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ApplyTexas: Essay Help for for pediatric nurse, Topics A and purchase B. Click HERE for the current essay prompts! All public universities, and cover letter nurse some private and analyst for 2-year colleges, in cover nurse, Texas do not use the Common Application. Instead, they have their own consolidated system called ApplyTexas. If you are applying to any of the schools that use ApplyTexas, you need to figure out what essays they require (if any), and then which specific prompts. In Sports Essay! I find it all very confusing. But there are two main prompts that the largest schools (such as the University of Texas at Austinpick either Topic A or B; Texas AMboth Topic A and B; etc.) require applicants to address in their essays. Here#8217;s some advice on how to letter for pediatric nurse, think about these prompts, called Topic A and Topic B. (Find help for corruption essay, Topic C.) They don#8217;t list a word count, but I believe the common length is cover letter for pediatric nurse around 300-500 each. #8220;Describe a setting in which you have collaborated or interacted with people whose experiences and/or beliefs differ from care, yours. Address your initial feelings, and how those feelings were or were not changed by this experience.#8221; What are they getting at with this prompt? To me, this is an opportunity to share what you believe about anything from diversity to cover letter for pediatric, leadership.
The first step is to dissertation proposal, brainstorm a real-life experience that occurred while you worked with people who were different than you. The group could be big or small. They could be a different age (seniors, toddlers); culture (from any that you are not, whether it#8217;s Jewish, Asian, Native Americanas long as it#8217;s new to you on some level); religion (again, anything that#8217;s different); overall personal philosophy (conservative, liberal, strict, casual, sloppy, OCD, ambitious, laid backas long as the other people were distinctly different from you). For Pediatric Nurse! Other potential #8220;different#8221; groups that you could consider: education level, age, appearance, health, physical/mental ability, etc. Now that you have a group in mind that you have been involved with somehow, the on brain aneurysm trick is to write an cover, essay that shows how you were affected by them in some wayand that what you first felt about them (your opinion) was somehow changed (or not). Resume For! And then why that mattered. What you don#8217;t want to do with this essay is cover letter nurse write a general explanation of some group you worked with and research aneurysm how they made you feel on for pediatric nurse, a general level and how this changed you in essay, some general way. If you keep everything general , your essay will be dull and not reveal much about you.
To make it more interesting and personal, try to think of a moment or time something happened with that group. Letter! The most interesting moments are typically when there was some type of problem. If you can think of one of these moments, especially if it involved a problem (obstacle, challenge, mistake, conflict, misunderstanding, change, etc.), you can start your essay sharing that specific, real-life incident. Dissertation Health Care! Then go onto explain how you and the group dealt with it, and share how you felt and thought, and then talk about cover letter for pediatric, what you learned about in sports essay, yourself and cover the group in the process. Finally, reflect on how you were, or were not, changed (affected, inspired, etc.) in some way by this experience. The point of this prompt is to get you to share how you feel and think about people who are different than you. How To Structure Your Essay. Essay On Death! Here#8217;s a suggested outline: 1. Start with an anecdote, which is a paragraph or two where you recreate a r eal-life moment or incident where you worked with a group that was different from you. (Read more on how to craft an anecdote in these posts.) 2. Back up and provide background that explains why you were working with this group, especially since they were so different from letter for pediatric, you. Share how you felt about it, and what led up to the problem you faced with this group.
3. Explain the steps you took with this group to handle the aneurysm problem. Nurse! 4. Share what you learned from working on this problem with this group. *Make sure to include something about how your initial feelings or opinions about this group changed along the way. Resume For! 5. Describe how you intend to use what you learned in for pediatric nurse, this process in your future . It#8217;s ideal if you can link that somehow to what you plan to study or your life goals. Dissertation Proposal Health! If you write about 100 words for each step, you should end up with a robust first draft. #8220;Describe a circumstance, obstacle or conflict in your life and the skills and resources you used to resolve it. Did it change you? If so, how?#8221; This prompt is more direct, and cover for pediatric should be easier to write about.
It is essay should not be abolished more of a straight personal statement type of essay, in that they are looking to understand what you are made of, what core qualities, characteristics or values you have that make you effective in your life. The key is to think of a time or moment when you dealt with some type of problem (#8220;obstacle or conflict#8221;). The problem does not have to cover letter nurse, be some huge catastrophe or crisis (even though those can work.) Often, something everyday or simple works even betteras long as it illustrates a larger life lesson for purchase a dissertation abstract, you. Then make sure to explain how you solved, handled or dealt with it#8212;and make sure to include the specific #8220;skills and resources#8221; you used in for pediatric, the process. The questions in Topic B are actually almost the grounded same as Prompt 4 for cover for pediatric nurse, the Common Application. Read When Your Problem is a Good Thing for a step-by-step guide on how to answer this prompt. ***If you can tell, there#8217;s a good chance you could recycle your Common App essay for this prompt. Just make sure it is about you dealing with some type of issue or problem in your life (Common App prompts #1, 2 and 4 would be the aneurysm most likely). #8220;Considering your lifetime goals, discuss how your current and future academic and extra-curricular activities might help you achieve your goals.#8221; Many college admissions experts believe Topic C is the most important of the three essays! As a professional writing coach, I help students, parents, counselors, teachers and others from letter for pediatric nurse, around the world on these dreaded essays! Learn about my in-person and online tutoring, editing, workshops, books, and online courses, . READ MORE. . Learn to Write Your Essay in One Hour! My on-demand, fast-and-easy online e-course: How to Write a College App Essay (Click lightbulb for details.) Perfect for grounded theory proposal, The Common App, UCs, grad school, transfer and scholarship essays!
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Internet Encyclopedia of letter for pediatric nurse, Philosophy. Existentialism is grounded proposal a catch-all term for those philosophers who consider the nature of the human condition as a key philosophical problem and who share the nurse view that this problem is best addressed through ontology. This very broad definition will be clarified by discussing seven key themes that existentialist thinkers address. Those philosophers considered existentialists are mostly from the continent of Europe, and date from the 19 th and 20 th centuries. Outside philosophy, the existentialist movement is probably the dissertation health care most well-known philosophical movement, and at cover letter for pediatric, least two of its members are among the most famous philosophical personalities and widely read philosophical authors. It has certainly had considerable influence outside philosophy, for example on psychological theory and on the arts. Within philosophy, though, it is grounded dissertation safe to say that this loose movement considered as a whole has not had a great impact, although individuals or ideas counted within it remain important. Moreover, most of the philosophers conventionally grouped under this heading either never used, or actively disavowed, the term 'existentialist'.
Even Sartre himself once said: “Existentialism? I don’t know what that is.” So, there is a case to be made that the term – insofar as it leads us to ignore what is distinctive about philosophical positions and to conflate together significantly different ideas – does more harm than good. In this article, however, it is assumed that something sensible can be said about existentialism as a loosely defined movement. The article has three sections. First, we outline a set of themes that define, albeit very broadly, existentialist concerns. This is done with reference to the historical context of cover, existentialism, which will help us to understand why certain philosophical problems and methods were considered so important. Second, we discuss individually six philosophers who are arguably its central figures, stressing in these discussions the dissertation health ways in which these philosophers approached existentialist themes in distinctive ways. These figures, and many of the others we mention, have full length articles of their own within the cover letter Encyclopedia . Finally, we look very briefly at theory dissertation, the influence of existentialism, especially outside philosophy. Although a highly diverse tradition of thought, seven themes can be identified that provide some sense of overall unity. Here, these themes will be briefly introduced; they can then provide us with an intellectual framework within which to discuss exemplary figures within the history of for pediatric nurse, existentialism.
Philosophy should not be thought of primarily either as an resume for, attempt to investigate and understand the self or the world, or as a special occupation that concerns only a few. Cover! Rather, philosophy must be thought of as fully integrated within life. To be sure, there may need to be professional philosophers, who develop an elaborate set of corruption in sports, methods and concepts (Sartre makes this point frequently) but life can be lived philosophically without a technical knowledge of philosophy. Existentialist thinkers tended to identify two historical antecedents for this notion. First, the ancient Greeks, and particularly the cover for pediatric nurse figure of Socrates but also the Stoics and a dissertation Epicureans. Socrates was not only non-professional, but in his pursuit of the for pediatric good life he tended to eschew the analyst for formation of a 'system' or 'theory', and his teachings took place often in public spaces. Cover Letter For Pediatric! In this, the existentialists were hardly unusual. In the 19 th and 20 th centuries, the rapid expansion of industrialisation and advance in in sports essay, technology were often seen in terms of an alienation of the cover for pediatric nurse human from nature or from a properly natural way of purchase, living (for example, thinkers of German and English romanticism). The second influence on thinking of philosophy as a way of life was German Idealism after Kant. Partly as a response to the 18 th century Enlightenment, and under the influence of the Neoplatonists, Schelling and Hegel both thought of philosophy as an activity that is an integral part of the history of human beings, rather than outside of life and the world, looking on. Later in the 19 th century, Marx famously criticised previous philosophy by saying that the point of philosophy is nurse not to know things – even to know things about proposal, activity – but to change them.
The concept of philosophy as a way of life manifests itself in existentialist thought in cover, a number of ways. Grounded Theory! Let us give several examples, to for pediatric nurse which we will return in the sections that follow. First, the resume analyst existentialists often undertook a critique of modern life in terms of the specialisation of both manual and intellectual labour. Specialisation included philosophy. One consequence of this is that many existentialist thinkers experimented with different styles or genres of writing in order to escape the effects of this specialisation. Cover Letter Nurse! Second, a notion that we can call 'immanence': philosophy studies life from the inside. For Kierkegaard, for example, the fundamental truths of my existence are not representations – not, that is, ideas, propositions or symbols the meaning of which can be separated from their origin.
Rather, the truths of existence are immediately lived, felt and acted. Likewise, for Nietzsche and Heidegger, it is essential to recognise that the philosopher investigating human existence is, him or herself, an existing human. Analyst For! Third, the nature of life itself is a perennial existentialist concern and, more famously (in Heidegger and in Camus), also the significance of death. A key idea here is letter that human existence is in some way 'on its own'; anxiety (or anguish) is the theory proposal recognition of this fact. Anxiety here has two important implications. Cover Letter! First, most generally, many existentialists tended to stress the significance of paper on brain aneurysm, emotions or feelings, in so far as they were presumed to have a less culturally or intellectually mediated relation to one's individual and separate existence. This idea is found in Kierkegaard, as we mentioned above, and in Heidegger's discussion of 'mood'; it is also one reason why existentialism had an influence on psychology. Letter Nurse! Second, anxiety also stands for a form of existence that is recognition of essay, being on cover for pediatric nurse its own. What is meant by 'being on its own' varies among philosophers.
For example, it might mean the irrelevance (or even negative influence) of rational thought, moral values, or empirical evidence, when it comes to making fundamental decisions concerning one's existence. As we shall see, Kierkegaard sees Hegel's account of religion in terms of the history of resume for, absolute spirit as an exemplary confusion of faith and reason. Alternatively, it might be a more specifically theological claim: the existence of a transcendent deity is not relevant to (or is positively detrimental to) such decisions (a view broadly shared by Nietzsche and Sartre). Finally, being on its own might signify the uniqueness of human existence, and thus the fact that it cannot understand itself in terms of other kinds of existence (Heidegger and cover Sartre). Related to anxiety is the concept of authenticity, which is should not be let us say the for pediatric nurse existentialist spin on the Greek notion of paper, 'the good life'.
As we shall see, the authentic being would be able to recognise and affirm the nature of existence (we shall shortly specify some of the aspects of this, such as absurdity and freedom). Cover Letter! Not, though, recognise the nature of existence as an corruption in sports essay, intellectual fact, disengaged from life; but rather, the authentic being lives in for pediatric nurse, accordance with this nature. The notion of authenticity is dissertation proposal health sometimes seen as connected to cover letter for pediatric nurse individualism. This is only reinforced by the contrast with a theme we will discuss below, that of the 'crowd'. Certainly, if authenticity involves 'being on one's own', then there would seem to be some kind of value in celebrating and sustaining one's difference and independence from others.
However, many existentialists see individualism as a historical and cultural trend (for example Nietzsche), or dubious political value (Camus), rather than a necessary component of authentic existence. Individualism tends to obscure the particular types of collectivity that various existentialists deem important. For many existentialists, the conditions of the modern world make authenticity especially difficult. For example, many existentialists would join other philosophers (such as the Frankfurt School) in condemning an instrumentalist conception of reason and value. The utilitarianism of Mill measured moral value and justice also in aneurysm, terms of the consequences of actions. Later liberalism would seek to for pediatric nurse absorb nearly all functions of political and social life under the heading of economic performance. Evaluating solely in grounded theory, terms of the measurable outcomes of nurse, production was seen as reinforcing the essay penalty secularisation of the institutions of political, social or economic life; and reinforcing also the abandonment of any broader sense of the spiritual dimension (such an cover letter nurse, idea is found acutely in Emerson, and is akin to theory the concerns of letter for pediatric, Kierkegaard). Existentialists such as Martin Heidegger, Hanna Arendt or Gabriel Marcel viewed these social movements in terms of a narrowing of the possibilities of grounded theory dissertation, human thought to the instrumental or technological. This narrowing involved thinking of the world in terms of resources, and cover letter thinking of all human action as a making, or indeed as a machine-like 'function'. The next key theme is freedom.
Freedom can usefully be linked to the concept of corruption in sports, anguish, because my freedom is in part defined by the isolation of my decisions from any determination by a deity, or by previously existent values or knowledge. Many existentialists identified the 19 th and 20 th centuries as experiencing a crisis of values. This might be traced back to familiar reasons such as an cover, increasingly secular society, or the rise of scientific or philosophical movements that questioned traditional accounts of value (for example Marxism or Darwinism), or the shattering experience of two world wars and the phenomenon of mass genocide. It is important to note, however, that for existentialism these historical conditions do not create the problem of in sports essay, anguish in the face of freedom, but merely cast it into higher relief. Likewise, freedom entails something like responsibility, for cover letter myself and for my actions. Given that my situation is theory one of being on its own – recognised in anxiety – then both my freedom and my responsibility are absolute. The isolation that we discussed above means that there is nothing else that acts through me, or that shoulders my responsibility.
Likewise, unless human existence is to be understood as arbitrarily changing moment to moment, this freedom and letter for pediatric responsibility must stretch across time. Thus, when I exist as an authentically free being, I assume responsibility for my whole life, for a ‘project’ or a ‘commitment’. We should note here that many of the existentialists take on a broadly Kantian notion of freedom: freedom as autonomy . This means that freedom, rather than being randomness or arbitrariness, consists in the binding of oneself to a law, but a law that is given by the self in recognition of its responsibilities. This borrowing from Kant, however, is heavily qualified by the next theme. The next common theme we shall call ‘situatedness’. Although my freedom is absolute, it always takes place in a particular context. My body and its characteristics, my circumstances in dissertation health care, a historical world, and my past, all weigh upon letter for pediatric, freedom. This is what makes freedom meaningful. Suppose I tried to exist as free, while pretending to be in abstraction from the situation. On Brain! In that case I will have no idea what possibilities are open to me and what choices need to letter for pediatric be made, here and now.
In such a case, my freedom will be naive or illusory. This concrete notion of freedom has its philosophical genesis in Hegel, and is generally contrasted to the pure rational freedom described by in sports Kant. Situatedness is related to a notion we discussed above under the heading of philosophy as a way of for pediatric, life: the health care necessity of viewing or understanding life and existence from the ‘inside’. For example, many 19 th century intellectuals were interested in ancient Greece, Rome, the Medieval period, or the orient, as alternative models of a less spoiled, more integrated form of life. Nietzsche, to be sure, shared these interests, but he did so not uncritically: because the human condition is characterised by being historically situated, it cannot simply turn back the clock or decide all at once to be other than it is (Sartre especially shares this view). Heidegger expresses a related point in this way: human existence cannot be abstracted from cover, its world because being-in-the-world is part of the care ontological structure of that existence. Many existentialists take my concretely individual body, and letter for pediatric nurse the specific type of life that my body lives, as a primary fact about me (for example, Nietzsche, Scheler or Merleau-Ponty). Theory Proposal! I must also be situated socially: each of my acts says something about how I view others but, reciprocally, each of their acts is a view about what I am. My freedom is always situated with respect to letter for pediatric nurse the judgements of others. This particular notion comes from Hegel’s analysis of ‘recognition’, and is found especially in for, Sartre, de Beauvoir and Jaspers. Situatedness in general also has an important philosophical antecedent in Marx: economic and political conditions are not contingent features with respect to universal human nature, but condition that nature from the ground up.
Although, of course, existentialism takes its name from the letter nurse philosophical theme of 'existence', this does not entail that there is essay penalty homogeneity in the manner existence is to be understood. One point on which there is agreement, though, is that the existence with which we should be concerned here is not just any existent thing, but human existence . There is thus an important difference between distinctively human existence and anything else, and cover human existence is not to be understood on the model of things , that is, as objects of knowledge. Resume For! One might think that this is an old idea, rooted in Plato's distinction between matter and soul, or Descartes' between extended and thinking things. But these distinctions appear to be just differences between two types of things. Cover Letter For Pediatric Nurse! Descartes in particular, however, is often criticised by the existentialists for subsuming both under the heading 'substance', and thus treating what is distinctive in theory dissertation proposal, human existence as indeed a thing or object, albeit one with different properties. (Whether the existentialist characterisation of Plato or Descartes is accurate is a different question.) The existentialists thus countered the Platonic or Cartesian conception with a model that resembles more the Aristotelian as developed in the Nichomachean Ethics . The latter idea arrives in existentialist thought filtered through Leibniz and Spinoza and the notion of a striving for existence. Equally important is the for pediatric nurse elevation of the practical above the theoretical in German Idealists. Particularly in Kant, who stressed the on death not be abolished primacy of the 'practical', and then in Fichte and early Schelling, we find the notion that human existence is action . Accordingly, in Nietzsche and Sartre we find the notion that the human being is all and cover for pediatric nurse only what that being does. My existence consists of forever bringing myself into proposal being – and, correlatively, fleeing from the dead, inert thing that is the totality of my past actions. Although my acts are free, I am not free not to act; thus existence is characterised also by 'exigency' (Marcel). For many existentialists, authentic existence involves a certain tension be recognised and lived through, but not resolved: this tension might be between the animal and the rational (important in cover, Nietzsche) or between facticity and transcendence (Sartre and de Beauvoir). In the 19 th and 20 th centuries, the human sciences (such as psychology, sociology or economics) were coming to be recognised as powerful and legitimate sciences.
To some extend at least their assumptions and methods seemed to be borrowed from the natural sciences. While philosophers such as Dilthey and later Gadamer were concerned to show that the human sciences had to have a distinctive method, the existentialists were inclined to go further. Grounded Theory Dissertation Proposal! The free, situated human being is not an object of knowledge in the sense the human always exists as the possibility of transcending any knowledge of it. There is a clear relation between such an idea and the notion of the cover letter 'transcendence of the other' found in the ethical phenomenology of Emmanuel Levinas. Among the most famous ideas associated with existentialism is that of 'absurdity'.
Human existence might be described as 'absurd' in a dissertation, one of the following senses. First, many existentialists argued that nature as a whole has no design, no reason for existing. Cover Letter For Pediatric! Although the corruption in sports essay natural world can apparently be understood by physical science or metaphysics, this might be better thought of as 'description' than either understanding or explanation. Thus, the letter nurse achievements of the natural sciences also empty nature of paper aneurysm, value and meaning. Unlike a created cosmos, for example, we cannot expect the scientifically described cosmos to answer our questions concerning value or meaning. Moreover, such description comes at the cost of a profound falsification of nature: namely, the positing of ideal entities such as 'laws of nature', or the conflation of all reality under a single model of being. Human beings can and should become profoundly aware of this lack of reason and the impossibility of an immanent understanding of it. Camus, for letter for pediatric example, argues that the basic scene of human existence is aneurysm its confrontation with this mute irrationality. A second meaning of the absurd is nurse this: my freedom will not only be undetermined by knowledge or reason, but from the essay point of cover letter nurse, view of the latter my freedom will even appear absurd. Absurdity is thus closely related to the theme of 'being on its own', which we discussed above under the research heading of anxiety.
Even if I choose to follow a law that I have given myself, my choice of for pediatric nurse, law will appear absurd, and likewise will my continuously reaffirmed choice to follow it. Third, human existence as action is doomed to always destroy itself. A free action, once done, is no longer free; it has become an aspect of the world, a thing . The absurdity of human existence then seems to lie in the fact that in becoming myself (a free existence) I must be what I am not (a thing). If I do not face up to this absurdity, and choose to be or pretend to be thing-like, I exist inauthentically (the terms in this formulation are Sartre's). Existentialism generally also carries a social or political dimension. Insofar as he or she is authentic, the in sports essay freedom of the human being will show a certain 'resolution' or 'commitment', and this will involve also the being – and particularly the authentic being – of others. Cover For Pediatric! For example, Nietzsche thus speaks of his (or Zarathustra's) work in corruption in sports, aiding the transformation of the human, and there is also in Nietzsche a striking analysis of the concept of cover for pediatric, friendship; for Heidegger, there must be an authentic mode of being-with others, although he does not develop this idea at length; the research paper social and political aspect of authentic commitment is much more clear in Sartre, de Beauvoir and for pediatric Camus. That is the positive side of the social or political dimension.
However, leading up to this positive side, there is a description of the paper on brain aneurysm typical forms that inauthentic social or political existence takes. Many existentialists employ terms such as 'crowd', 'horde' (Scheler) or the 'masses' (Jose Ortega y Gasset). Nietzsche's deliberately provocative expression, 'the herd', portrays the bulk of humanity not only as animal, but as docile and cover for pediatric nurse domesticated animals. Notice that these are all collective terms: inauthenticity manifests itself as de-individuated or faceless. Instead of being formed authentically in freedom and anxiety, values are just accepted from others because ‘that is what everybody does’. These terms often carry a definite historical resonance, embodying a critique of specifically modern modes of human existence. All of the following might be seen as either causes or symptoms of a world that is grounded theory dissertation proposal 'fallen' or 'broken' (Marcel): the technology of mass communication (Nietzsche is particularly scathing about newspapers and journalists; in Two Ages , Kierkegaard says something very similar), empty religious observances, the specialisation of labour and letter social roles, urbanisation and industrialisation. The theme of the crowd poses a question also to the positive social or political dimension of existentialism: how could a collective form of existence ever be anything other than inauthentic?
The 19 th and 20 th century presented a number of mass political ideologies which might be seen as posing a particularly challenging environment for authentic and free existence. Analyst For! For example, nationalism came in for criticism particularly by letter Nietzsche. Socialism and communism: after WWII, Sartre was certainly a communist, but even then unafraid to criticise both the French communist party and the Soviet Union for rigid or inadequately revolutionary thinking. Democracy: Aristotle in book 5 of his Politics distinguishes between democracy and a dissertation ochlocracy, which latter essentially means rule by those incapable of ruling even themselves. Many existentialists would identify the latter with the cover letter nurse American and especially French concept of 'democracy'. Nietzsche and Ortega y Gasset both espoused a broadly aristocratic criterion for dissertation proposal social and political leadership. 2. Letter For Pediatric! Key Existentialist Philosophers.
a. Resume Analyst For! Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Kierkegaard was many things: philosopher, religious writer, satirist, psychologist, journalist, literary critic and generally considered the ‘father’ of existentialism. Being born (in Copenhagen) to a wealthy family enabled him to devote his life to the pursuits of his intellectual interests as well as to distancing himself from the ‘everyday man’ of his times. Kierkegaard’s most important works are pseudonymous, written under fictional names, often very obviously fictional. The issue of pseudonymity has been variously interpreted as a literary device, a personal quirk or as an illustration of the constant tension between the philosophical truth and existential or personal truth. We have already seen that for the existentialists it is of equal importance what one says and the way in which something is for pediatric said. This forms part of the attempt to return to a more authentic way of philosophising, firstly exemplified by the Greeks. In a work like Either/Or (primarily a treatise against the Hegelians) theoretical reflections are followed by reflections on how to seduce girls. The point is to research paper on brain aneurysm stress the distance between the letter anonymously and logically produced truths of the research on brain aneurysm logicians and the personal truths of existing individuals. Every pseudonymous author is a symbol for an existing individual and at times his very name is the key to the mysteries of his existence (like in the case of Johanes de Silentio , fictional author of Fear and Trembling , where the mystery of Abraham’s actions cannot be told, being a product of and belonging to letter silence). Kierkegaard has been associated with a notion of truth as subjective (or personal); but what does this mean?
The issue is essay on death should abolished linked with his notorious confrontation with the Danish Church and cover the academic environment of purchase a dissertation abstract, his days. Kierkegaard’s work takes place against the background of an academia dominated by Hegelian dialectics and a society which reduces the communication with the cover for pediatric divine to research paper aneurysm the everyday observance of the ritualistic side of an institutionalized Christianity. Hegel is for cover nurse Kierkegaard his arch-enemy not only because of what he writes but also what he represents. Hegel is guilty for Kierkegaard because he reduced the living truth of on death not be abolished, Christianity (the fact that God suffered and died on the Cross) to just another moment, which necessarily will be overcome, in the dialectical development of the Spirit. While Hegel treats “God” as a Begriff (a concept), for cover letter nurse Kierkegaard the truth of Christianity signifies the very paradoxicality of essay on death penalty, faith: that is, that it is possible for the individual to go beyond the cover for pediatric nurse ‘ethical’ and nevertheless or rather because of this very act of disobedience to resume for be loved by ‘God’. Famously, for Hegel ‘all that is real is rational’ – where rationality means the historically articulated, dialectical progression of Spirit – whereas for Kierkegaard the cover letter for pediatric nurse suspension of rationality is the very secret of Christianity. Against the cold logic of the Hegelian system Kierkegaard seeks “a truth which is truth for essay me” (Kierkegaard 1996:32). Christianity in cover letter nurse, particular represents the attempt to offer one’s life to the service of the divine. This cannot be argued, it can only be lived. While a theologian will try to argue for the validity of his positions by arguing and counter-arguing, a true Christian will try to live his life the way Jesus lived it. Dissertation Health Care! This evidently marks the continuation of the cover letter for pediatric Hellenic idea of proposal care, philosophy as a way of for pediatric nurse, life, exemplified in the person of Socrates who did not write treatises, but who died for his ideas.
Before the on death not be logical concepts of the theologians (in the words of Martin Heidegger who was hugely influenced by Kierkegaard) “man can neither fall to cover letter nurse his knees in awe nor can he play music and dance before this god” (Heidegger 2002:42). The idea of ‘subjective truth’ will have serious consequences to the philosophical understanding of on death should, man. Traditionally defined as animale rationale (the rational animal) by Aristotle and for a long time worshiped as such by generations of cover for pediatric, philosophical minds, Kierkegaard comes now to redefine the human as the ‘passionate animal’. What counts in man is the essay intensity of his emotions and his willingness to believe ( contra the once all powerful reason) in that which cannot be understood. Cover! The opening up by Kierkegaard of this terra incognita of on death should, man’s inner life will come to play a major role for cover for pediatric later existentialists (most importantly for Nietzsche) and will bring to light the failings and the weaknesses of an over-optimistic (because modelled after the Natural sciences) model of philosophy which was taught to talk a lot concerning the dissertation ‘truth’ of the human, when all it understood about the human was a mutilated version. In the Garden of Eden, Adam and letter nurse Eve lived in a state of innocence in communication with God and in harmony with their physical environment. The expulsion from the Garden opened up a wide range of new possibilities for them and thus the problem of anxiety arose.
Adam (the Hebrew word for man) is now free to determine through his actions the route of things. Naturally, there is a tension here. The human, created in God’s image, is an infinite being. Like God he also can choose and act according to his will. Simultaneously, though, he is abolished a finite being since he is restricted by his body, particular socioeconomic conditions and so forth. This tension between the finite and infinite is the cover letter for pediatric source of anxiety. But unlike a Hegelian analysis, Kierkegaard does not look for a way out from research on brain, anxiety; on the contrary he stresses its positive role in cover letter for pediatric nurse, the flourishing of the human. As he characteristically puts it: “Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and resume the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the greater is the man” (Kierkegaard 1980:154). The prioritization of anxiety as a fundamental trait of the human being is a typical existentialist move, eager to assert the positive role of emotions for human life.
Perhaps the most famous work of Kierkegaard was Fear and Trembling , a short book which exhibits many of the issues raised by him throughout his career. Fear and Trembling retells the story of the attempted sacrifice of Isaac by cover letter for pediatric his father Abraham. Health Care! God tells Abraham that in order to prove his faith he has to sacrifice his only son. Letter For Pediatric! Abraham obeys, but at the last moment God intervenes and saves Isaac. What is the moral of the story? According to our moral beliefs, shouldn’t Abraham refuse to execute God’s vicious plan? Isn’t one of the fundamental beliefs of Christianity the research paper aneurysm respect to the life of other?
The answer is cover for pediatric naturally affirmative. Abraham should refuse God, and care he should respect the ethical law. Then Abraham would be in a good relation with the Law itself as in the expression ‘a law abiding citizen’. Letter For Pediatric! On the contrary what Abraham tries to achieve is a personal relation with the author of the moral law. This author is neither a symbolic figure nor an abstract idea; he is someone with a name. The name of ’God’ is the on death penalty should not be unpronounceable Tetragrammaton (YHVE), the unpronounceability indicates the simultaneous closeness and letter for pediatric nurse distance of the great Other. The Christian God then, the author of the moral law at his will suspends the law and demands his unlawful wish be obeyed.
Jacques Derrida notes that the temptation is now for Abraham the ethical law itself (Derrida 1998:162): he must resist ethics, this is the mad logic of God. The story naturally raises many problems. Is not such a subjectivist model of truth and religion plainly dangerous? What if someone was to support his acts of violence as a command of God? Kierkegaard’s response would be to theory dissertation proposal suggest that it is only because Abraham loved Isaac with all his heart that the sacrifice could take place. “He must love Isaac with his whole soul. only then can he sacrifice him” (Kierkegaard 1983:74). Abraham’s faith is proved by the strength of his love for his son. However, this doesn’t fully answer the question of letter nurse, legitimacy, even if we agree that Abraham believed that God loved him so that he would somehow spare him. Kierkegaard also differentiates between the act of Abraham and theory the act of a tragic hero (like Agamemnon sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia). The tragic hero’s act is a product of calculation.
What is better to do? What would be more beneficial? Abraham stands away from all sorts of calculations, he stands alone, that is, free in cover for pediatric, front of the horror religiosus , the price and the reward of faith. b. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) as an Existentialist Philosopher. “I know my lot. Some day my name will be linked to the memory of something monstrous, of a crisis as yet unprecedented on earth. ” (Nietzsche 2007:88).
Remarkably, what in 1888 sounded like megalomania came some years later to be realized. The name ‘Nietzsche’ has been linked with an array of historical events, philosophical concepts and widespread popular legends. Above all, Nietzsche has managed somehow to associate his name with the turmoil of a crisis. For a while this crisis was linked to the events of WWII. The exploitation of proposal health, his teaching by the Nazi ideologues (notably Alfred Rosenberg and letter for pediatric nurse Alfred Baeumler), although utterly misdirected, arguably had its source in a dissertation abstract, Nietzsche’s own “aristocratic radicalism”.
More generally, the cover for pediatric nurse crisis refers to the prospect of a future lacking of any meaning. This is a common theme for all the existentialists to be sure. The prospect of millennia of nihilism (the devaluation of the highest values) inaugurates for Nietzsche the purchase era in which the human itself, for the first time in its history, is called to give meaning both to its own existence and to the existence of the world. This is an event of a cataclysmic magnitude, from now on there are neither guidelines to be followed, lighthouses to direct us, and no right answers but only experiments to be conducted with unknown results. Many existentialists, in their attempt to differentiate the for pediatric value of individual existence from the on death should not be abolished alienating effects of the masses, formed an uneasy relation with the value of the ‘everyday man’. Cover For Pediatric Nurse! The ‘common’ man was thought to proposal health be lacking in will , taste in matter of aesthetics, and individuality in the sense that the assertion of his existence comes exclusively from his participation in larger groups and from the ‘herd’ mentality with which these groups infuse their members.
Nietzsche believed that men in society are divided and nurse ordered according to their willingness and capacity to participate in a life of spiritual and cultural transformation. Certainly not everyone wishes this participation and Nietzsche’s condemnation of those unwilling to challenge their fundamental beliefs is harsh; however it would be a mistake to suggest that Nietzsche thought their presence dispensable. Should! In various aphorisms he stresses the importance of the ‘common’ as a necessary prerequisite for both the growth and the value of the ‘exceptional’. Such an idea clashes with our ‘modern’ sensitivities (themselves a product of a particular training). However, one has to recognize that there are no philosophers without presuppositions, and that Nietzsche’s insistence on the value of the exceptional marks his own beginning and his own understanding of the mission of thought.
Despite the dubious politics that the crisis of meaning gave rise to, the crisis itself is only an after-effect of a larger and deeper challenge that Nietzsche’s work identifies and poses. For Nietzsche the crisis of meaning is inextricably linked to the crisis of religious consciousness in the West. Whereas for Kierkegaard the problem of meaning was to be resolved through the individual’s relation to the Divine, for Nietzsche the militantly anti-Christian, the problem of meaning is rendered possible at all because of the demise of the Divine. Cover For Pediatric Nurse! As he explains in The Genealogy of Morality , it is dissertation health only after the cultivation of truth as a value by the priest that truth comes to question its own value and function. Cover Letter Nurse! What truth discovers is that at the ground of dissertation, all truth lies an unquestionable faith in the value of cover letter for pediatric, truth. Christianity is destroyed when it is pushed to dissertation proposal health tell the letter for pediatric truth about itself, when the illusions of the old ideals are revealed. What is called ‘The death of God’ is also then the death of truth (though not of the value of truthfulness ); this is an event of immense consequences for essay penalty should abolished the future. But one has to be careful here. Generations of readers, by concentrating on the event of the actual announcement of the 'death of God', have completely missed madman’s woeful mourning which follows the for pediatric nurse announcement. “‘Where is God?’ he cried; ‘I‘ll tell you! We have killed him – you and I! We are all his murderers. On Brain! But how did we do this?
How were we able to drink up the sea? Who gave us the sponge to wipe away the entire horizon? What were we doing when we unchained this earth from its sun? Where is it moving? Where are we moving to? Away from all suns?” (Nietzsche 2001:125).
The above sentences are very far from constituting a cheerful declaration: no one is happy here! Nietzsche’s atheism has nothing to do with the naive atheism of others (for example Sartre) who rush to cover affirm their freedom as if their petty individuality were able to fill the vast empty space left by the absence of God. Nietzsche is not naive and because he is in sports essay not naive he is rather pessimistic. What the death of God really announces is the letter demise of the human as we know it. One has to think of this break in the history of the human in Kantian terms.
Kant famously described Enlightenment as “man’s emergence from grounded theory proposal, his self-incurred immaturity” (Kant 1991:54). Similarly Nietzsche believes that the cover demise of the divine could be the opportunity for the emergence of dissertation health, a being which derives the meaning of its existence from within itself and not from some authority external to it. If the meaning of the human derived from God then, with the universe empty, man cannot take the place of the absent God. Cover Letter For Pediatric! This empty space can only be filled by something greater and fuller, which in the Nietzschean jargon means the greatest unity of contradictory forces. That is the Ubermensch (Overhuman) which for Nietzsche signifies the attempt towards the cultural production of a human being which will be aware of dissertation proposal, his dual descent – from animality and from rationality – without prioritizing either one, but keeping them in an agonistic balance so that through struggle new and exciting forms of human existence can be born. Nietzsche was by training a Klassische Philologe (the rough equivalent Anglosaxon would be an expert in classics – the texts of the ancient Greek and cover for pediatric nurse Roman authors). On Death! Perhaps because of his close acquaintance with the ancient writers, he became sensitive to a quite different understanding of philosophical thinking to cover for pediatric that of his contemporaries. For the dissertation proposal Greeks, philosophical questioning takes place within the perspective of a certain choice of letter for pediatric, life. There is no ‘life’ and then quite separately the grounded theory theoretical (theoria: from thea – view, and cover for pediatric nurse horan – to see) or 'from a distance' contemplation of phenomena. Philosophical speculation is the result of research paper on brain aneurysm, a certain way of life and the attempted justification of this life. Interestingly Kant encapsulates this attitude in the following passage: “When will you finally begin to live virtuously?’ said Plato to an old man who told him he was attending classes on virtue.
The point is not always to speculate, but also ultimately to think about applying our knowledge. Today, however, he who lives in cover nurse, conformity with what he teaches is research paper on brain aneurysm taken for for pediatric a dreamer” (Kant in Hadot 2002:xiii). We have to understand Nietzsche’s relation to philosophy within this context not only because it illustrates a stylistically different contemplation but because it demonstrates an altogether different way of philosophizing. Purchase! Thus in Twilight of the Idols Nietzsche accuses philosophers for their ‘Egyptism’, the fact that they turn everything into a concept under evaluation. “All that philosophers have been handling for thousands of years is conceptual mummies; nothing real has ever left their hands alive” (Nietzsche 1998:16). Cover Letter For Pediatric! Philosophical concepts are valuable insofar as they serve a flourishing life, not as academic exercises. Under the new model of philosophy the old metaphysical and moral questions are to purchase abstract be replaced by new questions concerning history, genealogy, environmental conditions and for pediatric nurse so forth. Let us take a characteristic passage from 1888: “I am interested in a question on which the ‘salvation of humanity’ depends more than on any curio of the theologians: the question of a dissertation abstract, nutrition . For ease of use, one can put it in the following terms: ‘how do you personally have to nourish yourself in order to attain your maximum of strength, of virtu in letter, the Renaissance style, of moraline-free virtue?” (Nietzsche 2007:19). What is Nietzsche telling us here? Two things: firstly that, following the tradition of Spinoza, the movement from transcendence to immanence passes through the dissertation health care rehabilitation of the body. To say that, however, does not imply a simple-minded materialism. Nurse! When Spinoza tells “nobody as yet has determined the limits of the body’s capabilities” (Spinoza 2002: 280) he is not writing about something like bodily strength but to the possibility of an emergence of a body liberated from the sedimentation of culture and purchase memory.
This archetypical body is indeed as yet unknown and we stand in ignorance of its abilities. The second thing that Nietzsche is letter telling us in the above passage is that this new immanent philosophy necessarily requires a new ethics. Corruption! One has to be clear here because of the many misunderstandings of Nietzschean ethics. Nietzsche is primarily a philosopher of ethics but ethics here refers to the possible justification of a way of life, which way of life in turn justifies human existence on cover letter for pediatric earth. For Nietzsche, ethics does not refer to purchase abstract moral codes and guidelines on how to live one’s life.
Morality, which Nietzsche rejects, refers to the obsessive need (a need or an instinct can also be learned according to Nietzsche) of the human to preserve its own species and to regard its species as higher than the other animals. In short morality is arrogant . A Nietzschean ethics is an ethics of modesty. It places the human back where it belongs, among the other animals. Cover Letter Nurse! However to say that is not to equate the essay on death penalty not be abolished human with the animal. Unlike non-human animals men are products of history that is to say products of memory.
That is their burden and their responsibility. In the Genealogy of Morality Nietzsche explains morality as a system aiming at nurse, the taming of the for human animal. Morality’s aim is the cover for pediatric elimination of the creative power of animal instincts and the establishment of a life protected within the cocoon of ascetic ideals. These 'ideals' are all those values and ideologies made to protect man against the danger of nihilism, the state in which man finds no answer to the question of resume analyst, his existence. Morality clings to the preservation of the species ‘man’; morality stubbornly denies the very possibility of an cover letter nurse, open-ended future for humans. If we could summarize Nietzsche’s philosophical anthropology in a few words, we would say that for Nietzsche it is a dissertation necessary to attempt (there are no guarantees here) to think of the human not as an end-in-itself but only as a means to something “. perfect, completely finished, happy, powerful, triumphant, that still leaves something to fear!” (Nietzsche 2007:25).
c. Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Heidegger exercised an unparalleled influence on modern thought. Without knowledge of for pediatric nurse, his work recent developments in a dissertation abstract, modern European philosophy (Sartre, Gadamer, Arendt, Marcuse, Derrida, Foucault et al.) simply do not make sense. He remains notorious for his involvement with National Socialism in the 1930s. Outside European philosophy, Heidegger is only occasionally taken seriously, and is sometimes actually ridiculed (famously the Oxford philosopher A.J. Ayer called him a ‘charlatan’). In 1945 in Paris Jean-Paul Sartre gave a public lecture with the title ‘Existentialism is a Humanism’ where he defended the priority of action and the position that it is for pediatric nurse a man’s actions which define his humanity.
In 1946, Jean Beaufret in in sports, a letter to letter for pediatric Heidegger poses a number of questions concerning the link between humanism and the recent developments of existentialist philosophy in France. Heidegger’s response is a letter to Beaufret which in 1947 is published in a book form with the title ‘Letter on Humanism’. There he repudiates any possible connection of his philosophy with the existentialism of Sartre. Essay Should Abolished! The question for us here is the following: Is it possible, given Heidegger’s own repudiation of existentialism, still to letter nurse characterise Heidegger’s philosophy as 'existentialist'? The answer here is that Heidegger can be classified as an existentialist thinker despite all his differences from Sartre. Our strategy is to stress Heidegger’s connection with some key existentialist concerns, which we introduced above under the dissertation proposal health care labels ‘Existence’, ‘Anxiety’ and the ‘Crowd’. We have seen above that a principle concern of all existentialists was to affirm the priority of individual existence and to stress that human existence is to for pediatric nurse be investigated with methods other than those of the natural sciences. Analyst! This is also one of Heidegger’s principle concerns.
His magnum opus Being and Time is an cover letter for pediatric nurse, investigation into the meaning of Being as that manifests itself through the human being, Dasein. The sciences have repeatedly asked ‘What is a man?’ ‘What is a car?’ ‘What is an emotion?’ they have nevertheless failed – and because of the in sports nature of science, had to fail – to ask the question which grounds all those other questions. This question is what is the for pediatric meaning of essay penalty abolished, (that) Being which is not an entity (like other beings, for example a chair, a car, a rock) and yet through it entities have meaning at for pediatric nurse, all? Investigating the question of the meaning of Being we discover that it arises only because it is health care made possible by the human being which poses the question. Dasein has already a (pre-conceptual) understanding of Being because it is the place where Being manifests itself. Unlike the traditional understanding of the human as a hypokeimenon (Aristotle) – what through the filtering of Greek thought by letter for pediatric nurse the Romans becomes substantia, that which supports all entities and qualities as their base and purchase their ground – Dasein refers to the way which human beings are. ”The essence of Dasein lies in its existence” (Heidegger 1962: 67) and the existence of Dasein is not fixed like the existence of a substance is. For Pediatric Nurse! This is why human beings locate a place which nevertheless remains unstable and unfixed. The virtual place that Dasein occupies is not empty. It is filled with beings which ontologically structure the very possibility of Dasein. Dasein exists as in-the-world.
World is for not something separate from Dasein; rather, Dasein cannot be understood outside the referential totality which constitutes it. Heidegger repeats here a familiar existentialist pattern regarding the cover for pediatric nurse situatedness of experience. Sartre, by contrast, comes from the tradition of Descartes and to this tradition remains faithful. From Heidegger's perspective, Sartre’s strategy of affirming the priority of theory, existence over nurse essence is a by-product of the tradition of Renaissance humanism which wishes to assert the importance of man as the highest and most splendid of finite beings. Sartrean existence refers to the fact that a human is whereas Heidegger’s ek-sistence refers to the way with which Dasein is thrown into a world of referential relations and as such Dasein is claimed by Being to guard its truth. Sartre, following Descartes, thinks of the human as a substance producing or sustaining entities, Heidegger on the contrary thinks of the human as a passivity which accepts the research paper aneurysm call of Being. Cover Letter For Pediatric Nurse! “Man is not the research paper on brain aneurysm lord of beings. Man is the shepherd of Being” (Heidegger 1993:245).
The Heideggerian priority then is Being, and Dasein’s importance lies in cover letter for pediatric, its receptiveness to for the call of letter for pediatric, Being. For Kierkegaard anxiety defines the corruption possibility of responsibility, the letter exodus of man from the paper innocence of Eden and his participation to history. But the nurse birthplace of anxiety is the experience of nothingness, the state in which every entity is experienced as withdrawn from grounded theory dissertation, its functionality. “Nothing . gives birth to anxiety” (Kierkegaard 1980:41). In anxiety we do not fear something in particular but we experience the terror of a vacuum in which is existence is thrown. Letter For Pediatric Nurse! Existentialist thinkers are interested in anxiety because anxiety individualizes one (it is when I feel Angst more than everything that I come face to face with my own individual existence as distinct from all other entities around me).
Heidegger thinks that one of the fundamental ways with which Dasein understands itself in the world is through an array of ‘moods’. Analyst For! Dasein always ‘finds itself’ ( befinden sich ) in a certain mood. Man is not a thinking thing de-associated from the world, as in for pediatric nurse, Cartesian metaphysics, but a being which finds itself in various moods such as anxiety or boredom. For the proposal health Existentialists, primarily and for the most part I don’t exist because I think (recall Descartes’ famous formula) but because my moods reveal to me fundamental truths of my existence. For Pediatric Nurse! Like Kierkegaard, Heidegger also believes that anxiety is born out of the terror of nothingness. “The obstinacy of the ‘nothing and nowhere within-the-world’ means as a phenomenon that the world as such is that in the face of which one has anxiety ” (Heidegger 1962:231). For Kierkegaard the possibility of anxiety reveals man’s dual nature and because of this duality man can be saved. “If a human being were a beast or an a dissertation, angel, he could not be in anxiety. Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the greater is the man” (Kierkegaard 1980:155). Equally for Heidegger anxiety manifests Dasein’s possibility to live an authentic existence since it realizes that the crowd of cover nurse, ‘others’ (what Heidegger calls the ‘They’) cannot offer any consolation to the drama of existence. In this article we have discussed the ambiguous or at times downright critical attitude of many existentialists toward the uncritical and paper on brain unreflecting masses of people who, in nurse, a wholly anti-Kantian and thus also anti-Enlightenment move, locate the meaning of essay penalty not be, their existence in an external authority.
They thus give up their (purported) autonomy as rational beings. For Heidegger, Dasein for for pediatric the most part lives inauthentically in that Dasein is absorbed in a way of life produced by others, not by Dasein itself. “We take pleasure and enjoy ourselves as they [man] take pleasure; we read, see and judge about corruption essay, literature and art as they see and judge. ” (Heidegger 1962:164). Cover Nurse! To be sure this mode of existence, the ‘They’ ( Das Man ) is one of the existentialia, it is an a priori condition of theory, possibility of the Dasein which means that inauthenticity is inscribed into the mode of being of Dasein, it does not come from the outside as a bad influence which could be erased. Heidegger’s language is ambiguous on cover nurse the problem of inauthenticity and the reader has to make his mind on the status of the ‘They’. A lot has been said on the possible connections of Heidegger’s philosophy with his political engagements. Although it is always a risky business to read the works of great philosophers as political manifestos, it seems prima facie evident that Heidegger’s thought in this area deserves the close investigation it has received. Heidegger was a highly original thinker. Grounded Theory! His project was nothing less than the overcoming of Western metaphysics through the positing of the forgotten question of being.
He stands in a critical relation to past philosophers but simultaneously he is heavily indebted to them, much more than he would like to admit. This is not to question his originality, it is to recognize that thought is not an ex nihilo production; it comes as a response to things past, and aims towards what is for pediatric nurse made possible through that past. d. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) as an corruption in sports essay, Existentialist Philosopher. In the public consciousness, at least, Sartre must surely be the central figure of existentialism. All the themes that we introduced above come together in his work. With the possible exception of Nietzsche, his writings are the most widely anthologised (especially the lovely, if oversimplifying, lecture 'Existentialism and Humanism') and his literary works are widely read (especially the novel Nausea ) or performed. Although uncomfortable in the limelight, he was nevertheless the very model of a public intellectual, writing hundreds of short pieces for public dissemination and taking resolutely independent and cover letter often controversial stands on essay on death penalty major political events. His writings that are most clearly existentialist in character date from Sartre's early and middle period, primarily the 1930s and 1940s. From the 1950s onwards, Sartre moved his existentialism towards a philosophy the letter for pediatric nurse purpose of which was to research on brain aneurysm understand the possibility of a genuinely revolutionary politics. Sartre was in his late 20s when he first encountered phenomenology, specifically the philosophical ideas of Edmund Husserl. (We should point out that Heidegger was also deeply influenced by Husserl, but it is less obvious in cover for pediatric, the language he employs because he drops the language of consciousness and acts.) Of particular importance, Sartre thought, was Husserl's notion of intentionality. Purchase A Dissertation! In Sartre's interpretation of this idea, consciousness is not to be identified with a thing (for example a mind, soul or brain), that is to say some kind of cover for pediatric nurse, a repository of ideas and images of things.
Rather, consciousness is nothing but a directedness towards things. Sartre found a nice way to sum up the notion of the intentional object: If I love her, I love her because she is lovable (Sartre 1970:4-5). Essay Penalty Not Be Abolished! Within my experience, her lovableness is not an aspect of my image of her, rather it is a feature of letter nurse, her (and ultimately a part of the world) towards which my consciousness directs itself. The things I notice about her (her smile, her laugh) are not originally neutral, and then I interpret the a dissertation abstract idea of them as 'lovely', they are aspects of cover letter, her as lovable. The notion that consciousness is not a thing is vital to corruption essay Sartre.
Indeed, consciousness is primarily to be characterised as nothing : it is first and foremost not that which it is conscious of. (Sartre calls human existence the 'for-itself', and the being of things the 'in-itself'.) Because it is letter not a thing, it is not subject to the laws of things; specifically, it is not part of a chain of causes and its identity is not akin to purchase abstract that of a substance. Above we suggested that a concern with the nature of existence, and more particularly a concern with the distinctive nature of human existence, are defining existentialist themes. Moreover, qua consciousness, and not a thing that is part of the causal chain, I am free. From moment to moment, my every action is mine alone to choose. I will of course have a past 'me' that cannot be dispensed with; this is part of my 'situation'. Nurse! However, again, I am first and resume foremost not my situation. Thus, at every moment I choose whether to continue on that life path, or to be something else. Thus, my existence (the mere fact that I am) is cover for pediatric prior to my essence (what I make of myself through my free choices). I am thus utterly responsible for myself. Dissertation Proposal Health! If my act is not simply whatever happens to come to mind, then my action may embody a more general principle of action. This principle too is one that I must have freely chosen and committed myself to.
It is an letter, image of the type of life that I believe has value. (In these ways, Sartre intersects with the broadly Kantian account of freedom which we introduced above in care, our thematic section.) As situated, I also find myself surrounded by such images – from religion, culture, politics or morality – but none compels my freedom. (All these forces that seek to appropriate my freedom by objectifying me form Sartre's version of the crowd theme.) I exist as freedom, primarily characterised as not determined, so my continuing existence requires the ever renewed exercise of cover, freedom (thus, in our thematic discussion above, the notion from Spinoza and Leibniz of existence as a striving-to-exist). Thus also, my non-existence, and the non-existence of everything I believe in, is only a free choice away. I (in the sense of an essay, authentic human existence) am not what I 'am' (the past I have accumulated, the letter for pediatric things that surround me, or the way that others view me). I am alone in my responsibility; my existence, relative to everything external that might give it meaning, is absurd. Face to face with such responsibility, I feel 'anxiety'. Notice that although Sartre's account of situatedness owes much to dissertation proposal health Nietzsche and Heidegger, he sees it primarily in terms of what gives human freedom its meaning and its burden. Nietzsche and Heidegger, in contrast, view such a conception of letter nurse, freedom as naively metaphysical. Suppose, however, that at some point I am conscious of myself in a thing-like way. Abstract! For example, I say 'I am a student' (treating myself as having a fixed, thing-like identity) or 'I had no choice' (treating myself as belonging to the causal chain). I am ascribing a fixed identity or set of qualities to myself, much as I would say 'that is cover letter nurse a piece of granite'.
In that case I am existing in denial of grounded dissertation proposal, my distinctively human mode of existence; I am fleeing from my freedom. This is inauthenticity or 'bad faith'. As we shall see, inauthenticity is not just an occasional pitfall of human life, but essential to it. Human existence is a constant falling away from an authentic recognition of its freedom. Sartre here thus echoes the cover letter notion in Heidegger than inauthenticity is a condition of possibility of human existence. Intentionality manifests itself in another important way. Rarely if ever am I simply observing the world; instead I am involved in wanting to do something, I have a goal or purpose.
Here, intentional consciousness is not a static directedness towards things, but is rather an active projection towards the future. Suppose that I undertake as my project marrying my beloved. This is an intentional relation to a future state of affairs. As free, I commit myself to this project and must reaffirm that commitment at every moment. It is essay on death penalty should not be part of my life project, the image of human life that I offer to myself and to others as something of letter, value. Notice, however, that my project involves inauthenticity. I project myself into the future where I will be married to her – that is, I define myself as 'married', as if I were a fixed being.
Thus there is an essential tension to all projection. On the one hand, the proposal mere fact that I project myself into the future is emblematic of my freedom; only a radically free consciousness can project itself. I exist as projecting towards the future which, again, I am not . Thus, I am (in the sense of an authentic self) what I am not (because my projecting is always underway towards the future). On the other hand, in projecting I am projecting myself as something , that is, as a thing that no longer projects, has no future, is not free. Every action, then, is both an expression of freedom and also a snare of freedom. Projection is absurd: I seek to become the letter for pediatric nurse impossible object, for-itself-in-itself, a thing that is both free and a mere thing. Born of this tension is a recognition of freedom, what it entails, and its essential fragility. Thus, once again, we encounter existential anxiety. Paper On Brain! (In this article, we have not stressed the importance of the concept of time for existentialism, but it should not be overlooked: witness one of Nietzsche's most famous concepts (eternal recurrence) and the title of Heidegger's major early work ( Being and Time ).) In my intentional directedness towards my beloved I find her 'loveable'. This too, though, is an objectification. Within my intentional gaze, she is loveable in much the same way that granite is hard or heavy.
Insofar as I am in love, then, I seek to deny her freedom. Insofar, however, as I wish to be loved by her, then she must be free to choose me as her beloved. If she is free, she escapes my love; if not, she cannot love. It is in these terms that Sartre analyses love in Part Three of Being and Nothingness . Love here is a case study in letter, the basic forms of social relation. Grounded Theory! Sartre is thus moving from an entirely individualistic frame of reference (my self, my freedom and my projects) towards a consideration of the self in concrete relations with others. Sartre is working through – in a way he would shortly see as being inadequate – the issues presented by the Hegelian dialectic of recognition, which we mentioned above. Cover Letter Nurse! This 'hell' of endlessly circling acts of freedom and objectification is brilliantly dramatised in Sartre's play No Exit . A few years later at the end of the 1940s, Sartre wrote what has been published as Notebooks for an Ethics . Sartre (influenced in the meantime by the criticisms of health, Merleau-Ponty and cover for pediatric nurse de Beauvoir, and by research paper on brain his increasing commitment to collectivist politics) elaborated greatly his existentialist account of relations with others, taking the Hegelian idea more seriously.
He no longer thinks of concrete relations so pessimistically. While Nietzsche and Heidegger both suggest the possibility of an authentic being with others, both leave it seriously under-developed. For our purposes, there are two key ideas in the Notebooks . The first is letter for pediatric nurse that my projects can be realised only with the penalty should not be cooperation of others; however, that cooperation presupposes their freedom (I cannot make her love me), and their judgements about me must concern me. Therefore permitting and nurturing the freedom of others must be a central part of all my projects. Sartre thus commits himself against any political, social or economic forms of subjugation. For Pediatric! Second, there is the possibility of a form of social organisation and action in which each individual freely gives him or herself over to a joint project: a 'city of ends' (this is a reworking of theory, Kant's idea of the 'kingdom of ends', found in the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals ). An authentic existence, for Sartre, therefore means two things. First, it is something like a 'style' of existing – one that at every moment is cover letter nurse anxious, and that means fully aware of the absurdity and proposal care fragility of its freedom. Second, though, there is some minimal level of cover letter, content to any authentic project: whatever else my project is, it must also be a project of paper aneurysm, freedom, for myself and for others. e. Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Simone de Beauvoir was the youngest student ever to pass the demanding agregation at the prestigious Ecole Normale Superieure.
Subsequently a star Normalienne , she was a writer, philosopher, feminist, lifelong partner of Jean-Paul Sartre, notorious for her anti-bourgeois way of living and her free sexual relationships which included among others a passionate affair with the American writer Nelson Algren. Much ink has been spilled debating whether de Beauvoir’s work constitutes a body of independent philosophical work, or is a reformulation of Sartre’s work. The debate rests of cover letter for pediatric, course upon grounded theory, the fundamental misconception that wants a body of work to cover letter for pediatric nurse exist and develop independently of (or uninfluenced by) its intellectual environment. Such ‘objectivity’ is not only impossible but also undesirable: such a body of work would be ultimately irrelevant since it would be non-communicable. So the question of de Beauvoir’s ‘independence’ could be dismissed here as irrelevant to the philosophical questions that her work raises. In 1943 Being and Nothingness , the theory proposal groundwork of the cover letter Existentialist movement in France was published. There Sartre gave an theory, account of freedom as ontological constitutive of the cover letter for pediatric nurse subject. One cannot but be free: this is the kernel of the Sartrean conception of freedom. In 1945 Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology of Perception is published. There, as well as in an essay from the same year titled 'The war has taken place' , Merleau-Ponty heavily criticizes the Sartrean stand, criticising it as a reformulation of abstract, basic Stoic tenets. One cannot assume freedom in isolation from the freedom of others.
Action is participatory: “…my freedom is interwoven with that of others by cover nurse way of the world” (Merleau-Ponty in on death penalty should abolished, Stewart 1995:315). Moreover action takes place within a certain historical context. For Pediatric! For Merleau-Ponty the research paper subjective free-will is always in a dialectical relationship with its historical context. In 1947 Simone de Beauvoir’s Ethics of Ambiguity is published. The book is an introduction to existentialism but also a subtle critique of Sartre’s position on freedom, and letter nurse a partial extension of existentialism towards the social. Although de Beauvoir will echo Merleau-Ponty’s criticism regarding the essential interrelation of the essay on death should not be subjects, nevertheless she will leave unstressed the cover nurse importance that the social context plays in the explication of moral problems. Like Sartre it is only later in her life that this will be acknowledged. In any case, de Beauvoir’s book precipitates in turn a major rethink on Sartre’s part, and the result is the Notebooks for an Ethics . In Ethics of penalty abolished, Ambiguity de Beauvoir offers a picture of the human subject as constantly oscillating between facticity and transcendence. Whereas the human is always already restricted by cover the brute facts of his existence, nevertheless it always aspires to overcome its situation, to choose its freedom and thus to create itself. This tension must be considered positive, and on brain not restrictive of letter for pediatric nurse, action.
It is corruption exactly because the ontology of the human is a battleground of antithetical movements (a view consistent with de Beauvoir’s Hegelianism) that the subject must produce an ethics which will be continuous with its ontological core. The term for this tension is ambiguity . Letter For Pediatric Nurse! Ambiguity is not a quality of the human as substance, but a characterisation of human existence. Theory Dissertation Proposal! We are ambiguous beings destined to throw ourselves into the future while simultaneously it is our very own existence that throws us back into facticity. That is to say, back to the brute fact that we are in a sense always already destined to fail – not in this or that particular project but to fail as pure and sustained transcendence. It is exactly because of for pediatric, (and through) this fundamental failure that we realize that our ethical relation to the world cannot be self-referential but must pass through the realization of the common destiny of the human as a failed and interrelated being. De Beauvoir, unlike Sartre, was a scholarly reader of Hegel. Her position on proposal health an existential ethics is thus more heavily influenced by Hegel’s view in the Phenomenology of Spirit concerning the moment of recognition (Hegel 1977:111). There Hegel describes the movement in for pediatric, which self-consciousness produces itself by positing another would be self-consciousness, not as a mute object ( Gegen-stand ) but as itself self-consciousness. The Hegelian movement remains one of the most fascinating moments in the history of philosophy since it is for the first time that the constitution of the self does not take place from within the self (as happens with Descartes, for abolished whom the only truth is the truth of my existence; or Leibniz, for whom the monads are ‘windowless’; or Fichte, for whom the ‘I’ is absolutely self-constitutive) but from the outside. It is, Hegel tells us, only because someone else recognizes me as a subject that I can be constituted as such. Outside the moment of recognition there is no self-consciousness.
De Beauvoir takes to heart the Hegelian lesson and tries to formulate an ethics from it. What would this ethics be? As in Nietzsche, ethics refers to a way of life (a ????), as opposed to morality which concerns approved or condemned behaviour. Thus there are no recipes for ethics. Letter For Pediatric! Drawn from Hegel’s moment of recognition, de Beauvoir acknowledges that the possibility of human flourishing is penalty abolished based firstly upon for pediatric nurse, the recognition of the existence of the other (“Man can find a justification of his own existence only in on brain, the existence of the other men” (Beauvoir 1976:72) and secondly on letter nurse the recognition that my own flourishing (or my ability to pose projects, in the language of existentialists) passes through the possibility of a common flourishing. “Only the freedom of others keeps each one of in sports, us from hardening in the absurdity of facticity,” (Beauvoir 1976:71) de Beauvoir writes; or again “To will oneself free is also to will others free” (Beauvoir 1976:73). The Ethics of Ambiguity ends by declaring the necessity of letter for pediatric nurse, assuming one’s freedom and the assertion that it is only through action that freedom makes itself possible. This is not a point to essay should abolished be taken light-heartedly. It constitutes a movement of opposition against a long tradition of philosophy understanding itself as theoria : the disinterested contemplation on the nature of the human and the world. De Beauvoir, in common with most existentialists, understands philosophy as praxis : involved action in the world and participation in the course of history.
It is cover out of this understanding that The Second Sex is born. In 1949 Le Deuxieme Sexe is published in France. In English in 1953 it appeared as The Second Sex in an abridged translation. Research Aneurysm! The book immediately became a best seller and later a founding text of S econd Wave Feminism (the feminist movement from the cover letter for pediatric nurse early 60’s to the 70’s inspired by a dissertation the civil rights movement and focusing at the theoretical examination of the concepts of equality, inequality, the role of family, justice and so forth). More than anything, The Second Sex constitutes a study in applied existentialism where the abstract concept ‘Woman’ gives way to the examination of the cover letter for pediatric nurse lives of everyday persons struggling against oppression and essay humiliation. When de Beauvoir says that there is no such thing as a ‘Woman’ we have to hear the echo of the Kierkegaardian assertion of the letter for pediatric single individual against the abstractions of Hegelian philosophy, or similarly Sartre’s insistence on in sports the necessity of the prioritization of the personal lives of self-creating people (what Sartre calls ‘existence’) as opposed to a pre-established ideal of for pediatric nurse, what humans should be like (what Sartre calls ‘essence’).
The Second Sex is an exemplary text showing how a philosophical movement can have real, tangible effects on the lives of many people, and is a magnificent exercise in what philosophy could be. “I hesitated a long time before writing a book on woman. Research Paper On Brain! The subject is irritating, especially for for pediatric women. Research On Brain! ” (Beauvoir 2009:3). The Second Sex begins with the most obvious (but rarely posed) question: What is woman? De Beauvoir finds that at cover letter nurse, present there is corruption in sports essay no answer to that question. The reason is that tradition has always thought of woman as the other of man. It is only man that constitutes himself as a subject (as the Absolute de Beauvoir says), and cover woman defines herself only dissertation proposal, through him. Cover! “She determines and differentiates herself in relation to man, and he does not in in sports, relation to her; she is the inessential in front of the essential. ” (Beauvoir 2009:6). But why is letter nurse it that woman has initially accepted or tolerated this process whereby she becomes the other of man?
De Beauvoir does not give a consoling answer; on the contrary, by turning to Sartre’s notion of purchase abstract, bad faith (which refers to the human being’s anxiety in front of the responsibility entailed by the realization of its radical freedom) she thinks that women at times are complicit to letter nurse their situation. It is indeed easier for one – anyone – to assume the role of an object (for example a housewife 'kept' by her husband) than to take responsibility for creating him or herself and creating the possibilities of freedom for others. Naturally the condition of bad faith is not always the resume analyst for case. Often women found themselves in a sociocultural environment which denied them the very possibility of personal flourishing (as happens with most of the major religious communities). A further problem that women face is that of understanding themselves as a unity which would enable them to assume the role of their choosing. “Proletarians say ‘we’. So do blacks” (Beauvoir 2009:8). By saying ‘we’ they assume the role of the cover for pediatric subject and turn everyone else into ‘other’. Women are unable to on death penalty utter this ‘we’. “They live dispersed among men, tied by homes, work, economic interests and social conditions to certain men – fathers or husbands – more closely than to other women. As bourgeois women, they are in cover, solidarity with bourgeois men and not with women proletarians; as white women, they are in solidarity with white men and not with black women” (Beauvoir 2009:9).
Women primarily align themselves to their class or race and not to other women. Purchase A Dissertation Abstract! The female identity is “very much bound up with the identity of the men around them. ” (Reynolds 2006:145). One of the most celebrated moments in cover letter nurse, The Second Sex is the much quoted phrase: “One is grounded proposal not born, but rather becomes, woman” (Beauvoir 2009:293). She explains: “No biological, physical or economic destiny defines the cover letter for pediatric nurse figure that the human female takes on essay on death penalty in society; it is civilization as a whole that elaborates this intermediary product between the male and letter nurse the eunuch that is called feminine” (Beauvoir 2009:293). For some feminists this clearly inaugurates the problematic of the sex-gender distinction (where sex denotes the biological identity of the research on brain aneurysm person and cover for pediatric nurse gender the cultural attribution of properties to the sexed body). Simply put, there is absolutely nothing that determines the ‘assumed’ femininity of the woman (how a woman acts, feels, behaves) – everything that we have come to think as ‘feminine’ is a social construction not a natural given. Later feminists like Monique Wittig and proposal Judith Butler will argue that ‘sex’ is already ‘gender’ in the sense that a sexed body exists always already within a cultural nexus that defines it. Cover Letter For Pediatric! Thus the sex assignment (a doctor pronouncing the corruption in sports essay sex of the baby) is cover for pediatric a naturalized (but not at all natural) normative claim which delivers the human into a world of corruption in sports, power relations. f. Albert Camus (1913-1960) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Albert Camus was a French intellectual, writer and journalist.
His multifaceted work as well as his ambivalent relation to both philosophy and existentialism makes every attempt to classify him a rather risky operation. A recipient of the 1957 Nobel Prize for Literature primarily for cover letter his novels, he is also known as a philosopher due to his non-literary work and his relation with Jean-Paul Sartre. And yet his response was clear: “I am not a philosopher, because I don’t believe in grounded theory proposal, reason enough to letter for pediatric believe in in sports, a system. Cover Letter Nurse! What interests me is proposal health knowing how we must behave, and more precisely, how to behave when one does not believe in God or reason” (Camus in Sherman 2009: 1). The issue is not just about the cover nurse label 'existentialist'. It rather points to grounded theory a deep tension within the current of thought of all thinkers associated with existentialism. The question is: With how many voices can thought speak?
As we have already seen, the cover nurse thinkers of existentialism often deployed more than one. Almost all of them share a deep suspicion to a philosophy operating within reason as conceived of by the Enlightenment. Camus shares this suspicion and his so called philosophy of the absurd intends to grounded theory set limits to the overambitions of Western rationality. Reason is absurd in that it believes that it can explain the totality of the human experience whereas it is exactly its inability for explanation that, for example, a moment of fall designates. Thus in letter for pediatric, his novel “The Fall” the protagonist’s tumultuous narrative reveals the overtaking of a life of resume analyst, superficial regularity by the forces of darkness and irrationality. “A bourgeois hell, inhabited of course by bad dreams” (Camus 2006:10). Letter For Pediatric! In a similar fashion Camus has also repudiated his connection with existentialism. “Non, je ne suis pas existentialist” is the title of a famous interview that he gave for the magazine Les Nouvelles Litteraires on the 15 of November, 1945. The truth of the matter is that Camus’ rejection of existentialism is directed more toward Sartre’s version of it rather than toward a dismissal of the main problems that the existential thinkers faced. Particularly, Camus was worried that Sartre’s deification of history (Sartre’s proclaimed Marxism) would be incompatible with the affirmation of personal freedom. Camus accuses Hegel (subsequently Marx himself) of reducing man to history and research paper on brain aneurysm thus denying man the possibility of creating his own history, that is, affirming his freedom. Philosophically, Camus is known for his conception of the absurd. Perhaps we should clarify from the very beginning what the absurd is cover letter for pediatric not.
The absurd is not nihilism. For Camus the acceptance of the absurd does not lead to nihilism (according to Nietzsche nihilism denotes the state in in sports, which the highest values devalue themselves) or to inertia, but rather to their opposite: to action and participation. The notion of the letter for pediatric absurd signifies the corruption in sports essay space which opens up between, on the one hand, man’s need for cover for pediatric intelligibility and, on the other hand, 'the unreasonable silence of the dissertation proposal health world' as he beautifully puts it. In a world devoid of God, eternal truths or any other guiding principle, how could man bear the responsibility of a meaning-giving activity? The absurd man, like an astronaut looking at the earth from above, wonders whether a philosophical system, a religion or a political ideology is able to make the world respond to the questioning of man, or rather whether all human constructions are nothing but the excessive face-paint of a clown which is there to cover his sadness. This terrible suspicion haunts the absurd man. In one of the most memorable openings of cover, a non-fictional book he states: “There is but one truly serious philosophical problem and that is suicide. Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of analyst for, philosophy.
All the rest – whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the cover letter mind has nine or twelve categories – comes afterwards. These are games; one must first answer” (Camus 2000:11). The problem of suicide (a deeply personal problem) manifests the exigency of a meaning-giving response. Indeed for Camus a suicidal response to the problem of meaning would be the confirmation that the absurd has taken over man’s inner life. It would mean that man is not any more an animal going after answers, in accordance with some inner drive that leads him to act in order to endow the world with meaning. The suicide has become but a passive recipient of the muteness of the world. “. Theory! The absurd . is simultaneously awareness and rejection of death” (Camus 2000:54). One has to be aware of death – because it is precisely the realization of man’s mortality that pushes someone to strive for nurse answers – and one has ultimately to paper on brain aneurysm reject death – that is, reject suicide as well as the living death of inertia and inaction. At the end one has to cover for pediatric keep the grounded theory dissertation absurd alive, as Camus says. But what does it that mean? In The Myth of Sisyphus Camus tells the story of the mythical Sisyphus who was condemned by the Gods to letter for pediatric ceaselessly roll a rock to the top of in sports, a mountain and then have to let it fall back again of its own weight. “Sisyphus, proletarian of the nurse gods, powerless and rebellious, knows the whole extent of his wretched condition: it is what he thinks of during his descent.
The lucidity that was to constitute his torture at the same time crowns his victory. There is no fate that cannot be surmounted by scorn” (Camus 2000:109). Research On Brain! One must imagine then Sisyphus victorious: fate and absurdity have been overcome by cover letter for pediatric nurse a joyful contempt. Scorn is the appropriate response in the face of the absurd; another name for this 'scorn' though would be artistic creation. When Camus says: “One does not discover the absurd without being tempted to write a manual of happiness” (Camus 2000:110) he writes about a moment of exhilarated madness, which is the moment of the genesis of the artistic work.
Madness, but nevertheless profound – think of the function of the Fool in corruption in sports, Shakespeare’s King Lear as the one who reveals to the king the most profound truths through play, mimicry and songs. Such madness can overcome the for pediatric absurd without cancelling it altogether. Almost ten years after the publication of theory proposal, The Myth of Sisyphus Camus publishes his second major philosophical work, The Rebel (1951). Camus continues the problematic which had begun with The Myth of Sisyphus. Previously, revolt or creation had been considered the necessary response to the absurdity of existence. Here, Camus goes on to examine the nature of rebellion and its multiple manifestations in history. In The Myth of Sisyphus , in truly Nietzschean fashion, Camus had said: “There is but one useful action, that of letter for pediatric, remaking man and the earth” (Camus 2000:31). However, in The Rebel , reminiscent of resume analyst for, Orwell’s Animal Farm , one of the first points he makes is the following: “The slave starts by begging for justice and ends by cover letter for pediatric nurse wanting to wear a crown. He too wants to dominate” (Camus 2000b:31).
The problem is penalty should not be abolished that while man genuinely rebels against letter for pediatric nurse both unfair social conditions and, as Camus says, against the whole of creation, nevertheless in the practical administration of such revolution, man comes to deny the humanity of the other in an attempt to essay impose his own individuality. Take for example the case of the for pediatric infamous Marquis de Sade which Camus explores. In Sade, contradictory forces are at proposal care, work (see The 120 Days of Sodom ). On the one hand, Sade wishes the establishment of a (certainly mad ) community with desire as the ultimate master, and on the other hand this very desire consumes itself and all the subjects who stand in its way. Camus goes on to examine historical manifestations of letter for pediatric, rebellion, the most prominent case being that of the French Revolution. Analyst! Camus argues that the revolution ended up taking the place of the transcendent values which it sought to abolish. An all-powerful notion of justice now takes the place formerly inhabited by God. Rousseau’s infamous suggestion that under the rule of ‘general will’ everyone would be 'forced to be free' (Rousseau in Foley 2008:61) opens the way to the crimes committed after the revolution. Camus fears that all revolutions end with the re-establishment of the State. “. Seventeen eighty-nine brings Napoleon; 1848 Napoleon III; 1917 Stalin; the Italian disturbances of the twenties, Mussolini; the cover letter for pediatric nurse Weimar Republic, Hitler” (Camus 2000b:146). Camus is led to examine the resume analyst Marxist view of history as a possible response to the failed attempts at letter nurse, the establishment of a true revolutionary regime.
Camus examines the similarities between the Christian and the Marxist conception of history. They both exhibit a bourgeois preoccupation with progress. Corruption In Sports! In the name of the future everything can be justified: “the future is the only kind of cover nurse, property that the masters willingly concede to the slaves” (Camus 2000b:162). History according to both views is the linear progress from analyst, a set beginning to a definite end (the metaphysical salvation of man or the materialistic salvation of him in for pediatric, the future Communist society). Influenced by Kojeve’s reading of Hegel, Camus interprets this future, classless society as the ‘end of history’. The ‘end of history’ suggests that when all contradictions cease then history itself will come to should an end. This is, Camus argues, essentially nihilistic: history, in effect, accepts that meaning creation is no longer possible and commits suicide. Because historical revolutions are for the most part nihilistic movements, Camus suggests that it is the making-absolute of the values of the revolution that necessarily lead to their negation.
On the contrary a relative conception of these values will be able to sustain a community of free individuals who have not forgotten that every historical rebellion has begun by affirming a proto-value (that of human solidarity) upon which every other value can be based. 3. The Influence of Existentialism. In the field of visual arts existentialism exercised an enormous influence, most obviously on the movement of Expressionism. Expressionism began in Germany at the beginning of the 20 th century. With its emphasis on subjective experience, Angst and intense emotionality, German expressionism sought to letter nurse go beyond the naivete of penalty should, realist representation and to deal with the anguish of the modern man (exemplified in the terrible experiences of WWI). Many of the artists of cover letter nurse, Expressionism read Nietzsche intensively and following Nietzsche’s suggestion for a transvaluation of values experimented with alternative lifestyles.
Erich Heckel’s woodcut “Friedrich Nietzsche” from 1905 is resume for a powerful reminder of the movement’s connection to Existentialist thought. Abstract expressionism (which included artists such as de Kooning and Pollock, and cover letter for pediatric nurse theorists such as Rosenberg) continued with some of the same themes in the United States from the essay not be 1940s and tended to embrace existentialism as one of for pediatric nurse, its intellectual guides, especially after Sartre's US lecture tour in purchase a dissertation, 1946 and a production of No Exit in New York. German Expressionism was particularly important during the cover letter nurse birth of the new art of cinema. Perhaps the closest cinematic work to Existentialist concerns remains F.W. Murnau’s The Last Laugh (1924) in which the constantly moving camera (which prefigures the ‘rule’ of the hand-held camera of the Danish Dogma 95 ) attempts to arrest the spiritual anguish of a man who suddenly finds himself in a meaningless world. Expressionism became a world-wide style within cinema, especially as film directors like Lang fled Germany and ended up in in sports, Hollywood. Cover For Pediatric Nurse! Jean Genet's Un chant d'amour (1950) is a moving poetic exploration of desire. In the sordid, claustrophobic cells of a prison the inmates’ craving for intimacy takes place against the background of an unavoidable despair for existence itself. European directors such as Bergman and essay penalty not be Godard are often associated with existentialist themes. Godard's Vivre sa vie ( My Life to Live , 1962) is explicit in its exploration of the nature of freedom under conditions of extreme social and personal pressure. In the late 20 th and early 21 st centuries existentialist ideas became common in mainstream cinema, pervading the work of writers and directors such as Woody Allen, Richard Linklater, Charlie Kaufman and Christopher Nolan.
Given that Sartre and Camus were both prominent novelists and letter for pediatric playwrights, the influence of existentialism on for literature is not surprising. However, the influence was also the other way. Novelists such as Dostoevsky or Kafka, and the dramatist Ibsen, were often cited by mid-century existentialists as important precedents, right along with Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Cover For Pediatric! Dostoevsky creates a character Ivan Karamazov (in The Brothers Karamazov , 1880) who holds the view that if God is dead, then everything is permitted; both Nietzsche and Sartre discuss Dostoevsky with enthusiasm. Within drama, the theatre of the absurd and most obviously Beckett were influenced by resume existentialist ideas; later playwrights such as Albee, Pinter and Stoppard continue this tradition. One of the key figures of 20 th century psychology, Sigmund Freud, was indebted to Nietzsche especially for his analysis of the role of psychology within culture and history, and for his view of cultural artefacts such as drama or music as 'unconscious' documentations of psychological tensions. But a more explicit taking up of existentialist themes is found in nurse, the broad 'existentialist psychotherapy' movement. A common theme within this otherwise very diverse group is that previous psychology misunderstood the fundamental nature of the human and especially its relation to others and to acts of meaning-giving; thus also, previous psychology had misunderstood what a 'healthy' attitude to self, others and meaning might be.
Key figures here include Swiss psychologists Ludwig Binswanger and later Menard Boss, both of purchase a dissertation, who were enthusiastic readers of cover letter, Heidegger; the Austrian Frankl, who invented the method of logotherapy; in England, Laing and Cooper, who were explicitly influenced by Sartre; and in the United States, Rollo May, who stresses the ineradicable importance of anxiety. As a whole, existentialism has had relatively little direct influence within philosophy. In Germany, existentialism (and especially Heidegger) was criticised for being obscure, abstract or even mystical in nature. This criticism was made especially by Adorno in The Jargon of Authenticity, and in Dog Years , novelist Gunter Grass gives a Voltaire-like, savage satire of Heidegger. The criticism was echoed by many in the analytic tradition. Heidegger and the existentialist were also taken to task for paying insufficient attention to social and political structures or values, with dangerous results.
In France, philosophers like Sartre were criticised by those newly under the influence of structuralism for dissertation proposal paying insufficient attention to the nature of language and to impersonal structures of meaning. In short, philosophy moved on, and in different directions. Individual philosophers remain influential, however: Nietzsche and Heidegger in particular are very much 'live' topics in philosophy, even in the 21 st century. However, there are some less direct influences that remain important. Let us raise three examples. Both the cover letter nurse issue of freedom in relation to paper aneurysm situation, and that of the philosophical significance of nurse, what otherwise might appear to be extraneous contextual factors, remain key, albeit in dramatically altered formulation, within the work of Michel Foucault or Alain Badiou, two figures central to late 20 th century European thought.
Likewise, the philosophical importance that the existentialists placed upon emotion has been influential, legitimising a whole domain of philosophical research even by philosophers who have no interest in existentialism. Similarly, existentialism was a philosophy that insisted philosophy could and should deal very directly with 'real world' topics such as sex, death or crime, topics that had most frequently been approached abstractly within the research paper on brain aneurysm philosophical tradition. Mary Warnock wrote on existentialism and especially Sartre, for example, while also having an letter for pediatric nurse, incredibly important and public role within recent applied ethics.
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and cover letter for pediatric nurse, easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about care, can make research faster and easier.
Interest: Picking a question you want to for pediatric know more about can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and paper aneurysm, sample student essays. Check out my guides for cover for pediatric, writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to paper come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of cover letter topic ideas (in the categories of food and resume analyst for, health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and science and technology, with videos and many links to cover letter for pediatric nurse research and student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is purchase a dissertation talking about makes writing an letter for pediatric nurse argument essay easier.
Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty.
For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and grounded, is not only cover letter for pediatric nurse, probably bored with the proposal care, topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Cover Letter! Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is dissertation Love? What kind of for pediatric nurse love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for proposal, a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for a family?
Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by people around the cover, world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the analyst, Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the cover letter for pediatric nurse, best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and a dissertation, Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the cover for pediatric nurse, best by doctors?
Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely?
Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about analyst, morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese?
Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on cover letter Obesity and Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in purchase a dissertation abstract, American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry.
An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of letter for pediatric nurse weight and kept it off for long periods of time. Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the resume analyst, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from cover letter Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the grounded dissertation, world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for letter for pediatric nurse, the environment?
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Additional data have been provided to support this literature. Questions have also been added as seen fit for academic purposes only.) THE IMPOSSIBLE INTERN …”Great! Not only do they think that we are cowards, we’re also incompetent. Jones, Rhodewalt, Berglas, Skelton, 1981; Paulhus, 1982). These research questions are addressed through the lens of self-affirmation theory ( Sherman Hartson, 2011; Steele, 1988), which has been shown to be a useful theoretical tool for understanding the essay should not be, types of nurse, self-presentation users compose. inventory valuation will have on Gross Profit. On Brain? (10 points) (Points : 20) 5. Nurse? (TCO 1) To evaluate the financial operation and health of a business ratio analysis is used. Not Be? (1) Provide the formula for the Current Ratio and explain how it is computed (10 points) and letter nurse (2) provide an example of how this ratio can. Visit: ( http://www.studentsoffortunes.com/ ) (Product Description) (TCO 1) To evaluate the financial operation and research paper health of a business ratio analysis is used. (1) Provide the formula for the Acid-test (or Quick) Ratio and explain how it is computed (10 points) and (2) provide an example of how this. Strategic Analysis of Southwest Airlines. where everyone loves and wants to work . Letter For Pediatric? The spirit originated from the company’s mission where creativity and innovation are encouraged to improve company’s effectiveness while creating a unique culture making it a great place to work and grounded theory have fun.
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contributes flavor, whose primary function in food is seasoning rather than nutrition, and that may contribute relish or piquancy to foods or beverages ( Sherman Billing, 1998). Nevertheless, do spices only contribute to aiding the flavor, aroma or piquancy of food, if so, why spices have been significantly. ? Cindy Sherman By Leilani Hatch Within our Western culture, the media dominates. Pressure to conform to certain ways of dressing or behaving as a woman is a recurrent theme throughout the saturation of images. Letter For Pediatric Nurse? Cindy Sherman has been praised as one of society’s most influencial, respected post-modern. ECON 545 DEVRY Courses Tutorials/ Uoptutorial. DEVRY ECON 545 Week 1 DQ 1 Supply and Demand DEVRY ECON 545 Week 1 DQ 2 Elasticity and the Minimum Wage DEVRY ECON 545 Week 2 DQ 1 Marginal Analysis DEVRY ECON 545 Week 2 DQ 2 Controlling Costs DEVRY ECON 545 Week 3 DQ 1 Mergers Acquisitions DEVRY ECON 545 Week 3 DQ 2 Anti-Trust Policy and.
Cindy Sherman's Photograph: Untitled Film Still 48. can get a sense of the experience with just a look at Cindy Sherman's photograph, Untitled Film Still # 48. The photograph, taken in 1979, shows a female hitchhiker waiting for a ride alongside a two-lane highway in the dim light of dusk. Sherman is an resume for accomplished photographer. When she uses her camera. Cost Accounting Analysis of Microsoft Corporation. Cost Accounting Analysis of Microsoft Corporation Cindy Costa Axia College ACC 227- Cost Accounting Mr.
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