal.

I was only following orders, has been unsuccessfully used as a legal defense in hundreds of cases (probably most notably by Nazi leaders at the Nuremberg tribunals following World War II). The defense didn't work for them, nor has it worked in hundreds of cases since. Management Admissions Assignment. The first recorded case of the modern world essay, a United States Military officer using the I was only following orders defense dates back to 1799. During the War with France, Congress passed a law making it permissible to seize ships bound to pro life, any French Port. However, when President John Adams wrote the order to authorize the U. S. Navy to war in world, do so, he wrote that Navy ships were authorized to seize any vessel bound for a French port, or traveling from a French port. Pursuant to the President's instructions, a U. Admissions. S. Navy captain seized a Danish Ship (the Flying Fish), which was en route from a French Port. The owners of the ship sued the Navy captain in U. S. maritime court for war in trespass. They won, and pro life scholarship, the United States Supreme Court upheld the decision. War In The Modern World. The U. S. Supreme Court held that Navy commanders act at their own peril when obeying presidential orders when such orders are illegal. Pro Life Scholarship. The Vietnam War presented the United States military courts with more cases of the the modern I was only following orders defense than any previous conflict.

The decisions during these cases reaffirmed that following manifestly illegal orders is not a viable defense from criminal prosecution. In United States v. Keenan, the accused (Keenan) was found guilty of murder after he obeyed in accounting and financial management admissions assignment order to shoot and kill an the modern, elderly Vietnamese citizen. The Court of Military Appeals held that the justification for acts done pursuant to orders does not exist if the order was of such a nature that a man of ordinary sense and understanding would know it to be illegal. (Interestingly, the soldier who gave Keenan the on early man order, Corporal Luczko, was acquitted by reason of insanity). In some cases, orders issued by officers are illegal on their face (Are unlawful orders. ), and subordinates are justified in not carrying them out. An example would be the 1968 massacre of unarmed civilians at My Lai, Vietnam, which was carried out by a U. S. The Modern Essay. Army Lieutenant, on orders issued to him by both his Company Battalion commanders. Another example occurred in Iraq, at Abu Ghraib. Prisoners were being softened up for interrogation by U. S. Soldiers, whom were under orders to do so.

These were issued by private contractors, given authority to issue such orders, by accounting management, the Department OF Defense. In closing it is in the modern a soldier’s best interest to maintain a steadfast motivation in his job at hand thereby alleviating tenancies towards counterproductive behavior, have knowledge of his R. O. E. so as to not comply with unlawful orders, and above and beyond it all keep up military bearing and essay rubric, courtesy. Sarah from Law Aspect. Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out https://goo.gl/9aavBA. 47 Bergen St--Floor 3, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA. 2017 Law Essays and Papers. War In World Essay. Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. Please, specify your valid email address.

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Menemsha is not just beautiful, it holds secrets that reveal themselves on each of my visits. It may be mysterious, but to me, it also is the most dazzling place on earth. War In The Modern World Essay! Grade 3, Wood Acres Elementary. To me, the most beautiful place in the world is a place I’ve seen many times. Thesis Picture! This place is war in essay, my backyard during a snowstorm. When I am there, I make snow angels, catch snowflakes on essay rubric my tongue and admire the beautiful sky. When it snows, my backyard is magical. Flurries dancing in the air remind me of specks of war in the modern, fairy dust. On the ground, the snow is an untouched blanket, free of wrinkles. Pro Life Scholarship Essay! As the snow falls, it covers the leaves and ground silently. The sun shimmers on the snow, like glitter on a shiny white dress.

It seems to light everything up, as far as I can see. During a snowstorm, my backyard looks like a scene from a book. I love to read and in books, people always describe scenes that sound like they are very beautiful. In a snowstorm, my backyard’s perfection seems unreal. The ground is wiped clean of footprints, the flurries fall down heavily, and everything is quiet and peaceful.

Also, I have so much fun in my snowy backyard, which makes it a beautiful place to me. The final reason I think my backyard is the most beautiful place is it inspires me. When I see my backyard during a snowstorm, the beauty makes me want to sit down and write about it. It makes me think, “What would happen if I wrote about world this?” Its beauty makes me feel uplifted. The crisp, clean air fills me and makes me feel like I can do anything. Even though you may think that beauty is far away or in marketing, books, it can be as close as your backyard. War In! My backyard in a snowstorm will always, no matter what, be a beautiful place to me. Three-Week Trial of Rockville Day-Care Operator Accused of Killing Infant Ends in Mistrial.

Red Cross Volunteers Share Their Stories of Helping Hurricane Victims. Picture! Business Notes: Two Bethesda Buildings Sold for Hefty Prices. World! Police Issue Silver Alert for Missing 92-year-old Bethesda Man. Wireless Telecommunication Community Meeting. Assistant Police Chief to Gang Members: #039;You’ll Go to Jail#039; Longtime Bethesda Pharmacy Bradley Care Drugs To Close. Kensington Produce Stand Cleared Away To Make Space for Tasting Room, Eatery. ICE Arrests 11 Immigrants in Montgomery County as Part of National Crackdown. Police Identify Dead Man Found in Car in White Flint Plaza Parking Lot. Rockville Man Allegedly Stole From Bank While He Was Its President.

Leggett: White Flint Mall Site Could Be Part of County’s Pitch To Attract Amazon HQ. Copyright 2017 Bethesda Magazine. All rights reserved.

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DEES Graduate Student Dissertation Topic List. Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee: Gaherty, Shillington, Ekstrom. Investigation of the Role of Segmentation and Magmatism in Continental Rifting Exploiting Diverse Seismic Datasets from the East African Rift System. For many years it has been accepted that continental breakup occurs by extension and ultimately rupture of the lithosphere. However, the emergence and early evolution of two fundamental characteristics of world, divergent plate boundaries, segmentation and magmatism, are not well understood because most studies focus on mature or successfully rifted margins. Additionally, there are few existing datasets that can be integrated to provide 3D constraints on rift architecture throughout the lithosphere, which are required to address these questions. My research focuses on investigations of the crust and essay on the love of j. uppermost mantle structure beneath two unique end-member study locations within the the modern essay, East African Rift System (EARS). The first component of my dissertation concerns the mature Main Ethiopian Rift and Afar Depression.

I used earthquake and avid essay rubric continuous data from 100+ temporary seismic stations located in the region to investigate the shear velocity and radially anisotropic structure of the uppermost mantle. This investigation produced estimates of mantle temperature and melt content within the rift and also highlighted the war in world essay, potential location of avid rubric, melt segregation along a steeply dipping lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The second component of my dissertation focuses on the relatively immature Malawi Rift located at the southernmost tip of the EARS. For this study I am using the recently acquired SEGMeNT active and passive source seismic dataset that comprises a 3D array of on-land and lake-bottom broadband and short period seismometers. With this data I plan to investigate the shear velocity structure of the uppermost mantle beneath the region using teleseismic and ambient noise seismic processing. The 3D active source dataset acquired by short period lake-bottom seismometers within Lake Malawi will provide high-resolution images of shallow crustal velocity structure. Together these diverse datasets will yield novel constraints on the state of the Malawi Rift and the role of segmentation and magmatism in an immature continental rift setting. Date Orals Passed: 4/13.

Advisory Committee: Hemming, Christie-Blick, Broecker. My dissertation work is focused on constraining a Last Glacial Maximum and essay deglacial record of hydroclimate change from the Mono Basin, California. The emphasis of my work is on sedimentary and essay rubric stratigraphic observations that I use to interpret lake level fluctuations--a proxy for the modern essay changes in the basin's precipitation minus evaporation balance. Essay. I hope that this, along with a chronology based on uranium series and radiocarbon data, can yield an accurate and precise record, which can be used by climate modelers to understand the hydrosphere's dynamics. In addition, models can then use this data to towards understanding how this region's hydroclimate will be affected with projected future climate change. Date Orals Passed : 5/14. Advisory Committee : A. Juhl, B. Anderson, H. Ducklow. Impacts of the modern, regional climate change on planktonic microorganisms in marine ecosystems. My graduate research at the interface of marine biology and chemical oceanography addresses the impacts of regional climate change on microorganisms in coastal marine ecosystems. Much of and financial admissions assignment, my research focuses on the effects of multiple stressors on the growth and physiology of planktonic microorganisms, which form the base of the marine food web and serve as some of the first bioindicators of change in marine ecosystems. Although the effects of ocean acidification are known for some marine plankton, the interactive effects of ocean acidification and the modern world essay other chemical stressors (e.g., hypoxia, toxic trace metals delivered from suspended sediments, antibiotics) are not well understood.

Using integrated laboratory experiments and field studies, I examine the interactive impacts of picture of dorian, ocean acidification with other chemical stressors on harmful algal bloom (HAB) phytoplankton species including Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Amphidinium carterae , as well as shelled molluscs including Limacina helicina . In addition, some of my research focuses on the supply of dust – a major source of iron for war in phytoplankton – in surface waters of the Indian Ocean. Using trace metal clean laboratory techniques, I measure thorium isotopes in seawater and surface sediment samples to determine the essay man, total atmospheric dust flux to the Indian Ocean. These interdisciplinary studies address the coupled biological and chemical changes in marine ecosystems as a result of increased anthropogenic climate change. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Tolstoy, Goldberg, Malinverno. Cycles and layering beneath the seafloor from the modern world essay, marine and borehole geophysical data. In my first chapter, I examine the avid essay, effect of short-term tidal cycles in the ocean. Specifically, I assess triggering of seismic activity related to the true fortnightly and war in world fortnightly modulations of diurnal and semidiurnal tides at essay on the of j. alfred, the East Pacific Rise through a dataset from an war in, Ocean Bottom Seismometer array that was deployed from October 2003 to marketing thesis January 2007. The study is particularly focused on war in world essay, seismicity before and after a well-documented submarine eruption at this site, which culminated in a seismic crisis on January 22 nd , 2006. Avid. This study enables us to observe the the modern world essay, fundamental change in the state of stress along a mid ocean ridge through a plate spreading event.

For my second and marketing third chapter, I am looking at the morphology, origin and evolution of Pleistocene submarine canyons at war in essay, the New Jersey margin. For this purpose, I am using the 2D seismic reflection profiles collected on R/V Oceanus cruise 270 in 1995. Mapping the submarine canyons allows me to management study their progression in war in world morphology through space and time. For a greater understanding of the effects of sea level change on a stratigraphic column, a 3D seismic volume was just acquired on the New Jersey continental shelf, aboard R/V Langseth in the summer of 2015. I participated in the cruise and awaiting the delivery of the processed dataset early next year. I am planning to look at the evolution of Miocene clinoform fronts at this margin. In my last chapter, I am going to evaluate the ocean crustal sites at Reykjanes ridge, offshore Iceland for carbon dioxide sequestration in layers of deep-sea basalt. This work aims to look for an offshore extension of the onshore CarbFix project launched in 2007.

My work would include a geographical reconnaissance of the area, reservoir assessment to avid rubric estimate carbon dioxide storage volume and lastly a thermal assessment for war in the modern essay optimum temperature and thesis paper pressure conditions to support the war in world essay, injected phase of carbon dioxide.?? Advisory Committee : Winckler, Goldstein, Kaplan. The provenance of thesis of dorian, mineral dust in essay West Antarctica: Insights into past atmospheric circulation and continental aridity. Mineral dust lofted up into the atmosphere has both a direct and scholarship an indirect effect on the climate system. My research focuses on understanding the ways that dust influences the climate system today, and how that influence has changed in the past. In particular, we can use dust as a tracer of world essay, past atmospheric circulation patterns: by comparing the radiogenic isotopic “fingerprint” of places where the marketing thesis, dust might have come from the modern essay, with the signal we see in some climate archive, we know that storm systems transported that dust from that known source to our location of interest. Then, we can see how the source areas may have changed over time. My samples come from several ice cores in West Antarctica (WAIS), and we use Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes to identify the changing dust sources to essay WAIS on glacial-interglacial and millennial timescales, as well as during even shorter-term events such as volcanic eruptions. Date Orals Passed: 4/15.

Advisory Committee: Linsley, deMenocal, B. War In The Modern World. Anderson. Paleoceanographic-Proxy Development in Scleractinia (Stony Corals) Throughout the Pacific Ocean: Exploring the Variable Utility of Stable Isotopes and Trace Metals in Oceanographic Reconstructions. The geochemical signature in the aragonite skeleton of a coral can be used to decipher past climate. In particular, stable isotopes and essay man trace metals are used to elucidate changes in sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), or coastal river discharge. My dissertation research is a compilation of projects aimed at fine-tuning and war in exploring the bounds of coral paleoceanographic proxies. Using stable oxygen isotopes from corals off the Pacific coast of Panama I am reconstructing decadal precipitation patterns to better understand low frequency variability in the Pacific Basin. In conjunction with the precipitation record, I am studying the viability of coral Ba/Ca as a terrestrial run off proxy in the same region to better understand the impacts of oscillating precipitation in the Eastern Tropical Pacific.

In addition I am developing Sr/Ca- and oxygen isotope-SST calibrations for picture of dorian gray corals in the Great Barrier Reef. This calibration will be applied to fossil corals dating back to the Last Glacial Maximum to help us understand SST change in the Great Barrier reef during the most recent glacial to interglacial transition. Ultimately, my research explores the various types of coral paleo-proxies and how their applicability can vary in different oceanographic settings. My findings will underscore the need to consider the location of interest when choosing the most appropriate proxy to interrogate past climate change. Date Orals Passed: 4/13. Advisory Committee: Zappa, Gordon, Sobel. My research focuses on air-sea interaction. In particular, I use IR imagery to study micro breaking, momentum, heat and gas exchange at the air-sea interface.

IR imagery not only provides a measure of skin temperature, but can also be used to infer surface currents. Structures and the modern world essay variations in the skin temperature arise from thesis, disruption of the thermal boundary layer (TBL) as a result of wind forcing at the air-water interface and/or due to turbulent eddies generated within the water column. The TBL makes up top few micro meters of the water column and the key intermediate between the ocean and atmosphere, which plays a crucial role in heat and gas exchanges. My studies aim to infer subsurface and bulk water column characteristics such as turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, and water depth from non-intrusive surface measurements of the thermal boundary layer. World. I am currently investigating how sea ice modulates local physics, turbulence production, and gas transfer in the interplay of ice-water shear, convection waves and wind. Date Orals Passed : 10/13. Advisory Committee : Gordon, Thurnherr, Abernathey.

Understanding the global freshwater cycle is of tremendous importance in accounting and financial admissions assignment order to understand and the modern world adapt to future climate change. The ocean is inherently linked to the global freshwater cycle. Positive net evaporation (evaporation - precipitation) constantly remove freshwater from the surface in the subtropics creating a local maximum in sea surface salinity while the tropics are freshened by excess rainfall. To balance the loss in freshwater in the subtropics, ocean processes need to mix in surrounding waters laterally and vertically. The mainly wind driven shallow overturning circulation, defined by poleward Ekman drift at the surface, subduction in paper the subtropics and world upwelling in the equatorial regions carries the salty surface signature beneath the surface creating a subsurface salinity maximum. Recent advances in remote salinity observations and a comprehensive field campaign (NASA-SPURS) enable us to study the influence of mesoscale eddies for the surface salinity maximum as well as the subsurface salinity maximum in the North Atlantic. My dissertation aims to quantify the on the song of j. alfred prufrock, importance of mesoscale turbulence to the surface salinity maximum in world the North Atlantic and identify links to large scale climate variables using a mix of observational data and simplified model experiments. Further more I aim to identify key processes that influence the subsurface salinity maximum once isolated from the surface forcing, hence influence the heat/salt transports through the shallow overturning circulation. Specifically the role of double diffusive processes for the salinity core layer and associated transports will be evaluated. Finally these results will be compared to the shallow overturning circulation and salinity maxima in other ocean basins and evaluated whether they can explain regional differences and pro life essay account for inter annual variability. Date Orals Passed: 4/11.

Advisory Committee: Cane, Ting, D. The Modern World. Chen. Integrated evolution of the atmosphere-ocean coupled modes. El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and avid essay rubric Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are a few significant modes of war in the modern, climate variation from marketing paper, interannual to multidecadal time scales identified from sea surface temperature (SST). It is well known that ENSO dynamics involves tropical atmosphere-ocean (AO) coupling. As to the PDO and AMO, they are also viewed as the outcome of coupling, yet there is no well-accepted theory about the mechanism involved. War In. Thus, one aim of accounting and financial management assignment, this thesis is to explain this low frequency AO coupling and how it leads to the observed climate variation.

Based on the heat budget equation, the temperature variation or tendency is determined by the modern world essay, the horizontal heat advection (by ocean gyre circulation), vertical heat advection (by upwelling or downwelling), and dissipation (interior ocean mixing) as well as the AO interface heat flux. In order to man look into the ocean’s role, estimation of the relative significance of each term will be done using the output from coupled climate models. The time variation of each term will also be investigated using time series analysis tools and other statistical methods (linear inverse model) to assist the explaining of the mechanism. The basic assumption in this work is that the coupling is essay, not a local phenomena but on a basin wide or global scale, which is fulfilled through the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. By studying this topic, we attempt to understand the marketing paper, fundamental question of how heat is transported through AO coupling within the climate system. Further question to the modern world be addressed will be how the modes of coupling will change under the global warming condition. Date Orals Passed: 4/12.

Advisory Committee: Norell, Meng, Flynn. Fossils, Morphology, Molecules: combined analyses of salamander phylogeny. Urodela (salamanders) are a major group of essay song of j. alfred prufrock, modern amphibians (Lissamphibia), with a long evolutionary history that can be traced back to the modern world essay the Mezozoic dinosaur time. Phylogenetic studies of salamander evolution have revealed sharp conflict between the hypotheses based on morphological data and/or molecular data. Accounting And Financial Management Assignment. The proposed research intends to conduct combined analyses incorporating phylogenetically significant early fossil taxa, all available morphological and molecular data; a method herein termed “Fossils-Morphology-Molecular Approach” (FMM approach). Such an approach has the advantage in war in the modern world essay resolving or relaxing the morphology/molecular conflicts, and obviously the advantage in obtaining phylogenetic hypotheses with the ultimate power of thesis, scientific explanation. Fossil discoveries from the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous beds in northern China have provided the key material for understanding the origins and early evolution of the modern world, modern salamander clades. The fossil material found includes the management admissions, earliest known fossil record of two major salamander clades (Cryptobranchoidea and Salamandroidea), and the basal taxa of war in world essay, several modern salamander clades. These fossils, together with other Mesozoic fossils worldwide, not only increase the taxon sampling for the phylogenetic analysis to be conducted, but also represent new combinations of anatomical characters, many of which are ancestral to salamander evolution. Morphological data used will include characters of salamander osteology, soft anatomy and ontogenetic development from essay on the of j. alfred, various sources.

Characters are drawn both from careful examination of real specimens and from published literature. Molecular data from GenBank will include more than 20000 base pairs coming from complete mitochondrial genomes, ribosomal RNA and various nuclear DNA. These data will be analyzed both separately and combined. Analyses of smaller dataset (morphological dataset with/without fossils) will be performed using PAUP, whereas analyses of morphology/molecular combined dataset (with/without fossil taxa) will be performed using more powerful tools, including MrBayes and war in the modern world essay POY. Phylogenetic results of parsimony analysis will be compared with that of pro life, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analysis. Cladograms will be calibrated using geological time scale and the first occurrence datum of fossils (FOD). By doing this, both the relationships and the tempo of salamander evolution can be better understood.

Date Orals Passed: 3/13. Advisory Committee: Bell, Buck, Nettles. My research interests are focused on the interaction between glacial water flow (subglacial and supraglacial) and ice dynamics. Subglacial hydrology is one of the main controlling factors in war in the modern the spatial and and financial admissions assignment temporal evolution of ice flow: how the water drains underneath an ice sheet has important implications for the basal sliding condition. War In The Modern Essay. However, subglacial water drainage is dynamic in space and time and thesis picture of dorian varies in a complicated manner coupled to surface hydrology. Despite recent conceptual advances, relatively little is the modern world essay, known about how the on the of j. alfred prufrock, surface hydrology interacts with the subglacial drainage system and how it affects effective pressure and war in the modern essay ice flow. Currently, I am working on building a 2D numerical model of subglacial drainage to investigate the coupling between drainage of surface melt water and glacier motion.

A synthetic glacier geometry is rubric, used to obtain the steady-state solutions for water pressure and subglacial conduit sizes. The water pressure solution is applied to a sliding law to calculate ice flow speed. The goal is to essay apply this model to a real outlet glacier in West Greenland and understand how glacial hydrology affects ice motion on a catchment scale. Date Orals Passed: 4/13. Advisory Committee: Ebel, Walker, Plank.

Constraining Chemical Environment and Processes in the Protoplanetary Disk: Perspective from Populations of Calcium- and Aluminum-rich Inclusions and accounting and financial management admissions assignment Metal-rich Chondrules in Carbonaceous Ornans-type and war in the modern essay Renazzo-type Chondrites Respectively? On Earth, petrologic and geochemical analyses provide insight into the Earth’s bulk composition as well as the essay rubric, interior and exterior processes that have been operating throughout Earth’s history as a planet. To understand the origin of the Earth and other terrestrial bodies, the chemical construct and dynamic processes operating in the solar nebula, a cloud of cooling gas and dust existing after sun formation, need to be constrained. The history of the early solar system is preserved in the various components in chondritic meteorites. The Modern World. Chondrites have never experienced the essay alfred, significant planetary process of differentiation, which separates metals from silicates, and remixes chemical components. Thus, they can be considered aggregates of objects formed in the dynamic, cooling solar nebula. Essay. Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) are some of the highest temperature solids formed and preserved in chondrites.

Chondrules are varied in mineralogy but those containing discrete metal layers record unique conditions relating to essay the heating and deformation history of the war in world essay, chondrules with which they are associated. The chemistries , textures, and mineral crystal orientations of CAIs and chondrules directly reflect the conditions and processes in their formation in the nebula. Thesis Gray. While many previous studies have chosen to focus on a few objects in detail, my study aims to examine many inclusions to better understand chemical, mineralogical, and textural variations and correlations. ? A majority of my research focuses on high resolution, x-ray element map analysis of the modern, individual CAIs and accounting and financial other objects in the modern world carbonaceous Ornans-like (CO) chondrites using custom-made image analysis software. But, to obtain a more complete understanding of complementarity, or the concept that bulk CO chondrite has a solar composition while individual components do not, I am analyzing the rare-earth element (REE) ratios in individual components. Paper. Determining the relationship between object mineralogy, texture, and REE ratio will yield insight into the occurrences of various components and their relative proportions that must combine to maintain solar composition within the bulk chondrite. This broad survey of CAIs and other objects in the modern world essay CO chondrites will help constrain astrophysical models, refine the order in which minerals condense from the solar nebula, and further improve the formation criterion necessary to produce the observed variation. ? Chondrule formation hypotheses are many but poorly constrained. The chondrules in carbonaceous Renazzo-type (CR) chondrites have associated metal in both the chondrule core and near the rim. Avid Rubric. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) permits determination of metal crystal orientation. Determining the relationships between the crystal orientation and chemistry of metal nodules within and war in among the chondrules could yield insight into chondrule formation and deformation. Thesis Paper. Altogether, the results of this thesis work will contribute to our understanding of our solar system as solids began to the modern essay form and the journey these solids took before becoming asteroids or planets. Date Orals Passed: 4/12.

Advisory Committee: Class, Goldstein, Hemming. Melt depletion and geochemical evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the West Antarctic Rift System. The subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) undergoes compositional changes during tectonic events such as continental rifting, subduction, and orogeny, with each event leaving behind a geochemical imprint. Geochemical mapping of the lithosphere allows us to gain a better understanding of how the continents are structured, and enables us to piece together the tectonic evolution of the continents. Here we look at the Western Ross Sea area of the essay on early man, West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) as a case study. My thesis focuses on using these geochemical imprints to unravel the geochemical and tectonic evolution of the SCLM in the WARS: Os isotope ratios can be used to date the the modern world, melt depletion events in love alfred prufrock the asthenosphere that are considered to be equivalent to the stabilization age of the lithospheric mantle.

In this study, mantle xenoliths entrained in Cenozoic basanites were collected in a transection from the rift shoulder and into the rift basin in world the western margin of the WARS. Analyses of these samples provide a recent snapshot of the lithospheric mantle after major episodes of picture of dorian, rifting. If we can trace the age of the lithospheric mantle across this margin, we can begin to war in world essay understand its behavior in response to rifting and subsequent structure. We repeatedly observe. 1.7 Ga depletion events across the accounting and financial assignment, rifted margin, indicating the widespread Paleoproterozoic stabilization of the lithosphere and dynamic thinning of the modern essay, lithosphere across the western margin of the WARS. Trace elements provide another means to access the on the of j. alfred, depletion history of the SCLM, however the mobility and fractionation of these elements can obscure ancient depletion signatures. War In World Essay. Nevertheless, we can exploit the behavior of these trace elements. For example, melt depletion is characterized by light rare earth element (LREE) depletions, however we observe LREE enrichments in our 1.7 Ga xenoliths. Metasomatism, the chemical alteration of a rock via melt and/or fluid, can overprint the trace element composition of and financial management admissions assignment, a rock, leaving behind diagnostic signatures of the metasomatizing agent (e.g. LREE re-enrichment by a carbonatitic melt).

Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopes can be used to constrain the essay, role of the SCLM in the formation of WARS volcanism. It has been proposed that Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in the Northern Victoria Land (NVL) region of East Antarctica originated from a SCLM source that had been metasomatized during an extensional event in the WARS during the Late Cretaceous. Additional studies demonstrate that Nd and Sr isotope ratios plot near the HIMU field, yet Pb and Hf isotope ratios plot between HIMU and DMM. This can be accounted for by varying proportions of lithospheric mantle source that has experienced Paleozoic to Mesozoic modification due to on the love song prufrock subduction related fluids and flux melting which can incorporate fluid mobile elements such as Pb from the mantle wedge. By measuring these same isotope systems on mantle xenoliths, we can begin to war in the modern world essay address whether SCLM is a source for the widespread Cenozoic volcanism in the WARS. Date Orals Passed : 4/14.

Advisory Committee : T. Shaw, Seager, Ting. Recent observational and modeling studies have shown that wintertime variability of the stratospheric circulation is dynamically coupled to anomalous weather regimes in the troposphere. The fundamental source of the coupling is planetary-scale waves which are primarily generated in the troposphere and couple vertically with the stratosphere when the zonal-mean winds are westerly. My research focuses on understanding the dynamics of extreme stratospheric planetary-scale wave events and their coupling to the stratospheric and tropospheric circulations. On Early Man. My results show that the lifecycle of upward wave propagation/downward wave reflection events are associated with vertically deep planetary wave structures that exhibit largely equal but opposite-signed time integrated impacts: a net deceleration/acceleration of the war in world, stratospheric polar vortex and an equatorward/poleward shift of the North Atlantic tropospheric jet. Downward wave reflection events are found to play a key role in the formation of strong vortex events showing that they both represent true dynamical events with strong wave-mean flow interaction. Together with the connection between upward wave propagation and weak vortex events, the results illustrate a clear dualism in stratospheric wave-mean flow interaction. Planetary wave events are focused in high-latitudes and produce large amplitude tropospheric impacts and hence represent a key dynamical pathway through which Arctic variability can impact the midlatitude circulation. My current research aims to address the question of why stratospheric planetary wave events become extreme in high-latitudes. Several mechanisms have been proposed in the literature such as stationary-transient wave interactions, instability and pro life resonance.

A better understanding of the dynamical mechanisms responsible for war in world planetary wave events is the essay man, subject of current research using idealized modeling. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: Ekstrom, Gaherty, Nettles. Investigations of the anisotropic velocity structure of the the modern world essay, Pacific upper mantle. Seismic anisotropy, the variation of picture gray, seismic velocity with the propagation or polarization direction of a wave, is an important observable for war in essay investigating the dynamics of the interior of the Earth. Models of seismic anisotropy in pro life oceanic regions provide information about the geometry of strain and flow in war in world essay the mantle, the specific nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and the possible presence of partial melt in the asthenosphere.

In order to investigate these and other questions, my research is focused on developing a three-dimensional model of the anisotropy velocity structure of the essay, Pacific upper mantle. Using measurements of fundamental mode surface waves, we invert for variations in seismic velocity laterally and with depth in the upper mantle of the Pacific basin. The Modern World. In addition to variations in isotropic velocities, we include in the inversion the elastic parameters describing both radial and azimuthal anisotropy. The resulting model will improve constraints on essay, olivine fabrics and strain geometries in the oceanic upper mantle. Date Orals Passed: 3/13. Advisory Committee: Abers, Gaherty, Buck? My first major research project focused on the Woodlark Rift in war in the modern essay southeastern Papua New Guinea.

This is one of the and financial management, youngest and most rapidly extending continental rifts in the modern world the world, and is an intriguing locality for investigating how continents break apart. The D'Entrecasteaux Islands, at the heart of this rift, comprise metamorphic core complexes that contain the world's youngest ultra-high pressure coesite eclogite, exhumed from 100 km depth in just 5 Ma. I have applied a variety of seismological techniques to investigate this region, using data from a temporary array of broadband seismometers installed by essay on early man, members of the LDEO seismology dept. that ran from 2010-2011.? My analysis of shear-wave splitting, using core-traversing teleseisms, shows strong anisotropy beneath this rift, attributed to crystallographic fabric in the shallow mantle caused by world, the rate and extent of continental rifting. I have related anisotropy and shear strain in the shallow convecting mantle to predict shear-wave splitting times that are very close to the splitting times I observe, bolstering our hypothesis that the thesis picture gray, anisotropy arises from war in the modern world, mantle fabric related to rifting. These findings shed light on how mantle flow transitions as a rift matures from a small-scale extensional regime to essay love song of j. prufrock a large-scale divergent boundary.? We conducted a body-wave tomography study in the same region, using teleseismic P- and S- wave arrivals, and taking a finite-frequency approach to relate differential travel times to 3D velocity heterogeneities. War In The Modern World Essay. The isotropic velocity model reveals a localised rift structure evident to ?180 km depth, as well as an apparent slab remnant that contains the first intermediate depth seismicity observed in this region, discovered last year by members of our research group.

Building upon scholarship, this work, I developed a new method to jointly invert for war in anisotropy and scholarship velocity variations in this rift by simplifying the geometry of the anisotropic fabric based on the rift geometry and the SK(K)S splitting results. This work revealed that the the modern world essay, rift axis contains anisotropic material with spreading-parallel fast axis, that is breaking upwards through lithosphere that has spreading-perpendicular fast axis (aligned with the trend of recent orogenies). This exciting result demonstrated that we can actually image lithospheric breakup from the anisotropy signal. ? My next project will entail a change in direction: we are using OBS and on-land seismic data from the essay of j. prufrock, Cascadia Initiative’s Amphibious Array to study attenuation of the Juan de Fuca plate from war in the modern, ridge to trench to arc. Marketing Thesis Paper. Using differential t* measurements we can investigate the variation of attenuation associated with plate ageing to answer questions about the plate’s thermal structure, the distribution of the modern, melt/volatiles, and gray the fate of the asthenosphere upon subduction. This work complements previous studies using surface waves and will contribute to our developing understanding of anelastic controls on seismic parameters by probing the Earth in a different frequency range. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Honisch, McManus, deMenocal. Quaternary carbon cycling in the Atlantic Ocean: Insights from boron and radiocarbon proxies. Ice core records of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) support a tight linkage between CO2 concentrations and climate over Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. On millennial timescales, atmospheric CO2 concentrations are driven by the deep ocean, which holds the largest reservoir of exchangeable carbon.

The nature and phasing of relationships between deep ocean circulation, the oceanic carbon cycle, atmospheric CO2 and climate remain enigmatic, and are all the more important considering recent anthropogenic perturbation of the the modern world, global carbon cycle. My research addresses the above questions through the creation of new paleoproxy records to marketing thesis constrain deep-ocean carbon cycling. To date, I have measured the boron isotope and radiocarbon composition of deep-sea bamboo corals, and assessed their ability to record changing pH and radiocarbon activity in the modern world the North Atlantic Ocean. Going forward, I aim to combine radiocarbon records from modern deep-sea corals to essay alfred prufrock elucidate the war in world essay, transfer of radiocarbon produced by nuclear weapons testing to the deep North Atlantic Ocean. Additionally, I will set up a high-throughput procedure for avid essay boron isotope analyses via multicollector ICP-MS at Lamont. Essay. With this procedure, I aim to reconstruct changes in pH in the deep Atlantic Ocean across the “thermohaline crisis” during the mid-Pleistocene Transition. Date Orals Passed: 5/15.

Advisory Committee: Shillington, Tolstoy, Carbotte. Controls on surface processes, fluid flow, sedimentation, and on early faulting on active and world essay passive. margins from multi-beam sonar and multi-channel seismic reflection data. My thesis will include at thesis picture of dorian gray, least three chapters: The first chapter is focused toward gaining an understanding of the modern essay, surface processes, fluid flow, faulting/compaction, and sediment physical properties outboard of the deformation front at avid essay rubric, the Cascadia Subduction Zone.

To obtain this goal, I am using 2D multi-channel seismic (MCS) and multi-beam sonar (MB) data collected offshore Oregon and Washington during the Cascadia Ridge to Trench survey in 2012. I first performed detailed p-wave velocity analysis to achieve. sub-surface perspective on seafloor surface related fluid flow features (e.g. pockmarks). I then used the derived velocities to both depth-convert the MCS data in order to measure fault offset/dip within the sediment section and provide porosity information, which I then use to decompact the sedimentary units in order to uncover the embedded tectonic signal i.e. intra-plate faulting. As an additional project, I mapped large-scale scour marks on the distal Astoria Fan and. then inverted for the source process azimuth. The azimuths all point toward the Astoria canyon, which is the war in the modern world essay, extension of the Columbia River, and therefore, may be indicators of seafloor erosion due to scholarship essay late Pleistocene outburst flooding events. The second chapter involves mapping amplitude variations along with specific surface seismic attributes across sub-surface paleo-channels and related rift-block bound basin unconformities within the Galicia 3D MCS dataset collected offshore Spain in the summer of 2013. The 3D volume is. 20km x 67km and has been processed to pre-stack time migration. I am then relating the amplitude variations/surface seismic attributes to war in essay current seafloor reflectivity derived from the MB backscatter data in order to better constrain channel morphology and abyssal plain sand distribution as it relates to tectonic and climatic forcing processes from the Miocene to present.

Furthermore, I plan to use the drilling results/check-shots to generate synthetics in thesis picture of dorian gray order to better constrain the time-depth relationship indicated by the reflectivity series. The third chapter will involve 2D MCS and MB data collected offshore the US East coast during both the ENAM USGS/NOAA surveys in war in the modern world 2013-2015. I will develop a 1D inversion algorithm to constrain the scholarship essay, p-wave velocities and use them to study the the modern essay, physical properties of discrete Holocene submarine slope failures. Furthermore, I will perform amplitude vs offset analysis along the basal slide surface of the slope failures in order to quantify the change in physical properties. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Broecker, deMenocal, Polissar. Variation in the intensity of the avid essay, East Asian Summer Monsoon as recorded by elevated shorelines and dD leafwax. - dD leafwax in soils. - Water isotopes in the E. War In Essay. Mediterranean and essay on early man the Levant. - Production rates of meteoric cosmogenic nuclides during the last deglaciation.

Date Orals Passed: 4/12. Advisory Committee: McManus, Hemming, Anderson. Abrupt climate change has been shown to occur synchronously with changes in the vigor of the oceans’ circulation. The Modern World. As oceans redistribute massive quantities of heat across the Earth’s surface, changes in their circulation are often invoked as playing an important or perhaps driving role in these past climate changes. Many high-resolution climate records, generated over the past two decades, have provided glimpses into thesis picture of dorian, these past climate events; however, the equivalent, detailed record for changes in the oceans overturning circulation remains elusive. My thesis research focuses on refining, Pa/Th, a proxy that will help us generate a more detailed understanding of the war in the modern, relationship between climate and changes in ocean overturning. Protactinium and thorium are two elements produced through the radioactive decay of uranium in seawater. As the concentration of uranium is thesis, well known and relatively homogenous in the ocean, the disparate chemical properties of these two elements help us to war in world understand the strength of the oceans’ circulation regime, elucidating the role of the oceans in global climate change.

Abrupt shifts in the Atlantic’s circulation regime have been inferred from carbon isotopes within benthic foraminfera, geostrophic gradient shifts captured in oxygen isotope data from pro life scholarship essay, benthic foraminifera, and the change in burial rate of 231Pa/230Th in bulk sediment. War In The Modern World. Drift deposits are often selected for on the love of j. alfred prufrock 231Pa/230Th paleoceanographic reconstructions because the sedimentation rates far exceed those of the mean ocean average, thus allowing for resolution of transient climate events not preserved in other seafloor sediment cores. The Modern World Essay. The fine sediment (20um) that makes up the majority by mass of these deposits is management admissions assignment, chiefly carried from non-proximal localities. Previous work suggests that the fine fraction of the sediment carries a disporportionatly high concentration of authigenic thorium, 230Th , and extra-terrestrial helium, 3He, two nuclides frequently employed as constant-flux proxies in the aid of climate reconstructions from war in world essay, sediments. Date Orals Passed : 4/14. Advisory Committee : Ekstrom, Nettles, Webb. My research focuses on gray, surface wave observations. Currently I am working to improve methods of earthquake relocations using surface waves by assessing and correcting source effects for recordings of teleseismic earthquakes which have previously been unaccounted for. In the future, I intend to analyze surface wave recordings to analyze the relationship between explosive sources and tectonic release in the context of underground nuclear test monitoring.

Date Orals Passed: 10/14. Advisory Committee : McManus, Anderson and Winckler. The position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is hypothesized to play an important role in tropical circulation, in linking the climate of the northern and southern hemispheres and in predicating important changes in ocean overturning, particularly on deglacial timescales. My dissertation will present reconstructions of the war in, paleo-position of the ITCZ through the quantification of 230 Th xs,0 -normalized 232 Th fluxes in marine sediments which serve as a proxy for dust flux. Marketing Thesis. Because the ITCZ is an efficient scavenger of atmospheric particulates, changes in the latitude of maximum dust flux provide a constraint on variations in ITCZ position. Specifically, my current research focuses on reconstructing high-resolution (sub-millennial) records of dust flux from 0-350 ka BP at several sites in war in the modern world the central equatorial Pacific (Cruise ML1208). Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee : Gaherty, Spiegelman and Abers. The Cascadia subduction zone, where the Juan de Fuca plate subducts beneath the North American plate, has historically produced large, approximately M9, megathrust earthquakes. Improved knowledge of the structure of the subducting crust and mantle can help us better understand the processes that control subduction, including those related to megathrust earthquakes. We use three seismic datasets to image different properties of the avid essay, region at different scales. War In World. (1) Wide angle ship-to-shore reflection data from the 2012 Ridge-to-Trench and COAST cruises record variations in the reflection character of the subduction interface offshore central Washington.

An approximately 35 km long region of high amplitude reflections has been observed perpendicular to strike spanning the coastline. These may be explained by differences in physical properties, ray geometry or a combination thereof. (2) Receiver functions calculated from the Cascadia Initiative (CI) dataset image thickness and thesis paper shear wave velocities of the crust. Thus far results have imaged a low velocity zone offshore central Washington, which may indicate a weak thrust zone. (3) Surface waves (also from the CI) are used to calculate the phase velocities down to upper mantle depths across the entire Juan de Fuca plate and along the coast of the overriding North American plate. This will be used to look for velocity anomalies potentially associated with hydration of the mantle, segmentation of the world, plate along strike, or other heterogeneities. These data are complimentary to the receiver function images of the crust and will be used in a joint inversion to determine both the crust and mantle structure. In addition, many of these data are from instruments deployed in an offshore environment. Essay Love Song Of J.. In particular, receiver functions have been challenging to calculate at ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) in the modern world the past due to interference from the water column. Part of this research has involved characterizing the noise spectra of accounting management assignment, these instruments deployed at different depths to understand the frequency dependence of different noise sources. The Modern Essay. Since studying subduction zones requires both onshore and offshore observations, this improved understanding of using OBS data is instrumental in future studies of accounting and financial management, subduction zones.

Date Orals Passed: 5/15. Advisory Committee: Ducklow, Martinson, Goes. My dissertation research focuses on biogeochemical coupling with climate dynamics and physical oceanography in Antarctica. The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has experienced the most rapid response to climate change than any other place on the planet; teleconnections with climate variability such as ENSO and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) are well reported. Using Palmer LTER time series data, my research investigates how the large scale climate/atmospheric forcing impacts ecology and biogeochemistry in the system, through examples via phytoplankton, heterotrophic bacterial dynamics, and biogeochemical standing stocks.

Based on interdecadal observational data and statistical models, I have addressed intraseasonal to interannual covariability of phytoplankton, bacteria, and biogeochemical standing stocks; I established physical and climate forcing mechanisms predicting the variability, which includes interactions between SAM and ENSO, sea ice dynamics, and water column stability parameters. My future plans include further investigations on the impacts of pure physical processes (e.g. mixing) on the observed variability in war in world the biogeochemistry. I also plan to incorporate the observed patterns to thesis conceptual NPZD models. Date Orals Passed: 5/13. Advisory Committee: Shillington, Webb, Savage. Current seismic behavior and variation of seismic reflectivity signature for war in the modern essay megathrust in the Alaska/Aleutian Subduction zone.

Great earthquakes occur in the seismogenic portion of subduction zone megathrusts. Although most subduction zones show small to moderate interplate thrust earthquakes during the intervals between great earthquakes, a few show only seismicity within the downgoing slab, not on the plate interface, even at megathrust depths. The different patterns of seismic behavior could reflect different levels of accounting management admissions assignment, material heterogeneity on megathrust. War In. Downdip of the man, seismogenic zone, the megathrust changes from essay, stick-slip behavior to stable sliding. Competing models suggest that the avid rubric, transition is controlled by temperature or the intersection of the the modern essay, megathrust with the serpentinized forearc mantle wedge.

In some subduction zones, changes in on the song prufrock behavior appear to be accompanied by war in essay, changes in picture of dorian seismic reflection signature. The Alaska/Aleutian subduction zone is war in world, one of the best places to study the relation between megathrust property and seismic hazard. Pro Life Scholarship Essay. During the 20th century, virtually the entire Alaska-Aleutian subduction interface has ruptured in war in world essay large to great earthquakes. The 1964 Mw 9.2 Earthquake ruptured some onshore area, allowing us to accounting and financial assignment deploy a broadband seismic network (MOOS array) to study the details of the current seismic behavior. Further west, the rupture zone of 1938 Mw 8.2 Earthquake lies completely offshore and is fully accessible to war in world essay marine profiling. The megathrust of the Alaska/Aleution subdction zone also exhibits large variations from locking to freely sliding along strike from recent GPS study. My thesis focuses on essay on the love of j., the seismic behavior and war in the modern world essay reflectivity of the megathrust in the Alaska/Aleutian subduction zone and consists of: 1. A detailed study of seismicity recorded by thesis, the MOOS array. Essay. We generated a seismic catalog with 8,308 earthquakes down to magnitude 1.0 with high precision and calculated 117 focal mechanisms from the thesis paper, data recorded by MOOS array. Most microearthquakes are showing normal faulting mechanisms, and the direction of the T axes generally follows the dipping direction of the slab, indicating that they lie inside the subducting slab under down-dip extension or result from plate bending.

Interplate thrust events are absent on the megathrust within the 1964 great earthquake rupture area. 2. War In The Modern World Essay. Study the marketing paper, variations in seismic reflection signature of the megathrust from MCS data. The Modern. We trace the reflections of the essay on early, plate interface from the trench to place 140km landward on the dip profile across the war in world essay, rupture zone of the 1938 Mw 8.2 earthquake. Large variations in the reflection response are observed with depth. The plate interface is marked by marketing paper, a single, simple reflection within the rupture zone. Farther landward, 120 km from the trench, the megathrust reflection changes to a brighter and wider ( 12 s twtt) zone of reflectivity, where more abundant intraslab seismicity as well as episodic tremor and slip occur.

The change in the megathrust reflection response appears to occur where it intersects a shallower band of war in world, reflectivity, which we tentatively interpret as the continental Moho. Date Orals Passed 4/15. Advisory Committee: Previdi, Fiore, Ting. Impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on U.S. climate: extreme events, stagnation, and and financial admissions the warming hole. Anthropogenic aerosols remain one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of and ability to project present and future climate. I examine the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on regional climate in war in essay the United States, with a focus on extreme events and the southeast U.S. “warming hole”. I examine changes in frequency, magnitude, and essay on the of j. alfred duration of extreme temperature, precipitation and stagnation events. Extreme atmospheric stagnation events, characterized by the modern world essay, persistent weak winds and scholarship lack of precipitation, are of the modern world, particular concern for accounting and financial management admissions air quality and human health. The lack of ventilation and war in world essay scavenging by precipitation allows pollutants to marketing thesis build up to dangerous levels in the boundary layer. This creates a potential feedback between air pollutants (atmospheric aerosols) and the meteorological conditions that contribute to extreme pollution events. Using the GFDL-CM3 chemistry-climate model, I find that aerosols have reduced the frequency and magnitude of high temperature extremes over the U.S. between 1860 and 2005, while decreasing the frequency and war in magnitude of extreme precipitation, particularly in the eastern U.S.

As a result, aerosols have largely cancelled out the effects of greenhouse gases over the historical period. Marketing Thesis Paper. However, emissions of anthropogenic aerosols are projected to decrease in the future, unmasking the impacts of war in essay, greenhouse gases during the next few decades.? The modeled spatial response pattern of extreme temperatures to both aerosols and greenhouse gases is characterized by a strong response in the western U.S., moderate responses in the central and northeast U.S., and a weak or absent response in the southeast U.S., collocated with the observed “warming hole”, one of the few regions across the globe which has not warmed significantly over the twentieth century. I find that the weak temperature response in this region is tied to changes in the moisture budget, driven by changes in regional circulation patterns and the westward extent of the Bermuda High. I will use results from multiple global climate models to evaluate how the frequency, intensity, duration, and man spatial extent of U.S. stagnation events change in war in the modern world essay response to forcing from anthropogenic aerosols. I will use observations of U.S. air stagnation from NCDC in conjunction with GFDL-CM3 to examine specific large-scale stagnation events (such as summer 2012) and essay identify key atmospheric drivers (such as changes in the Bermuda High). I can then examine how these drivers change in world response to forcing by atmospheric aerosols, providing a mechanistic explanation for changes in marketing thesis stagnation.

Finally, I will use a series of sensitivity simulations performed by several chemistry-climate models to examine the the modern essay, impacts of essay on early, aerosols from different source regions and from individual aerosol chemical components on U.S. stagnation events. Ultimately, this work will help us understand the the modern, impacts anthropogenic aerosols on past and present U.S. climate, which will in turn improve our ability to project the effects of their removal over on the love song of j. the next few decades. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: Martinson, Gordon, Yuan. The west Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is bordered by the Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC), which flows adjacent to the continental shelf.

Below the war in the modern, permanent pycnocline, the ACC advects upper circumpolar deep water (UCDW), characterized by temperature and nutrient maxima. Management Admissions Assignment. Understanding the essay, transport of UCDW onto the WAP shelf is important for two main reasons. Firstly, the available heat of circumpolar deep water is believed to be partly responsible for accounting and financial management admissions assignment recent increased melt of marine glaciers. Secondly, as a nutrient-maximum (macro, but more importantly, micro), the transport of UCDW onto world essay, the WAP shelf influences the local ecosystem. One of the thesis picture, primary goals of my research is to understand the processes of shelf-slope exchange along the WAP margins. To date, I have identified that intrusions of UCDW to the WAP shelf are episodic with a frequency of about 3-4 per month and a size on world, the order of the first baroclinic Rossby radius. There is a mesoscale structure to the UCDW boluses which is shown to originate in the baroclinic instability of the shelf-break current upstream. The advective component of the intruding current is coherent with the along-slope wind stress in the weather-band and intrusion sites are tied to bathymetry at the shelf break (both cross-cutting canyons and seaward-veering isobaths). I am now testing the song of j. alfred, hypothesis that nonlinearity of the weakly stratified flow induced by wind bursts facilitates the crossing of war in world, linear potential-vorticity conserving contours and essay on early man allows episodic penetration at these topographically-determined sites.

The hope is to isolate essential dynamics so as to extend these findings to regions of similar shelf-break and current configuration around the Antarctic continent. The Modern Essay. Topographically-independent exchange of a yet-unquantified amount may occur as well via interleaving. A parallel goal of my research is to quantify the modification (by vertical and essay lateral mixing) of the intruding water mass. Since there are no microstructure observations on the WAP shelf, this largely involves parameterizations (Richardson number-based and internal wave shear/strain-based) and war in inversion methods applied to thesis picture of dorian gray budgets of conserved properties. The work utilizes a combination of theoretical models and analysis of an extensive, multi-platform observational database (moored current meters, shipboard CTD/ADCP observations, and autonomous underwater vehicles). Date Orals passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Class, Shillington, Hemming. Magmatism at the southern end of the East African Rift System - origin and role during early stage rifting.

The process of continental rifting is the modern essay, fundamental to alfred prufrock modern tectonic theory, yet details of the war in the modern world essay, emergence and early evolution of continental rifts are still poorly known. Of Dorian. I use geochemical tools to reconstruct the sources and timing of rift magmas as part of an integrated study that examines magmatism segmentation - two fundamental features of nascent divergent plate boundaries. The southern East African Rift exhibits pronounced segmentation and crustal thinning despite being nearly devoid of magmatic activity. The Rungwe Volcanic Province in Tanzania is the only volcanic region in the modern the southern 1000 km of the rift. Physical models require magmatism at the onset of on early, continental extension, but Rungwe is too small volume and located in the wrong place to serve this purpose. A detailed investigation of the timing and chemistry of Rungwe eruptions could shed light on the role of these volcanoes in war in the modern essay initiating and sustaining regional extension. A number of geochemical approaches are employed to essay on the love song of j. better understand how existing volcanoes developed at Rungwe. Eruption ages, obtained using Ar-Ar isotopic ratios in the rocks, help track the initiation and frequency of eruptive activity in the context of regional tectonic extension. Isotopic fingerprints of the modern world, these lavas give context of how the mantle source here relates to sources around the globe. Petrological models of lava compositions give context of the conditions at the source of melting.

I intend to construct a highly-resolved, time integrated model of continental rifting by combining these three critical datasets with field observations. Love Song Of J. Prufrock. This model can potentially be independently verified by the extensive geophysical survey underway which will better image subsurface structures. Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory Committee: van Geen, Bostick, Schlosser. Access to safe water is a fundamental human need and therefore a basic human right –Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary General rightly pointed out our rights to water and sanitation. Fulfillment of such a basic need is a challenge in war in many parts of the world because of scholarship essay, either limited water supply or contamination of the available water. My research tries to answer questions about the fate and transport of arsenic (As), a metalloid naturally present in groundwater around the the modern world, world that threatens the lives of tens of millions of people drinking untreated well water, particularly in South and marketing Southeast Asia. My study assesses long-term temporal variability of shallow (30 m) groundwater arsenic concentrations across a 25-km 2 area of Araihazar, Bangladesh, where a team of war in the modern, health and earth scientists have been conducting research since 2000. Comparisons of test results spanning more than a decade indicate significant changes. The observed trend shows that As concentrations in pro life essay areas with initially high levels have declined whereas concentrations in areas with initially low levels have increased.

The hypothesis I am currently exploring using simple hydrological and geochemical assumptions is that this trend has been driven by widespread irrigation pumping. Date Orals Passed: 3/14. Advisory Committee: Goddard, Kushnir, Baethgen. Cross-timescale Interference and Climate Predictability of Rainfall Extreme Events in South East South America. My research focuses on the modern essay, the physical mechanisms and potential predictability associated with climate extreme rainfall events in South East South America (SESA), at multiple temporal scales (sub-seasonal to seasonal). Essay Song Alfred. I use an approach known as weather-within-climate that identifies persistent weather types through cluster analysis to describe climate events with particular characteristics. I analyze the relationship between these synoptic circulation types and extratropical cyclones, meso-scale convective systems and enhanced moisture advection events (e.g., low-level jets or atmospheric rivers), also exploring different sources of potential predictability (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillations, Southern Annular Mode, Atlantic Meridional Mode, Southern Atlantic Dipole, Madden-Jullian Oscillations and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone behavior) for war in world these events at man, different temporal scales.

I have found that these weather types are not only the modern world essay useful to understand the physical mechanisms and identify potential predictors related to extreme events, but that they are “sensitive” to cross-timescale interactions between the different climate drivers. This led me to explore the impact of the so-called Cross-timescale Interference Conjecture on extreme rainfall events. My analysis indicates that considering cross-timescale interactions increases extreme events’ seasonal predictability in on the song approximately 50%-70% with respect to the more traditional approach. Using these ideas I was able to design and evaluate a new methodology that is able to produce subseasonal-to-seasonal extreme rainfall scenarios”, providing not only skillful climate information about how many extreme events to expect in SESA for the next season, but also about how, when and where are they expected to occur. Special attention is paid to the potential for the development of useful and reliable products for decision-making in different sectors in SESA. Date Orals Passed: 11/12.

Advisory Committee: Gordon, Yuan, Zappa. Intraseasonal Sea Surface Temperature variability coupling to Madden- Julian Oscillations over the Indonesian Maritime Continent. The Sea Surface Temperature (SST) variability is governed mainly by air–sea or surface heat fluxes, subsurface processes including Ekman pumping, intense tidal mixing, and lateral advection. All oceanic and atmospheric forcing determines the the modern world, variability of SST. Avid. The Indonesian sea surface temperature are influenced by many oceanic and atmospheric forcing across different timescales, which consist of tides, Indo-Australian monsoon, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and world the Indonesian Throughflow. They are located at the pathway of prominent tropical atmosphere phenomena such as the picture, Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which is war in the modern world, identified as convective and subsidence cells along the equator that propagate eastward from the Indian to Pacific Ocean. The seasonal forcing is the avid, largest contributor to SST variability in the Indonesian Seas, and the combined seasonal and semi-annual variability can only explain. 70% of total SST variances in Indonesian Seas. The remaining. 30% of the war in the modern essay, SST variability has not been studied, and we suspect that it is attributed to intraseasonal and interannual variation.

My study particularly focuses on describing the SST characteristics at intraseasonal timescales (20-90 days) over the Indonesian Seas by considering plausible governing processes such as atmospheric and oceanic motions and their corresponding to the air-sea interaction. The objective of my study is to examine intraseasonal SST variability of the scholarship, Indonesian seas (Indonesian maritime continent), specifically to understand the sea-air interaction, coupling of the the modern world essay, ocean and atmosphere associated with the essay rubric, MJO dynamics, which we argue is the modern world, one of the primary drivers for SST variability at intraseasonal timescales in some area of the Indonesian Seas. The analysis includes evaluating their responses to MJO events at several seasonal and interannual background states. Thesis Paper. This study is very useful for a better weather prediction in the modern the region. Date Orals Passed: 9/14. Advisory Committee: Griffin, Boelman, Callahan. My primary research focuses on assignment, plants’ physiological response to increasing air temperatures. Most of my work is conducted in the Hudson Highlands Region of New York State, where proximate causes of climate change, such as insect outbreaks, severe droughts, environmental disturbances such as forest clearings, and intense deer browsing have resulted in the mortality of dominant tree species (oaks), impacting long-term biomass, carbon dynamics, and carbon storage capacity in war in world essay northeastern forests. However, one of the most important threats to marketing carbon storage capacity in the region includes plant community shifts via climate change.

A study published in 2008 by collaborators at Black Rock Forest summarized changes in forest composition over the last 76 years. The Modern World Essay. They found that three northern ranged species were extirpated from the forest and eleven southern-ranged or non-native species had migrated in naturally or anthropogenically. I aim to compare a suite of physiological (photosynthesis and respiration) and leaf traits across a broad range of tree species with different historic distribution ranges (northern, central, and southern) that co-occur in this region's forests in order to understand the physiological mechanisms that may be driving species replacement as trees migrate to climatically suitable habitat. This research will provide insight into whether the centrally-ranged species, such as the dominant red oak, are physiologically disadvantaged, which may threaten their persistence under elevated temperatures, influencing the carbon sequestration capabilities of northeastern temperate forests. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Kushnir, Giannini, Sobel. SST-Forced Variability of thesis paper, West African Monsoon Rainfall on Seasonal to war in the modern Decadal Timescales. The West African Monsoon is one of the major monsoon systems on the planet, delivering the essay, totality of the modern, rainfall to marketing paper the Sahel region of Africa during a few summer months. This monsoon system has demonstrated considerable variability on a number of timescales ranging from the modern world, sub-seasonal to marketing paper interannual, decadal, and war in even millennial.

Indeed, both the rubric, spatial extent and magnitude of the essay, observed rainfall shift during the 20th Century in this region was unseen anywhere else in the world. Much of the variability on seasonal to decadal timescales has been attributed to forcing by the global oceans, which drive anomalously weak or strong monsoon responses. However, the physical mechanisms which link sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies across the various basins to precipitation changes over land are not fully understood, nor is the interplay between competing anomalies and their resulting effects. My dissertation aims to management address some of these research gaps using a blend of world essay, observations, theories, and modeling. Some of the ways in thesis of dorian gray which I have been re-examining the role of the global oceans on Sahel rainfall variability are in using a moisture budget framework and idealized SST experiments to identify the atmospheric signatures that are consistent with precipitation change. The improved understanding of the effects of SSTs on Sahel rainfall variability have large implications for policy and decision-making in the region.

Date Orals Passed: 4/15. Advisory committee: Savage, Holtzman, Scholz. My research focuses on two methods of understanding the mechanical controls on the seismogenic zone. The first half of my thesis focuses on the shallow portion of the seismogenic zone at the Japan Trench where the 2011 M w 9.1 Tohoku-Oki earthquake slipped to essay the surface and caused a large tsunami, leading to the disaster at marketing, the Fukushima nuclear power plant. A year after the earthquake, an ocean drilling expedition sampled the war in the modern, fault zone that slipped during the Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

I have used trace element geochemistry to develop a detailed stratigraphy of the thesis, plate boundary fault zone, which gives insight into the distribution of deformation in this region. The degree of localization of slip can have significant implications for the stress state required for this shallow slip. I am also developing a biomarker thermal maturity indicator (using alkenones and n -alkanes) to essay determine whether faults in the decollement region have experienced a significant temperature rise (inferred to be the essay, result of frictional heating). This allows us to determine which faults inferred from the stratigraphy were likely to have slipped seismically. War In The Modern. Through a series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments, I also constrain the assignment, kinetics of the biomarker thermal maturation to estimate the temperature rise on these seismic faults. This allows us to put constraints on the maximum earthquake each of these faults may have experienced. The second half of my thesis focuses on the effect of temperature changes on the frictional behavior of subducting sediments at the upper limit of the seismogenic zone.

I will investigate the effect of short-duration pulses of hot fluid onto fault surfaces from nearby fault zones. This will give insight into the dynamic frictional behavior that can be important for war in the modern essay our understanding of love alfred, aftershock sequences. I will also investigate the the modern, frictional behavior of subducting sediments with varying amounts of carbonate, a significant input to the sedimentary budget of subduction zones. Carbonate material tends to begin deforming plastically at shallower conditions than silicate rock. However, carbonate-rich sediment has been observed to demonstrate unstable slip behavior over a wider range of pro life, conditions than more clay-rich sediment. I will investigate the deformation mechanisms that could be responsible for this enhanced seismic potential. Date Orals Passed: 4/14. Advisory Committee: Cane, Seager, Abernathey. My research focuses on the variability in the Tropical Pacific Ocean on decadal to multidecadal timescales.

This variability has been shown to force hydroclimate on nearly every continent, and is responsible for the drought that has affected the Southwestern United States since 1999. Further, it has been hypothesized that fluctuations in the rate of the increase of the modern essay, global mean temperature with anthropogenic forcing, such as the global warming hiatus of the 2000s, may be modulated by the mean state of the Tropical Pacific. My project investigates both the essay on early, predictability of this phenomenon and the global ocean's response to it in terms of heat uptake. I address these questions using ocean reanalysis datasets and coupled model simulations, by applying idealized conceptual models, statistical analyses, and a Lagrangian advection scheme. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Bostick, Chillrud, Schlosser. Developing Improved Strategies of Remediating Arsenic Contaminated Aquifers. Arsenic is a widespread contaminant in groundwater around the world, and is highly detrimental to humans and many other organisms. Arsenic is also the second most common contaminant of concern at U.S.

EPA National Priority List. War In The Modern Essay. In this context, my work is focused on marketing thesis paper, the development of the geochemical techniques for remediating arsenic problems. The Modern World Essay. The fate of essay on the song alfred prufrock, arsenic contamination is often linked to iron. But their interaction is not simple in war in essay that it involves a complex network of biological and avid essay rubric chemical (abiotic) redox processes, solid-solution phase equilibria, and both thermodynamic and kinetic controls. Therefore, I want to investigate laboratory microcosms using arsenic-bearing aquifer sediments and groundwater and the modern essay also conduct field scale research, to understand the efficacy of scholarship essay, different amendments at retarding arsenic mobility, and elucidate changes in solid-phase iron and arsenic speciation. From my work, I hope to reveal the implicit relationship between iron and arsenic within subsurface environments and the conditions under which these processes either liberate or sequester arsenic. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Nettles, Ekstrom, Gaherty. Glacial Earthquakes and Glacier Seismicity in Greenland.

I am interested in a range of the modern world essay, seismic phenomena associated with large marine-terminating glaciers in Greenland. On the pro life, global scale, I consider glacial earthquakes that produce globally observable surface waves which can be analyzed in order to war in the modern world essay provide information on the geometry and dynamics of their source glaciers. As these events may be analyzed in essay rubric near-real time, they potentially represent an important means of the modern essay, monitoring large glaciers in Greenland for accounting and financial management assignment changes in their dynamic behaviour. On the local scale, I am interested in the abundant, tiny earthquakes which occur in these rapidly deforming glaciers, and the connections between those events and larger questions with regards to the calving process and other aspects of war in essay, glacier dynamics. More broadly, I am interested in the connection between sources of seismicity and the physical processes governing them. Paper. My dissertation includes studies of the modern world, glacier grounding states, front-position, and essay man calving-front orientation, and tidal forcing, using both global and war in essay local seismic data. Date Orals Passed : 3/14. Advisory Committee : Flynn, Meng, Christie-Blick. South America’s relative geographic isolation for much of the essay on early man, Cenozoic, and the continent’s reach from high latitudes to the subtropics bred a diverse, abundant, and disparate array of endemic mammals. For instance, there are perhaps as many as five orders of extinct placental herbivore representing a gamut of war in the modern, ecomorphologies (“meridiungulates,” or South American native ungulates, SANUs).

Some research questions: What are SANUs, with relation to each other and to the rest of the placental mammals? How do morphological and molecular evolution relate to climate, and management admissions assignment can characters and character changes be local paleoenvironmental proxies? Do ancient biomolecules, including DNA and protein sequences, agree with morphological phylogenetic data? Some projects: I am expanding the Assembling the Tree of Life project Mammalia dataset, adding taxa to the modern world test the hypothesis that some of the SANUs are related to African mammals while others are related to Holarctic ungulates. I have explored the relation between morphological evolution and climate within one SANU family, a project born out of alpha-taxonomic descriptive work on two new fossil genera from a new latest Eocene site in the Chilean Andes. I have also looked in fairly exhaustive detail at on early man, the chronologic basis for calibrating phylogenetic comparative and other macroevolutionary studies, reviewing and revising the mammal-based biochronology of Cenozoic South America. For my most recent project I am extracting ancient DNA from various North American ungulates to test hypotheses surrounding Pleistocene population and ecosystem dynamics, as well as phylogenetic (taxonomic) hypotheses, with an world essay, eye towards testing and refining ancient DNA methods in the lab and in silico. Date Orals Passed: 3/12. Advisory Committee: Buck, Bell, Creyts.

Sliding Dynamics and on early Internal Structure of Ice Sheets. Basal sliding is an important part of ice sheet dynamics. My work is war in world, focused on basal sliding and accounting and financial management hydrology, and the linkages between these processes and ice sheet stratigraphy. Identification and Control of Subglacial Water Networks Under Dome A, Antarctica. This chapter is concerned with using ice-penetrating radar to identify subglacial water in East Antarctica. I found numerous subglacial lakes organized along topographically controlled hydraulic networks that connect melting and freezing locations beneath the ice sheet. Published in JGR-Earth Surface in 2013.

Traveling slippery patches produce thickness-scale folds in ice sheets. This chapter is concerned with a model for the production of large (of order 1000m) basal structures in continental ice sheets. Such structures have been observed in radar data from both Antarctica and Greenland. I find that thermally controlled slippery patches at the modern, the ice sheet base can migrate downstream over time. Convergence produced by the gradient in basal slip around these patches produces uplift within the ice sheet. Pro Life Essay. When the patches move with the war in the modern, ice sheet, this uplift can produce large stratigraphic structures that resemble the observations. This new feedback stresses the importance of time-variable basal slip and enlarges our understanding of the relationship between slip and stratigraphy. Published in GRL in 2014. Overturned folds in ice sheets: Insights from a kinematic model of accounting and financial management, travelling sticky patches and comparisons with observations. This chapter generalizes the connection between basal slip and internal stratigraphy.

Here I used a kinematic model in world a moving reference frame to identify overturning vortices that form in on the song of j. prufrock the lower portion of the ice column above a moving sticky patch. The dimensions of the vortex depends on the regional sliding velocity and on the propagation velocity of the patch. I used three example observed radar folds to constrain model parameters using data. Submitted to JGR-Earth Surface in August 2015. Basal freeze-on: Mechanisms and war in world volumes. This chapter explores the conditions necessary to produce large basal freeze-on structures inside ice sheets. I explore the dominant factors controlling both conductive cooling and supercooling, as well as the ice flow conditions that encourage the formation of large basal structures. I conclude with a discussion of the water supply and glaciological settings that promote basal freeze-on, as well as the settings that promote traveling slippery and sticky patches. Thesis Picture. In preparation. Date Orals Passed: 4/13.

Advisory Committee: Goldstein, Pena, B. Anderson. Neodymium isotope composition in deep waters can be considered as a water mass tracer. My research interest is to study modern and past ocean circulation using Nd isotopes and concentration. The Modern World Essay. It consists of the following components: 1. Avid Essay Rubric. The high Nd isotope ratios of North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW, ?Nd = -4) have been difficult to reconcile with the essay, inputs as reflected in accounting and financial admissions assignment surface waters (e.g. Jones et al.

EPSL 2008). An additional volcanic component has been suggested. In order to constrain the world, sources of Nd in the North Pacific, samples from the INOPEX Cruise (2009) have been analyzed for pro life essay Nd isotopes. Below 2500m in samples from the Aleutians-Kamchatka and war in East Asia margins, the ?Nd values are convergent at. -3.6, consistent with NPDW. However, samples above 2500m from admissions assignment, Aleutians-Kamchatka show higher ?Nd than corresponding depths near East Asia, consistent with higher volcanic contributions near the Aleutians-Kamchatka. In the war in the modern, shallowest 500m the ?Nd trends to more positive values toward the surface (to -1.5) near the Aleutians-Kamchatka, and thesis picture gray toward lower values near East Asia (to -4.6), also consistent with volcanic contributions at Aleutians-Kamchatka. The highest ?Nd at Aleutians-Kamchatka coincides with a previously reported Fe concentration maximum, interpreted as Fe mobilization from reduced marginal sediments (Lam and Bishop GRL 2008), which may also be a means of mobilizing REE.

2. Over the war in, past several years, studies have increasingly focused on the potential of external addition of Nd along water mass transport paths (for example through “boundary exchange” with particulates or addition from groundwaters), thus challenging the idea that Nd isotopes behave “quasi-conservatively” in the oceans. The SW Atlantic, with the major water masses involved in accounting and financial the AMOC (southward flowing NADW, northward flowing AAIW and the modern AABW), is man, arguably the best place on Earth to evaluate how well Nd isotopes trace water mass mixing, in order to clarify its value for the modern essay following the AMOC through time. We will report Nd isotope ratios of seawater collected on the SW Atlantic meridional transect of the NIOZ West Atlantic GEOTRACES Cruise Leg 3 (RRS James Cook 057), which sampled seawater profiles and the sediment surface at picture, 18 stations between 0-50°S. The Modern. Most stations are sampled in the open ocean, providing a test of whether Nd isotopes show quasi-conservative mixing systematics away from continental margins. The cruise section also provides several opportunities to on early test the world essay, potential effects of external Nd input. 3. The modern Southern Ocean has significant input from NADW, which is and financial assignment, reflected in Nd isotope compositions of the Southern Ocean, and when the Atlantic meridional ocean circulation weakens, so will the war in the modern, North Atlantic signal. Thus, present and paleo-records of the water mass distribution in the Southern Ocean will help to understand the changes of marketing thesis, ocean circulation. Using Nd isotopes in modern seawater and fossil fish debris from sediments will help to characterize the war in the modern world, present day and past evolution in the Southern Ocean Nd end-member composition. Date Orals Passed: 4/12. Advisory Committee: McManus, Ryan, deMenocal.

The Late Pleistocene Evolution of the rubric, Black Sea. The Black Sea is a large, deep, and semi-enclosed body of water that lies at the interior of a series of basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea via two shallow sills characterized by war in the modern, an estuarine-type circulation. On The Love Of J. Alfred Prufrock. This hydrologic setting changed in the past. Over the world essay, last 3 million years, the marketing, Black Sea alternated between two environments: a freshwater lake and a brackish-to-marine basin. The Modern World Essay. The factor that controlled the avid essay, preferential state is the form of the connection with the war in the modern, Mediterranean Sea.

The entry of salt water is limited by the height of the global sea level relative to the threshold depth of the sill in on the love song alfred the Bosphorus portal. The last time the war in the modern, Black Sea connected to the Mediterranean occurred approximately 7,150 years ago as a consequence of the rising global sea level from deglaciation. Accounting Management Assignment. This led to large changes in the basin which include salinization, sapropel deposition, anoxia, and fauna turnover. This event is war in the modern world, clearly seen in on early both shelf and slope cores. Prior to the connection, the Black Sea remained very fresh and the bottom waters were more oxygenated.

Turnover occurred at times the surface waters became dense enough to break the stratification. During the last glacial maximum, the Black Sea sediments have a series of sulfide spots implying that turnover was reduced. These spots disappeared when a series of meltwater pulses appear in the cores, which have a distinct brownish color and record hyper-pycnal floods. Essay. Plumes of freshwater brought oxygen to the black sea and hence, formation of iron sulfide did not occur. I am studying the series of these events, how they are reported in the sediments, how one dates them, and the connections between the shelf and the slope cores. Rubric. I am also thinking about how these events in the Black Sea connect to global and the modern world the possible implications.

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