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Development and Reward Theory SHRM Assignment. Human resource development has now become a necessity rather than sheer mind-set. As the world economy is changing, it is crucial for organizations to proactively and strategically adopt HRD (Hollingshead, 2010). Essay That? Not just that, it also requires the firms to shift their approach to HRD. This is the driving factor for strategic HRD. Some of the definitions to identify the scope of essay on diwali in english SHRD by different authors and perspectives are as below: According to McCracken and Wallace (2000), SHRD can be defined as creating a learning culture that not only aligns with the corporate level strategy of the firm but also shapes it and influences it by opting for training, learning and development of the human resources. One of the earlier definitions of agree bill essay immigration that HRD includes managing employment learning while taking into consideration the long term implications of the format for pr, business and corporate strategies such that they lead to mutual benefit for the individual human resources and agree, the organization too (Garavan, et al, 2002). Another author proposed that strategic HRD targets the human resource development within the strategic framework of the business in order to meet the needs of the resume format for pr, organization (Harrison, 1997).
From these definitions, it is very clear that SHRD should be well integrated with other business strategies in order to ensure and drive growth. As a matter of fact, as a response to corporate social responsibility, SHRD should be inherent at various hierarchical levels within an organization (Tymon, et al, 2010). The intent of deploying SHRD is to align the knowledge specific to the firm with that of the organization’s business goals. This, in turn facilitates connection between previous knowledge and latest emerging trends relevant to the business of organization. Amalgamation of various elements with respect to that the internal knowledge (which is derived within the organization) and external knowledge (which is derived from outside the firm) gives competitive advantage to the firm which ensures sustenance in the long run (Davenport, Prusak Wilson, 2003). For this, HRD should exist within the organization with the required strategic focus and applicability. This calls for and contrast essay multi-layered relationship amongst the line managers, senior management and the employees to remain cohesive with the agree bill essay immigration, various strategies of the organization to seek competitive edge (Wright, 2008). In this background, the strategic goals for human resource development can be identified as under according to Garavan (2007): Recognizing the culture of the organization in wake of the HRD plans and policies Support from top management and ensuring involvement and commitment of lower hierarchies Constant evaluation of HRM activities to compliment and essay historical, integrate with the mission of the organization and its goals Create values by establishing resource structure in the organization Expanding roles for trainers in response to the environmental changes.
This requires continuous scanning of environmental factors that influence the HR activities. Bill Essay? These strategic goals can either be emergent to solve a given situation or deliberate to align with a given situation in on diwali, the organization. For a successful implementation of SHRD, its horizontal and agree bill immigration that, vertical integration within the nursing on obesity, organization is very important. Therefore, developing business models that can easily be integrated across different functions and hierarchies within the agree essay immigration that, organization can lead to a better vertical and horizontal fit of strategic human resource development within the organization. Management? As a matter of fact, having a learning culture within an organization is the bill, basis for a successful integration of different SHRD models (Peterson, 2008). The vertical fit and horizontal fit for SHRD are elaborated below: Vertical Fit: This ensures integration of the strategic HRD goals and musil monuments, activities with that of the organizational goals. Formulation of the HRD strategy plays a shaping role whereas implementation of the same plays a supporting role to achieve vertical fit in the organization (Garavan, 2007).Such an integration calls for explicit leadership roles on behalf of the top management through involvement and commitment.
To achieve seamless vertical integration, the managers rather leaders need to understand the changing dynamics and modify the immigration that, HRD strategies and policies in tandem. Horizontal Fit:Horizontal integration of strategic HRD involves getting internal integration in the organization by aligning the on diwali for kids, HRD strategies to bill immigration that of the existing activities. For this, it is important for firms to create internal labour that is efficient to handle the robert, business requirements; else, organizations might have to rely on the external market to meet the agree, skill requirements. In short, the a compare on abortion, activities and strategies of HRM form the basis to agree essay that achieve horizontal integration of SHRD (Garavan, 2007). 1.4 Analytical approaches to strategic HRD. Analytical approach is a quantitative measure to on diwali in english assess the effectiveness of HRD practices within the organisation. This approach is just opposite to audit approach which takes into account qualitative appraisal of performance. For example low labour turnover ratio is a positive signal of agree bill that effectiveness. It facilitates to the management in achieving individual as well as organisation objectives (Regis, 2008).
1.5 Stages to on obesity the implementation of agree essay immigration that Strategic HRD. In the process of strategic human resource development process there are four stages to follow viz. 1.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of a strategic approach to HRD. There are certain advantages and disadvantages in strategic approach to human resource development which are described below: The adoption of Strategic HRD facilitates growth in the productivity at work place (Harrison, 2009). It creates an explicit pool between human resource policies and practices and the organisational strategies at whole within the organisational environment. Format For Pr? SHRD boosts the employee expertise which ultimately helps in the overall development of employee. Essay Immigration? Here expertise means, “Optimal level at robert essay, which a person is able and expected to perform within a specialized realm of human activity (Kelly, 2006). First of all it is almost impossible to predict human behaviour. So, setting an overall goal and essay immigration, objective is a difficult task in SHRD. Effect of external effect makes SHRD a difficult phenomenon to adopt. As it is directly related to human behaviour its outcome cannot be precisely determined (Mishra, 2006).
2.1 Definition of training needs analysis in terms of resume skills and knowledge and attributes. Every organization has its own strategic priorities, based on which it deploys resources in key projects. Agree Bill? These priorities are increasingly depending on the headwinds the company faces from a technological, economic, political, competitive, industry and supply-chain perspective. Human capital is an resume for pr extremely critical resource that can be built not only by hiring the agree essay immigration, best talent, but training them with the resume, company’s priorities in mind. Agree Bill? In other words, the personal training needs of the individuals need to essay be closely aligned with those of the company and that is where TNA (Training Needs Analysis) comes into picture. Broadly speaking, the following elements form the core of agree essay any framework designed to for kids implement TNA across various organizations (Caligiuri, 2010)
Identifying knowledge gaps Assigning competencies Finalizing training content (technical, business, functional etc.) Agreeing on a method of delivery (online, conferencing, onsite training, class room etc.) Assigning relevant professionals for the training process. Employees at different ranks are set goals based on various factors such as. Agree Essay Immigration That? Functional and musil, business knowledge gaps as agreed upon by the superior and the associate The employee’s career interests Shortage of essay immigration that man power The immediate project needs of the company Long-term human resource development strategy of the company. Looking at the big picture, ideally a candidate’s training needs are assessed with the essay on abortion, company’s long term goals in mind. However, this may vary in specific situations. Immigration That? For instance, a budding software engineer mapped to a long-term project can be provided the approval to pursue his or her dream of gaining excellence in a new technology and the company will most likely sponsor the certification process. However, in a short-term project that demands commitment and excellence from associates, this may not be possible.The key is to create as many win-win situations as possible so that the employee’s cross-functional skills can be leveraged by robert musil, the company in agree that, the long run and robert musil monuments essay, that the employee can lay a strong functional and business foundation that is essential to pursuing a long term career in a company. As an example, many multinational companies today have global leadership programs catering exactly to the aforementioned needs so that the human capital is persisted with, invested in and leveraged effectively.
Training is one of the many tools an organization uses to reach its goals. The first phase is to assess the training needs of an organization. If this is not properly done it could have serious consequences for an organization such as: Training might be given when the actual problem lies in performance, not insufficient training. Training programs might also be misguided; its content might be irrelevant or training approaches harmful. It is also possible that participants might not have correct skills or be competent enough to reach the goal. If incorrectly organized, if programs are deficient by design they might not be beneficial, they might not produce the desired outcome in productivity, knowledge or skills and they might therefore not lead to any measurable results. Bill Immigration? Financial resources might be spent on projects that are ineffective for the organization (Warner and Randy DeSimone, 2008). 2.3 Discrimination issues in TNA.
Areas such as discrimination, diversity, equal opportunities and exclusivity can pose various challenges to companies trying to come up with a TNA in line with their strategic priorities. Some of format these regulations come from governments, labour unions and even the agree essay immigration that, stakeholders. The learning and development manager needs to be aware of the latest laws to ensure that no form or aspect discrimination is brought into the learning program. Critical Essay Historical? Additionally, any learning program should ideally include two key requirements in the analysis framework (CIPD.CO.UK) Learning process must meet all legal and regulatory requirements (e.g. Disability Discrimination Act (legislation, 1995) Learning needs for bill immigration that staff at all levels must be included in the analysis. 2.4 Approaches used for resume for pr TNA at the organizational, team and bill immigration that, individual levels. There are three levels of needs assessment that could potentially be analysed to come up with a comprehensive TNA that augurs well for the company and its employees. (Brown) Organizational analysis: A thorough analysis by HR can help determine what departments in the company need training based on their respective turnovers, existing talent needs, future needs, employee performance, laws and regulations, absenteeism etc. Job or task analysis: Relevant to the employee’s job and essay on diwali in english, specific tasks assigned, TNA can be tailored with the immigration that, organizational analysis outcomes in mind. Tasks that will have to resume be performed in various conditions, quality of performance expected, effort needed etc. will serve to be the key levers of this analysis. Individual analysis: The employee’s performance as learnt from agree bill immigration that, performance reviews by nursing essays on obesity, supervisors and / or peers can be analysed further to agree bill essay immigration that identify gaps that would otherwise go unnoticed.
For instance, in due course of management calendar a project work, the project’s and / or the employee’s workspace limitations could limit employee performance. However, in different conditions, the employee could perform differently. Guide to effective introduction of TNA. If TNA Guide is to be effective, it should focus on agree essay immigration that, the following dimensions: (Brown) It should provide specific solutions to organisation or individual. Aim should be to integrate organisational goals and TNA.
Aim should be to meet the needs of the management calendar, client organization/ employee for an intervention. It should be considered what type of training will be most appropriate. Training course analysis should be made participative so as to essay that make it more effective. Rather than relying on the subjective evaluation of managers, all potential trainees should be included in the process. In many organizations, employee performance appraisal is probably the starting point of identifying the critical essay historical, relevant knowledge gaps. Bill Essay Immigration That? An employee’s performance depends on various factors such as talent, motivation, experience, project complexity, time etc. Ideally, gap identification must occur well before the appraisal process to create win-win situations for the company, stakeholders and the employees. Based on the outcomes of the appraisal process, the supervisor and HR can work closely with the employee to determine short term and long term training needs. Some of the outcomes can be as follows: (Garner, 2012) Overall performance of the candidate compared to the peer group and initial expectations Employee strengths – areas that can be leveraged better by the company to map the nursing essays on obesity, employee to different opportunities Employee weaknesses – Crucial to determining TNA. Employee’s career ambitions – Help determine if he or she can continue to fit in the company.
Different training activities can be linked to varying time horizons depending on agree bill essay, the company’s needs. For instance, short term activities could be linked to calendar immediate rewards applicable to the employee’s compensation, while long term activities could be linked to the career growth prospects of the employee in the organization. Agree Bill Essay Immigration That? 2.6 Evaluation Measures: Effectiveness, efficiency, validity and reliability. Training still remains the best solution to robert monuments performance issues for employees that do not understand how to do their jobs. If they are trained, but do still not receive expected payback, or do not have the right qualifications or equipment, or if the problem has not been sufficiently identified, training is unlikely to bill immigration be the correct solution to fundamental problems encountered. Evaluating the training method efficiency from format, time to time thus becomes all the more important. There are four different faces of evaluating a training process (Garner, 2012): The trainer’s evaluation of trainee’s progress and performance Trainee’s evaluation of the trainer’s performance on various aspects (diction, content, delivery, approach, ability to inspire confidence and engage the class etc.) Results produced by that, the trainee post training in specific projects The training’s relevance to the company’s efficiency and effectiveness goals. There are several ways in which the nursing on obesity, evaluation process can be carried out: Internal surveys: Employees can rate the program on several aspects such as method of bill that delivery, percentage of resume training outcomes achieved, trainer proficiency, scope for agree practical application, relevance to work activities etc.
These aspects can be grouped under various brackets such as trainer, work relevance, career development etc. depending on the desirable outcomes of the training program Peer and supervisor surveys: After undergoing the training, the associate can consult his or her peers and supervisors to understand if the associated knowledge gaps have been clearly addressed. An associate’s work is project calendar, as good as it is agree bill essay immigration, seen by his or her co-workers and the project outcomes. Written tests: Most trainings have an online or written test for certification purposes. This is to ensure that the trainee has undertaken the on obesity, training seriously according to agree essay immigration the expectations. Employee performance records and specific project outcomes : Projects could have specific outcomes that can be leveraged to measure the training program’s efficiency.
For instance, a candidate trained in a specific database technology must be able to help the company or its client migrate their systems to the new technology in a comprehensive and bug-free manner. Client and stakeholder reviews: If the company provides consulting services to clients or has stakeholders operating in a matrix environment, it is very important to seek regular feedback from them, as they are the eventual consumers of the employee’s work in many ways. This is extremely relevant, particularly in critical essay historical, services companies where employees are more often than not in regular contact with clients directly.
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Public health and the obsession with behaviour. ESSAY: Recent thinking on health policy has been driven by two myths: that bad health is that caused by historical, bad habits, and that government can promote good health by bill essay that, changing our behaviour. I n the run-up to essay the UK General Election, spiked is publishing a series of essays reposing political issues. The aim of the ‘Question Everything’ essays is to encourage people to rethink the past, the present and the future. In this eighth essay, Dr Michael Fitzpatrick says that in the sphere of health the Tories are planning to replace New Labour’s ‘nanny state’ with a ‘nudge state’ – a development which would damage our liberty and agree bill essay immigration that dignity even further. ‘Today we can’t escape the fact that today many of our most severe health problems are caused, in part, by the wrong personal choices. Obesity, binge-drinking, smoking and drug addiction are putting millions of lives at risk and essay on diwali for kids in english costing our health services billions a year.
So getting to grips with them requires an altogether different approach to the one we’ve seen before. We need to promote more responsible behaviour and encourage people to make the right choices about what they eat, drink and do in their leisure time.’ (David Cameron, foreword, A Healthier Nation, Policy Green Paper No.12, Conservative Party.) Conservative Party leader David Cameron proposes an ‘altogether different’ and ‘entirely new’ approach to public health compared with that pursued by the Labour government over the past decade. In his foreword to bill essay that the policy green paper that provides the basis for the Conservative Party election manifesto commitment to relabel the Department of management calendar Health as the Department for Public Health, Cameron emphasises that ‘we must think practically about how to help people to take more responsibility for their own health’. But this sounds like the same old public health sermon that has been preached by different governments over the past 40 years. That? Indeed, the critical essay Labour Party manifesto proclaims a similar commitment to immigration ‘preventative health care’, insisting that ‘we all have a responsibility to look after our own health, supported by our family and our employer’. So, what is new and different about the Conservative approach to public health? The central theme of A Healthier Nation is that Tory policy will be guided by ‘cutting-edge science and research’ in the spheres of ‘social psychology and behavioural economics’ (or alternatively from ‘cognitive science and essay historical behavioural psychology’, all terms are readily interchangeable).
Official resort to immigration that the latest psychological fad (usually imported from the US) is not particularly novel: this has been a key feature of a range of New Labour therapeutic initiatives, including Sure Start parenting programmes, the critical historical ‘We Need To Talk’ campaign for immigration that, ‘improved access to psychological therapies’, and the promotion of critical ‘social and emotional aspects of learning’ in schools. But before looking more closely at the politicians’ preoccupation with the use of psychological techniques to manipulate behaviour, let’s first consider some of the assumptions underlying Cameron’s public health policy. The myth of a public health crisis. The notion that deviant individual behaviour is a major cause of disease is central to contemporary public health and it is endorsed by all the big political parties. But is agree bill essay immigration it true? The most striking change in the health of the format for pr nation in the years that I have been a general practitioner in London has been increasing longevity. Last year, the practice I am part of welcomed three more patients as centenarians.
It is extraordinary that our ageing patients have not only survived numerous threats to agree bill essay immigration that decimate the nation (AIDS, BSE, SARS, bird flu, pandemic flu), but they have also lived through decades of calendar steadily rising obesity and alcohol consumption. No doubt the decline in smoking from the agree bill essay immigration that 1960s onwards has saved many from a premature death, but even the persistence of a hard core of smokers has not deterred the how to write and contrast general improvement in both the duration and quality of life of older people. Ruth Davidson: poster girl of the flimsy new politics. ‘If I can’t say what I think, then I don’t get to think’ Guns aren’t to blame for the horror in Vegas. Social policy and the welfare state. Closer inspection of the behaviours chosen by David Cameron as major contributors to the burden of ill-health reveals a highly arbitrary selection. In the mounting panic about obesity over the past decade, both the scale and consequences of individual weight gain have been grossly exaggerated. Essay? There are relatively small numbers of individuals whose weight is a serious threat to their health, but for the vast majority of people who are moderately overweight, this is unlikely to have significant consequences for their health. On Diwali In English? Though some young people may drink excessively and cause a public nuisance, this is more a matter for the licensing and public order authorities than for doctors.
There has been an increase in alcohol-related liver disease and immigration other problems associated with prolonged high consumption, but these are still on a much smaller scale than in other European countries. Drug addiction is another social problem – but a much smaller one – and in for pr my 20 years in an inner-city practice, one that has not significantly increased in size. Furthermore, the links between particular diseases and bill that the deviant behaviours identified by Cameron are weak. Resume? For example, it is agree essay immigration that widely assumed that coronary heart disease is strongly linked to ‘unhealthy diets’ and obesity. Yet the number of robert monuments deaths from heart attacks has been steadily declining over the past 50 years – during which diets high in supposedly lethal sugars, fats and salt combined in all sorts of so-called ‘junk foods’ have become increasingly popular. Agree? These are also the decades of the couch potato, in which people are supposed to have assumed sedentary lifestyles and shunned physical exertions. It is how to essay clear that factors other than diet and exercise, notably genetics, possibly infections, are more important than behavioural contributors to agree heart disease. It is true that, as people live longer and die less from circulatory diseases, more people seem to be getting cancer. But, apart from lung cancer, the mortality from which has been declining for decades, no other common cancer is strongly associated with a behavioural cause.
How then can we explain Cameron’s selection of ‘our most severe health problems’ on which public health policy should focus? Why not, for example, choose some of the neurological and resume for pr rheumatological problems, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, connective tissue disorders and many more that constitute a substantial disease burden for our ageing population and a major challenge for the National Health Service (NHS), both in agree essay that hospitals and in primary care? Why not, for another example, focus on chronic mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder, which affect large numbers of people and have major consequences for affected families and the wider society? It is evident that Cameron’s choice has little to do with health, but is more a political selection arising out of prejudice against in english, the sorts of people who engage in the sorts of activities that would be increasingly stigmatised under a new Tory government (as indeed they have been under New Labour). People who are overweight, appear drunk in public places, smoke cigarettes, use heroin, have become objects of immigration public disgust and professional condescension and would remain so under a Cameron government. In their emphasis on links between behaviour and disease, politicians assume that public-health authorities have reliable techniques for write a compare on abortion, achieving the behaviour changes they believe will improve the health of the nation. But this is a triumph of wishful thinking over experience. For at least half a century – longer in the US – doctors and agree essay that other health professionals have been telling patients that their health would benefit from critical historical eating less and exercising more.
This has clearly been a spectacularly unsuccessful intervention in terms of influencing diet and activity (though, as we have seen, this has not deterred dramatic improvements in agree bill essay immigration health). Take a more specific health-promotion intervention: the drive to persuade children to eat ‘five a day’ portions of fruit and nursing vegetables. Agree Essay That? Despite nationwide propaganda and major school-based programmes promoting this policy, the management proportion of bill children reaching this target has remained steady at how to a compare essay around one in five over agree bill immigration that, the past five years, after an robert musil essay earlier increase. But not to worry! Recent research shows that ‘five a day’ confers only agree immigration that, marginal benefits in terms of cancer prevention – confirming earlier studies casting doubt on wider health benefits (see Bofetta et al ). The focus of government health policy on robert musil essay, behaviour reflects a wider transformation of the relationship between the state and the individual.
The concept of agree bill essay behaviour is traditionally associated with children and animals, often in the context of psychological experimentation. Nursing? In place of the active subject of democratic citizenship, the behavioural approach assumes an agree bill essay immigration that individual who is the passive object of official policy. Instead of an independent agent playing an active role in society, the citizen is assumed to be ignorant and immature, requiring expert professional guidance. The self-determining individual is essay reduced to being the target of official propaganda and political manipulation. In his book Dread , American public health researcher Philip Alcabes traces the origin of the contemporary culture of agree bill essay public health back to the response to the emergence of AIDS in how to write and contrast essay on abortion the 1980s, which he characterises as the first ‘behavioural epidemic’: ‘The turn from risk group to risk behaviour was a sign of an important change in bill essay immigration that thinking, a behavioural turn, wherein behaviour as risk became behaviour as cause. Before the advent of AIDS, never had the essays on obesity entirety of disease prevention policy been to tell people what they should stop doing… In the essay that AIDS era, behaviour control was disease control.’ Alcabes shows how this approach led to critical essay historical the ‘new moralism’ of safe sex – and the neglect of the various forms of blood-borne transmission of HIV, which offered no scope for moralising. Alcabes also shows how the ‘behavioural turn’ in response to a real infectious disease in the 1980s was consolidated in agree immigration that response to ‘imaginary epidemics’, such as ‘bioterrorism’, from the 1990s onwards. He singles out the obesity scare as the archetypal postmodern ‘epidemic’ which ‘plays on fantasies of mayhem and misgivings about our habits’.
Depicted as ‘the fault of individuals’ poor choices, the nursing on obesity failure to opt for the healthy lifestyle’, obesity is ‘an easy canvas on which to paint our psychic unease, our difficulties in agree immigration that achieving personal goals, or our sense that we have become lazy – even though no study on the topic of body mass and psychic impairment shows any clear connection’. Nevertheless, the monuments essay panic over childhood obesity has contributed to the notion of essay childhood as ‘a period of both intense vulnerability and grave toxicity to society – despite the lack of evidence of nursing widespread harm’. The concept of childhood obesity as an epidemic or risk leads us to ‘create administrative solutions to manage our children’s behaviour’. The distinctive feature of Conservative Party’s approach to agree essay immigration that public health is its acknowledgement of the failure of past attempts to change behaviour in the cause of health (of course, these are associated with the years of New Labour government). Thus, the Tories’ public-health Green Paper endorses recent judgements by medical authorities that propaganda on resume, the dangers of drinking alcohol has been ineffective.
The familiar response to (numerous) studies revealing that health promotion policies do not achieve their objectives is to demand more of the same and that everybody involved should try harder – while also proposing more coercive interventions, such as more punitive taxation, more bans and agree bill essay proscriptions. But while there are plenty of such proposals in the Conservative document, its claim to novelty is its reliance on the insights of recent popular psychology books such as Connected: The Amazing Power of Social Networks and calendar How They Shape Our Lives and Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness . The sole insight of Connected , the joint work of a Harvard physician and bill essay immigration a Californian political scientist, is that individuals are influenced by social factors: ‘People do not have complete control over their own choices.’ But the authors’ ‘social network’ perspective treats individuals as passive objects who receive and transmit behaviours as though they were an infectious virus (though even the spread of the most infectious virus is for pr influenced by specific individual and social factors). The results of bill essay immigration supposedly groundbreaking academic inquiries appear banal. Resume Format For Pr? For example, the authors tell us that ‘psychological research suggests that feelings of loneliness occur when there is a discrepancy between our desire for connection to agree bill essay that others and essay on diwali for kids the actual connections we have’. Or in essay immigration that other words, ‘people with more friends are less likely to experience loneliness’. When it comes to how to a compare and contrast essay on abortion practical measures, the authors boldly propose ‘a new foundation for public health’ that offers Weight Watchers and Alcoholics Anonymous as models. Agree Essay That? One of their few specific proposals is a ‘creative alternative’ to historical current vaccination policy based on immunising ‘the acquaintances of randomly selected individuals’. This strategy is based on a mathematical model that suggests that ‘acquaintances have more links and are more central to agree bill the network than are the randomly chosen people who named them’. The authors suggest that ‘a choice informed by network science could be 700 per cent more effective and monuments efficient’. But this model takes no account of the fact that most immunisations are aimed at a highly selected population (mainly babies) who have a very limited circle of ‘acquaintances’.
The concept of Nudge , written by agree bill, a behavioural economist and a law professor based in Chicago, is that governments and project management calendar employers should make self-conscious efforts to steer the agree bill essay immigration choices of their citizens and workers in ways that improve their lives. They describe themselves as ‘liberal paternalists’ who reject bans and mandates in on obesity favour of ‘weak, soft, non-intrusive’ measures to create a ‘choice architecture’ that can ‘influence people’s behaviour in order to make their lives longer, healthier, and better’. The most familiar illustration of this approach is the immigration that fly incorporated into the ceramic of project management calendar airport urinals, providing careless men with something to aim at – and immigration that thereby at a stroke reducing ‘spillage’ by 80 per cent. However, the relevance of on obesity this example to the subsequent discussion of the Medicare subsidy for prescription drugs and the controversy over explicit consent or mandated choice in relation to organ donation is not readily apparent. The ‘nudge’ that appears most appealing to bill essay Tory public health strategists is the resume for pr ‘dollar a day’ scheme piloted in North Carolina, under which teenage girls receive $1 for every day that they avoid becoming pregnant. A programme along similar lines in the UK offers pregnant women supermarket vouchers (exchangeable for any commodity but alcohol and tobacco) in return for essay that, abstinence from cigarettes: early results suggest that this is both cheaper and more effective than established ‘smoking cessation’ programmes that rely on ‘nicotine replacement’ and group therapies. Such crass economic incentives are more likely to invite fraud than produce long-term changes in behaviour. In A Healthier Nation , Conservative public-health advisers claim that ‘there are some hugely successful strategies now emerging from cognitive science and behavioural psychology’. Perhaps they have in mind the theories of ‘positive psychology’ promoted by the psychologist and self-help guru Martin Seligman. These theories enjoyed a major influence in the era of speculative finance capital in the US, in musil monuments essay what Barbara Ehrenreich refers to as ‘the decade of magical thinking’. These are the sort of notions used to justify charismatic leadership in corporate rulers and to help them in ‘managing the agree bill essay that despair’ of the millions of workers who lost their jobs in restructuring (aptly satirised by the character played by George Clooney in Up in the Air ).
It is ironic that at project calendar the very time that ‘positive psychology’ began to be imported into the UK – under the authority of New Labour happiness tsar Lord Richard Layard – its influence reached a ‘manic crescendo’ in the US subprime mortgage crisis that triggered the global financial collapse of 2007. Agree Bill Essay That? A similar combination of self-delusion and wishful thinking of the sort that united creditors and debtors and dragged the world into recession is now offered in another package of cod psychology, as a model for public health. #5: James Panton on project management, the welfare state. #8: Dr Michael Fitzpatrick on public health. P Basham, J Luik, Fat kids? Obesity: epidemic and myth , Democracy Institute, 2009. M Gard, J Wright, The Obesity Epidemic: science, morality and ideology , Routledge, 2005.
P Campos, The Obesity Myth , Gotham 2004. P Boffetta, E Couto, J Wichmann et al, ‘Fruit and Vegetable Intake and agree bill immigration that Overall Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)’, Journal of the National Cancer Institute , 6 April 2010. B Ehrenreich, Smile or Die: How Positive Thinking Fooled America And The World , Granta, 2009. R Thaler CR Sunstein, Nudge: improving decisions about health,wealth and on diwali happiness , Penguin, 2009. N Christakis, J Fowler, Connected: the amazing power of social networks and how they shape our lives, Harper 2010. P Alcabes, Dread: how fear and fantasy have fuelled epidemics from the black death to avian flu , Public Affairs, 2009. ‘A Healthier Nation’, Policy Green Paper No.12, Conservative Party.
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Your Ultimate APA Format Guide Generator. APA stands for the American Psychological Association, which is an organization that focuses on bill immigration that, psychology. Historical? They are responsible for agree essay immigration creating APA Style. APA Style, or APA citing, is used by many scholars and researchers in the behavior and management, social sciences, not just psychology. APA Style is a way to format citations. That? There are other citation formats such as MLA and Chicago, but APA is most popular in the science fields. Following the same standard format for citations allows readers to understand the types of sources used in a project and also understand their components. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is currently in essay for kids, its 6th edition. Agree? It outlines proper ways to organize and structure a research paper, explains grammar guidelines, and how to write a compare and contrast essay on abortion, also how to properly cite sources. This page focuses on how to create APA citations.
We cite sources for many reasons. One reason is to give credit to the creator of the work that you used to help you with your research. Agree Essay? When you use another person’s research or information to help you with your project, it is important to give acknowledgement to that individual. This is one way to prevent plagiarism. Another reason why we create citations is to project management, provide a standard way for others to understand and possibly explore the sources we used. To learn more about citations, check out this page on crediting work. Click here to learn more on how to be careful of plagiarism. There are two types of citations in APA. In-text citations are found in the body of the project and agree essay immigration that, are used when adding a direct quote or paraphrase into your work. Reference citations are found in the reference list, which is at the end of the assignment and includes the full APA citations of all sources used in a project.
Depending on the types of resume sources that you used for your project, the agree bill essay immigration that, format you use for your citations is different for each source type. There is essay for kids in english, a certain format for books, a different one for journal articles, a different one for websites, and agree, so on. Scroll down to write a compare essay, find the appropriate APA citation format for your sources. Even though the structure varies across different sources, see below for a full explanation of APA in-text citations and bill immigration, reference citations. To learn more about APA style format, including APA’s blog, formatting questions, APA referencing explanations, click on robert musil essay, this link for further reading on the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing information from a source, include an in-text citation in agree bill that, the body of your project, immediately following it. APA In-text citations may look something like this: “Direct quote” or paraphrase (Author’s name, Year, page number). See the section below titled, In-Text or Parenthetical Citations, for a full explanation and APA format instructions. Each source used to help with the gathering of research or information for your project is listed as a full citation in the reference list, which is usually the last part of a project.
The APA citation format for each source is based on the type of source used. Scroll down to see examples of some common source formats. Most citations include the following pieces of information, commonly in this order: Author’s Last name, First Initial. (Date published). Title of Source. Robert Monuments Essay? Location of Publisher: Publisher. Retrieved from URL. To determine the exact format for your full APA citations, scroll down to the section titled, “Common ALA Examples.” If you’re looking for an easy way to create your citations, use BibMe’s APA citation machine. Our APA citation maker automatically formats your citations quickly and easily.
Authors are displayed in reverse order: Last name, First initial, Middle initial, followed with a period. In an APA citation, include all authors shown on a source. If using BibMe’s APA reference generator, click “Add another contributor” to add additional author names. Immigration? Our free APA citation creator will format the authors in the order in which you add them. If your APA reference list has multiple authors with the historical, same last name and initials, include their first name in brackets. Brooks, G. [Geraldine]. (2005). March . Brooks, G. [Gwendolyn]. (1949). Annie Allen . When no author is listed, exclude the author information and start the citation with the title.
When citing an entire edited book, place the names of editors in the author position and follow it with Ed. or Eds. in parentheses. See below for bill immigration that examples of citing edited books in their entirety and also chapters in edited books. How to essay on diwali for kids in english, Structure Publication Dates in APA: Place the date that the source was published in parentheses after the name of the author. For periodicals, include the bill that, month and day as well. If no date is available, place n.d. in parentheses. How to Structure the Title in APA: For book titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and the same for the subtitle in your APA citation. Capitalize the first letter for any proper nouns as well. Place this information in italics. Essay? End it with a period.
Example: Gone with the wind. For articles and chapter titles: Only capitalize the first letter of the bill immigration, first word in the title and the same for the subtitle. Capitalize the essay in english, first letter for any proper nouns as well. Do not italicize the agree immigration that, title or place it in quotation marks. End it with a period.
Example: The correlation between school libraries and test scores: A complete overview. For magazine, journal, and newspaper titles: Write the title in standard form, with each important word starting with a capital letter. The Boston Globe. If you believe that it will help the reader to understand the type of source, such as a brochure, lecture notes, or an audio podcast, place a description directly after the musil monuments, title. Only capitalize the first letter.
New World Punx. (2014, February 15). A state of trance 650 [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://soundcloud.com/newworldpunx/asot650utrecht. How to Structure Publication Information in APA: For books and sources that are not periodicals: Give the essay, city and state (or city and country if outside of the U.S.) for the place of publication. Abbreviate the state name using the two-letter abbreviation. Place a colon after the location. For journals, magazines, newspapers, and other periodicals: In APA format, place the volume number after the title. For Pr? Italicize this information. Essay Immigration? Place the project calendar, issue number in parentheses and do not italicize it.
Afterwards, include page numbers. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57 (1), 79-82. If you’re citing a newspaper article, include p. or pp. before the agree that, page numbers. How to format for pr, Structure the Publisher in APA: In APA format, the names of bill essay immigration publishers are not necessary to include for newspapers, magazines, journals, and other periodicals. For books and other sources: It is not necessary to type out the name of the publisher exactly as it is shown on the source. Use a brief, but understandable form of the publisher’s name. Exclude the terms publishers, company, and essay historical, incorporated. Include Books and Press if it is part of the publisher’s name. End this information with a period.
Little Brown and bill immigration that, Company would be placed in the APA citation as Little Brown. Management? Oxford University Press would be placed in the citation as Oxford University Press. For sources found online, after the publication information, add a period. Then, add: Retrieved from URL. Do not place a period after the URL. If you’re citing a periodical article found online, there might be a DOI number attached to essay immigration that, it. This stands for Direct Object Identifier.
If your article does indeed have a DOI number, use this instead of the URL as the DOI number is static and never changes. If the write and contrast on abortion, source you’re citing has a DOI number, after the publication information add a period and then doi:xxxxxxx The x’s indicate where you should put the DOI number. Do not place a period after the DOI number. Agree Bill Essay That? If you’re using BibMe’s automatic APA reference generator, you will see an area to essays on obesity, type in the DOI number. Lobo, F. Agree Immigration That? (2017, February 23). Sony just launched the robert musil essay, world’s fastest SD card. Agree Bill? Mashable . Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2017/02/23/sony-sf-g-fastest-sd-card/?utm_cid=mash-prod-nav-sub-st#ErZKV8blqOqO. Chadwell, F.A., Fisher, D.M. (2016 April-June).
Creating open textbooks: A unique partnership between Oregon State University libraries and press and open Oregon State. Open Praxis, 8 (2), 123-130. doi:EJ1103945. APA Citations Format and Examples: Author’s Last name, F. M. (Year published). How To And Contrast Essay? Title of book . Saenz, B.A. (2012). Bill Immigration? Aristotle and Dante discover the secrets of the universe . Looking for management calendar an APA formatter? Don’t forget that BibMe’s APA citation generator creates your citation quickly and bill, easily. Citations for E-Books found online:
Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of project management book . Retrieved from URL. Colwin, L. (2014). Happy all the time. . Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=EemmBAAAQBAJlpg=PP1dq=happypg=PP1#v=onepageq=happyf=false. Notice that for e-books, publication information is excluded from the citation.
Citations for Chapters in Edited Books: Chapter author’s last name, F.M. Agree Bill That? (Year published). Title of chapter. In F.M. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Title of management calendar book (p. x or pp. x-x). Location: Publisher. doi:xxxxxxx. Longacre, W.A., Ayres, J.E. (1968).
Archeological lessons from an Apache wickiup. In S.R. Binford L.R. Binford (Eds.), Archeology in cultural systems (pp. 151-160). Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=vROM3JrrRa0C=PP1=archeology=PR9#v=onepage=archeology=false.
Editor, A.A. (Ed.). (Year published). Title of edited book . Essay? Location: Publisher. Gupta, R. (Ed.). On Diwali For Kids In English? (2003). Remote sensing geology . Agree Immigration That? Germany: Springer-Verlag. Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year published). Title of article or page . Retrieved from URL. Mardell, M. How To A Compare And Contrast Essay On Abortion? (2017). Facing the robotic revolution . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-39028030.
Looking for an APA formatter to cite your website sources? Use BibMe’s APA citation generator! Citations for agree bill essay that Journal Articles found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Date published). Title of management calendar article.
Title of journal, volume number (issue number), page range. doi:xxxxxx. Spreer, P., Rauschnabel, P.A. (2016, September). Selling with technology: Understanding the resistance to mobile sales assistant use in retailing. Journal of Personal Selling Sales Management, 36 (3), 240-263. doi:10.1080/08853134.2016.1208100. Don’t forget, BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps your cite your sources quickly and easily!
Our free APA citation maker is simple to use! Citations for Newspapers found Online: Author’s Last name, F.M. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of agree bill essay Newspaper . Retrieved from project calendar, URL. Khullar, D. (2017, February 22). Bill Essay? Bad hospital design is making us sicker. The New York Times . Retrieved from https://nyti.ms/2lujQ76. Looking for an APA formatter to help you cite your newspaper sources? Check out BibMe’s APA citation machine!
Our APA format generator, or APA citation builder, creates your citations quickly and easily. In Text and Parenthetical Citations. What is an APA In Text Citation or Parenthetical Citation? The purpose of essay APA in text and parenthetical citations is to give the reader a brief idea as to where you found your information, while they’re in the middle of reading or viewing your project. You may include direct quotes in the body of your project, which are word-for-word quotes from another source.
Or, you may include a piece of information that you paraphrased into your own words. These are called parenthetical citations. Both direct quotes and paraphrased information include an in text citation directly following it. You also need to include the essay, full citation for the source in the APA reference list, which is usually the last item in a project. In Text Citations for Direct Quotes: In APA format, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote.
It should include the nursing on obesity, page number or section information to help the reader locate the quote themselves. Buck needed to bill immigration, adjust rather quickly upon his arrival in Canada. He states, “no lazy, sun-kissed life was this, with nothing to nursing on obesity, do but loaf and be bored. Here was neither peace, nor rest, nor a moment’s safety” (London, 1903, p. 25). In Text Citations for Paraphrased Information: When taking an idea from another source and placing it in your own words, it is agree bill that, not necessary to include the page number, but you can add it if the source is large and you want to direct readers right to the information. At the time, papyrus was used to create paper, but it was only grown and how to essay on abortion, available in mass quantities in Egypt. Bill That? This posed a problem for format the Greeks and Romans, but they managed to have it exported to their civilizations. Papyrus thus remained the material of choice for paper creation (Casson, 2001). How to Format In Text and Parenthetical Citations: After a direct quote or paraphrase, place in parentheses the agree bill essay immigration, last name of the author, add a comma, and nursing on obesity, then the agree bill, year the source was published.
If citing a direct quote, also include the page number that the information was found on. Essay In English? Close the parentheses and bill immigration that, add a period afterwards. In APA format, if the author’s name is included in the text of your project, omit their name from the in-text citation and only include the other identifying pieces of robert musil essay information. Smith states that, “the Museum Effect is agree bill essay immigration that, concerned with how individuals look at a work of art, but only in the context of looking at that work along with a number of other works” (2014, p. 82). If your source has two authors, always include both names in each in-text citation. If your source has three, four, or five authors, include all names in project management calendar, the first in-text citation along with the date. In the following in text citations, only include the first author’s name and follow it with et al. 1st in-text citation: (Gilley, Johnson, Witchell, 2015) 2nd and any other subsequent citations: (Gilley, et al.) If your source has six or more authors, only include the first author’s name in bill immigration that, the first citation and follow it with et al.
Include the year the source was published and the page numbers (if it is a direct quote). 1st in-text citation: (Jasper, et al., 2017) 2nd and robert musil monuments essay, any other subsequent citations: (Jasper, et al., 2017) If your source was written by a company, organization, government agency, or other type of group, include the group’s name in full in the first in text citation. In any in text citations following it, it is acceptable to shorten the group name to something that is simple and agree bill essay that, understandable. 1st citation: (American Eagle Outfitters, 2017)
2nd and subsequent citations: (American Eagle, 2017) Check out this page to learn more about parenthetical citations. Also, BibMe’s APA citation machine creates your parenthetical citations quickly and essays on obesity, easily. Towards the end of creating a full reference citation, you’ll see the option to create a parenthetical citation in the APA format generator. The listing of all sources used in your project are found in the APA reference list, which is usually the last page or part of a project. Included in this reference list are sources you used to agree essay immigration that, gather research and other information.
In APA format, it is not necessary to include personal communications in the reference list, such as personal emails or letters. These specific sources only need in-text citations, which are found in the body of your project. All APA citations, or references, are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If you have two sources by the same author, place them in order by management, the year of publication. Thompson, H.S. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas: A savage journey to the heart of the American dream . Thompson, H.S. (1998). Agree Bill Essay? The rum diary . If there are multiple sources with the same author AND same publication date, place them in alphabetical order by the title. Dr. Suess. (1958). The cat in the hat comes back. New York, NY: Random House.
Dr. Suess. (1958). Yertle the turtle. New York, NY: Random House. In an APA citation, if a source does not have an author, place the essay historical, source in alphabetical order by agree immigration that, the first main word of the critical essay, title.
Need help creating the citations in your APA reference list? BibMe’s APA formatter can help! Our APA citation machine creates your citations by entering a keyword, URL, title, or other identifying information. Need to create APA format papers? Follow these guidelines to produce a research paper in APA format: In an APA style paper, the font used throughout your document should be in Times New Roman, 12 point font size. The entire document should be double spaced, even between titles and agree bill essay, headings. Format For Pr? Margins should be 1 inch around the entire document and indent every new paragraph using the tab button on your keyboard. Place the pages in the following order:
Title page (An APA format title page should include a title, running head, author line, institution line, and author’s note). (Page 1) Abstract page (page 2) Text or body of research paper (start on page 3) Reference List Page for tables (if necessary) Page for figures (if necessary) Appendices page (if necessary) The title page counts as page 1. Number the pages afterwards using Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3, 4…). What is a running head? In an APA paper, next to the page numbers, include what is called a “running head.” The running head is a simplified version of the title of your paper. Place the bill that, running head in the top left corner of critical your project and place it in capital letters. On the title page only, include the phrase: Running head.
Title page example: Running head: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. For the rest of the paper or project, do not use the term, Running head. Example of subsequent pages: QUALITY LIBRARY PROGRAMS. Microsoft Word, Google Docs, and many other word processing programs allow you to set up page numbers and a repeated running head. Use these tools to make this addition easier for you! If you’re looking for agree bill essay an APA sample paper, check out the other resources found on BibMe. Using BibMe to Create Citations for your Reference List or Bibliography.
Looking to cite your sources quickly and easily? BibMe’s APA formatter, or APA citation generator, helps you generate your APA citations by resume for pr, entering a title, ISBN, URL, or other identifying information. Background Information and bill, History of APA: The American Psychological Association was founded in 1892 at Clark University, in critical, Worcester, Massachusetts. APA style format was developed in 1929 by agree essay immigration, scholars from essay on diwali for kids, a number of different scientific fields and backgrounds. Agree Essay That? Their overall goal was to develop a standard way to document scientific writing and research. Since its inception, the APA Style Manual has been updated numerous times and musil, it is now in its 6th edition. The 6th edition was released in 2010. Bill Essay That? In 2012, APA published an addition to their 6th edition manual, which was a guide for creating APA citations for electronic resources.
Today, there are close to nursing essays on obesity, 118,000 APA members. Bill Immigration? There is an annual convention, numerous databases, and journal publications. Some of their more popular resources include the database, PsycINFO, and the publications, Journal of Applied Psychology and Health Psychology. Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles. If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. Remember to evaluate your sources for accuracy and credibility.
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Agree bill essay immigration that College paper Academic Writing
Analytical essay on Roald Dahl's 'The Landlady'. Extracts from this document. Agree Immigration? Christina Sophonpanich 9L 16th September 2003 Analytical essay on Roald Dahl's 'The Landlady' During our past few lessons of English, we have read the story 'The Landlady' By Roald Dahl. A short, unusual and exciting story, it is about a seventeen-year-old handsome boy called Billy Weaver, who has been sent to Bath by his boss. It is his first time in Bath, and he is management, completely unfamiliar with the whole place.
As he wonders about the dark, empty streets of Bath, looking for a pub to stay in, he is agree bill immigration that, captivated by a very pleasant looking boarding house. Peering into the window, he sees animals sleeping in essays, the cozy room and is compelled to ring the doorbell, even though he would rather stay at a pub, and bill essay that allows himself to for kids in english be persuaded to stay by a sweet, gentle-looking old woman who seems quite mad but harmless. The woman is agree bill that, so incredibly eager for Billy to stay, and keeps hinting about how she already knew he was coming and how everything was ready for him. Billy dismisses this as nothing but kindness, and project reassures himself several times that the boarding house was fine and that the woman had probably just lost a son in war and bill immigration that never quite got over it. When he signs the guest book, he notices that there are only essay on diwali, two other entries, and the last one was made over two years ago. . read more.
Another hint in the story is the way the woman describes the other two boarders in such personal detail that makes her appear slightly perverted and twisted. Agree Bill? Near the end, tells Billy how there wasn't a blemish on his body (referring to management calendar Mr. Temple) His skin was just like a Baby's If the agree immigration that, woman had described her customers to Billy when he first entered the nursing, boarding house, Billy would have been put off and probably left. How an old woman like her would know exactly what her customer's skin looked like on his body seems too obvious to reveal in the beginning. A last example is agree bill that, that the Landlady is a taxidermist. The sight of the on diwali in english, animals sleeping in the living room by the hearth is what catches Billy's eye the most. Using the fact that he sees animals appearing well treated, he ironically, naively assures himself that animals were always a good sign in a place like this. If Billy had known from the beginning that the agree immigration that, animals were dead yet still on display, and project management calendar that the woman's hobby was stuffing all her pets, Billy would have been suspicious of the woman's sanity and her sinister intentions right away and would most likely NOT have wanted to stay in a place with a fanatical taxidermist's collection of dead pets. . read more. Bill Immigration? But it does not really matter as the fact that he even mentions the strange taste must mean that there is essay for kids in english, a strange substance in the tea, therefore we automatically assume that it has been poisoned, and knowing this, means he is too late to that be saved.
The story is a cliffhanger, ending abruptly. This is effective for this type of novel as it has been building up all this tension throughout the story, and leaves the reader right at the cliffhanger, which makes the reader think highly of project calendar this exciting and unusual story. Essay? By this stage, the reader has no doubt that Billy will die at the hands of the psychotic old woman, and the fact that the story can truly end in the readers mind is project management, so much more effective, creating a gloomy sense of inevitability for Billy's fate. To finish off, I would just like to say that I enjoyed 'The Landlady greatly and that I found it a very well thought of plot. That? The story was short, and perhaps the essay, story line in itself was not even that interesting, but Roald Dahl's ability to make it exciting and unusual turns it into an effective story, proving that Roald Dahl's knowledge of when to include certain details and when to disclose information and agree bill immigration that how to set out a very clever plot, makes him an robert musil effective story-teller. Essay That? Christina Sophonpanich 9L Analytical essay on Roald Dahl's 'The Landlady' Page 4 of 4 . read more. This student written piece of work is resume for pr, one of many that can be found in our GCSE Roald Dahl section. Agree Essay That? Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. In this essay I am going to discuss how Dahl uses language, characters, and . Project Calendar? Unfortunately no matter how hard he is trying, Billy can't remember the exact details, just vague memories. Agree Bill Essay Immigration? This last entry is over two years old.
And Christopher Mulholland 's is nearly a year before that. The fact that the entries are so old, and that no one else has stayed here adds to the mystery. Critical Response amp;amp;#150; The Landlady. She seems very fussy over on diwali, the young man and at certain times it seems obvious that she fancies him, which is a bit weird considering he's 17 and she's an old lady. She seems also to have a bad memory as she keeps forgetting the agree bill that, boy's name. How does Roal Dahl create unease and tension in 'The Landlady' This notice seems to be 'alive'. It is as if the sign is hypnotising him, in making him not leave. How To Write A Compare And Contrast On Abortion? It is drawing him back to the house. This is very strange, how a notice can all of bill essay that a sudden seem so powerful. family, but Sofie stayed in Wales, and fulfilled her husbands wish, that his children went to school in England. The Landlady - Roald Dahl , A teribly strange bed - Wilkie . Even Faulkner sees him as 'a suspicious specimen'. Once Faulkner has broke the bank, the old soldier advises him how to keep his money safe, then he buys a bottle of champagne to toast the winnings, this may seem to the reader that the old soldier is trying to win the trust of Faulkner.
It wouldn't be long before my eighth recruit joined the robert musil essay, ranks. But then I heard the essay, sirens scream and the splintering of wood as the doors were smashed in. Robert Essay? The police - who should have been grateful for my help - pulled me off Link the Stink. Comparison of The Whole Town's Sleeping, written by Ray Bradbury, and The Landlady, by . However, the other main setting where most of the bill, story takes place in is outdoors. Project Calendar? The story happens an evening when the main characters have decided to go to the cinema. Outside it's cold and dark. To get to the cinema they have to go through a scary ravine. Comparison of agree essay immigration that amp;amp;#145;Lamb To the Slaughteramp;amp;#146; By Roald Dahl and amp;amp;#145;the Signalmanamp;amp;#146; By Charles . curtains drawn, table lamps alight are all quotes that help give it that relaxed, normal, comfy house feeling. Project Management? It seems that nothing out of the ordinary can happen. Bill Essay? A sense of loneliness is in the house, when the wife is waiting for her husband to come home from work, empty chair opposite. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work.
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formal essay meaning Formal semantics and its recent developments. [This paper is in agree bill that Journal of Foreign Languages (Shanghai), 119:1 (January 1999), 2-20.] Michigan State University. Like Spanish moss on how to write and contrast essay a live oak tree, the scientific study of meaning in agree bill that language has expanded in for pr the last 100 years, and continues to expand steadily. In this essay I want to agree immigration that chart some central themes in that expansion, including their histories and their important figures. Our attention will be directed toward what is called 'formal semantics', which is the adaptation to natural language of analytical techniques from logic. The first, background, section of the paper will survey the changing attitudes of linguists toward semantics into the last third of the century. The second and third sections will examine current formal approaches to meaning. In the final section I will summarize some of the essay, common assumptions of the approaches examined in the middle sections of the paper, sketch a few alternatives, and make some daring predictions. 'Meaning' is a broad term that can encompass any aspect of the potential for cognitive or emotive impact of speech on interlocutors.
However in linguistic semantics these days the bill immigration that, cognitive aspects are the management, center of focus. Immigration That. On the other hand the traditional distinction between semantics, as the essay on diwali for kids in english, study of the relation between linguistic expressions and what they are used to talk about (people and things, events and situations, etc.) and immigration, pragmatics, as the study of anything involving the use of language, has become less certain and is in fact lost in several different current approaches. 1.1 The Bloomfieldian era . Linguistics in for kids in english the first half of the twentieth century was a newly developing discipline, with close connections to another developing social science, psychology. In the United States (and elsewhere) dominant figures in psychology were striving to agree bill immigration that implement the principles of British empiricist philosophy, and especially logical positivism, which stressed attention to objective observable data in formulating scientific theories. Behaviorist psychologists at the time were also reacting against the excesses of the mentalistic introspective approach which had dominated the field at the end of the nineteenth century. Leonard Bloomfield, who was the most influential figure in linguistics in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century, was strongly influenced by behaviorism. The beginning of the how to write a compare and contrast, chapter of his classic text Language which is bill essay that, titled 'Meaning' reveals this influence: We have defined the nursing essays, meaning of essay immigration a linguistic form as the situation in robert musil essay which the speaker utters it and the response which it calls forth in the hearer. . In order to give a scientifically accurate definition of meaning for agree essay immigration every form of a language, we should have to essay in english have a scientifically accurate knowledge of everything in agree essay that the speakers' world. The actual extent of essays on obesity human knowledge is very small compared to this. . The statement of meanings is therefore the weak point in language-study, and will remain so until human knowledge advances very far beyond its present state. (Bloomfield 1933, 139-140) Bloomfield's 'stimulus-response' model of agree essay that meaning was as impractical as it was suited to his theoretical orientation. As Bar-Hillel described it, Bloomfield 'deplored the mentalistic mud into which the study of meanings had fallen, and tried to reconstruct [the field of project management calendar linguistics] on a purely formal-structural basis' (Bar-Hillel 1954, 234-235). Bloomfield did not end his chapter on its second page, in despair, with the above quote.
He did find a way to talk, however briefly and informally, about the arbitrariness of meaning, polysemy and homonymy, semantic features, narrowing and broadening of word meaning, connotations of style and slang, and taboo words, though not always using these terms. (It is significant that Bloomfield had nothing at all to agree bill that say about sentence meaning.) However the critical historical, constraints of the crude behaviorist view of meaning he shared with other linguists of the agree essay immigration that, time did prove to be a strong barrier to the development of linguistic semantics, a barrier which continued into the Chomskyan era. 1.2 The Chomskyan revolution . In 1957 a little book named Syntactic Structures was published by an obscure Dutch press, but was reviewed glowingly and at great length (33 pages, to be exact) by Robert B. Lees in Language -- the robert monuments essay, journal of the Linguistic Society of America. Noam Chomsky's revolution in linguistics had begun. Probably Chomsky's most important contribution, from the perspective of the future development of linguistic semantics, was the institution of the generative conception of grammar, on which the agree bill essay that, goal of the grammarian was not to simply catalog elements from a corpus, or fixed quantity, of observed utterances, but rather to robert monuments essay construct a completely explicit formula that would generate, or characterize exactly, all, and most importantly only, the infinitude of bill essay that sentences of the language. Besides the notable consequence of putting syntax at the center of linguistics, where formerly it had stood quietly at write and contrast on abortion, the back door, this change in goals would eventually help to draw the attention of semanticists toward the problem of agree describing explicitly how the meanings of sentences are derived from the meanings of the words that make them up. However that development would have to wait for a few years, since the scientific study of semantics was still in the vexed state it had been in in Bloomfield's day. How To Essay On Abortion. The primary issue about meaning at bill immigration that, the time was whether or not intuitions about meaning should play any role in essays on obesity determining grammatical (= syntactic, morphological, or phonological) analysis. The worry was that if they were allowed to play a role, they would contaminate the agree, analyses with 'mentalistic mud' (as Bar-Hillel put it). In the final chapter of Syntactic Structures Chomsky argued that semantic intuitions should not play a role, concluding that '[t]here is. little evidence that intuition about meaning is at robert musil, all useful in the actual investigation of linguistic form' (Chomsky 1957, 94).
In the decades following, linguists found themselves unable to resist looking at meaning. Already in the review article mentioned above, Lees had speculated about whether 'it could be shown that all or most of what is meant by a sentence is contained in the kernel sentences from which it is derived' (Lees 1957, 394). A couple of developments in syntactic analysis made possible the main tenet of the school of agree bill that thought called generative semantics: that the deep structure of a sentence constitutes a representation of its meaning. Following the work of linguists such as Fillmore, Postal, McCawley, Ross, and G. and R. Lakoff, deep structures took on musil monuments some of the aspects of a representation in first order predicate logic, though in tree form. Negation, quantifiers, and adverbs were analyzed as sentence operators ('higher predicates'), in order to represent ambiguities such as those in (1)-(3): (1) Every woman loves one man. a. There is agree bill essay that, one man that every woman loves. b. Every woman loves some man or other. (2) Everyone didn't enjoy the play. a. At least one person did not enjoy the play. b. No one enjoyed the play.
(3) Mary isn't working in the garden because it's sunny. a. Because it's sunny, Mary isn't working in the garden. b. It is not because it's sunny that Mary is working in the garden (but for robert musil essay some other reason). Thus (1), for example, would be assigned two deep structures, roughly as in (4). (4) a. [[one man]y [[every woman]x [x loves y]]] b. [[every woman]x [[one man]y [x loves y]]] However generative semanticists at the time did not worry about the task of assigning explicit truth conditions to deep structures. Rather the devising and immigration, justification of particular deep structures was seen as the end of the job of semantics. Linguists at on obesity, this time were working largely independently of philosophers of language and logicians. This may have been one of the less happy consequences of essay that Chomsky's influence.
In the article cited above, Bar-Hillel suggested that linguists pay attention to developments in logic and try to incorporate a formal account of semantics into their grammar, but Chomsky's rather sharp reply the following year asserted that 'the relevance of logical syntax and semantics' to the study of natural languages 'is very dubious' (Chomsky 1955, 36). This reaction of Chomsky's was explicitly based on the not uncommon idea that natural languages and how to a compare essay, formal languages are fundamentally different from each other, but it was also very much in bill that tune with his larger project of nursing on obesity overthrowing empiricist philosophy of language and mind in favor of a return to Cartesian rationalism, as well as his personal style of publicly expressed arrogance and disdain for the work of others. Chomsky's first crops of linguistics Ph.D.'s began to appear in the mid 1960's, and thereafter increasing numbers of American linguists were taught by linguists who had been taught by Chomsky himself. These students, and their students, tended to inherit the idea that little of substantial value had been said about language in bill essay the centuries immediately prior to nursing on obesity Chomsky. In the agree that, late 1960's and early 1970's several developments altered this picture.
1.3. Montague and formal semantics . The just mentioned assumption that natural languages like English and Chinese are fundamentally different from the monuments essay, formal languages devised by essay that, logicians was a cornerstone of a twentieth century dispute within British empiricist philosophy between formalists, who held that natural languages were too riddled with vagueness and ambiguity to management be useful philosophical tools, and ordinary language philosophers, who held that natural languages not only could be excellent tools if used carefully, but also were rich repositories of the wisdom of generations of essay immigration that speakers. Management. In the late 1960's two philosophers, one a well-known British ordinary language philosopher and the other a young American logician, effectively challenged this common assumption that natural languages and agree, formal languages are very different from each other. H. Paul Grice, in his William James lecture series delivered at Harvard University in 1967, presented a systematic account of what he argued were only apparent divergences between a number of logical expressions and their natural language counterparts. Essay. At roughly the same time Richard Montague, in a series of agree essay that papers with titles like 'English as a formal language' and 'Universal grammar', was making good on the following bold statement: 'There is in my opinion no important theoretical difference between natural languages and the artificial languages of logicians; indeed, I consider it possible to essays comprehend the syntax and semantics of both kinds of languages within a single natural and mathematically precise theory' (Montague 1970b, 222). Montague's papers are highly formal and condensed, very difficult for ordinary humans (even logicians!) to read with comprehension. Fortunately it happened that a young linguist named Barbara Partee, an agree bill essay, exceptionally intelligent and clear-thinking as well as personable individual who was in Chomsky's first (1965) class of Linguistics Ph.D.'s from MIT, took a job at UCLA, met Montague there, and developed an interest in his approach to natural language and its contrast with Chomskyan transformational grammar.
In lectures in the early 1970's, especially following Montague's untimely death early in critical essay 1971, Partee presented his work in such a way as to make it both comprehensible and agree, appealing. 1974 was the fiftieth anniversary of the Linguistic Society of America and that summer a special Golden Anniversary Linguistic Institute was held at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, where Partee was now on the faculty. Partee's class on Montague Grammar was one of the highlights of this stellar Institute, and was attended by many prominent linguists. Her 100 page article 'Montague Grammar and Transformational Grammar', which contained a kind of musil monuments essay 'do it yourself' kit for learning formal semantics, appeared in immigration Linguistic Inquiry in 1975, and served as a kind of introductory text until the excellent volume by Dowty, Wall Peters appeared in 1981. Linguists were not entirely ignorant of relevant work in logic and philosophy of language at this time, but there was not the kind of interaction that there is today. One reason noted above may have been the robert, insular precedent set by Chomsky. Bill Essay. Another may have been the personalities of the generative semanticists, who would have been expected to be the linguists most interested in developments in logic and philosophy of language. In August of for pr 1969 the agree immigration that, philosophers Donald Davidson and Gilbert Harman organized a small colloquium of logicians and format for pr, linguists in an effort to promote more fruitful interactions, but Quine (one of the participants) remarked in his condensed autobiography that '[t]he colloquium was a fiasco at bridge building' (Quine 1986, 38), and suggested that the personalities involved were the cause. However the volume that resulted from this small conference, Davidson Harman 1972, contained many classic articles (including contributions from both Partee and Montague) which were widely read by linguists as well as philosophers, and ultimately the work of Montague and Partee along with linguistically inclined philosophers like David Lewis and agree that, Robert Stalnaker had and continue to have a tremendous impact on the field.
Probably the on obesity, most important byproduct of this interaction was that linguists became very aware of the fact that simply to represent meaning is not to give an analysis of it. This point was made most effectively by David Lewis, who criticized Katz and bill that, Postal's system of semantic representation in terms of semantic features which they called 'markers' (Katz Postal 1964). Lewis pointed out that Katz and Postal were merely giving rules for critical essay historical translating English into an artificial language that might be called 'Markerese', and he said: we can know the immigration, Markerese translation of an English sentence without knowing the first thing about the on obesity, meaning of the English sentence: namely, the bill essay immigration that, conditions under which it would be true. In English. Semantics with no treatment of truth conditions is not semantics. (Lewis 1972, 169.) By studying ordinary predicate logic as well as Montague's more specialized work linguists became familiar with truth conditional model-theoretic semantics, in which interpretations for expressions, including truth conditions for sentences, are assigned relative to a model. From the agree bill essay, early 1970's to the present time, linguists and philosophers have worked closely and essays on obesity, fruitfully together, attending and presenting papers at each other's conferences and publishing in each other's journals, and work in semantics, and especially formal semantics, has flourished in the United States. Agree Bill Immigration That. The journal Linguistics and Philosophy , which describes itself as focusing 'on issues related to structure and meaning in natural language as addressed in the philosophy of language, linguistic semantics, syntax and related disciplines', published its first issue in 1977 and is now in its 21st volume. Other journals devoted to semantics have also begun to format appear -- Journal of immigration that Semantics (which started in 1984), Natural Language Semantics (1993) -- as well as the essays, prestigious conference series Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT), which publishes the proceedings of its annual meetings and is now (1998) in its eighth year.
A number of linguists and philosophers have joint academic appointments in Linguistics and Philosophy (among them Richmond Thomason, Barbara Partee, and myself) and agree bill essay that, the linguistics program at MIT is housed in the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, though it should be noted that Chomsky's resistance to on diwali for kids formal semantics has continued unabated. 2. Agree Essay. Current formal semantics: quantification . We will begin our investigation of the current scene in American linguistic semantics with a closer work at Montague's work, including some of the problems he was able to project calendar formalize solutions to. In this work interpretation of agree that noun phrases takes center stage, and that will continue when we look at other analyses of project management quantification in natural language. Then we will turn our attention to some other aspects of sentence meaning. 2.1. Montague Grammar . Essay Immigration. The papers of Montague's cited above deal with 'fragments' of English. Montague's aim was not to critical essay historical construct a grammar for the whole language, but rather to give a complete (and completely explicit) syntax and semantics for an infinite subpart of the language which contained some constructions which pose interesting challenges for the semantician.
Chief among these are 'referentially opaque' or 'intensional' constructions. 'Referential opacity' is the agree bill essay immigration that, term coined by Quine 1953 for robert monuments essay the failure of substitution of coreferential expressions (expressions which refer to the same thing) to preserve truth in agree bill essay that certain contexts. (See also Quine 1956 for an excellent introduction to this problem.) One major group of referentially opaque contexts consists of sentences about propositional attitudes, or people's psychological attitudes (such as belief, desire, hope, fear, knowledge) towards situations or states of essay affairs. (5a) below can be true and (5c) false, despite the fact that the truth of (5b) means that the bill essay immigration, NPs Jocasta and Oedipus's mother are coreferential. (5) a. How To And Contrast Essay On Abortion. Oedipus wanted to marry Jocasta. b. Jocasta was Oedipus's mother. c. Oedipus wanted to marry his mother. Frege 1892 had argued that associated with expressions is a sense ( Sinn ) as well as a reference or denotation ( Bedeutung ), and agree that, that in referentially opaque contexts expressions denote their sense instead of their customary reference. Although Jocasta and Oedipus's mother have the same denotation they differ in sense, and monuments, this explains why they cannot be freely substituted for one another in propositional attitude contexts. Montague's semantics formalized Frege's solution using the notion 'intension', which is a formal analysis of the Fregean concept of sense developed by Carnap, Kripke, Montague and others. Intensions are functions from possible worlds, or possible states of affairs, to agree essay denotations or referents (the latter also known as extensions). ' Montague Grammar' came to denote the style of grammar presented in Montague 1973, which has three components: a syntax generating a fragment of essay for kids in english English (which in Montague 1973 included sentences about propositional attitudes), a complete syntax and model-theoretic semantics for a tensed intensional logic, and a set of translation rules mapping parsed English expressions to expressions of the intensional logic. In this way the logic serves to provide interpretations for the English fragment. The intensional logic was included in this paper for perspicuity; in 'English as a formal language', Montague interpreted an bill essay immigration, English fragment directly. 2.2.
Generalized quantifiers . Chomsky has impressed linguists with the importance of accounting for what he calls the essay on diwali, 'creative' aspect of human language -- the fact that we are able to produce and agree essay immigration, comprehend an unlimited number of novel utterances, sentences that we have never heard before. Compositionality is the semantic property of linguistic expressions that we assume is an essential part of the resume format, explanation for this miraculous ability. The meaning of a phrase is compositional if it is determined by the meanings of its constituent expressions plus the way they are put together syntactically. Idioms are, by essay immigration that, definition, phrases whose meanings are not compositional. If all of how to write language were idiomatic in this sense, then language would have no creative aspect in agree essay immigration Chomsky's sense. The formal languages of logic are strongly compositional, which means that expressions of a given syntactic category all receive the same type of interpretation and contribute in the same way to the interpretation of larger expressions of which they form a part. Critical Essay Historical. One striking way in which natural languages have seemed not to be strongly compositional is in the interpretation of noun phrases (NPs). NPs that are proper names, like Mary , have the same distributional properties as quantified NPs like every student , and sentences like those in (6) share their syntactic structure: b. Every student talks. However, while it is natural to say of (6a) that it is true just in case the agree that, individual denoted by the name Mary belongs to the set of entities that talk, a parallel analysis is not possible for (6b), and traditionally sentences like (6a) have received very different translations into first order predicate logic from sentences like (6b), as seen in write a compare essay (7).
b. x [Student(x) - Talks(x)] Probably the most impressive and far-reaching innovation in Montague's semantics came about because of his need to solve this problem, and that was the introduction of the generalized quantifier analysis of NPs. A generalized quantifier (GQ) is (an expression denoting) a set of subsets of some domain; on bill that this view the traditional existential quantifier would be interpreted as the set of all non-empty subsets of the domain of discourse. Taking NPs to denote GQs, Mary would be interpreted as the set containing all and only those sets which have the person Mary as a member, and essays, Every student would denote the set containing all and only supersets of the set of students. In this way the subject NPs of bill essay (6a) and (6b) can both be seen as taking the predicate as an argument, and each sentence is true if and only if the set of entities that talk belongs to resume the GQ denoted by the subject NP. Besides enabling Montague to solve the strong compositionality problem, the GQ analysis of NPs allows a number of other improvements. Some of these were observed and made use of by Montague; for bill essay that example the generalization of conjunction and disjunction, which in for kids in english ordinary predicate logic are strictly sentence operators, to apply also to bill immigration NPs (as well as verb phrases). Following Montague's death other linguists and philosophers, beginning with the seminal work of Barwise Cooper 1981, explored other avenues opened by the GQ approach and many papers and books have appeared detailing the results (see e.g.
Gärdenfors 1987 and Bach et al. 1995, and the works cited there). A major thrust of this work is a change of focus from the NP to the determiner, which under the GQ approach can be easily treated categorematically (unlike the traditional logic syncategorematic analysis of quantifier expressions) and analyzed as denoting a function from sets (common noun denotations) to sets of sets (GQs) or, equivalently, as expressing a relation between sets -- the set denoted by project management calendar, the common noun it combines with and the set denoted by bill immigration that, the predicate. This shift in focus is very much in tune with current trends in calendar syntax, where increasingly function morphemes have taken center stage, so that clauses are now taken to be complements of complementizers and so part of a CP category, and nominal phrases are complements of determiners and so part of a DP category. A number of agree essay immigration that formal semantic properties of quantified NPs came to light under the GQ approach. One of the most widely cited concerns 'entailingness' or monotonicity. In general an operator is upward entailing if a sentence containing it entails a sentence where the operator's argument is replaced with superset of its original argument, and downward entailing if the entailment goes in the other direction.
Viewing quantificational determiners as functions from sets to GQs, and on diwali, GQs as functions from sets to truth values, we have two operators to consider -- the determiner and that, the GQ. The determiner every is how to write, downward entailing, as shown by the fact that (8a) entails (8b): (8) a. Every dog barks. b. Every spotted dog barks. On the other hand the GQ Every dog is agree, upward entailing, as seen by the fact that (9b) entails (9a): (9) a. Every dog barks . b. Every dog barks loudly . Both some and some dog are upward entailing, while no and no dog are both downward entailing, as the reader may confirm by for kids in english, substituting them for every in the examples in (8) and (9). Negative polarity items are expressions like any and ever that are limited in their occurrence; they occur naturally in negative sentences, and in some other environments, but an exact statement of the agree bill that, constraint has proved elusive. An appealing hypothesis is that they occur exactly in downward entailing environments (see Ladusaw 1983), and this is critical essay, confirmed by the examples in (10) - (12). ( 10) a. *Some dog who ever smiles barks. b. *Some dog barks at anyone. (11) a. No dog who ever smiles barks. b. No dog barks at anyone.
(12) a. Every dog who ever smiles barks. b. *Every dog barks at anyone. Despite the very exciting developments that arose as a result of the agree bill that, generalized quantifier analysis of NPs, there remain some questions about whether it is in fact the correct analysis. Nursing. One challenge which we will look at in the next subsection has come, in part, from agree that, one of robert musil Partee's own students, and in connection with a new approach which considerably blurs the traditional distinction between semantics, as the agree bill essay, study of project calendar words-world relations abstracting away from contexts of utterance, and pragmatics, as the study of the effects of context on interpretation. 2.3. Discourse representation and file change semantics . In the essay immigration that, early 1980s a rather different approach to natural language quantification was proposed independently by Irene Heim, at the time one of Barbara Partee's students at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, and by Hans Kamp, a philosopher and logician. (See Heim 1982, 1983, and critical historical, Kamp 1984.) One problem which Kamp and Heim were concerned with was providing an adequate analysis of what are called 'donkey sentences', as in (13): ( 13) Every farmer who owns a donkey beats it. Such sentences actually present two problems. The first concerns the interpretation of the agree bill, pronoun it . If we represent a donkey in traditional predicate logic, using the existential quantifier, then the it (represented by the final occurrence of y in (14) will be outside the scope of that quantifier and will not be appropriately bound: (14) x [[Farmer(x) $ y [Donkey(y) Own(x,y)]] - Beat(x,y)] If, on the other hand, we use a universal quantifier for musil monuments a donkey as in (15), (15) x y[[Farmer(x) Donkey(y) Own(x,y)] - Beat(x,y)] we get a correct representation of the meaning of (13) but we have to explain how a donkey should sometimes be represented with a universal quantifier, but not other times, e.g. (16): (16) Mary owns a donkey.
Discourse Representation Semantics (DRS) (Kamp) and File Change Semantics (FCS) (Heim) both solved this problem with an approach to semantics which views the meaning of a sentence in terms of the impact an essay immigration that, utterance of essay in english it has on the discourse of agree bill essay that which it is a part, in essays other words in terms of its context change potential. Agree Bill Immigration That. This is an approach that had earlier been urged by Stalnaker, in format connection with the problem of presuppositions and presupposition projection. (See Stalnaker 1974, 1978.) Under this approach indefinite NPs are treated as introducing a new entity, represented by a free variable, into essay immigration, the discourse. (Definite NPs must be matched with an resume, entity already introduced into agree bill essay, the discourse.) When they occur in essay simple sentences like (17) they receive an existential interpretation in view of the semantic rule for interpreting the agree bill immigration that, entire discourse -- roughly, the discourse is true if there is management calendar, a sequence of individuals meeting all the conditions that have been mentioned. In this way pronominalization relationships which cross sentences, as in (17), can also be accommodated. (17) Mary owns a donkey . It always brays when it wants to be fed. The pronouns in (17) are beyond the capability of traditional formal semantics, which follows traditional logic in providing interpretations sentence by sentence. If an indefinite NP occurs in a context like (13), that is within the scope of a quantificational operator, then it is not necessarily bound by the discourse but instead can be bound by that operator. Lets look more closely to see how this happens.
In the agree bill essay, discourse oriented view of write a compare semantics, quantification breaks down into a three part, or tripartite, structure. Essay That. The first element of the structure is the quantificational operator, the for pr, second element includes any restriction on the range of quantification, and the third element (often called the 'scope') is the actual assertion associated with the quantifier. If indefinite NPs fall within the restrictive portion of a quantificational structure, they inherit binding by agree bill essay immigration, whatever quantificational operator is involved. So (13) receives a representation as in (18), where Q stands for 'Quantificational operator', R stands for 'Restriction', and S stands for 'Scope': (18) Q[every: x, y] R[Farmer(x), Donkey(y), Owns(x,y)] S[Beats(x,y)] One of the attractive features of this approach is that it can also handle examples of adverbial and adjectival quantification which were pointed out by David Lewis (see Lewis 1975).
Notice that (19) below means the same thing as (13), and would also be represented by (18), but this time the universal quantification is expressed by the adverb, and there are two indefinite NPs -- a farmer and a donkey -- to critical essay fall within its scope. (19) Invariably, if a farmer owns a donkey he beats it. So what is the relation between the GQ analysis of NPs and the DRS/FCS type of analysis? Barbara Partee, ever the unifier, argued that both are correct, but possibly for different kinds of bill essay immigration NPs and different kinds of contexts. In Partee 1986 she argued that indefinite NPs in fact need three different types of representations, depending on project the context in bill essay that which they occur. Indefinite NPs with pronominalization effects as explored in DRS/FCS and exemplified in (17) above should be interpreted as denoting simple entities. Indefinites that function as predicate nominals, as in (20), should be analyzed as denoting sets of things, here, the set of students. (20) Mary is a student. And the indefinite NP in (21) needs to be regarded as denoting a GQ, since it is conjoined with a quantificational NP: (21) One student and all the teachers appeared at the rally. This is not the end of the story, however; see Bach et al. 1995 for more recent papers on the relations between these two approaches.
And we must mention a third approach here, the dynamic semantics of Groenendijk, Stokhof, and others. (See Groenendijk Stokhof 1991, Groenendijk, Stokhof Veltman 1996.) Expressing a concern about the lack of attention to compositionality in the DRS/FCS approaches, Groenendijk and Stokhof have explored a modification of essays on obesity traditional predicate logic which will be able to interpret donkey sentences and cross-sentence anaphora. Agree Bill Essay Immigration That. It is possible to equate the interpretation of a sentence in traditional predicate logic with the set of assignments of values to variables which will satisfy it. In the resume format, original formulation of the dynamic semantics approach interpretations are instead ordered pairs of assignments. Successive sentences in agree bill immigration that a discourse carry over project, information from previous assignments, so that examples like (17) receive the proper interpretation. In conditional sentences, which donkey sentences are formally, the same property holds between antecedent and consequent, so that in a logical form like (14) the rightmost occurrence of the y variable will be bound by the existential quantifier. This basic approach is modified and elaborated in Groenendijk et al.
1996. This completes our summary of agree bill that current approaches to formal semantics which focus on the interpretation of NPs, especially quantified NPs. This summary has necessarily left out many details, alternative theories (such as situation semantics -- see Barwise Perry 1983) and particular analyses of calendar constructions. Agree Bill. For more information, see the many excellent papers in Lappin 1996. We turn now to critical look at some other aspects of sentence interpretation.
3. Aspects of bill immigration eventualities . As noted above, by far the nursing essays on obesity, most attention in formal semantics has been paid to the interpretation of NPs. However philosophers and linguists have also been drawn to consider other aspects of sentence interpretation and now we will look at some of these. We will begin with a problem noticed by Donald Davidson, and that will lead us to agree bill essay that consider the nature of different kinds of eventualities as well as some more complexities of NP interpretation. 3.1. Davidson's 'event' semantics . Davidson (1967) considered the fanciful example in (22): (22) Jones buttered the toast with a knife in the bathroom at midnight. In traditional predicate logic, clauses are wholly represented as a predicate plus its arguments -- one corresponding to each NP of the corresponding English sentence.
There are 5 NPs in (22) ( Jones , the management calendar, toast , a knife , the bathroom , midnight ); hence to represent this sentence in traditional logic we would have to have a 5-place predicate, something like Butter-with-in-at , to go with five arguments corresponding to these five NPs. The sentences in (23a)-(23c) would have to have, respectively, 4-place, 3-place, and 2-place predicates. (23) a. Jones buttered the toast with a knife in the bathroom. b. Jones buttered the toast with a knife. c. Jones buttered the toast.
But intuitively there should not be four different predicates involved in the sentences in (22) and (23), but rather just one predicate -- butter . Agree Immigration That. And all of these sentences could be different ways of describing the historical, very same event. To put the problem in more formal terms (the way Davidson described it), (22) entails each of the sentences in (23) (and they each entail the ones below them), but these semantic relations could not be captured in traditional predicate logic. What Davidson proposed by way of a solution was to recognize events as a kind of entity -- that is, to add events to the other things (people, dogs, chairs, etc.) in bill essay immigration the domain of discourse -- and to regard ordinary sentences as implicitly making reference to an event. Everything else in the sentence can then be seen as being predicated of this event. Project Management. So (22) would introduce an event which is a 'Jones buttering the bill, toast' type of event, and this very event has other properties -- it occurred with a knife and in the bathroom, etc. The logical form of (22), according to format for pr Davidson, is something like (24), where e is a special variable over events: (24) $ e [Butter(Jones, the toast, e ) With(a knife, e ) In(the bathroom, e ) At(midnight, e )] The logical form for (23c) would be (25). (25) is entailed by (24) as well as by agree immigration that, the Davidsonian logical forms for (23a) and (23b).
Linguists were not aware of Davidson's proposals for a while after they were introduced, but more recently they have received a great deal of robert attention. However, it is not clear whether all sentences should be seen as making implicit reference to an event, or whether we should take the term 'event' seriously. Not all sentences describe events. The sentences in (26) would all be called 'stative' -- they describe relatively unchanging circumstances which simply are. (26) a. Joyce knows Arabic. b. Four divided by two equals two. c. Dogs make good companions. Notice also that such sentences do not take time, place, and bill essay immigration, manner adverbials freely, as shown in (27). (27) a. ?Joyce knows Arabic at midnight. b. ?Four divided by two equals two in on diwali for kids the bathroom. c. ?Dogs make good companions with a knife.
Kratzer 1996 has argued that sentences with stative predicates, like those in (26), should not be analyzed with a Davidsonian event variable, although other linguists have argued that all sentences should have an event variable (see Bach 1981, Higginbotham 1985). The next section looks at another difference between stative and non-stative predicates, one which is related to the interpretation of generic NPs. 3.2. Generic NPs . Sentences like those in (28) present an interesting puzzle: (28) a. Dogs are excellent companions. b. Essay Immigration That. Dogs are barking outside my window. Though the same word -- dogs -- functions as subject in both it seems to resume format for pr refer to two different things. (28a) is a statement about dogs in general, perhaps all dogs, while (28b) talks about some specific dogs, perhaps only essay two or three. How To And Contrast Essay On Abortion. Greg Carlson (another of Barbara Partee's students!) had a crucial insight in proposing a solution to essay immigration that this puzzle.
He shifted attention from the subject to the predicate and saw that the apparent distinction in NP interpretation correlated well with a difference in whether the verb phrase expressed a permanent property, or instead a more temporary property, of the subject. Critical. In Carlson's analysis (see Carlson 1977, 1980), dogs is taken to uniformly denote the kind dogs. Truth of (28a) requires the predicate to hold generally of individual dogs belonging to this kind. Bill. The predicate of (28b) on the other hand introduces (existential) quantification over temporal stages of individual dogs -- a concept which was inspired by W.V. Quine 1960. Although particular aspects of for pr this analysis have been disputed (see Carlson Pelletier 1995 for some current views of generics), Carlson's distinction between individual level and stage level predication has proved to have far reaching significance. One application is describing the agree bill essay, difference between possible subsidiary predications in existential sentences in English. (29a), with an individual level predicate, is an ungrammatical sentence but (29b), which has instead a stage level predicate, is perfectly natural. (29) a. *There are dogs excellent companions.
b. There are dogs barking outside my window. Carlson's stage level predicates are all stative predicates, and the individual level predicates seem to be nonstative, but that leaves many unanswered questions. Are there just two types of eventualities? If not, what other kinds are there, and how are the different categories defined? These questions have not been answered yet in a way that everyone agrees on. We will look at some proposals in the next section. 3.3. Types of eventualities . The German word Aktionsarten (singular Aktionsart) is commonly now used in critical the study of different types of agree immigration eventualities, to distinguish aspect in this sense from the aspectual markers found on format verbs in bill that inflecting languages. Grammarians since Aristotle have commonly found more than just a two-way distinction in types of predicates. Critical. Aristotle himself pointed to immigration a three way distinction among states like knowing Arabic, which are relatively unchanging, processes like running, in which there is activity of some kind going on, and actions like building a house, which have a natural culmination or termination point. Project. The latter are now commonly referred to as telic eventualities.
Zeno Vendler, one of the earliest philosophers to pay serious attention to the kinds of linguistic evidence that motivates linguists, divided Aristotle's telic eventualities into essay immigration that, two subcategories -- accomplishments like building a house, which are volitional and project management, take some time to bring about, and agree, what he called achievements like noticing a mistake or dying, which are nonvolitional and are referred to as though they were instantaneous. Critical Essay Historical. (See Vendler 1967.) Some of the bill that, grammatical distinctions in these four categories are illustrated in the following examples, where know Arabic represents stative predicates, push a cart represents processes, build a house represents accomplishments, and notice a mistake represents achievements. (30) a. *Mary is knowing Arabic/noticing a mistake. b. Mary is essay in english, pushing a cart/building a house. (31) a. Mary knew Arabic/pushed a cart for a year. b. *Mary built a house/noticed a mistake for a year. (32) a. *Mary knew Arabic/pushed a cart within day. b. Mary built a house/noticed a mistake within a day.
However, not everybody has agreed with Vendler about the number of distinct categories he postulated. That. In the formal semantics for Aktionsarten presented in Parsons 1990, there are just two operators: Cul ('culminate') to robert monuments essay represent Vendler's accomplishments and achievements, and Hold, for sentences representing either states or processes. Bach 1986, on the other hand, subdivided eventualities into six different subcategories, including two different types of states (dynamic and static), in bill immigration that addition to processes and several kinds of telic eventualities. There are other complications too; Verkuyl has stressed the write a compare and contrast, importance of the effect different types of NP arguments can have on the aspect of a sentence. (33a) and (34a) would be classified as telic eventualities, whereas (33b) and (34b) are non-telic processes. (33) a. Mary painted a picture (*for a year).
b. Essay. Mary painted pictures (for a year). (34) a. Musil. A guest arrived (*for an hour). b. Guests arrived (for an hour). Verkuyl 1993 proposes a formal semantics in which NPs as well as verbs are taken into account, and eventuality types are determined compositionally for the sentence as a whole. 4. Summary, conclusions and prognostications . 4.1.
Commonalities . All of the formal analyses described and summarized here have shared some common assumptions about the bill essay immigration that, goals of semantics. One is that any proposed analysis of the semantic interpretation for essay in english a language, or a portion thereof, must be given in bill essay that rigorous and explicit terms. Vagueness is to be avoided, and if possible nothing is to be left to the reader to fill in or guess at. The kind of formal semantics adapted from the languages of logic has filled that bill extremely well. This explains the frequent use of essays special symbols in formal semantics. Immigration That. The special symbols can be defined explicitly so that there is no risk of misinterpretation or ambiguity. The symbols also make formal statements less lengthy and more readable, once one has learned their interpretation. Although the heavy use of special symbols initially presents somewhat of essay in english a formidable seeming barrier to agree essay immigration formal semantics, ultimately it has more than enough value in clarity to make climbing over this barrier well worth while.
Another common assumption was referred to above in the contradictory-sounding statement from David Lewis: 'Semantics without truth conditions is not semantics' (Lewis 1972, 169). Truth conditional semantics takes the core of meaning for a sentence to be given by some kind of explicit statement about what it would take for a sentence to critical essay historical be true. There are many arguments for agree bill essay immigration that this assumption. Project Management Calendar. One is that it makes clear how language is related to agree bill essay immigration that the things in the outside world that it is used to talk about. It also explains how people can use language to convey information to each other about the extra-linguistic world. And finally there is the fundamental fact that if someone knows what sentence means, then she knows what the musil, world would have to be like for the sentence to be true -- i.e. the truth conditions of the sentence. Generally also if one knows truth conditions then one knows meaning too, but not always.
Necessarily true sentences like the truths of mathematics all have the same truth conditions -- they are true under any circumstances or in agree bill essay that every possible world. Nevertheless these sentences don't all mean the same thing. Two plus two equals four does not mean the same as There is format for pr, no largest prime number . So there is more to meaning besides truth conditions, but formal semanticians agree that giving truth conditions is an essential core to describing meaning. The approaches to semantics sketched above in §§2 and 3 also followed common logical practice in being model-theoretic. Bill Essay Immigration That. Model-theoretic semantics is a generalization of the a compare and contrast on abortion, truth conditional approach according to which truth conditions are given relative to a model. The semantics for a given language will specify what a model for the language must consist of -- what kinds of things it must have and how the language is to be related to them. Then for a natural language we assume that a sentence is true if it is true relative to a model which matches the real world in the relevant respects. (See Kalish 1967 for discussion and historical notes.) 4.2. Alternatives, formal informal . Not all truth conditional semantics is model-theoretic. Bill Essay That. Donald Davidson has proposed a different style of semantics for natural language, which is nursing, also based on modern logic, but which takes the task of semantics for a language as divising a system which will generate specific statements of truth conditions which are called 'T-sentences'.
T-sentences were introduced by Tarski (see Tarski 1944), but the 'T' stands for 'truth' not for 'Tarski'! A T-sentence for bill immigration the English sentence Snow is white is given in critical essay historical (35). (35) Snow is white is true if and only if snow is white. (35) looks fairly vacuous, but part of that vacuous look is because the object language -- the bill, language we are talking about the semantics of, is the same as the metalanguage -- the language we are using to do the semantics with. When the object language is calendar, different from the metalanguage, the T-sentence looks more significant: (36) Xuê shì baí de is true if and only if snow is white. Tarski proposed as a minimal condition on the adequacy of the semantic rules for a language, that they should allow the derivation (that is, the proof, in the logical sense) of the correct T-sentences for all the sentences of the object language. Larson Segal 1995 have undertaken the task of working out the formal details of the T-sentence approach for a large fragment of English which includes generalized quantifiers, referentially opaque sentences, tense and aspect features, and many other interesting and challenging constructions. Their work is presented as a textbook for graduate students, but it is of great interest to that professional linguists and philosophers of language as well. There are few alternatives to the approaches falling under the a compare and contrast essay, heading of formal semantics, and none that offer the same comprehensiveness. Probably the most well known is the approach of Jackendoff -- see Jackendoff 1990, 1997.
Jackendoff's specialty is lexical semantics, about which formal semanticists have had the least to say, and his work, which offers many insights into the nature of word meaning, deserves careful attention. Zwarts Verkuyl 1994 show how Jackendoff's work might be put in a formal framework. Fauconnier 1994, 1997 has put forward an approach invoking what he calls 'mental spaces', which are similar in some respects to essay immigration that possible worlds or situations but intended to be (representations of) human thought. This work focuses in essay historical particular on unusual cases of reference such as those illustrated in (36). (36) a. Bill [meaning Bill's car] is parked on the next street. b. If I were you I would treat myself/me with a little more respect. Fauconnier's work tends to immigration that be less carefully worked out than Jackendoff's, and musil essay, neither approach reaches the level of agree essay immigration explicit comprehensiveness of the formal theories we have been looking at.
4.3. Future prospects . The relation between language and mind remains at present a very murky one. Chomsky's mentalistic revolution in linguistics put the study of language, at on diwali for kids, least theoretically and according to Chomsky, under the umbrella of psychology. However in bill essay that practice developments in linguistics and findings of psycholinguists have not always fit together comfortably, and I regret to have to report that linguists have sometimes seemed to turn their back on psycholinguists in such cases. Chomsky continues to throw up a wall, with one side marked 'competence' -- the static knowledge of language shared by speakers, and the other side marked 'performance' -- actual occasions of use of this knowledge to produce and nursing on obesity, comprehend utterances; and he seems to think that this wall will keep at bay any experimental findings which do not support his theoretical proposals. Agree Bill Essay Immigration. On the project management, other hand there are some meager indications that eventually contrary evidence can penetrate. The early transformational model of grammar was not well supported by evidence from experiments on language processing. While this evidence seemed to be ignored for many years, gradually Chomsky has replaced the transformational model with another, and it is possible that the agree essay immigration, psycholinguistic evidence played a role in this replacement. Another issue is the format, relation of semantics to the rest of the grammar, on the one hand, and to the rest of agree essay immigration cognition on the other.
In his current 'Minimalism' theory of grammar Chomsky sometimes seems to suggest that the rules of semantics are completely outside the grammar, and belong to aspects of general cognition. Historical. On other occasions, though, Chomsky uses examples of bill that word meaning to argue for the highly specialized nature of linguistic competence and for its innateness. (See Chomsky 1995a,b.) This ambivalence is matched by management calendar, other long standing controversies -- the controversy over whether word meanings are specialized and distinguished from general knowledge about the agree essay immigration that, world (the 'dictionary' view) or whether they are holistic and global, and encompass everything related to extensions (the 'encyclopedia' view), as well as the many disputes about project calendar whether certain aspects of essay that sentence meaning (in a broad sense of 'meaning') belong to semantics or pragmatics -- aspects such as presupposition, conversational implicature, and illocutionary force. I predict that these issues will be resolved within the next fifty years, and that findings from the rest of the new field of cognitive science -- especially the subfields of psycholinguistics and language processing, neurolinguistics, and computational linguistics -- will be helpful in this resolution. I also believe that the essay historical, evidence will ultimately indicate that the agree bill, framework for resume format semantic interpretation will share the unique nature that the rest of language seems to have, and that there will be a distinction between the linguistic lexicon and the encyclopedia of world knowledge. I base this projection in part on the fact that the principles of meaning, whether at the word level or at the sentence level, seem to be as illusive and inaccessible to conscious reflection as the principles of syntactic structure or phonological interpretation, and in part on my belief that Grice and Montague were right, that the logical approach to language, in which semantic and syntactic representations mirror each other, is justified for agree immigration that natural as well as formalized languages. [ 1] According to Carnap A theory, a rule, a definition, or the like is to be called formal when no reference is made in it either to the meaning of the symbols (for example, the words) or to the sense of the expressions (e.g. the on diwali, sentences), but simply and solely to the kinds and order of the symbols from which the expressions are constructed. (Carnap 1937, 1.) On this characterization it may seem like the phrase 'formal semantics' should be a contradiction in terms! At the time Carnap and others believed that relations of meaning among sentences, such as entailment and contradiction, could and agree bill essay immigration that, should be given an account in purely formal, that is syntactic, terms. However with the development by Tarski and others of rigorous methods of semantic interpretation, on the one hand, and the proof by Gödel of the nonequivalence of syntactic and semantic notions of logical consequence, on project the other, 'logic' has come to encompass both syntax and semantics, and 'formal' has come to mean something like 'rigorous and explicit; modeled on methods in logic'.
In some ways the term is bill essay immigration that, a counterpart to on obesity Chomsky's term 'generative'. [return] [ 2] One of these developments was the discovery by Fillmore of the that, cyclic principle of format for pr transformational rule application (Fillmore 1963), which allowed the abandonment of essay immigration generalized transformations and the incorporation of recursive rules in the phrase structure component. The other was the development by Katz and essay on diwali for kids in english, Postal of agree that arguments for deep structure triggers of otherwise meaning changing transformations -- most notably the negation and question rules (Katz Postal 1964). [return] [ 3] The earliest of these papers were published in 1970, but reference notes make clear that the ideas were already beginning to be presented in lectures as early as January and February of robert musil monuments essay 1966 (cf. Montague 1970a, 188). [return] [ 4] The reader may have guessed from this quotation that the phrase 'universal grammar' had quite a different meaning for Montague than it has for Chomsky. While for agree bill that Chomsky 'universal grammar' denotes the essay historical, innate human language faculty, for Montague that phrase denoted the mathematical study of syntax and semantics. Montague was not unfamiliar with Chomsky's work, but he held it in some disdain because of its failure to pay sufficient attention to semantics. Bill Essay. Cf. Project Management. e.g. Agree Essay. Montague 1973, 247. [return]  Frege's solution to the problem of referential opacity, as formalized by Montague and others, has not proved to be completely successful. One difficulty is posed by the fact that proper names do not seem to have a sense, the on diwali for kids, way descriptive expressions like Oedipus's mother do. (Kripke 1972 argued this at length and agree essay, quite convincingly.) Nevertheless proper names cannot be substituted for project calendar each other in agree bill referentially opaque contexts, as seen in by the fact that (ia) can be true and (ic) false, despite the truth of (ib): (i) a. Ruth knows that Mark Twain wrote Tom Sawyer . b. Mark Twain was Samuel Clemens.
c. Ruth knows that Samuel Clemens wrote Tom Sawyer . There is a huge literature on this topic, which stretches back at least to monuments the middle ages and continues to the present day. See Linsky 1971 for some of the standard 'classical' references on this topic, including Quine 1953 and Quine 1956, and Anderson Owens 1990 and Künne, Newen Anduschus 1997 for some recent papers. [return] [ 6] Although generalized quantifiers had been discovered prior to Montague's work (see Barwise Cooper 1981, 159), he was apparently unaware of this and agree bill, did not use the term 'generalized quantifier' in critical essay historical his own papers. Also, because of the intensionality in his approach, rather than interpreting NPs as sets of bill essay immigration that sets he actually interpreted them as properties of properties, but I am ignoring that complication for this presentation. [return] [ 7] Despite the appealing nature of Ladusaw's hypothesis about negative polarity items there are problems with this explanation. See Israel 1996 for nursing essays on obesity a review of much of the bill immigration that, literature on polarity, and an alternative hypothesis. [return] [ 8] Geach 1962 was the first to draw the essay for kids, attention of modern philosophers and essay immigration, linguists to the problems presented by resume for pr, such sentences, though he cited a medieval literature on the subject. [return] [ 9] Of course the that, real logical form for (22) would have the NPs unpacked in familiar quantificational ways, which have been omitted here for clarity's sake. [return] [ 10] I would like to thank Aldo Antonelli, Jianguo Chen, Yen-Hwei Lin, Dick Stanley, and Luding Tong for help in a compare and contrast essay on abortion connection with this paper. [return] REFERENCES Anderson, C. Anthony Joseph Owens, eds. 1990. Agree Essay. Propositional Attitudes: The Role of historical Content in Logic, Language, and Mind. Stanford, CA: CSLI. Bach, Emmon.
1981. On time, tense, and essay immigration that, aspect: An essay in English metaphysics. In Peter Cole, ed., Radical Pragmatics , New York: Academic Press, 63-81. Bach, Emmon. 1986. The algebra of events. Essay. Linguistics and Philosophy 9:1, 5-16. Bach, Emmon, Eloise Jelinek, Angelika Kratzer Barbara Partee, eds. 1995. Quantification in Natural Languages . Dordrecht: Kluwer. Bar-Hillel, Yehoshua.
1954. Logical syntax and semantics. Language 30:2, 230-237. Barwise, Jon Robin Cooper. 1981. Generalized quantifiers in natural language. Linguistics and Philosophy 4:2, 159-220. Barwise, Jon John Perry.
1983. Situations and Attitudes . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1933. Language . New York: Henry Holt. Carlson, Greg N. 1977. A unified analysis of the English bare plural. Linguistics and Philosophy 1:413-456. Carlson, Greg N. Agree Essay Immigration That. 1980. Reference to Kinds in English . New York: Garland Press. Carlson, Greg N. Francis Jeffry Pelletier, eds.
1995. The Generic Book . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Carnap, Rudolf. 1937. The Logical Syntax of Language . New York: Harcourt Brace. Chomsky, Noam. Essay. 1955. Logical syntax and semantics: Their linguistic relevance, Language 31:1, 36-45. Chomsky, Noam. 1957.
Syntactic Structures . Agree Essay That. The Hague: Mouton. Chomsky, Noam. 1995a. Language and nature. Mind 104, 1-61. Chomsky, Noam. 1995b. The Minimalist Program . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Davidson, Donald.
1967. The logical form of action sentences. In Nicholas Rescher, ed., The Logic of Decision and Action , Pittsburgh, PA: The University of resume format Pittsburgh Press, 81-95. Davidson, Donald Gilbert Harman, eds. 1972.
Semantics of Natural Language . Dordrecht: D. Reidel. Dowty, David R., Robert E. Wall Stanley Peters, eds. 1981. Introduction to Montague Semantics . Dordrecht: D. Reidel. Fauconnier, Gilles. 1994. Mental Spaces: Aspects of agree bill essay immigration Meaning Construction in Natural Language . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fauconnier, Gilles. 1997.
Mappings in write essay on abortion Thought and agree, Language . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fillmore, Charles J. 1963. The position of robert monuments essay embedding transformations in a grammar. Word 19, 208-231. Frege, Gottlob. 1892. Über Sinn und Bedeutung.
Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Philosophische Kritik 100, 25-50. Reprinted as 'On sense and reference' in Peter Geach Max Black, eds., Translations from the essay, Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege , 1970, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 56-78. Gärdenfors, Peter, ed. 1987. Write A Compare And Contrast Essay On Abortion. Generalized Quantifiers: Linguistic and Logical Approaches . Agree Bill Essay Immigration That. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. Geach, Peter Thomas. 1962. Reference and Generality . Resume Format. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Groenendijk, Jeroen Martin Stokhof. 1991.
Dynamic predicate logic. Linguistics and Philosophy 14:1 , 39-100. Groenendijk, Jeroen, Martin Stokhof Frank Veltman. 1996. Coreference and modality. Agree Essay That. In Shalom Lappin, ed., 179-214. Heim, Irene. 1982. The Semantics of critical essay historical Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases . Agree Bill That. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts doctoral dissertation.
Heim, Irene. 1983. File change semantics and resume, the familiarity theory of definiteness', in Rainer Bäuerle, Christoph Schwarze, Arnim von Stechow, eds., Meaning, Use, and Interpretation of Language . Berlin: de Gruyter, 164-189. Higginbotham, James. 1985.
On semantics. Linguistic Inquiry 16, 547-593. Israel, Michael. 1996. Polarity sensitivity as lexical semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 19:6, 619-666. Jackendoff, Ray. 1990. Semantic Structures . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Jackendoff, Ray. 1997.
The Architecture of the Language Faculty . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Kalish, Donald. 1967. Essay. Semantics. In Paul Edwards, ed., The Encyclopedia of Philosophy , volume 7, 348-358. Kamp, Hans. 1984. A theory of truth and semantic representation. In Jeroen Groenendijk, Theo M.V. Monuments. Janssen, Martin Stokhof, eds., Truth, Interpretation and Information . Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 1-42. Katz, Jerrold J. Paul M. Postal.
1964. An Integrated Theory of Linguistic Descriptions . Agree Immigration That. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Kratzer, Angelika. 1996. Stage-level and individual-level predicates. Resume For Pr. In Carlson Pelletier, eds., 125-175. Kripke, Saul A. 1972.
Naming and necessity. In Davidson Harman, 253-355. Reissued separately in 1980 by Harvard University Press. Künne, Wolfgang, Albert Newen Martin Anduschus. 1997.
Direct Reference, Indexicality, and Propositional Attitudes . Stanford, CA: CSLI. Ladusaw, William A. 1983. Logical form and conditions on agree immigration that grammaticality. Linguistics and on diwali for kids in english, Philosophy 6:3, 373-392. Lappin, Shalom, ed. 1996.
The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory . Bill. Oxford: Blackwell. Larson, Richard Gabriel Segal. 1995. Knowledge of Meaning: An Introduction to Semantic Theory . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Lees, Robert B. How To Write A Compare On Abortion. 1957. 'Review of agree essay immigration that Syntactic structures , by robert essay, Noam Chomsky', Language 33:3, 375-408. Lewis, David.
1972. Agree Bill Essay Immigration. General semantics. In Davidson Harman, eds., 169-218. Reprinted in Partee 1976, 1-50. Lewis, David. 1975. Adverbs of nursing quantification.
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English as a formal language. in essay for kids in english Bruno Visentini et al., Linguaggi nella Società e nella Tecnica , Milan: Edizioni di Comunità, 189-224. Reprinted in Montague 1974, 188-221. Montague, Richard. 1970b. Universal grammar. Theoria 36, 373-398. Reprinted in Montague 1974, 222-246.
Montague, Richard. 1973. Agree Essay Immigration That. The proper treatment of quantification in ordinary English. in musil J. Hintikka, J. Bill Immigration That. Moravcsik, P. Suppes, eds., Approaches to Natural Language: Proceedings of the essays, 1970 Stanford Workshop on Grammar and Semantics , Dordrecht, D. Bill Essay Immigration. Reidel, 221-242. Reprinted in Montague 1974, 247-270. Montague, Richard. 1974. Formal Philosophy: Selected Papers of Richard Montague . Edited and resume for pr, with an introduction by Richmond H. Thomason. New Haven: Yale University Press. Parsons, Terence. 1990. Events in the semantics of English . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Partee, Barbara. 1975. Montague Grammar and Transformational Grammar. Linguistic Inquiry 6:2, 203-300. Partee, Barbara, ed. 1976. Montague Grammar . New York: Academic Press. Partee, Barbara. 1986. Noun phrase interpretation and type-shifting principles. In Jeroen Groenendijk, Dick de Jongh, Martin Stokhof, eds., Studies in Discourse Representation Theory and bill essay, the Theory of Generalized Quantifiers , Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 115-144.
Quine, W.V. 1953. Reference and modality. In From a Logical Point of View , Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 139-159. Quine, W.V. 1956. Quantifiers and propositional attitudes. Journal of Philosophy 53. Reprinted in W.V. Management Calendar. Quine, The Ways of Paradox , 1966, New York: Random House, 183-194. Quine, W.V.
1960. Word and Object . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Quine, W. V. 1986. Autobiography of W.V. Quine. in Lewis Edwin Hahn Paul Arthur Schilpp, eds., The Philosophy of W.V. Quine , La Salle, IL: Open Court, 3-48. Stalnaker, Robert C. Bill Immigration That. 1974. Pragmatic Presupposition.
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Philosophy and robert musil monuments essay, Phenomenological Research 4, 341-375. Vendler, Zeno. 1967. Linguistics in Philosophy . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Verkuyl, Henk J. 1993. A Theory of Aspectuality . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Zwarts, Joost Henk Verkuyl. 1994.
An algebra of conceptual structure: An investigation into Jackendoff's conceptual semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 17, 1-28.
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Section 11: Business Continuity Management. ISO 17799 2000 is now OBSOLETE. S ee ISO 27002 2013 . 11.1 DESIGN A CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PROCESS. Develop a business continuity management process to protect. your critical business processes during business disruptions,
security failures, and essay immigration, disasters. Make sure that your business continuity management process is project management, used. to prevent business disruptions, security failures, and disasters. Make sure that your business continuity management process is used. to recover from agree essay immigration that business disruptions, security failures, and disasters.
Make sure that your business continuity management. process is used to identify and reduce security risks. Make sure that your business continuity management process is used. to ensure that essential operations are restored as quickly as possible. Make sure that your business continuity. management process is used to essay for kids in english limit the. impact that damaging incidents could have.
Analyze the agree essay immigration impact that disasters could. have on your critical business processes. Analyze the impact that security failures. could have on critical business processes. Analyze the essays impact that a loss of agree essay immigration service. could have on critical business processes.
Developed contingency plans in order to. ensure that critical business processes are. restored within a reasonable period of time. Practice implementing your contingency plans. 11.1.1 ESTABLISH YOUR CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PROCESS. Establish a process to manage and project calendar, maintain. business continuity throughout your organization. Identify and prioritize your organization’s.
most critical business processes. Identify the essay immigration that risks that threaten the. security of your business processes. Estimate the likelihood that your organization will be. exposed to significant security risks and historical, threats. Analyze the impact that serious threats could have. on the agree bill essay immigration that security of critical essay historical your organization’s processes.
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Formulate a business continuity strategy. for your information processing facilities. Document your business continuity strategy. Make sure that your business continuity strategy is consistent. with your organization's business objectives and priorities. Formulate business continuity plans.
for your information processing facilities. Document your business continuity plans. Make sure that your business continuity plans are. consistent with your business continuity strategy. Make sure that responsibility for project calendar coordinating your continuity. management process has been assigned to agree essay immigration that someone at project the. appropriate level within your organization. Institutionalize continuity management.
11.1.2 PERFORM THREAT ANALYSIS AND IMPACT ANALYSIS. Carry out bill essay, a threat analysis in order to identify the. events that could interrupt your business processes. Carry out your threat analysis with the robert monuments full. involvement of process and resource owners. Make sure that your threat analysis. includes all business processes.
Carried out a risk assessment in bill essay immigration, order to how to on abortion identify the. impact that business process interruptions could have. Make sure that your impact analysis identifies how much. damage your business process interruptions could cause. Make sure that your impact analysis identifies how long it. would take to agree bill recover from business process interruptions. Carry out your impact analysis with the full. involvement of on obesity process and resource owners. Make sure that your impact analysis includes all business processes. Use the immigration that results of your analyses and assessments to develop a strategy. that defines your organization’s general approach to business continuity.
Make sure that your senior management endorses. your general business continuity strategy. 11.1.3 DEVELOP YOUR BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLANS. Develop plans to restore and robert musil, continue business operations. after critical processes have failed or been interrupted. Make sure that your business continuity plans. help you to achieve your business objectives. Make sure that business continuity plans help you to restore. services to customers within a reasonable period of time. Make sure that your business continuity plans identify the. resources that will be needed to restore business processes.
Make sure that your business continuity plans identify the. services that will be needed to agree essay that restore business processes. Make sure that your business continuity plans identify the. staffing that will be needed to critical restore business processes. Make sure that your business continuity plans identify. and assign all emergency management responsibilities. Make sure that your business continuity plans define. all necessary emergency response procedures.
Make sure that your emergency response procedures. ensure that your critical processes will be recovered. and restored within the agree bill that required time limits. Make sure that your emergency response. procedures accommodate and deal with.
all external business interdependencies. Make sure that your emergency response procedures. respect and reflect all related business contracts. Document all emergency response procedures. Document all critical business processes. Make sure that your business continuity plans identify. fallback arrangements for information processing facilities. Teach your staff members how to essay on diwali for kids use.
your emergency response procedures. Teach your staff members how critical business. processes will be recovered and bill essay, restored. Teach your staff members about critical essay historical your crisis. management methods and procedures. Test your business continuity plans on a regular basis. Update your business continuity plans on a regular basis. 11.1.4 MAINTAIN A CONTINUITY PLANNING FRAMEWORK. Establish a single framework of business continuity plans.
to ensure that all plans are consistent with one another. Use your business continuity planning. framework to bill immigration determine plan testing priorities. Use your business continuity planning framework. to determine plan maintenance priorities. Make sure that each business continuity plan includes. a maintenance schedule that explains how and. when the plan will be tested and monuments essay, maintained. Amend your business continuity plans whenever. new security threats or requirements are identified.
Make sure that each business continuity plan clearly. specifies the conditions that must met before it is agree bill, activated. Make sure that each business continuity plan. specifies the essay historical process that must be followed. before a plan may be activated. Make sure that each business continuity plan. explains how a crisis situation should be. assessed before a plan is activated. Make sure that each business continuity plan. specifies who should be contacted and involved. before a plan may be activated.
Make sure that each business continuity plan specifies. who is agree immigration, responsible for robert executing each part of the agree essay immigration that plan. Make sure that each business continuity plan. nominates alternative personnel who would be. responsible for executing the plan if those who. are primarily responsible are unable to do so. Make sure that each business continuity plan describes. the emergency procedures that should be followed and write essay on abortion, the. actions that should be taken to handle security incidents.
Make sure that each business continuity plan. explains how relations with the public should. be managed during an agree essay immigration that, emergency. Make sure that each business continuity plan explains. how relations with governmental agencies and authorities. should be managed during an calendar, emergency. Make sure that each business continuity plan explains. how relations with emergency responders should be. managed during an emergency.
Make sure that each business continuity plan. describes fallback procedures that should be. followed to essay immigration that move essential business activities. and services to alternative locations. Make sure that each business continuity plan describes. fallback procedures that should be followed to reactivate. your business processes within the required time limits.
Make sure that each business continuity plan describes. resumption procedures that should be followed to bring. your business processes and project, services back to bill immigration normal. Make sure that each business continuity plan describes the education and. awareness activities that should be carried out to project management calendar help ensure that staff. members understand your business continuity methods and procedures. Make sure that each business continuity plan specifies who. owns and is responsible for managing and maintaining the plan.
Make sure that owners of essay immigration that business processes and resources. have been given the responsibility to nursing essays manage the agree essay immigration implementation. of related fallback and business resumption plans. Make sure that owners of business processes and resources are. responsible for essays managing the bill essay implementation of the emergency. response procedures that effect their areas. Make sure that technical service providers are responsible. for managing the implementation of alternative technical. services and fallback arrangements. Make sure that information service providers are responsible.
for managing the how to a compare and contrast essay implementation of alternative information. processing facilities and fallback arrangements. Make sure that communications service providers are responsible. for managing the implementation of bill that alternative communications. facilities and on diwali, fallback arrangements.
11.1.5 TEST AND UPDATE CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PLANS. 126.96.36.199 TEST BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PLANS. Test your business continuity management plans regularly. in order to bill essay verify that they are effective and format, up?to?date. Evaluate your planning assumptions when you. test your business continuity management plans.
Check to see that you haven’t missed anything important. when you test your business continuity management plans. Make sure that changes in equipment haven’t compromised. the effectiveness of business continuity management plans. Make sure that changes in that, personnel haven’t compromised. the effectiveness of essay for kids in english business continuity management plans.
Make sure that the personnel who must implement. your business continuity plans understand how to bill do so. Make sure that all recovery team members are aware. of your business continuity management plans. Develop a test schedule that explains how and when each.
element of each business continuity plan should be tested. Identify examples of how to write a compare and contrast essay business interruptions and then discuss. what type of agree essay immigration that business recovery arrangements should be made. Carry out simulations of business interruptions in. order to how to write a compare test and train the crisis management and. business recovery skills of agree bill immigration that your personnel.
Carry out technical recovery tests in order to ensure. that your information systems can be properly restored. Carry out nursing essays, recovery tests at bill that alternative backup sites. Test the ability of suppliers to management calendar provide contracted. services and agree, facilities during business interruptions. Carry out complete rehearsals in order to ensure that. all personnel, equipment, facilities, and processes. can cope with business interruptions.
188.8.131.52 UPDATE BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PLANS. Use regular reviews and updates to on obesity maintain the. effectiveness of business continuity management plans. Make sure that your change management program. includes procedures to agree bill essay immigration that ensure that business continuity. plans are routinely updated. Make sure that the responsibility for the regular review. of each business continuity plan has been assigned.
Make sure that your business continuity management. plans are updated whenever important changes in. business practices and arrangements occur. Make sure that updated business continuity management. plans are distributed to for pr all participating personnel. Make sure that you consider updating. business continuity management plans. whenever new equipment is purchased. Consider updating business continuity management.
plans whenever you upgrade operational systems. Consider updating business continuity management. plans whenever you change key personnel. Consider updating business continuity management plans. whenever key addresses or telephone numbers change. Consider updating your business continuity management.
plans whenever you change your business strategy. Consider updating your business continuity management. plans whenever you change your locations or facilities. Consider updating your business continuity. management plans whenever resources change. Consider updating your business continuity management. plans whenever relevant legislation or regulations change.
Consider updating your business continuity management. plans whenever you change contractors or suppliers. Consider updating your business continuity management. plans whenever important or major customers change. Consider updating your business continuity management. plans whenever your organization’s processes change. Consider updating your continuity management plans. whenever you create new processes or remove old ones. Consider updating your business continuity management. plans whenever operational or financial risk factors change.
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