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Aqa english literature coursework

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basic essay layout A. Aqa English Literature. First point and supporting info. B. Application. Second point and supporting info. Literature Coursework. C. Third point and supporting info. The objective of curry application essay, a persuasive essay is to win the reader over to your side of an argument, while the coursework, primary objective of an argumentative essay is just to math help, show that you have a valid argument, allowing the reader either to adopt your position or to aqa english literature, agree to disagree. Another difference between the two types of essay is that in the persuasive essay, although you acknowledge the opposing view, only leo lionni term one side of the issue is debated. An important part of the argumentative essay is to use evidence both to substantiate one's own position and to refute the opposing argument.

The final difference between the argumentative essay and the argument (persuasive) essay is the aqa english literature coursework, organization of the composition. The persuasive essay follows the basic essay format as displayed in the example. The argumentative essay may be formatted in several ways: Start building a strong case by refuting or disproving the opposing position. Use one paragraph to state each counter point, following your statement with related evidence that refutes the point. Present your case in the second section of the body. Curry College Application. Use one paragraph to state each of your points, following your statement with the evidence that proves or supports your point.

The conclusion of this format is a restatement of your claim and a summary of the information that supports it. A. First counter point and refuting information. B. Second counter point and coursework, refuting information. C. English Essay Questions. Third counter point and refuting information. III Body Part II. A. First point and aqa english, supporting information. B. Second point and supporting information. C. Third point and supporting information. Leo Lionni. IV Conclusion - Restatement of claim and summary of the main ideas.

Start the first section of the aqa english literature coursework, body with your statement of marketing, claim or position. In this format, you begin by stating and supporting your points. Use one paragraph to state each of your points, following your statement with the evidence that proves or supports your point. Follow each point with an opposing view related to that point and evidence that supports the objection. Use one paragraph for each counter point and its evidence. After you have finished presenting all points, counter points and evidence, start the second section of the body with your rebuttals to each of the counter points. Back your rebuttals with evidence and logic that shows why the objections are invalid. If the opposing view is aqa english, valid, acknowledge it as so but use your evidence to show that it's somehow unattractive and that your position is the more desirable of the two.

Use one paragraph to rebut each counter claim. The conclusion of this format is a restatement of your claim, a summary of math help, supporting information and an assessment of rebuttals. II. Body Part I - Presenting the Case. A. Statement of the claim.

B. First point and supporting information. C. First point opposition and refuting evidence. D. Second point and aqa english, supporting information. E. Second point opposition and on a thousand splendid, refuting evidence. F. Third point and supporting information. G. Third point opposition and refuting evidence. III. Body Part II- Author's rebuttal.

A. First point rebuttal. B. Second point rebuttal. C. Third point rebuttal. Start the body with your statement of claim or position. In this format, you begin by aqa english stating and supporting your points.

Use one paragraph to state each of leo lionni term, your points, following your statement with the evidence that proves or supports your point. Follow each point with an opposing view related to that point and evidence that supports the aqa english literature coursework, objection. Use one paragraph for each counter point and its evidence. Follow each objection with your rebuttal. Use one paragraph to rebut each counter claim. The conclusion of this format is a restatement of your claim, a summary of supporting information and an assessment of rebuttals.

A. Statement of the mtel essay, claim. B. First point and supporting information. C. First point opposition and refuting evidence. D. First rebuttal and supporting information. E. Second point and supporting information. Literature Coursework. F. Second point opposition and refuting evidence.

G. Second rebuttal and supporting information. Writing the Argumentative Essay. Now that you know how to format an argumentative essay, it's time to begin writing. Again, as in the persuasive essay, state your thesis objectively. Don't use first person. Instead of saying, I don't think global warming is worth worrying about, you might say, A two degree rise in temperature over the last hundred years makes global warming a trivial problem. Now that you have ‘put the gloves on be prepared to back up your thesis with facts. Use statistics, expert quotations, and other evidence in support of your thesis and in rebuttal of counter claims. In addition, all counter claims should be backed with solid evidence as well. As you research your material, anticipate objections and be prepared to make concessions. This will help you to research and questions, write your thesis as if you were debating a real person instead of a piece of paper!

Perhaps the literature, biggest mistake people make in writing an argumentative essay is to substitute their opinions for facts. Remember that each claim you make must be supported by solid evidence if your argument is to hold up to counter claims and objections. Mtel. Although in an argumentative essay you don't have to aqa english literature coursework, win the reader over to your side, your objective at the least should be to persuade them to agree to disagree with your position and accept it as another point of view that merits further thought and discussion.

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PhD: is the coursework, doctoral thesis obsolete? Should the foundations of a 21st-century academic career still be built on the traditional model? Communication within the science world and research, with the public is becoming shorter and snappier, yet our PhDs still seem to be stuck in the 1960s. Earlier this year, Jeremy Farrar, director of the Wellcome Trust, examined a PhD candidate at Imperial College London. Although the student “sailed through”, Farrar was struck by how much time he had spent writing up his thesis compared with carrying out experiments. “Is it time to look at the PhD thesis?” he wondered aloud on Twitter. “What is best for candidate and research in the 21st century?” He estimates that the aqa english literature coursework, average doctoral student spends about six months of their four-year programme writing their thesis, and another three “waiting for it to be examined”. “That is just not a wise balance,” he says – particularly when even examiners rarely have the time to “wade through” theses in their entirety. “An awful lot is going unused and unread,” he says. “Is this really appropriate for the modern world?

Communication within the science world and leo lionni, with the public is becoming shorter and snappier, yet our PhDs still seem to be stuck in the 1960s.” The Wellcome Trust currently supports more than 850 UK doctoral candidates, so Farrar’s views are significant. He feels some PhDs have become a demoralising “conveyor belt”, with students convinced that as long as they “churn out 300 pages”, they will “get through”. Hence, theses become bloated with “page after page of aqa english literature, methods”, along the lines of: “I pipetted 2.5ml of this enzyme into that tube.” Philip Moriarty, professor of physics at the University of Nottingham, also worries about wasted effort. He says too many doctoral theses in mtel essay questions, his field include up to 100 pages describing techniques and fundamental principles largely paraphrased from textbooks. Coursework? This is “very often superfluous and provides little or no insight into the student’s work”. He would much prefer to leo lionni term paper, see theses’ introductory sections “written along the lines of a good review article, where the literature coursework, student does a critical appraisal of the state of the field”. But what about going further and abolishing the thesis entirely, and instead allowing students to submit a bundle of papers? For several decades most UK universities have offered doctorates “by prior publication”, but these are usually confined to staff and leo lionni term, (sometimes) former students who have already published a substantial body of work that adds up to a unique contribution to knowledge.

However, according to The Role of Publications and Other Artefacts in Submissions for aqa english coursework, the UK PhD , a report published earlier this year by the UK Council for Graduate Education, 72 per cent of 50 UK universities surveyed sometimes saw published papers incorporated into PhD submissions – although it was the norm in just 2 per cent of cases and was rare or absent in 83 per cent. A spokeswoman for Imperial says that the institution “does not currently accept a series of papers for application essay, submission as a thesis, although we are continuing to explore the possibility of aqa english coursework, accepting alternative PhD thesis formats”. The “integrated format”, as the UKCGE calls it, is already common in many European countries, for college application, which reason it is sometimes known as the “continental model”. And according to Margaret Kiley, a visiting fellow at the Australian National University, many higher education institutions Down Under offer something similar. The UKCGE report attributes the integrated format’s rise to growing pressure on students, particularly in the sciences, to publish their findings prior to graduation – not least so that they can compete for postdoctoral positions in literature, an increasingly international job market.

Some universities also want to eliminate the “opportunity cost to the institution if the thesis on a thousand suns, PhD regulations forced candidates to rewrite…pre-published material”. However, there is also a “general consensus” that the aqa english literature, bundle of papers submitted “needs to be coherent and to demonstrate explicitly the astronomy, candidate’s individual contribution to knowledge”. The UKCGE itself, in aqa english literature, a statement issued to thesis thousand, Times Higher Education , notes that examiners “need to aqa english literature coursework, be confident that the mtel, research has been conducted soundly, securely, ethically and aqa english literature coursework, with a robust methodology. Therefore it is necessary for a PhD thesis to contain more information than other types of publication that researchers might produce later in their careers when they become more established. Shorter, multi-authored publications alone, without accompanying overviews, do not provide this.” The report’s lead author, Bruce Christianson, professor of informatics at the University of Hertfordshire, says that universities typically require students to append an introduction, setting out the astronomy coursework, context in aqa english literature, which the papers fit, and a critical summary at statistics math help, the end, bringing all the strands together. Despite all that, he estimates that the amount of material candidates have to literature, write from scratch under the integrated format is about a fifth of that required for a traditional thesis. Although it is “unheard of” for a department to english questions, insist on the integrated format, some supervisors “very much prefer” it, Christianson says. One is David Leigh, Sir Samuel Hall professor of chemistry at the University of Manchester. He has successfully “encouraged” all but one of his doctoral students during the past dozen years to submit for aqa english literature coursework, examination a series of papers, published or not – including the literature review favoured by Moriarty.

He says this approach fits perfectly with his discipline, where beyond the initial “discovery phase”, work is planned specifically “with the article we hope to publish in mind”. “It makes no sense to rewrite the curry essay, work in aqa english, a way [that was not intended] and dissect out just your own little contribution to the team’s work in order to report it in math help, a PhD thesis,” he says. As well as teaching students how to coursework, plan and write papers, Leigh adds, the approach also teaches them “how to astronomy coursework, plan and execute a research project efficiently and effectively; focusing at a relatively early stage on what needs to be done rather than…carrying out a lot of experiments…sitting down to write the aqa english coursework, paper and only then realising that to publish the story they need some model compounds that they haven’t made yet and don’t need some of the statistics help, others that they have spent much time and effort making”. Any potential loss of information to future group members about tried and failed approaches (which typically aren’t reported in papers) is compensated for by requiring everyone in the lab to produce monthly “flowsheets” setting out what they have done, which are then stored in literature coursework, a “group repository”. Any extra work that this involves is thousand, more than compensated for by the fact that Leigh’s students typically spend just four weeks writing up their integrated thesis. One concern about the integrated format voiced by many respondents to the UKCGE survey is that it can be difficult to aqa english coursework, identify students’ individual contributions to multi-author papers; 64 per cent of institutions require each student to state their own contribution to each paper and 22 per curry application essay, cent require claims to be endorsed by the co-authors. According to aqa english literature coursework, Christianson, such measures make it harder for students to “fudge” their own contributions, as they can in the traditional thesis. Leigh has his students state their individual contributions in a preface to each paper, which also sets out where it fits into statistics their wider research. Experimental details are provided by editing each paper’s supporting information down to aqa english literature coursework, just the candidate’s own work.

Although Farrar sees the rise of the integrated thesis as “progress”, he is wary of going too far down that road. He is curry college essay, concerned that the approach risks turning the PhD into a “paper machine” that disadvantages candidates who are unlucky with their experiments and pushes supervisors to avoid any project that doesn’t obviously hold out the promise of a paper – “and there is already too much of that in science”. But Leigh argues that unlucky students with no results “shouldn’t be getting a PhD anyway”, since the degree is awarded “for a contribution to knowledge, not for a good try”. He does not require his students to produce any particular number of aqa english coursework, papers (five is typical but numbers range from curry college three to nine) and insists that the level of results they have to literature coursework, achieve is no different from that required for a traditional thesis. Since his lab always lists the names of astronomy, paper authors alphabetically, there is no issue about authorship order.

But Leigh accepts that other labs and disciplines in which order is determined by often fraught judgements about each author’s contribution could run into problems with the integrated format – if a university department insisted on coursework, a particular authorship position before a paper could be submitted as part of an integrated thesis. One academic to respond to paper marketing, Farrar’s tweet was Simon Hay, professor of literature, epidemiology at the University of Oxford, who said that doctoral theses should consist of “a series of linked chapters, prepared like peer-reviewed articles with strict word limits” – as they do in his lab. The relevant departmental regulations at Oxford stipulate that “papers written in collaboration should not be included unless the greater part of the work is directly attributed to the candidate” – although “joint papers may however be included as appendices”. The latter provision allowed one of Hay’s current doctoral candidates, Oliver Brady, to include a Nature paper on astronomy coursework, which he was a minor author as an appendix to his thesis, and to write a chapter expanding on his role in aqa english literature coursework, the project based on ample “supplementary information” published alongside the paper. That decision, Brady says, was based on empirical, the fact that his contribution “formed a significant and independent body of work that could have been published in isolation, but was instead combined with other complementary work in order to aqa english literature coursework, obtain a higher impact publication”. He adds that a previous student of Hay’s was able to combine several papers on which she was second author into a single thesis chapter. He sees the thesis as the astronomy, ‘gold standard’, since it remains the aqa english, best means by which to capture ‘the unfolding of the mind’ that a doctorate constitutes. Such “hybrid” approaches, which allow students to astronomy coursework, “demonstrate their contribution to a larger piece of published work”, would also be helpful in groups with fiercely hierarchical structures, Brady adds.

In such scenarios, “a significant proportion of the DPhil students’ time will be devoted to advancing the goals of the group”, making it unlikely that they will generate many first-author papers of their own. Everyone appears to accept that the integrated format is not appropriate for all students, labs and disciplines, and that the traditional thesis still has its merits. Moriarty – who is not aware of any opportunity at Nottingham to switch to the integrated format – notes that part of the laudable trend towards equipping doctoral students with transferable skills should include ensuring they are capable of “clear and coherent writing”. This is much easier to literature coursework, assess in a thesis than in papers that are “drafted and redrafted, modified and re-modified…so many times before publication that the student’s contribution to the writing is often not easy to determine”. Andrew Harrison, chief executive of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in paper, Harwell, Oxfordshire – which offers PhDs in collaboration with numerous universities – also thinks there is aqa english literature, “some merit in testing how well students can express themselves through the written word without the intervention of the astronomy, paper’s editors”. He stresses the coursework, importance of doctoral candidates putting together a body of astronomy, work “that supports a thesis – in the ‘proposition’ sense of the aqa english coursework, word – because this demonstrates a rather broader approach and a more in-depth view of problems than would be common in individual papers”. And Harrison worries that even requiring candidates to have a certain number of essay, papers in preparation could be “problematic” for some. For these reasons, the traditional thesis that confines itself to “the most essential background material…still has value”, he believes. Robert Bowman, director of the Centre for Nanostructured Media at Queen’s University Belfast, says there have been discussions at his institution about moving to the integrated format, and he believes that a “hybrid” system will ultimately come into existence. But he prefers the traditional thesis. For a start, he doubts that the typical science thesis is “anywhere near” as long as the 80,000-word maximum.

Those he has supervised or examined have consisted, he estimates, of only 30,000 to 40,000 words (plus figures). “So the idea that science students are spending months writing prose is probably wrong,” Bowman says. Furthermore, research in his field is aqa english literature, “messy and doesn’t immediately lead to a few neat, tidy papers”. It is often the thesis writing and examination process itself that identifies the data and essay, observations that might be publishable, he adds. Bowman also values the ability of traditional theses to “stretch” students, making subsequent writing tasks “that bit less intimidating”. They also offer greater scope to describe and discuss techniques – particularly important when the doctoral candidate has developed a new piece of equipment. Literature? And he prefers to leo lionni, see positive and literature, negative results presented “in a consistent description, rather than artificially sewing together successful published strands”. Theses, in Bowman’s view, are also invaluable documents for term, introducing new candidates to particular topics and techniques, and for tapping into former students’ views about what research should be taken forward. He accepts that requiring students to write an overarching introduction and discussion under the coursework, integrated format could address many of his objections – “but then you might argue that is just a conventional thesis, with the results chapters as papers”. According to the UKCGE report, the debate in some institutions about the merits of the integrated format pits older against younger researchers, with the latter being more receptive to it. Research Marketing? But it also finds, unsurprisingly, that attachment to the traditional thesis is deepest outside the literature, sciences, where publication prior to submission remains rare and where monographs often remain the research medium of choice.

In economics, PhD candidates at the London School of empirical research paper, Economics are examined on the basis of a thesis formed of aqa english coursework, papers (which may have been published), together with an introduction and an integrating conclusion. Curry Application Essay? However, this approach is still rare, according to Andrew Oswald, professor of economics at aqa english coursework, the University of questions, Warwick. He notes that the aqa english coursework, research excellence framework has led to an increasing emphasis on producing articles, but he remains a fan of the thesis. Although the curry, traditional requirement that chapters fit together explicitly has been relaxed, thesis writing, in Oswald’s view, still helps instil in students the idea that “different parts of one’s thinking should be consistent”. “The problem with [only] writing endless articles…is that it is aqa english literature, possible to hold mutually contradictory views in leo lionni paper, different [ones]. Literature? Hence the academic disciplines that stick up for books have got a point,” Oswald says. Chief among them, of course, is English. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and thought at Royal Holloway, University of London, sees himself as a progressive on most academic issues, but still considers the thesis – and, relatedly, the monograph – as the empirical, “gold standard”, since it remains the best means by which to literature coursework, capture “the unfolding of the mind” that a doctorate constitutes.

A doctorate is about “making and astronomy, testing a cogent, coherent and original argument in aqa english coursework, detail and over statistics math help, length. That’s a ‘book length’ thing to do,” he says. Aqa English? Hence, even if integrated theses were permitted, they would be the victim of astronomy, “snobbery”. But even the humanities are not immune to the rise of papers and, hence, integrated theses. Oxford’s famous Faculty of Philosophy has begun to permit theses consisting of several publishable papers on coursework, the same general theme (see ‘An athlete does thousands of laps on the track with no one watching’ box, below). Meanwhile, according to the UKCGE report, arts students are typically permitted to submit a “wide range of exhibits or performances” such as novels, paintings and musical scores as part of statistics help, their PhDs, provided they can “show how the aqa english coursework, artefacts relate to the thesis and its defence”.

The rise of doctoral training centres across the disciplines – with their increased focus on student employability – has prompted some of the leo lionni, academics running them to start to question whether the thesis is still the literature coursework, best means for a PhD candidate to curry college application essay, demonstrate their ability to aqa english literature coursework, undertake independent research. Michael Saward, director of Warwick’s Economic and Social Research Council-funded doctoral training centre, believes the thesis remains the “ideal vehicle” to articulate and astronomy, explore “the overarching issue” in the various aspects of candidates’ research – even if supervisors and students are “becoming increasingly skilled at seeing the thesis as a source of (ideally) two or three good journal articles”. But for Terry McMaster, director of the University of Bristol’s Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, a centre for doctoral training funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the aqa english literature coursework, time is mtel essay questions, right for a sector-wide discussion about the aqa english literature, merits of moving to the integrated format in leo lionni paper, science and engineering. He shares Farrar’s concerns about the amount of time it takes to write a traditional thesis in science and engineering: “In their fourth year, candidates are at their most effective and literature coursework, productive, with high technical expertise, writing skills and research judgement. But then they are busy writing a large document, most of which will be read by only a small number of people.”

The issue is leo lionni term, brought into particular relief if students leave science after their doctorates and so do not write up their results in papers, McMaster adds. “In an era when we are driven by producing REFable outputs, it seems sensible to encourage skilled final-year science PhD students to produce as many papers as possible,” he says. According to aqa english literature, the UKCGE report, a “substantial number” of institutions expect the integrated format to become more common over the next five years. But for his part, Farrar remains unclear that the model offers the best solution to empirical, his concerns. His hunch is that theses should be shortened and focused more on aqa english literature, analysis and reflections about research avenues. But he admits that the future of the doctorate is a “huge topic” that needs a lot more thought.

For this reason, he is contemplating trying to convene a discussion with other major UK biomedical PhD funders to “think about what we want individuals to [gain from] a classic three- or four-year PhD in leo lionni term, order to enhance their careers and the science contribution they are making during [it] and afterwards”. Farrar concludes: “I am not necessarily in favour of overregulating things, but it is fascinating how if you look at the whole educational piece from literature coursework primary school, the PhD is the last bastion of stuff that is totally Wild West. Essay? There are all sorts of different models.” ‘An athlete does thousands of laps on the track with no one watching’ The University of Oxford’s Faculty of Philosophy gives DPhil candidates two choices: they can submit a traditional thesis or one consisting of several journal-style papers (which may have been published) that “collectively represent a coherent and focused body of research into a single subject”. Such theses also require “a further integrative chapter, stating how the aqa english, papers…relate to each other and to an overall field of thesis splendid suns, learning”. As with the standard thesis, integrated ones must “contain material adequate for two publishable papers” – although according to Luke Brunning, a recent graduate of the programme, they typically contain three. Brunning attributes the faculty’s move to its recognition that publication is becoming ever more important for doctoral students intent on academic careers – as most Oxford candidates are likely to aqa english literature coursework, be.

“If you can get a thesis already parcelled up into chunks that can be made into an article, it is something they are encouraging people to do,” he says. However, in Brunning’s view, the integrated format lends itself to statistics help, some temperaments and subject matter more than others. And although the model is becoming more popular, he chose to stick with the traditional approach since “that is how I think about things”. Even if very few people read theses, he believes that writing one provides valuable training in how to “get to grips with a large amount of coursework, material”, tying it all together and situating it in a broader context. “An athlete does thousands of laps on leo lionni, the track with no one watching but that doesn’t mean it is valueless,” Brunning points out. He accepts that a good thesis is literature coursework, no longer enough to secure an academic job, but he is unclear about the research marketing, extent to which a good unpublished writing sample, culled from a thesis, can make up for a lack of publications. Brunning knows that the time it will take to turn his thesis into journal papers or a monograph could slow down his job search.

“But publication is always difficult. There is still work to be done to aqa english literature, turn a 20,000-word [integrated format] chapter into a journal article,” he says, noting that the eight chapters contained in a typical traditional thesis are more “article-sized”. “My regret is not focusing on publication sooner. But that is not about whether the thesis is a valuable thing to write, and astronomy coursework, more about what is literature coursework, valued in statistics math, academia in aqa english literature coursework, terms of thesis on a thousand splendid, getting a job,” Brunning says. Cut to the paper chase: a happy example of the integrated approach. David Pigott is literature, pursuing an integrated format PhD in the laboratory of Simon Hay, professor of epidemiology at the University of Oxford.

Hay does not impose a lower threshold on astronomy coursework, the number of papers that must be submitted, nor do they need to have been published. Pigott’s thesis on mapping the global diversity of infectious diseases – which he expects to submit this summer – has four chapters. Each is aqa english literature, linked to a first-author paper on mapping a specific disease, together with the requisite introduction and discussion tying everything together. Pigott enjoys the integrated format because “you are always working towards small goals instead of, like an undergraduate, leaving all the writing to the last minute” – a period that can potentially clash with the beginning of a postdoctoral contract. Although he says he would pitch some of the discussions in his early papers differently if he were to write them now because of empirical research marketing, what he has since learned, this is more than compensated for by their contribution to aqa english literature coursework, building his profile within the field (and breaking the ice at conferences). Pigott also hopes that recruitment committees will be more willing to flick through the abstracts of his papers than they would be to engage with a long thesis. The fact that papers typically have much lower word counts than thesis chapters also “teaches the skill of thesis splendid suns, culling everything that is not necessary but you feel obliged to aqa english literature, write about because it took you two weeks to essay, do”, he adds. Pigott admits the integrated approach can encourage the publication of several smaller papers rather than one big one, but hopes his final chapter will consist of a “higher impact” paper that synthesises his previous publications. He admits the integrated format is aqa english, not for astronomy coursework, everyone: “I have a colleague doing something on vaccines. Publishing as he goes along wouldn’t be viable because of all the aqa english coursework, dead ends that occur in [vaccine development].

You can publish method protocols but that doesn’t represent the same [level of] output.” But Pigott certainly thinks that where papers can be incorporated into theses they should be. And he is struck by a story he heard about a PhD student who was censured for self-plagiarism after including one of his papers in a conventional thesis. “He was told he needed to rewrite it: that sounds to leo lionni, me like a complete waste of time.” Registration is free and only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of 3 articles each month, plus: Sign up for the editor's highlights Receive World University Rankings news first Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and save job searches Participate in literature, reader discussions and post comments Register. Or subscribe for unlimited access to:

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Digital Marketing and empirical research, Recruitment Executive. We need to literature coursework, call off the coursework, witch-hunt and trust in the capacity of aqa english coursework, our students to learn, says Bruce Macfarlane. Last week, the UK’s universities minister threatened to fine institutions that pay their v-cs more than the prime minister without a strong justification. We present three perspectives on the debate. The bullying and subsequent suicide of a talented Ivy League scientist exposes ugly truths about the cruelty and dysfunction at the heart of academic science.

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akhenaten resume Date: 12/4/2003, 2:23 am. A reader emailed saying, I need to know the name of the Egyptologist who first theorized that Moses could have been Akhenaten. I'm not sure if there is an answer to this question. Perhaps it is best to start from the aqa english beginning and work forward. In a new book titled 'The Seventy Great Mysteries of leo lionni paper Ancient Egypt,' it is stated (p 273): Since antiquity, many writers have tried to coursework associate Moses with Akhenaten . Astronomy Coursework. Manetho, who claimed that the founder of monotheism - whom he called Osarsiph - assumed the name Moses, and led his folllowers out of Egypt in Akhenaten's reign.

The spectre of Akhenaten was also transformed into Moses by writers such as Lysimachus, Tacitus and Strabo. A good summary of the literature coursework relevant works of Lysimachus, Tacitus and Strabo is found in a book by Egyptologist Jan Assmann called 'Moses the Egyptian.' Assmann does not believe that Akhenaten was Moses, but he does provide a detailed audit trail of thinking on the subject up until the modern era. After Manetho, Strabo, and college application the other writers of antiquity, Assmann continues a discussion of two periods of Egyptian 'revival' or 'Egyptomania' that are associated with two events in the history of Europe: the Renaissance and Napoleon's expedition to Egypt. Aqa English Literature. The first revival consists mainly in the discovery of alleged 'Egyptian texts,' such as the treatise on the Egyptian hieroglyphs by Horapollo and the Corpus Hermeticum. Math Help. (p 17-18) In the Renaissance, the figure known as Hermes Trismegistus (Hermes/Thoth the Thrice Great) emerges as the Egyptian Moses. The movement stalled when Isaac Casaubon made compelling arguments that the Hermetic writings were fabrications. However, after his death in 1614, new arguments by Ralph Cudworth resulted in the return of literature coursework Hermes Trismegistus to favor and to what Assmann refers to as 'The Moses Discourse of the 18th Century. By then the english essay questions Renaissance was over and Europe had entered into what is called The Enlightenment. Aqa English Literature. Akhenaten did not figure much if at all in coursework, the debate of this time, although some thinkers such as John Toland continued to maintain that Moses was a true Egyptian. Others considered him to be a Hebrew in the traditional sense.

By the end of the 1700's there was apparently great interest in Egypt, and this was possibly a motivation for the conquest of Egypt by Napolean and the subsequent 'Napolean Expedition' to conduct a scientific study of Egypt and the ancient remains. Reconsideration of literature Akhenaten as Moses did not resume in earnest until after the discovery of Amarna/Akhet-aten in the late 1800's and the tomb of Tut in 1922. The best summary I have found on this second wave of Moses theorizing is in a book called 'The Search for the Gold of Tutankhamun (1976) by Arnold Brackman. All the text placed in quotes below are from pages 183-184 of that book. Astronomy Coursework. The first Egyptologists to consider a relationship between Akhenaten and Moses were Sir Matthew Flinders Petrie, James Henry Breasted and Arthur Weigall. All three were intimately associated with Howard Carter and the opening of Tut's tomb. None went so far as to conclude that Akhenaten was Moses. Coursework. Petrie and Oxford scholar A.H. Statistics Math Help. Sayce were of the literature opinion that the Exodus occurred in the 19th Dynasty based on the discovery of the so-called Israel Stela of pharaoh Merenptah and statistics help Biblical references to Rameses. According to literature that school of thought, If the Old Testament is accurate, Akhenaten, the heretic pharaoh who preached monotheism, was the thousand splendid suns precursor of Moses.

In his 'Dawn of Consciousness' (New York: Scribner's, 1934). Breasted directed attention to the striking parallels between Akhenaten's hymn to the sun and Psalm 104 and to other parallels between Egyptian religious texts and the Old Testament, notably the aqa english coursework Proverbs. Breasted then drew the empirical research paper revolutionary conclusion that Akhenaten was the pathfinder in the recognition of one God, a universal Creator of all men . When the Hebrew prophet caught the splendor of this vision and rose to a higher level he was standing on the Egyptian's shoulders.' Thus, Breasted concluded, 'Our moral heritage therefore derives from aqa english literature coursework a wider human past enormously older than the Hebrews, and it has come to us rather through the Hebrews than from them.' . Arthur Weigall, took the analysis further. He linked Exodus with Akhenaten's revolution and believed the Israelites were driven out of Egypt at the end of thousand splendid suns Tutankhamun's reign by Harmhab, the aqa english coursework general who later proclaimed himself pharaoh. Weigall's case is stated in his 'Tutankhamen and Other Essays' (London: Butterworth, 1923) and english essay questions 'The Life and Times of Akhenaton (London: Blackwoods, 1923). According to Weigall, the Israelites were not only aqa english implicated in Akhenaten's heresy, but may even have caused it . 'I need not point out how wide an area of thought is opened up by this supposition that Moses lived through the paper Aton heresy,' Weigall wrote in his 'Tutankhamen.' . Agreeing with this school was Sigmund Freud. In his last book, 'Moses and aqa english coursework Monotheism (New York: Knopf, 1939), Freud described himself as thinking the unthinkable. Moses, the liberator of the curry application essay Israelites, who gave them their religion and laws, was, Freud speculated, an Egyptian who had formerly been an aide to Akhenaten . It should be noted here that Breasted, Freud, and others of this school expressed alarm at putting their thoughts to paper in the thirties.

There is more information in Brackman's book, e.g., favorable comparisons between Akhenaten and Moses made later by Egyptologists such as Alan Gardiner and Wallace Budge. Other more recent books that discuss the literature coursework impact on statistics math, the discovery of Tut's tomb on Moses theorizing are: Tutankhamun: The Untold Story, by Thomas Hoving (1978) (recently reprinted in 2001 or 2002) The Tutankhamun Deception, by Gerald O'Farrell (2001) Tutankhamun: The Exodus Conspiracy, by Andrew Collins and Chris Ogilvie-Herald (2002) Freud and the Legacy of Moses, by Richard Bernstein (1998) Books on Hermes Trismegistus: Hermetica, The Greek Corpus Hermeticum and the Latin Asclepius in a new English translation, by Brian Copenhaver (1992, 1997) The Egyptian Hermes, A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind, by Garth Fowden (1986, 1993) As I mentioned in the introduction to Chapter 16 of my book, the third generation Freudian Psychoanalyst William Theaux attempted to revive interest in studying the link between Akhenaten, Moses and the Greek Oedipus as early as 1985. I don't know the exact form that this initiative took. Possibly he made some written appeals in his native country of France, but I have not personally seen them. Aqa English Coursework. It was in 1990 that Ahmed Osman published his book Moses: Pharaoh of Egypt. Ahmed Osman does not hold a PhD in Egyptologist, however he does have extensive formal training in Egyptology. To some, perhaps most, Egyptologists who do have PhD's, Ahmed Osman is english not considered to be a true Egyptologist. For example, he was called an amateur by Archaeology Magazine. His credentials are given in the following article: In his own defense, Ahmed Osman has noted that two of the aqa english literature most esteemed living Egyptologists, Kenneth Kitchen and Donald Redford, took their formal education in other fields.

I don't know of any professor of astronomy coursework Egyptologist who believes that Akhenaten was the Biblical Moses. That doesn't mean there aren't any who do, but I just haven't heard of any coming out literature coursework, of the statistics math help closet to support the theory. The aforementioned book 'The Seventy Greatest Mysteries of Ancient Egypt,' which was compiled from the contributions of 17 prominent Egyptologists and other specialists in related fields of ancient studies, includes the following statement (p 276): If one were to seek a genuinely historical founder of Hebrew monotheism influenced by a foreign culture, one would certainly not find him at literature, the court of Akhenaten. Term Paper. Professional Egyptologists, Archaeologists, Historians, Biblical Scholars and aqa english the like have made it very clear that they have no further interest in considering the association between Akhenaten and Moses. Curry. For them the matter is closed.

So, the pursuit of the truth is up to the rest of us. Personally, I have no qualifications to do this research, but came to coursework the realization that if the mystery was going to be fully solved in english questions, my lifetime, then I was probably going to coursework have to astronomy coursework do it myself! Yet, I do appreciate the encouragement and support received from those of you who feel as I do and want to contribute in whatever way they can. I want this to be an aqa english literature enjoyable venture. A mystery only has the power to statistics math captivate until it is solved. After we know, we no longer find it important. Good thing life will always be full of mysteries, even after this particular one is finished. Forum is aqa english literature coursework maintained by Administrator.

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Essay Writing 101: Developing Ideas and the Basic Elements of an Essay (Part 1) Isn’t it tricky that you may feel disoriented or clueless when what you are just facing is a neat, blank paper? Filling it up with words is not as easy as jumping in a pool and everything that follows is fun and predictable. Writing has become a part of our daily lives, in coursework our relationships, career, community works, and artistic expression. In fact, history is paralyzed without writing.

We would never understand ourselves and our surroundings without the recordings of our past. On the other hand, writing in the fields of science and business means experimenting with the future and application essay, laying out a roadmap of events and possibilities. Humans are innately inclined to discovering new things and seeking progress. Aqa English. For those who are in advertising, journalism, or teaching, writing means livelihood. For novelists and term paper, poets, writing is literature coursework who they are.

For the rest, writing is a requirement. Empirical Research. Everyone can write. Everyone has to write at one point in their lives. Do not be overwhelmed. Jean Jacques Rousseau, an 18 th -century philosopher and writer, once said, “However great a person’s natural talent may be, the art of writing cannot be learned all at coursework once.” This Guide will serve as your introduction to a series of articles on writing, starting with its most basic form: essay writing. What is an Essay?

Definition Difference of Essay from Different Types of Paper. Steps of Writing an Essay. Determine Your Purpose Know Your Audience Brainstorming Techniques. Basic Structure of an college application essay Essay The Role of Research in coursework Writing Writer’s Block and Where to Get Inspiration Stephen King, in his book On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft, wrote “The scariest moment is always just before you start. After that, things can only get better.” So now, let us begin making things better. What is An Essay? An essay is a piece of writing that focuses on one subject and a particular purpose. In learning institutions, it is assigned to students to develop and test their writing skills, comprehension, and creativity. An essay is empirical marketing different from a Research Paper , which requires heavy research, strict methodology, and more formal structure, tone, and style. An Essay welcomes a more creative approach, is sometimes composed of personal insights by the author, and requires only outlining and simple paragraph structure.

It is different from a Report , which according to Southampton Solent University , acts as the presentation and analysis of findings from literature coursework, practical research . It begins with an astronomy aim (to investigate, to literature coursework, explore) and probably a hypothesis (a proposition that the research will test). College Essay. Depending on the guidelines or purpose, a report may make recommendations .” Meanwhile, an essay may answer a question and use “results of practical research but only in so far as it may help support the writer’s conclusions.” An essay is different from a Journal . In one of its writing materials, the RMIT University noted that a journal is mostly about your ideas and insights, reflections on the content of the coursework, subject and on your own learning process, and for a school setting, analysis on subjects and college application, issues covered by classwork and/or readings. Steps on Writing an Essay Determine Your Purpose . Usually, the purpose springs from the writing assignment or your instructor’s requirements. It should describe the ideal design and content of your essay.

According to the University of Canberra, an essay question is typically composed of two elements: 1. Information about the content that you are supposed to cover. For example: Vygotsky’s theories on aqa english literature, child development, or systems of governance in statistics math Europe. 2. One or more verbs, or direction words, that tell you what to do with that content. For example: analyze it, explain it, discuss it, or describe it. The NSW Department of Education and Communities emphasizes the need to study the aqa english literature coursework, keywords of the assignment question carefully. Their pointers include: identifying the empirical research paper, topic words that ask for the particular subject of an essay, eg the character of Juliet in Shakespeare’s piece; being aware of the aqa english coursework, limiting words that define the scope of what must be discussed, eg “Chapters 1-3”; and noting the thesis suns, Task Words (or direction words). Meanwhile, there are essays with no assigned topics or purpose. In a post, the Missouri University of Science and Technology presents the six general types of purposes in writing according to the different parts of Russian linguist Roman Jakobson’s model of the communication situation: writer, reader, context, message, contact, and code:

Writer: Expressive purposes. One may write simply to express one’s feelings, attitudes, ideas, and so on. This type of writing doesn’t take the reader into consideration; instead, it focuses on the writer’s feelings, experience, and aqa english coursework, needs. Expressive writing may take the form of empirical paper marketing, poetry, journals, letters, and, especially, free writing. Often, a person will do expressive writing and then be disappointed when readers don’t respond to it. Reader: Conative purposes.

Conative writing seeks to affect the reader. Aqa English Coursework. Persuasive writing is conative; so is writing intended to entertain the reader. On A Thousand Splendid. Writing intended to arouse the reader’s feelings is conative. Conative writing may take about aqa english literature any form, so long as its intention to persuade the reader or affect the reader emotionally. Context: Informative purposes.

Informative writing refers to something external to the writing itself, with the purpose of informing the reader. For instance, this page is informative, as are the other components of this Map. In our times, informative writing is usually prose, although in earlier periods poetry was used for informative purposes. Thesis On A Splendid. Message: Poetic purposes. Aqa English Literature. Poetic (or literary or stylistic) purposes focus on the message itself—on its language, on the way the elements of language are used, on structure and pattern both on statistics math help, the level of literature, phrase and of the overall composition. Poetic writing can be in prose as well as in verse. Fiction has poetic purposes.

Anytime one writes with an emphasis on on a splendid, the way the language is used, one has a poetic purpose. Contact: Phatic purposes. Phatic language (and nonverbal communication) establishes and maintains contacts between speakers or between writer and reader. In speaking, for instance, we may greet someone by saying, “Howya doin?” or Hozit goin?” These questions are not requests for information. Aqa English Literature Coursework. They are intended to splendid suns, establish and maintain friendly contact. Phatic purposes are not significant in most writing. The use of greetings and closings in letters is one example of aqa english literature, phatic purpose in mtel english essay writing. Code: Metalinguistic purposes.

Comments on a piece of writing are metalinguistic. If a student attaches a note to an essay to literature, explain why the essay is splendid late, the note is metalinguistic in relation to the essay. An author’s preface to a book is another example of metalinguistic purpose in writing. Know Your Audience . Dr. Steven Hale, in his article for the Georgia Perimeter College, defined audience as “anyone who reads, sees, or hears a message (a story or essay, a speech, a painting, and so on).” He explained that there are two types of audience: The Real Audience – people who read or take the message, such as the teacher, a friend, or a tutor in the writing lab for an essay The Intended Audience – the target group that the message sender has in mind, such as the young, middle-aged, or old; male or female; politicians or voters; African-Americans or European-Americans or South Americans. Hale points out that knowing your audience means deciding on what your writing strategy would be.

If your audience belongs to a formal group (for example, a group of aqa english literature coursework, professors), your tone of writing should not be casual. Astronomy. If the audience is composed of creative individuals, you can apply a freestyle or conversational approach. Apply an Invention or Inquiry Strategy . Rise B. Axelrod and Charles R. Cooper, authors of the St. Martin’s The Guide to Writing , explained that invention and inquiry strategies (also known as heuristics) are helpful because they are tools to building a framework for an essay and coursework, can be used in almost all writing situations. These strategies can help one explore, study, and scrutinize a topic. The first category of these strategies is called Mapping. Mapping refers to visual techniques, particularly maps. These maps are graphic displays with words and phrases circled and term, connected by lines to show relationships, or they might be formal sentence outlines, according to Axelrod and Cooper. Among the mapping strategies are Clustering, Listing, and Outlining. Clustering explores the aqa english literature coursework, possible connections of astronomy coursework, facts and ideas and aqa english literature coursework, requires a tentative division of the topic into subparts or main ideas. Here are the steps:

In a word or phrase, write your topic in the center of a piece of paper. Circle it. Curry College Essay. Also in words or phrases, write down the main parts or central ideas of coursework, your topic. Circle these, and connect them with lines to the topic in thousand suns the center. Next, think of facts, details, examples, or ideas related in any way to coursework, these main parts. Cluster these around the main parts.

Here is an essay example (the subject is Victoria: Listing works by creating a title for coursework the list that conveys your main idea or topic. You are encouraged to college essay, write as fast as you can , include anything that appears useful. Axelrod and aqa english, Cooper said that “after you have finished, or even as you write, reflect on the list and organize it in the following way: Put an asterisk next to the most promising items Number key items in paper order of aqa english, importance Put items in statistics math help related groups Cross out items that do not seem promising. Add new items.”

Outlining is aqa english literature determining where your essay’s strengths and weaknesses lie. Empirical. The two types of outlining are: 1) Informal Scratch Outlining – A scratch outline is informal in style because it is similar to listing the essay’s main points. Here is coursework a sample outline for questions an argumentative essay: Presentation of the aqa english literature coursework, Issue Concession of some aspect of an opposing position Thesis statement First reason with support Second reason with support (etc) Conclusion. 2) Topic/Sentence Outlining – This observes a conventional format of numbered and lettered headings and subheadings. Although both are formal, they have differences: A. Subtopic of I. B. Another Subtopic of empirical paper, I. 1. Subtopic of aqa english, 1.B. C. Another Subtopic of I. 1. Subtopic of I.C.

I. Highly organized competitive sports such as Peewee Football and Little League Baseball can be physically and psychologically harmful to children, as well as counterproductive for developing future players. A. Physically harmful because sports entice children into physical actions that are bad for growing bodies. 1. Koppett claims throwing a curve ball may put abnormal strain on developing arm and shoulder muscles. The second category of Invention and Inquiry strategies is simply called Writing. This style is about making complete statements that may help you “explore ideas and define relationships, bring ideas together or show how they differ, and identify causes and effects.” Among the Writing techniques are Cubing, Dialoguing, Dramatizing, Keeping a Journal, Looping, Questioning and Quick Drafting. Cubing , according to the North Central University Writing Center, is about approaching “each subject or topic as a six-sided cube, with each of the six perspectives offering a different point of view.” Here is a version of the Six Sides of astronomy coursework, Cubing: Describe it : How can the aqa english coursework, topic or issue be described? Compare it : What is the coursework, topic or issue similar to or different from?

Associate it : What does it make one think of? What can be related it to? How can the literature coursework, topic or issue be connected or related to college application essay, other topics or issues? Analyze it : How can the topic or issue be separated or broken down into smaller parts? Apply it : How does the topic or issue help one to understand or define other topics or issues? Argue for or against it : How could one be for this or against this?

This works or doesn’t work because? Dialoguing refers to the conversation between two or more people, according to aqa english literature, authors Axelrod and Cooper. The steps in performing this exercise are: write a conversation between two people (Speaker A and Speaker B); if one stops, the other may ask another speaker to math, ask the other a question; and present brief responses to keep the conversation moving fast. Literature. This technique is actually useful when one is coming up with personal experience and mtel english questions, persuasive essays. Dramatizing , a method developed by the philosopher Kenneth Burke, usually revolves on thinking about human behavior in dramatic terms. In their book, Axelrod and aqa english coursework, Cooper illustrate the five-pointed star that helps in applying the dramatism approach: Action. An action is anything that happens, has happened, will happen or could happen. The examples are physical (running a marathon), mental (a book you have read), and research, emotional (falling in love). Actor.

The actor is involved in the action–either responsible for it or simply affected by it. It may also come in the form of force, something that causes an action. Setting. The setting is the situation or background of the action. This may be the place and time of an event as well as the historical background of an event or the childhood of a person. Motive. This refers to the purpose or reason for an action–the actor’s intention. Method.

This demonstrates how an action takes place, including the techniques an actor uses. Keeping a Journal. Among the famous writers who successfully kept substantive journals were Sylvia Plath, Franz Kafka, Joan Didion, and literature, CS Lewis. Here are things, according to Axelrod and Cooper, that you can do with a journal: Keep a list of new words and astronomy, concepts you learn in coursework your courses. Make reflections, reactions or evaluations about the math, things you read. Recall the main ideas you have learned from assigned readings and aqa english literature coursework, about the relationship of these new ideas to other ideas in the course. Statistics. Record observations and overheard conversations. Write for ten or fifteen minutes every day about whatever is on your mind. Write sketches of people who catch your attention. Talk about your goals and aqa english literature, priorities or list specific things to accomplish and what you plan to do.

Keep a log over several days or weeks about a particular event unfolding in the news. Looping. Term Paper. The authors explain that this technique is about writing quickly to coursework, explore some aspect of a topic and then looping back to your original starting point or to a new starting point to explore another aspect. The process involves the following steps: Write down your area of interest. Write nonstop for 10 minutes. Math Help. Pause to reread what you have written. Beginning with this sentence, write nonstop for another ten minutes.

Summarize in one sentence again to complete the second loop. Keep looping until one of your summary sentences produces a focus or thesis. Questioning. Aqa English. The advantage of this approach is that it is systematic as it explores the subject. Among the sample questions that can expand as one goes through the writing process: What is Your Subject? What Parts or Features Does Your Subject Have and How Are They Related? How is astronomy coursework Your Subject Similar to and Different from Other Subjects? How Much Can Your Subject Change and Still Remain in the Same? Where Do Your Subject Fit in the World? Quick Drafting.

According to Axelrod and Cooper, quick drafting has no special rules and is based on what the author already knows about the subject. This will also help him determine the aqa english literature, things he still needs to find out about it.