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5. When you have selected a writer, you'll need to prepare a formal agreement - a contract that describes the expectations of both parties regarding the quality of work, when the work or its installments is to be submitted, what will happen if the freelancer does not deliver on time or to expectations, and what is to be done if either of you decides to terminate the project before it is completed. Some points to consider when creating the contract: · Deposit. Conceit Essay. If the freelancer does not know you, he or she might require as a deposit a percentage of the fee. Offering this demonstrates good faith. · Additional expenses. The job might require phone calls, couriers, international postage costs, or other items. You should decide who will cover these costs. · Performance standards. Your freelancer may be unable to about knee complete the project for some reason - perhaps because of illness.
She may do an unsatisfactory job. Would you be willing to pay a kill fee in rhetorical, such cases? You need to consider how you would deal with such possibilities in your contract. · Payment arrangements. Bury At Wounded. Consider the time frame for payments, and whether you will pay in installments as key milestones of the project are completed. Perhaps, on ubc the other hand, you prefer to pay a lump sum when the project is complete. Bury My Heart At Wounded. Consider also whether your payment will take the form of a flat fee or whether you will pay by the hour. Such decisions will need to be made in consultation with your writer, of course.
6. After the terms of service have been signed, and the project has commenced, make sure to keep up to thesis date with the progress of the project and about my heart provide the writer with the conceit essay information she requests. As key milestones in about my heart at wounded, the project are reached, make sure to pay the invoices promptly. What to thesis ubc Watch Out For. Bury At Wounded. Plagiarism. Writers who charge very low rates may be plagiarizing material. Thesis Ubc. If you suspect plagiarism, copy may be checked online at www.copyscape.com.
Non-native English writers. It can be tempting to cut costs by hiring a writer from a country whose native language is essay bury my heart at wounded knee not English. Such a writer may speak the language you need your material written in, but probably won't fully understand the colloquial use of subtleties of the English language. The rates given are estimates only. They are based on the assumption that that the writer has relevant education and experience in the area of on cause and effect, expertise listed.
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The Ashrama has plans for teaching. Discrimination , Feminism , Gender 5180 Words | 17 Pages. be used as livestock feed, such as chicken feed. ? Algal biomass with a balanced N:P ratio is a potentially valuable organic fertilizer. ? Also have . bio-control properties. Algal biomass is also reported to be particularly suitable for pisciculture . Benefits Of Using Algae: Climate Change - CO2 Emissions: CO2 is Primary Input: CO2 is a primary input required by captain america and the struggle superhero microalgae to grow. Essay Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee? Microalgae takes waste (CO2) and convert it into thesis margins ucc a high-density liquid form of essay about bury my heart at wounded, energy (lipid oil for. Algaculture , Algae , Algae fuel 2508 Words | 16 Pages. Automatic Route in the following sectors: i) Atomic Energy ii) Lottery Business iii) Gambling and Betting iv) Business of Chit Fund v) Nidhi Company vi) . Margins? Agricultural (excluding Floriculture, Horticulture, Development of seeds, Animal Husbandry, Pisciculture and cultivation of vegetables, mushrooms, etc. under controlled conditions and services related to agro and allied sectors) and essay bury my heart knee, Plantations activities (other than Tea Plantations) vii) Housing and Real Estate business (except development of townships. Foreign direct investment , International economics , Invest in America 2768 Words | 14 Pages. region, but very rare as an ethnic entity are the rhetorical analysis essay, Lipovans, descendants of the Orthodox Old Rite followers who fled Russia in the 18th century from . religious persecution. About a third of the employed population is engaged in fishing and bury my heart at wounded knee, pisciculture , while another third is paper on cause engaged in farming (1996).
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office, residence, school college, play ground, children’s park and other establishments. The remaining 29.50 hectares has been earmarked for essay, demonstration . farm for undertaking research in farming, horticulture, floriculture, tissue culture, pisciculture , livestock, Poultry etc. The campus has almost all the about my heart knee, modern amenities of urban life. The Academy is an autonomous body officiated with the honours thesis, Rural Development and Co-operatives Division of the Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development Co-operatives. Drinking water , Groundwater , Irrigation 3338 Words | 21 Pages. “Competitiveness in the Private Sector Higher Education in about bury my heart Bangladesh: the Winning Strategies for Higher Education in the Next Decade” people happy, brisk development activities are planned. Bangladesh is agricultural based country, so the people have to knowledgeable about the agriculature, . and it is only can be done through spreading the knowledge . To development of agriculture, pisciculture and plantation the modern scientific and technical know-how is essential.
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practices, nurseries for forest and fruit trees, desilting of margins ucc, ponds and my heart at wounded knee, tanks, seepage control measures and soil and water conservation systems. . A range of ubc, livelihood options, including leaf cup production, ber churan production, pisciculture , papad and badi production, biomass energy briquette production and vegetable farming are also profiled. Local crafts like basket-making, carpentry and pottery that can be revived are also outlined. Measures to improve the. Biodiversity , Cultural heritage , Natural environment 5309 Words | 16 Pages. number of overlapping and duplicating activities being taken up by ASTEC.
Such activities include provision of drinking water to the villages in the vicinity . of the Beel, providing funding support for digging fish ponds for bury, aquaculture, training on pisciculture , development of eco-tourism activities, etc., which normally are to be taken up as the activities of the fisheries department through Fish Farmers’ Development Agencies set up in each district of Assam and the Tourism Department. It is therefore. Assam , Government of Assam , Guwahati 4601 Words | 15 Pages. I 21 30 03 Law Officer in conceit essay JMGS I 21 30 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION Degree in Agriculture or Allied specializations such as . Horticulture/Animal Husbandry/Veterinary Science/ Dairy Science/ Agri.Engineering/Fishery Science/ Pisciculture /Agri Marketing Cooperation etc. from recognized University Post Graduate Degree in Hindi with English as a subject at the degree level OR a Post Graduate Degree in Sanskrit with English and Hindi as subjects at the degree level. Essay About My Heart At Wounded Knee? Bachelor. Candidate , Disability , Government of India 4892 Words | 28 Pages. and the Arakan Ranges with a wide range of margins, elevation. The rainfall ranges from 200 to 400 cm.
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E-learning in a developing country like Bangladesh: Philosophy and reality. in Arabic Language Proficiency) BELT (Bachelor in English Language Teaching) BA (Bachelor of Arts) BSS (Bachelor of Social Science) BAgEd (Bachelor of . Agricultural Education) CLP (Certificate in Poultry and Livestock) CPLP (Certificate in essay about at wounded knee Pisciculture and paper on cause and effect, Fish Processing) DYD (Diploma in Youth Development) • Bank Services and Marketing management • Irrigation • Water Management • Horticulture • Animal Nutrition • Pest Management • Use of about, Aquatic Weeds and Preparation and Preservation. Curriculum , Distance education , Education 3849 Words | 27 Pages. and feeding of the thesis margins ucc, African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, with special reference to juveniles and their importance in fish culture. Arch.
Hydrobiol., 87 . (4): 453-482. C.T.F.T, 1972. Premieres directives pour l'introduction de Clarias lazera en pisciculture . SF/RAF/66/054: Annexe 8. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Marne, 16 pp. David, L., 1935. Die entwicklung der clariiden und ihre Verbreitung. revue Zool. Essay Bury At Wounded Knee? Bot. Afr., 28: 77-147.
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following sectors: * Retail Trading * Atomic Energy * Lottery Business * Gambling and Betting * Housing and Real Estate business . * Agriculture (excluding Floriculture, Horticulture, Development of Seeds, Animal Husbandry, Pisciculture and Cultivation of Vegetables, Mushrooms etc. under controlled conditions and essay, services related to agro and allied sectors). * Plantations (Other than Tea plantations). FDI IN REAL ESTATE NRI investments in my heart at wounded knee real estate have been simplified. Capital , Capital accumulation , Economics 12192 Words | 38 Pages. familiar and big shop. Now our family has become selfsufficient family. BRAC has not finished its facilities programmes. It also supply’s the how to hamlet essay, seeds of . Essay At Wounded? hybride paddy. My father takes it from BRAC office with a low cost. Conceit Essay? BRAC has already started pisciculture in which there is essay about bury knee a support of BRAC programme.
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establish links between grass roots representatives and policy makers. It was founded in 2001. Executive Director -Ahmed Swapan Mahmud Tel: +880 2 8158688 . Email: [email protected] [email protected] Address: House #6, 4th floor, Block-Ka, Pisciculture Housing Society, Shyamoli, Dhaka1207 [Type text] 116 Society for Media and Suitable Human Communication Techniques (SoMaSHTe) http://somashte.org/ SoMaSHTe works to harness the thesis ucc, media and communications for social. Bangladesh , Chittagong , Dhaka 21307 Words | 102 Pages.
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essay period cheat frequency, methods, and causes. Mikaela Bj?rklund and Claes-G?ran Wenestam. ?bo Akademi University. Department of Teacher Education, email: [email protected] or [email protected] Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Lahti, Finland 22-25 September 1999. During the past decades cheating among undergraduate students has been a well-known problem difficult to gain knowledge of.
European research in this field of research is scarce. The aim of this paper is to present a study, investigating the frequency of cheating, the essay about bury my heart at wounded, cheating methods used and the students#146; motives for cheating or not cheating in captain america struggle of the critical a Swedish-Finnish university context. Comparisons with other higher education contexts were possible since an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes and essay Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in the study. The participants were three groups of university students (n=160) from different academic disciplines. The findings implicate that cheating among undergraduates is common and mainly is a problem of ethic character. The paper also discusses consequences of on cause, student cheating for bury knee the university staff, legislators, and society. Suggestions on what measures should be applied are presented along with suggestions for further research in this area. During the past decade, problems concerning cheating among undergraduate students have become increasingly apparent in academic institutions in the Nordic countries. Rhetorical Essay. Cheating or academic misconduct is, however, not a new phenomenon, but a well-known problem in many European countries, as well as in the United States of America. Because of the ethical and moral character of the problem it is not easy to do research in this field. Obvious problems are i.e. student integrity.
Thus, academic dishonest behaviour and cheating is a familiar problem for any university, but it is essay bury at wounded knee often not very well known and thesis ucc sometimes the university authorities do not even want to know of it. Keith-Spiegel (in Murray, 1996) shows that among a sample of bury my heart at wounded knee, almost 500 university professors 20 percent reported they had ignored to conceit essay take further measures in evident cases of cheating. Many university teachers obviously hesitate to take action against at wounded knee, cheating behaviour because of the conceit essay, stress and discomfort that follows (Murray, 1996). About Bury My Heart Knee. Also Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that faculty often choose not to involve university or departmental authorities but handle observed cheating on an individual level, making it invisible in cite hamlet university documents and, thus, unknown to the university authorities. Also other findings support the essay about bury knee, reluctance to bring dishonest academic behaviour like cheating before the university administration.
Jendreck (1992), as an example, concludes that students preferred to paper on cause and effect handle the problem informally rather than by using formal university policy. Probably at least partly because of the essay at wounded, reasons mentioned above European research in this field is still scarce (cf. Margins Ucc. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes Armstead, 1995 and Ashworth et al., 1997). Nevertheless, we feel that it is of the utmost importance that this area of research is further developed in the near future, not the least since students tend to see cheating as a more or less normal part of essay bury my heart, their studies, which is illustrated in the quote below: Students beliefs that everyone cheats (Houston, 1976, p. 301) or that cheating is how to a normal part of life (Baird, 1980) encourage cheating.
The adage cheaters never win may not apply in the case of essay, academic dishonesty. Margins. With cheating rates as high as 75% to 87% (e.g., Baird, 1980; Jendreck, 1989) and detection rates as low as 1.30% (Haines et al., 1986), academic dishonesty is reinforced, not punished. (Davis, Grover, Becker McGregor, 1992, p. 17) With detection rates as low as 1,3 % it is hardly surprising that students to a great extent perceive academic misconduct as worth while and even approved of. Essay About My Heart Knee. As an illustration of the thesis, low detection rates; during a five year period (1991-1995) only 24 students were brought to the disciplinary board for my heart at wounded knee cheating at rhetorical essay apa format, one Swedish university (Grahnstr?m, 1996). It is, hence, of importance to university staff and administrators, as well as to legislators and society as a whole to gain insight in this matter, in essay about knee order to be able to do something about it. The aim of the study. The main aim of the study presented in this paper is to provide a first step in a survey over university students#146; cheating, i.e. to investigate the quotes essay, overall frequency, different methods and main reasons for cheating and not cheating among students in a Finnish context. The study is about bury knee intended as a starting point for rhetorical analysis apa format further in-depth research in this area. Essay About My Heart. In order to get a better understanding of the problem, the aim is also to relate the thesis ucc, outcome to subjects#146; backgrounds in terms of sex, age, academic experience (number of study years), faculty belongings, level of difficulty, level of study success and bury my heart at wounded knee main reason for thesis study at the university, in order to get a deeper understanding of student cheating behaviour.
To make comparisons with other contexts possible an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and about bury at wounded knee used by the British researchers Newstead , Franklyn-Stoked and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in the study, which was carried out on 160 university students during the thesis, spring of 1996. I this presentation we focus attention on: a) the frequency of admitted cheating, b) what kinds of about bury my heart knee, cheating is thesis most frequent in relation to the British results, b) the about my heart at wounded knee, relationship between frequency of admitted cheating/not admitted cheating and sex, c) the reasons selected for or against cheating in essay relation to the British results, and. d) the relationship between the reasons selected and sex. It is very human to try to find ways to solve problems as easy as possible or to avoid unnecessary difficulties. Essay About Bury My Heart At Wounded. Sometimes a creative mood is not only wanted but also morally supported, but in other situations it is thesis margins considered as dishonest and shameful. In higher education this kind of creativity may be in conflict with study performance and productivity and may turn out to be viewed upon with disapproval or contempt. How define cheating? Plagiarism related to the exam situation is what is usually referred to when generally talking about at wounded cheating. It is also this kind of conceit essay, behaviour that has received most attention in research on cheating.
Defining cheating is, however, much more complicated than that, since cheating seems to involve both a moral and an achievement dimension, which is graphically illustrated in Figure 1 below. Figure 1. Graphic presentation of the problematic grey-zone between moral and immoral behaviour. The levels in the achievement dimension are not absolute, but dependent on the perspective of the viewer. The area between the dashed lines symbolises the grey-zone that exists concerning the classification of potential cheating behaviours. Definitions of cheating also vary as a result of bury my heart at wounded, variation in how to cite hamlet quotes in an moral development, experiences of studies, influence of significant others, studying strategy (cf. Miller Parlett, 1973) and probably also other factors. The result is a wide spectrum of essay about bury my heart at wounded knee, definitions ranging from liberal to apa format conservative. Hence, the need for normative documents is apparent. Evenso they do not seem to exist, at essay about my heart knee, least not in Finland. Nowhere in paper and effect the legislation concerning exams and cheating is it mentioned what kind of behaviours constitutes cheating. The examples above illustrate what a complex problem cheating is.
In the study presented in this paper all not strictly correct behaviours were classified as cheating for about knee clarity#146;s sake. To what extent does cheating occur? Most of the research done concerning the amount of how to quotes in an essay, cheating occurring, has, as mentioned earlier, been carried out in the USA. The quotation below provides examples of the cheating-rates measured in different studies in a North American context. The reader ought to observe that these studies were different in design; concentrated on different behaviours and therefore some of the variation in the percentages might be accounted for in that way, and thus can not only be taken to convey a steadily increasing rate of cheating. Drake (1941) reported a cheating rate of 23%, whereas Goldsen, Rosenberg, William, and Suchman (1960) reported rates of 38% and 49% for 1952 and 1960, respectively. Hetherington and essay about my heart knee Feldman (1964) and Baird (1980) reported cheating rates of 64% and 76%, respectively. Jendreck (1989) placed the typical rate between 40% and 60% but noted other rates as high as 82% (Stern Havlicek, 1986) and 88% (Sierles, Hendrickx, Circle, 1980). On Cause. (Davis et al., 1992,s.16) Davis et al. (1992), pointing at the results presented above, regard cheating as epidemic.
There are indications that give some, but not very much, support to the epidemic theory. McCabe and Trevino (1996) found that the tendency to cheat had increased only little, from 63 percent in 1963 to 70 percent in 1990-91 but that the cheating methods had been more developed and the repertoire wider. Their findings may also be interpreted to mean that students who cheat are doing it more often than previous generations of bury my heart knee, students. Conceit Essay. Three studies cited by my heart at wounded knee, Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that cheating is a constant study technique among large groups of students (60-75 percent). Also Davis and Ludvigson (1995) found in conceit essay a more recent study that the individuals who cheat during their university-level studies are the ones that also have cheated earlier in their studies. In a study by Baldwin, et al (1996), where 2459 medical students participated as subjects, 39 percent said they had witnessed cheating, 66,5 percent had heard about cheating, and 5 percent had cheated during their medical studies. Graham et al (1994) found that among 480 college students 89 percent admitted cheating and in a study by Lord and essay about at wounded Chiodo (1995) 83 percent of the undergraduates investigated (n=300) admitted to cheating on significant tests and major projects. In a European context Newstead et al. (1995) also present high rates of cheating. In their study only 12% of the essay on cause, respondents claimed that they had not cheated. Essay About Bury Knee. All the above mentioned figures are concerned with the number of cheaters, i.e. the number of students who have at least on one occasion been involved in rhetorical essay academic misconduct, they do not tell us anything about to what extent these people do cheat.
It is, however, likely that the more cheating is about bury my heart at wounded knee done, the more probable it is how to in an that the numbers of behaviours used vary. It is therefore of bury my heart at wounded knee, importance to find out essay and effect, what kind of behaviours students utilise. What methods are used? There are four major kinds of groups to be distinguished when classifying cheating behaviours, namely: Individual opportunistic, individual planned, active social and passive social (Hetherington Feldman, 1964). Baird (1980) on the other hand distinguishes only between individual and co-operative behaviours. The findings of Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995) point to extensive cheating in some areas like copying each others work, changing or inventing research data, while some other cheating behaviour like lying or changing persons at examination (impersonation) was fairly scarce (see Table 5). Hence, there seems to be a correlation between level of about my heart at wounded knee, perceived seriousness of the behaviour and paper on cause its frequency of occurrence #150; the more serious the behaviour, the less frequent it is. Students tend to classify exam-related cheating as more serious than course-related cheating.
These classifications were also confirmed by Newstead et al#146;s results, where all exam-related items were among the least frequent and course-related items among the about, most frequent. McCabe and conceit essay Trevino summarise their findings in a table showing what kind of cheating and essay about at wounded knee the frequency students admit they are engaged in. The modified table (below) shows the level of admitted cheating in 1963 and 1993. The two tests make a comparison possible. Table. 2. Kind of admitted student cheating in 1963 and 1993 (%) (McCabe and Trevino, 1996). Copied material without footnoting. Table 2 shows that some kinds of cheating are more frequent than other kinds. It is also interesting to find that in most of the margins, cases the about bury at wounded, tendency is an increase of the cheating between 1963 and essay paper and effect 1993. This does not necessarily mean, however, that the students were cheating more in essay about bury my heart knee 1993 than they did in 1963.
Another reasonable explanation is essay that the students were more prone to admit cheating in 1993 than the students were in 1963. These results are similar to findings in essay about my heart at wounded knee other studies but there are also findings suggesting cultural differences. How To Hamlet Quotes. Kuehn, Stanwyck, and essay bury my heart Holland , for instance, asked students from Mexican, Arabic and US cultural backgrounds about cheating. The main focus was on three typical cheating behaviours: using crib notes, copying another student#146;s test, and allowing another student to copy course work. The findings suggest that there were differences between the analysis essay apa format, culturally different groups of students in how they looked upon and rated cheating. Also new technique, like the World Wide Web, is used by essay bury knee, students in order to download papers, essays, etc produced by other students but presented to the examiner as own work. One illustration of ubc, this is a report from a Swedish university, where several students were found out using not accepted means for getting course credits among which the about my heart knee, downloading of ready-made course works from the web was mentioned (Lunds Universitet Meddelar, 1998). Considering the variety of methods used in cheating, as described above, it is probable that also the reasons given for cheating are many. Reasons for cheating and america and the struggle superhero critical essays not doing it. The reasons or motives for cheating are not very well known but must be assumed to be complex.
In a North American study of school students cheating by Anderman, Griesinger, and Westerfield (1998) it is essay about knee claimed that the schools#146; obsession with performance measures spurs cheating. It is suggested that classrooms that emphasise high grades and test scores may drive the apa format, students to cheat . Similar conclusions are reported from several investigations, where the students#146; workload is found to be an important explaining factor (Lipson MacGavern, 1993). Davis et al (1992) point out my heart knee, that pressures for good grades in conceit essay higher education, student stress, ineffective deterrents, teacher attitudes, and an increasing lack of academic integrity are important determinants of cheating. Baird (1980) previously reported similar findings. In that study 35 percent of the students stated that they had too little time for studying for the exam and 26 percent of the students said their working load made it necessary to cheat. In a study by Singhal (1982) as much as 68 percent of the students regarded the wish to get good results as the reason for cheating. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes, and Armstead (1995) found that 21 percent of the cheaters say it was lack of time to study that made them cheat and 20 percent explicitly stated that their cheating was a consequence of their wish to get better grades. A third frequently occurring reason for cheating was everybody else does it (16%), which effectively reflects students#146; attitudes towards cheating.
This reason was followed by the wish to help a friend (14%) and laziness (10%), which also says quite a lot about the risks of getting caught. It is obviously easier to help a friend cheat than to e.g. Essay About Bury Knee. help the ubc, friend learn to an exam. Also Maramark and Maline (1993), when looking for causes for cheating, found that stress, competition for essay bury at wounded jobs, scholarships and admission to on cause post-graduate programs were important determinants. On a general level the causes or explanations identified can be organised in two classes of factors, external, and individual/personal. In Table 1 below the two super-ordinate factors and essay bury my heart at wounded some elements/reasons mentioned in research done by Baird (1980), Davis et al (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964) are presented. Table 1. Presentation of factors that might lead to cheating mentioned by Baird (1980), Davis et al. (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964). Importance of the test. Level of test-difficulty. Awareness of the.
performance of fellow. A certain expectation of. Overcrowded, great classes. Wish to help a friend. Aversion to teacher. At a closer examination of the reasons mentioned by these researchers it seems obvious that the strongest reasons are to be found among the personal factors and that the external factors merely help to ease the cheating. The external factors are furthermore a welcome excuse for the students, since they appear to prefer blaming external factors for their behaviour (Baird, 1980).
Anderman et al (1998) identified two general types of study approaches, which on how to quotes essay, a general level seem to be similar to the deep and surface approaches to studying and my heart learning. The cheaters tend to believe that the purpose of school is to compete and show how smart you are. Also, to them, what is most important, is doing better than others and getting the right answer. They also worried about school and made use of self-handicapping behaviours, blaming others and essay on cause and effect making excuses for not performing well at essay about bury my heart knee, school, more often than their counterparts. Conceit Essay. Many of them believed cheating would result in less homework and about knee fewer academic demands. The non-cheating group of students, in comparison, expressed interest in their learning of science concepts and tried various problem-solving methods and sought to connect ideas. In several previous studies it is suggested that the analysis essay apa format, effect of an explicit and essay about my heart knee unanimously accepted honour code will lower the and the struggle of the superhero critical, frequency of cheating behaviour (McCabe Bowers, 1994). But honour code may have an effect in two opposite about bury knee, directions. A very common reason for some types of cheating is the wish to help a friend (Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead, 1995; McCabe Trevino, 1996).
To many students some behaviours are not viewed as cheating although forbidden by the university or staff. For instance, letting a fellow student borrow or copy an individual course work or a written assignment or even have a look at the answer in a test may be regarded as honest and thesis ucc correct behaviour. Thus, some cheating behaviours may be explained by about, the honour code prevalent among the students. The most frequent reasons for not cheating were, in the study made by how to in an, Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead (1995) that it is immoral/dishonest and that it is useless/unimportant. Essay About My Heart Knee. In their study these were the most frequent reasons for not indulging in academic misconduct regardless of sex and age. In later studies (Newstead et al, 1995) there were, however, significant differences between the age groups: the older students gave the reason immoral more often than their younger peers did. The 160 subjects participating in the study were recruited from three different groups of conceit essay, students. In Table 3 below, the samples and some characteristics are presented. Table 3. Essay Bury. Participants in the study. The collection of data was carried out at the university during ordinary lecture time. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of questions about cheating behaviours.
The questionnaire was originally developed by Franklyn -Stokes and conceit essay Newstead in the U.K. Essay. but adapted to how to cite hamlet in an meet the essay about bury my heart at wounded knee, needs of the rhetorical analysis, Swedish-speaking environment in Finland. About My Heart Knee. In their questionnaire a set of probable cheating behaviours (A-U) were presented to the student, who was asked to thesis margins ucc tell (Yes or No) if he/she had carried out that behaviour at least once. Two additional items were included in the questionnaire totalling the number of cheating behaviours presented to 23. Accompanying each question about cheating was a list of arguments (reasons) motivating or explaining the behaviour and a list of arguments giving reasons for not cheating. The subjects were asked to select one reason for each Yes/No response. There was also a few additional questions asking about their reason to study at the university, their judgement of their study successfulness and about their belief about fellow students cheating. The questionnaire was distributed to the students during ordinary lecture time at the university. The respondents completed it immediately and anonymously. Essay My Heart At Wounded. It took about 15 minutes to complete. The data was analysed by quantitative methods.
4. The result of the data analysis. The overall frequency of cheating. 75 % of the respondents in this study had engaged in at least one of the behaviours listed in the questionnaire. However, only 63,5 % of them admit to cheating in the overall question at the end of the questionnaire, even though no less than 91,9% report that they believe their fellow students cheat. The over all tendency to cheat only correlated with year of study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,160, P=.046), reason to study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,213, p=.012) and honours thesis the respondents#146; estimation of how much other students cheat (Spearman#146;s rho= ,159, p=.046). This seems to imply that the over all amount of cheating is relatively stable, but that the methods used vary depending on discipline of study, gender, age and success in essay about my heart at wounded studies, since there are some significant correlations for the individual items on the basis of these background variables. This study was not designed to study the moral development of the conceit essay, respondents, but the results do, however, point in one certain direction as far as moral is essay bury concerned. In Table 4 below, the reported tendency to cheat is cross-tabulated with respondents#146; own evaluation of their inclination to cheat. Table 4. Cross-tabulation of the variables reported tendency to cheat and how to cite in an own evaluation of cheating inclination. Of the ones who have reported that they never cheat 53,4 % have admitted to exercising at least one of the behaviours mentioned in the questionnaire, whereas 12,9 % of the ones of the opinion that they cheat rarely have not reported cheating on any of the essay, behaviours.
A considerable amount of the students do seem to cheat, even though they do not always consider what they do as wrong, which makes it interesting to study how they do it and which behaviours are the most commonly used ones. Cheating methods used. In this section the occurrence of the different methods listed in the questionnaire are presented. Observe that the behaviours listed in the questionnaire are various behaviours that can be regarded as cheating and dishonest behaviour, but do not necessarily need to apa format be considered as such (cf. the definition of cheating used in this paper). Below, in Table 5 the students#146; responses to the behaviours described in the questionnaire are presented in order of frequency. The table also includes a classification of the behaviours as social/individual, and about bury my heart knee course-/exam-/research related, as well as the British results (Frankyn-Stokes Newstead, 1995). Table 5. The cheating behaviours listed in order of frequency.
The percentage of honours, yes-answers to each cheating behaviour listed in order of essay about bury my heart at wounded, frequency, starting with the most frequently used. The figure to the right is the percentage of positive answers received for conceit essay the same item in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995).The letters to about bury my heart the left represent the classification of the behaviour. The letters stand for research (R), coursework (C), exam (E), and individual (I), social (S) and altruistic (A). In Table 5 one can see that some cheating behaviours are more frequent than others are. The most frequent ones among the conceit essay, Finnish respondents are Copying material for bury my heart at wounded course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source, Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author, Allowing own course-work to be copied by another student, and Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge.
These behaviours are admitted by more than 20 percent of the participating students. As mentioned earlier, these behaviours may be considered as academic misconduct. All of them may, however, be viewed as acceptable and even morally correct among the students, since they do not have negative consequences for paper on cause the fellow student but may be regarded as help and support in difficult situations. In that sense it can be assumed that there exists a conflict between staff#146;s and students#146; social and ethical value systems, creating a moral borderline area where what is right and wrong are not easily delimited. From the bottom of the list we can observe that the least admitted behaviours are Inventing data (i.e. entering non-existent results into the database)and Kept silent about a teacher's misbehaviour or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. These behaviours were reported only by one respondent/ behaviour. The general nature of essay bury at wounded knee, these behaviours seems to be different from the most frequent ones in that they are more directed to personal gratification. Hamlet Quotes Essay. The behaviours also represent more active deception of about bury my heart, teachers and fellow students in order to gain personal reward. It can be assumed that these behaviours are viewed as more morally disapprovable and of low peer esteem. As also can be seen above, three of the behaviours do not occur at all in this study.
This is probably due to rhetorical analysis the limited sample and perhaps also (judging from cryptic comments of the respondents) to fear of punishment. The students#146; responses to essay about bury the items in cite in an essay the questionnaire depicting various cheating behaviours were in bury at wounded knee most cases similar for the both sexes; that is, there are almost no differences between female and male student#146;s responses in this respect. To two items, however, there were different reactions that are related to differences in sex. One of these items was Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;). The outcome is presented in rhetorical analysis essay Table 6 below. Table 6 Relationship between students#146; responses to item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. At Wounded Knee. #146;cribs#146;) and students#146; sex. The result in captain america and the struggle of the critical essays the table indicates that there are clear differences between female and male students#146; ways of responding to the item suggesting cheating in essay about bury at wounded the form of taking unauthorised material in the testing situation. Among the female students only 2.6 percent admitted to the behaviour while 13.6 percent of the male students said #146;Yes#146; to having carried out the cheating. The differences are statistically significant (Fisher#146;s Exact Test, D.F.=1, p=.015). The second item where there were observed statistically significant ( c 2 =5.82, D.F.=1, p=.016) response differences related to on cause sex was the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. This item was added to essay bury my heart at wounded knee the original questionnaire.
The outcome is paper on cause and effect presented in Table 7 below. Table 7. Relationship between students#146; responses to the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for and students#146; sex. As can be seen in essay about the table more than 20 percent of the female students admitted that they had signed on a fellow student at a lecture although he/she was absent. This can be compared with 4.5 percent of the male students admitting the same behaviour. Compared to the outcome in the previous table, there is a clear female dominance for this behaviour, while males more often than females answered Yes to the previous one. Another difference is that the total proportion of Yes-responses are much larger for the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at ubc, a course, where obligatory attendance is asked for when compared with students#146; Yes-responses to the item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. Essay About My Heart Knee. #146;cribs#146;) (se Table 6 above), showing the response variation between the items regarding the tendency among the students to essay paper and effect accept or not accept a specific cheating behaviour. The social #150;individual relation. In the following, the frequency of certain cheating behaviours are discussed in knee relation to conceit essay the nature (see classification in Table 5 above) of the behaviour.
14 of the behaviours in this study were clearly classified as individual and 5 as social. The mean for yes-responses was 14,4 % for the social behaviours and 10,5 % for the individual ones. As for situation relatedness, the five most frequently used behaviours were clearly course related. The study only contained one item concerning research related cheating (R), and this was the ninth in order of frequency (10,8 %) and had mostly been used by male respondents at about bury at wounded, the age of essay paper, 21-23 successfully (16-24.99 credits/term) studying education . Exam related cheating was not among the most commonly used cheating methods, but 13,8 % of the respondents still admit using the most frequent of about knee, these behaviours. The clearly altruistic behaviours A and S were used to a greater extent by female respondents (A: 27,4 % and S: 8,8 %) than by men (A: 16,7 % and S: 2,3 %, even though the reasons given for exercising this behaviour are not clearly altruistic. Reasons for cheating. Another area of interest to us concerns the reasons and the arguments selected as explanations and sometimes also as excuses for the behaviour. Rhetorical Analysis Essay. In Table 8 below all the about at wounded knee, reasons used to america and the critical essays motivate cheating are listed in order of frequency. It should be remembered that the reasons available to about bury my heart at wounded be selected were generated by the researchers, but that the conceit essay, respondents also were given the about my heart at wounded knee, possibility to express other reasons/motives. These less frequent reasons are also listed in Table 8.
Regarding reasons given for not cheating the most frequent one (27.5 %) is the choice stating that cheating is immoral or dishonest. The reasons following in frequency of america and the struggle of the superhero critical, appearance represent on essay, a general level a completely different class of attitudes, since it may mean that the subject do not distance him/herself from cheating, only that it was not considered or regarded as useful (I never thought of it, 21.3 % and essay paper and effect Situation did not arise, 19.5 %). In the lower frequency range two reasons mirroring fear of detection and getting caught are found; Shame/embarrassment at being caught (1.3 %) and Fear of detection/punishment (1.4 %). About. In a way these reasons like the two previous ones are focusing the social condemnation for cheating and dishonest behaviour and are not clearly a statement against cheating. When looking at students#146; ways of choosing reasons for cheating or for america of the superhero critical essays not cheating there seems to exist a strong connection with the cheating behaviour that is in bury at wounded focus. This means that the choice of reason is to a large extent dependent on the particular behaviour that have been admitted to or not admitted to.
This topic will be discussed no further in this paper. In most cases, however, there are no obvious differences between female and male students#146; ways of selecting their reasons for their responses. Depending on what cheating behaviour is to conceit essay be decided on, female and male students mostly make similar choices of essay about my heart, arguments for their behaviour. Rhetorical Apa Format. In two cases, however, there exist statistical significant differences between the two sexes in ways of explaining the behaviour. The reasons chosen as an explanation or an argument for or against the behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') are different between female and essay about my heart at wounded knee male students. In the table below the outcome is presented.
Table 10. Reasons for or against rhetorical analysis essay apa format, the cheating behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs')among female and about bury my heart male students. The outcome points to essay on cause statistical significant differences (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V =.404, p=.048) between the female and male ways of about bury my heart at wounded, selecting the reason for their behaviour regarding Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs'). First of all 7.1 percent of the boys have selected Fear of failure as a reason for hamlet in an essay this cheating behaviour while no girl have selected that reason. Also It would be unfair to other students were chosen by 4.8 male students but not one female student. Among the female students reasons like To increase the mark, Laziness, I would not know how to go about it and Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course were chosen by a few female students but no male student. A relatively large difference between female and male ways of choosing among the reasons for explaining the Yes/No-answer can be found for reason I never thought about it, where 20.5 percent of the essay bury my heart, female students selected that reason while it attracted only 14.3 percent of the male students. Also It would devalue my achievement was chosen by a larger proportion female students (8.0 %) than male students (2.4 %). The second statistical significant difference (Phi and paper and effect Cram?r#146;s V=.348, p=.028) concerns the essay about at wounded knee, reasons chosen for item Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. The outcome is thesis ubc presented in Table 11 below. Table 11.
Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. among female and male students. In one case the essay about at wounded, male students have chosen a reason (Shame/embarrassment at being caught) that is not chosen by essay paper and effect, any female student. My Heart At Wounded. Large difference on the basis of sex are found for the reason Situation did not arise/not applicable to hamlet essay my course, where more than 16 percent more boys have chosen that reasons for their behaviour. Two female students selected one reason that the male students did not choose, namely Fear of detection/punishment. Largest difference (18.7 percent) to about at wounded the male students are found for reason I never thought of it, which was chosen by 33.0 percent of the female students but only 14.3 percent of the male students. Various methodological problems that have been discussed elsewhere (see Bj?rklund, 1997), are not mentioned here, since they do not seem to affect the reliability and validity of the results discussed. There is, however, one point of and the of the superhero critical essays, importance as far as methodological bias is concerned and that is the fact that the instrument in this study was translated from English and a British context, which in some cases have called for adjustment and in one case yielded an about bury my heart erroneous translation (item L). The frequency of individual cheating behaviours in comparison to the British results. The over all frequency of cheating reported in this study does not differ significantly from the ones reported by previous researchers, and can, hence, be taken as a further proof of the fact that the over all cheating rates seem to be fairly constant in the western word. What is more interesting is the conceit essay, variation in essay about frequency on individual behaviours.
The most outstanding feature when comparing the frequencies reported by the Finnish respondents with the ones reported by the British, is that in most cases the British respondents have reported remarkably higher degree of cheating. The greatest variation is to be found in items I (peer assessment), L (inventing data) , R (altering data) and A (allow copying of coursework). Rhetorical. The great difference concerning peer assessment is probably due to differences in the academic traditions: Peer assessment is not very common in the Swedish #150;speaking university level studies in Finland. Item L does not represent a real difference, since the essay at wounded knee, item was erroneously translated into Swedish and , thus, measures something else. Research related cheating seem to be much more common in Britain, but the how to cite hamlet quotes essay, result might in this case be biased for essay bury my heart at wounded faculty, since the conceit essay, studies were not conducted at the same kinds of institutions. Item A, concerning course work, is the top one of many items concerning coursework that exhibit considerable higher frequencies for the British respondents, which is probably due to the same kind/s of cultural differences as mentioned regarding item I. Only on item K (advance information about exam) was the my heart, result of the conceit essay, Finnish respondents higher than the result of the essay at wounded knee, British. The items concerning examrelated behaviours generally exhibit the conceit essay, smallest differences between the about bury, groups, which seems to indicate that exam conditions are more or less alike between the two countries. It is also possible to claim that the results indicate that Finnish students seem to find examrelated cheating less serious than British, who , in turn, do not seem to thesis margins regard research related cheating as particularly serious. In the Finnish results the social behaviours seem to be slightly more common, whereas the individual behaviours get a higher mean score in the British results (social 24 %, individual 20,8 %). About Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee. This can be seen claimed to indicate that the British academic environment is more competitive than the Finnish, but it ought to be remembered that the mean score used here is conceit essay a very crude measure.
Reasons for cheating in comparison to the British results. The most frequent reasons for cheating mentioned by the Finnish students were time pressure, laziness and at wounded knee the wish to help a friend. The wish to help a friend and time pressure are also two of the three most frequent reasons mentioned by the British students, but they have mentioned the wish to increase the mark as the most frequent reason for cheating. Concerning this reason the difference between the two samples is remarkable (Finnish students 9,3 % and British students 33,3 %). Finns on the other hand contribute their cheating to laziness and extenuating circumstances considerably more often than their British peers, who, in turn, seem to fear failure more and also tend to on cause and effect justify their behaviour with the reason everybody does it. Out of these differences it is easy to create caricature image of the cheating British student as an essay bury my heart knee ambitious person , who wishes to perform well and of the Finnish student who mainly cheats because it seems to be the easiest way to honours go about the studies. Considering the reasons for not cheating the British students seem to have two main reasons, which are used considerably more often than the other ones available; That it would have been pointless/unnecessary and that it would have been immoral/dishonest. The immorality aspect is mentioned as the most frequently used among the Finnish students, but the second most frequently used is that the student never thought of essay my heart at wounded knee, it, closely followed by the reason that the on cause and effect, situation didn#146;t arise or wasn#146;t applicable. Again, then , the about bury my heart, British students seem to ucc be more focused on the outcome/the result of the cheating behaviour than the Finnish ones.
Even though morality is one of the most frequently used reasons for not cheating in both of the groups, the my heart, potential cheater-reasons, i.e. the ones giving I never thought of essay, it, the situation didn#146;t arise and/or it was unnecessary/pointless, amount to about 50 % in both of the groups. In connection to the fact that the reasons shame /embarrassment at being caught (1,3 % of Finnish answers, 0 % of British ones) and fear of bury at wounded knee, detection/punishment (1,9 % of Finnish answers and 5,8 % of how to cite, British ones) were used quite infrequently, this implicates that it is of the utmost importance to reduce the opportunities of successful cheating, e.g. by creating individual exams and other assessment tasks that demand creativity and originality, not just reproduction. The fact that embarrassment is such an infrequent reason also implicates that nether British or Finnish students feel responsible for the code of honour of their academic institutions. Hence, by about my heart at wounded knee, establishing a functioning code of honour one could most likely reduce the instances of cheating remarkably, since the socio-moral climate is known to affect the behaviour of students more effectively than their own level of moral development (MacCabe Trevino, 1996). The reduction of opportunities for successful cheating is, of conceit essay, course, the most immediate way of reducing cheating, but in my heart the long run that measure will not suffice. According to the findings in this study and essay other ones (cf. Davis et al, 1992) , there is a gap between the essay knee, notions of morality and of the superhero critical correctness as withheld by society and university staff and the notions of essay at wounded, these phenomena withheld by the students. Rhetorical Analysis Essay. It is therefore necessary to spell out which the common rules are and also control that they are followed.
To go even further it is also important to stress the importance of moral education for moral development in order to secure a functioning society, presuming that that is what is about bury knee what is wanted. Variations in cheating behaviour on the basis of the back ground variables. Contrary to previous research very few of the background variables seem to affect the tendency to cheat to a significant extent. This was, however, also the case for Haines et al (1986, in Davis et al, 1992). They came to the conclusion that it was because of the unproportionality concerning sex and year of study in the sample, which also seems to be the case in this study. Except the gender differences on some items, mentioned in the results, there were, however, also weak, but statistically significant positive correlations between the overall tendency to cheat and rhetorical essay apa format year of study, the perception of at wounded knee, how much other students cheat and reason for studying. This result implies that academic misconduct, at least to some extent, may be epidemic and that students#146; reasons for not cheating are gradually worn down when they see fellow students cheat, without being caught. The reason for studying is and the struggle of the superhero also of considerable importance, when discussing cheating rates. An obvious way of reducing cheating in essay about our faculties would be to ensure that only cite essay intrinsically motivated students are accepted. The question is then: How do we control for essay bury at wounded that, and paper and effect do we really want to; It is all linked to the kind of professionals we want to educate. Summary of implications.
Academic staff can no longer presuppose that students know and behave according to unwritten moral rules or an inner code of honour. One, obvious way of reducing cheating in universities is about my heart at wounded knee then to spell out what rules and codes the students are subjected to. Such a document ought, however, to be carefully thought out and produced in co-operation with the students, in order to establish it as a code of margins ucc, honor2, otherwise it will only fill the purpose of a list of potentially successful cheating behaviours. According to previous research, students#146; moral behaviour and ethical reasoning seems to develop under continuous education. I am convinced that this influence can be made stronger through focused attention to the area and an open ethical dialogue, not in any specific course, but as every teacher#146;s concern. This would create a good socio-moral environment for moral development, which is what universities ought to foster in their students, since that is something they will need in their everyday life as well as in their professional activities, and of which society will benefit or suffer in the long run. Even though the personal factors causing or preventing cheating are probably the primary ones, it is also a good idea to try to reduce or eliminate the external factors that seem to cause cheating. One of the major external reasons for cheating was time pressure.
That ought to be quite easily remedied through courses/ supervision in essay about bury knee studying technique and struggle of the essays discipline, as well as a better co-ordination of courses and about bury my heart at wounded knee exams between university staff. It is also up to the staff to really check that the rules they give are followed. Such a behaviour signals that the rules are judged as important and might awaken conscience in the students, or at rhetorical, least make the cheating alternative less attractive and easy to carry out. In this case it is, in bury my heart fact, most important to catch the essay, small fish. Davis and Ludvigson in turn present a twofold way of reducing cheating in bury knee the long run, namely by a) using positive reinforcement and b) by encouraging and honours thesis ubc fostering the students to acquire an outlook on life that will prevent them from cheating. The results of this study are particularly serious from a societal point of view, since it involved future teachers, theologian and economists. What kind of teachers does the society of today want? Is it possible for a teacher who does not regard cheating as wrong to about teach pupils high ethical and moral standards? Or should the comprehensive school only strive to teach knowledge and skills? The compulsory schoolteachers are of strategic importance, since they are the ones who ought to start the process of moral development, if academic freedom is to be a reality in the future. Lax morality among economists and teologians is, however, no less serious than among teachers.
If those particular groups in society are not to be trusted, then who? In the long run that will produce an essay apa format even greater disbelief in authorities, eventually resulting in at wounded community breakdown. In order to be able to deal with the problem in an efficient manner it is necessary to essay reach the causative factors, which probably are best reached with a flexible and qualitative approach. To understand delicate and inaccessible phenomena like the one at hand it is important to benefit from essay about bury at wounded as many sources of knowledge as possible; an interdisciplinary approach would probably be most adequate. It is rhetorical essay apa format also important to realise the problem with truthfulness. In this study it was generally found that the about bury at wounded, students tended to answer the questionnaire with less anxiety, when it was stressed that the researcher was a fellow student and not a member of the america and the struggle of the superhero, university staff. Anderman, E, Griesinger, T, Westinger, G. (1998). Essay Knee. Motivation and cheating during early adolescence. Essay Paper And Effect. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 , 1, 84-93.
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Academic Medicine; 71 , 3, p267-73. Bj?rklund, M. Conceit Essay. (1997). Akademiskt fusk #150; F?rekomst, metoder och orsaker. En enk?tunders?kning bland studerande vid Svenska handelsh?gskolan i Vasa, samt pedagogiska och teologiska fakulteterna vid ?bo Akademi. Unpublished master#146;s thesis. ?bo Akademi University, Vasa. Davis, S.F., Grover, C.A., Becker, A.H. McGregor, L.N. (1992). Academic dishonesty: prevalence, determinants, techniques, and punishments. Teaching of Psychology , 19 , 1, s. Essay About Bury At Wounded. 16-20. Davis, S.F.
Ludvigson, H.W. (1995). Conceit Essay. Additional data on academic dishonesty and a proposal for remediation. Bury My Heart. Teaching of Psychology, 22 , 2, s. 119-121. Franklyn-Stokes, A. Newstead, S.E. (1995). Undergraduate cheating: who does what and why?. Quotes In An Essay. Studies in essay bury at wounded Higher Education, 20 , 2, s. 159-172. Graham, Melody A., et al. (1994). Cheating at small colleges: An examination of student development. Journal of america struggle of the superhero, College Student Developments, 35 , 4, 255-260. Grahnstr?m, T. (1996). Sv?rt f? uppr?ttelse f?r fuskanklagad.
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A) Allowing own course-work to essay bury knee be copied by another student. B) Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') B)Fabricating references or a bibliography. D) Lying about medical or other circumstances to get special consideration by examiner. E) Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge. F) Lying about margins medical or other circumstances to get an extended deadline or exemption from bury knee a piece of conceit essay, work. G) Submitting course-work from an outside source. H) Taking an about my heart at wounded examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. I)In a situation where students mark each other's work, coming to an agreement with another student or students to ubc mark each other's work more generously than it merits J) Copying another student's course-work without their knowledge. K) Illicitly gaining advance information about the contents of an examination paper.
L) Inventing data (i.e. entering nonexistent results into the database) M) Ensuring the essay about knee, availability of essay, books or journal articles in the library by essay about bury my heart at wounded knee, deliberately mis-shelving them so that other students cannot find them, or by cutting out the relevant article or chapter. N) Paraphrasing material from conceit essay another source without acknowledging the at wounded, original author. O) Copying material for course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source. P) Premeditated collusion between 2 or more students to communicate answers to each other during an examination. Q) Copying from a neighbor during an exami-nation without them realizing. R) Altering data (e.g. adjusting data to obtain a significant result) S) Doing another student's course-work for them. T) Submitting a piece of course-work as an individual piece of work when it has actually been written jointly with another student.
U) Attempting to obtain special consideration by offering or receiving favors, for example, bribery, seduction, corruption. V) Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. W) Kept silent about a teacher's misbehavior or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. This document was added to the Education-line database on how to cite, 21 March 2000.