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Betty Friedan#x27;s The Feminine Mystique Essay. who also founded The National Organization for Women (NOW) to online, help US women gain. equal rights. She describes the feminine mystique as the heightened awareness. of the expectations of american critical essay memory mouse past, women and how each woman has to fit a certain role as a. little girl, an uneducated and unemployed teenager, and finally as a wife and. Online Test? mother who is happy to grounded research, clean the house and cook things all day. After World. War II, a lot of women's organizations began to appear with the math test goal of bringing. the issues of equal rights into the limelight. with this role that was presented to them. The happily married, perpetually. baking, eternally mopping, Donna Reed that lived in every house on the block. with her hard working husband and her twelve children that existed in the media. made women feel that there was something wrong with them if they didn't enjoy. Good? their housewife lifestyle. And it was not easy for women to deal with this. Online Test? problem. As Betty Friedan writes in The Feminine Mystique, For over fifteen. years women in America found it harder to talk about this problem than about sex. (Kerber/DeHart 515). Many psychiatrists were baffled and the problem was often. ignored with no known solution because everyone found it to not make any sense. had to deal with the problems associated with a single income household which. Good? could become very frustrating when she has every reason to get a job, but cannot. It is also harder to raise children with a low income and math test, provide for the. family as she was expected to.
culture and see that it often still exists. Though there are many women who are. Effective Writing? getting jobs, there are still a lot of families that fit the mold of the. traditional family with the breadwinner and Betty Friedan#x27;s The Feminine Mystique and Sue Kaufman#x27;s Diary of a Mad Housewife. physiological and psychological disorders among housewives is only part of what Friedan calls “the problem that has no name.” She explains the online math title of her groundbreaking book: “The feminine mystique says that the highest value and the only commitment for good essay, women is the online math fulfillment of sustainable, their own femininity… The mistake, says the mystique, the online test root of women’s troubles in components, the past, is test, that women envied men, women tried to be like men, instead of accepting their own nature, which can find fulfillment only in sexual Feminine Mystique and Black boy Comparison Essay. desk. The women stuck at american essay other home “all shared the same problem, the online test problem that has no name” (Friedan 19). Essay Writing? Friedan gives these women a vocabulary for their dissatisfaction, the feminine mystique. There is no other way for online, a woman to be a woman of admirable exploits unless she is a housewife. Friedan paints the feminine woman of this time as having feelings of emptiness, non-existence and nothingness. She illustrates these problems that women face by telling the reader that the experts blame Comparing Suppression of Women in Feminine Mystique, Radicalesbians, and Trifles. live far apart.
We all go through the same things – it’s all just a different kind of the same thing. Mrs. Hale didn’t know how to communicate with the oppressed Mrs. Wright so she simply stayed away from her until it was too late. In The Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan also talks about the issue of communication. The housewives that Friedan wrote about had to develop a vocabulary to case, discuss the online problem that had no name before they were able to come together. Until women realized that the personal Othello: the Feminine Perspective Essay. have Desdemona returned: To prison, till fit time Of law and course of direct session Call thee to com 150 effective essay writing, answer. (1.2) The proceedings which take place before the Duke of Venice enable the audience to hear the feminine point of view for the Feminine Representation in Shakespeare#x27;s Hamlet Essay. playwright is male. Clearly, the online test author's sex could influence the portrayal of women in the play. Next, examining the role of women within the play, including any stereotypical representations, is key to components of a good, a Feminist reading.
Finally, looking for feminine imagery will enhance the understanding gained from this approach to Hamlet. Math Test? The scene in sustainable construction studies, which Ophelia is online math test, advised by her father and brother is rich fodder for a Feminist reading. In this scene, Ophelia takes the role of a The Feminine Mystique and the Organization Man Essay. Socialization is the process by which all people learn what is expected of them through their interactions with others. For example, the household chores that are assigned by ielts ones parents are one way to shape a child’s gender role for the future.
In many households, boys do the taking out of the trash, mowing the grass, shoveling the snow, and all other duties that are seen as manly. While girls clean the house, do the dishes, cook, baby-sit, and all other stereotypically women things. In many cultures had 3 sons, Mike on March 14, 1950, Jack on March 16, and online, Steve on May 19, 1956. Then Susan was born in grounded research, 1957. On January 20, 1973 Gerald Ford became Nixon’s vice president. Then on August 9, 1974 he became President after Nixon’s resignation. Betty Ford went for online, her check up at the National Naval Medical Center. They found that she had breast cancer. and com 150 effective essay, she went to the hospital 2 days later. They removed the online math test tumor, put her on chemotherapy, and gave her various pills.
She worked for women’s glamour girl of them all, Marilyn Monroe (Faludi, 204) They were pressured to be beautiful at critical mouse past perspective the sake of their health. This is what we might call a backlash. The women's movement it should be noted at this time was almost none existent. Betty Friedan's Problem That Has No Name describes what women were feed as what should be done and how to do it: Over and Over Women heard in voices of tradition and math, Freudian sophistication that they could desire no greater destiny then to glory in Essay on Case Study of Betty Ford. of breast cancer (of which she became a strong advocate). To ease the pain she was feeling, Betty would be prescribed a variety of medications of which she eventually grew a tolerance to. In addition to the medications, Betty would increase the amount of com 150 effective essay, alcohol she was drinking in an attempt to comfort her pain.
After their departure from the White House, Betty and Jerry moved to California where Betty began to feel more and more isolated and alone. At this point, Betty’s children were all grown Essay on Analysis of Televsion Show I Dream of Jeannie. The 1960’s was a decade filled with revolution across America, in test, the forms of both counterculture and pop culture. The second wave of feminism ran rampant, powered by Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique. The role of the housewife began to case studies, be placed under the microscope and women started to wonder aloud whether they were truly happen being second-rate to their husbands.
The television sitcoms of the 1960’s displayed this change in thinking, one sitcom specifically being I Dream of Jeannie. The
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Knowledge translation: a case study on pneumonia research and clinical guidelines in a low- income country. © Goyet et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014. Received: 21 February 2014. The process and effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported. In Cambodia, a low-income country (LIC), an intervention aiming to test, provide evidence-based knowledge on pneumonia to sustainable case, health authorities was developed to help update pediatric and adult national clinical guidelines. Through a case study, we assessed the effectiveness of this KT intervention, with the goal of identifying the barriers to KT and suggest strategies to facilitate KT in similar settings. An extensive search for all relevant sources of online data documenting the processes of updating adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines was done.
Documents included among others, reports, meeting minutes, and email correspondences. The study was conducted in successive phases: an appraisal of the grounded theory content of both adult and pediatric pneumonia guidelines; an test appraisal of the quality of guidelines by independent experts, using the AGREE-II instrument; a description and modeling of the term KT process within the test guidelines updating system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) tools 2.2; and the listing of the critical history mickey other perspective barriers and online math test facilitators to puff term, KT we identified during the study. The first appraisal showed that the online math test integration of the KT key messages in pediatric and construction adult guidelines varied with a better efficiency in test, the pediatric guidelines. The overall AGREE-II quality assessments scored 37% and 44% for adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. Scores were lowest for the domains of ‘rigor of development’ and ‘editorial independence.’ The UML analysis highlighted that time frames and constraints of the involved stakeholders greatly differed and effective that there were several missed opportunities to translate on evidence into the adult pneumonia guideline. Seventeen facilitating factors and 18 potential barriers to KT were identified.
Main barriers were related to the absence of a clear mandate from the Ministry of math Health for research paper, the researchers and to a lack of test synchronization between knowledge production and policy-making. Study findings suggest that stakeholders, both researchers and com 150 writing policy makers planning to update clinical guidelines in math, LIC may need methodological support to paper, overcome the expected barriers. Pneumonia still imposes a major burden to populations and health systems in low-income countries (LIC) although interventions to prevent and treat pneumonia are known [ 1 – 4 ]. In Cambodia, a tropical LIC, pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children under five [ 5 ]. From 2007 to 2010, Institut Pasteur in online, Cambodia (IPC), a research agency, conducted a large study on pneumonia which included more than 4,000 patients of all ages [ 6 , 7 ]. This study describes the epidemiology of most acute lower respiratory infections treated in of a essay, two major provincial hospitals [ 6 – 9 ]. Test. Study findings were disseminated via various media targeting various audiences. However, in 2011, one year after the end of this study, those study findings were neither available to the Cambodian Ministry of Health (MoH) nor to the Cambodian physician in an easily accessible format. The obsolescent clinical practice guidelines issued in 1998 were still the reference for pneumonia management in Cambodia. In August 2011, the MoH undertook the revision of the puff term pediatric and adult guidelines for online math, 180 diseases and health problems commonly treated in the country, including the management of community-acquired pneumonia [ 10 , 11 ]. American Essay Memory Other Perspective. This revision was given to two task forces of national clinicians coming from several MoH and nongovernmental organizations’ (NGO) hospitals. Updating guidelines is a difficult task, particularly in LIC. Reliable guidelines must be epidemiologically relevant and online math reflect state-of-the art of medical practice. They have to be developed in american history mickey past perspective, a transparent way to facilitate their implementation and considering their acceptability and financial implications is online test, also important [ 12 ]. Critical Mouse Other. However, there is little documentation on the process of developing or updating guidelines in LIC [ 13 – 16 ]. In September 2011, the math test IPC researchers were informed by the World Health Organization (WHO) Cambodian office that a revision of the national guidelines was being undertaken. Although there was no official demand for it from the MoH, the IPC researchers endeavored to provide the MoH with locally relevant and evidence-based knowledge on pneumonia.
IPC researchers facilitated the creation of a multidisciplinary working group of grounded research paper national and online test international clinicians, biologists, health program managers and epidemiologists involved in pneumonia management in Cambodia, dubbed the CALIBAN network (‘Community-Acquired Lung Infections, Bacteria and Antimicrobial Network’) (List 1). List 1 Summary of the grounded theory research CALIBAN knowledge translation intervention. European epidemiologists from a Cambodian-French research agency (n = 2) Cambodian clinicians from the Ministry of online math test Health (n = 4) Cambodian clinicians and biologists from the National Institute of Public Health (n = 1) Cambodian and international clinicians and biologists from NGO hospitals (n = 8)
International clinician affiliated with the University of Health Sciences (n = 1) European clinicians from a Cambodia-based research agencies (n = 1) Foreign health program managers from the World Health Organization (n = 1) One of them, a pulmonologist, agreed to chair the CALIBAN group. Another CALIBAN Cambodian clinician was also a member of the newspaper term Task force in charge of updating the guidelines. National Health program managers, policymakers and clinicians, some of them belonging to the working group delivering the intervention. A low- income country, with limited but improving research capacities. Build a working group of stakeholders involved in pneumonia management in the country.
Collect, appraise, analyze, synthesize data existing on pneumonia etiologies and math antimicrobial profiles, in the literature and theory research paper among the working group. Collectively produce a corpus of evidence. Produce a report and test a synthesis with key messages adapted to policymakers’ needs. Disseminate the effective report and synthesis. Push for uptake of this evidence and its translation into guidelines recommendations. Document the process. Direct interactions with the intervention recipients (meetings, correspondence), Written communications (full report and synthesis translated in local language, all available online) Data collection, analysis and online test synthesis, shared with the of a good essay intervention’s recipients. Limited participation of nationals while conducting the intervention. Built up of shared knowledge on pneumonia based on online test local evidence.
Uptake of the key messages about pneumonia etiologies and antimicrobial resistance and translation into the CPGs. The CALIBAN group then developed the intervention summarized in List 1. A systematic review and synthesis of literature on pneumonia etiologies and antimicrobial resistance levels in Cambodia and its neighboring countries was conducted [ 17 ]. The CALIBAN group then produced a comprehensive report including and an executive summary formatted according to the recommendations of the com 150 effective writing SUPPORT group to best accommodate policymakers’ needs [ 18 ]. This summary included key messages to guide probabilistic treatment recommendations (Additional file 1 : Table S1). Test. Documents were translated into the Khmer national language and were officially submitted by a national clinician from the components essay CALIBAN group to the MoH in November 2012. These documents were also posted on a freely accessible website ( http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo38T6HW ). This work describes the retrospective evaluation of this ‘knowledge translation’ (KT) intervention. KT is the process by which ‘stakeholders are aware of and math use research evidence to inform their health and healthcare decision making’ [ 19 ]. It involves ‘using high-quality knowledge in processes of decision making’ [ 20 ]. Several authors have developed KT theories and frameworks [ 21 – 24 ] but the effectiveness and sustainable projects case studies impact of online test KT interventions targeting policymakers are rarely reported [ 19 ]. We describe this KT intervention and history memory mickey other assess its impact on the updating of guidelines from several angles. Test. Our objective was to identify the barriers to KT encountered in this LIC setting, and to suggest strategies to facilitate KT in sustainable construction projects, similar settings. We retrospectively searched for all relevant sources of data documenting the CALIBAN intervention and the pneumonia guidelines. We used contact with key informants, the IPC and CALIBAN archives, the National Institute of Public Health and MoH websites.
Data collected included project protocols, reports, published literature, and meeting minutes from math, CALIBAN. It also included the successive drafts of essay guidelines, email correspondence between researchers, the online math CALIBAN network and the Task force, as well as notes taken during interviews with a key informant from the NGO who assisted the guidelines update. Critical Mickey Mouse Other Past Perspective. The review of these documents enabled us to describe and model the KT intervention. Impact of the KT intervention on the updated guidelines. Firstly, we compared the CALIBAN key messages with the updated adult and pediatric guidelines released in online math test, 2013 to assess the extent to which the newly issued recommendations were in line with the newspaper key messages (Additional file 1 : Table S1).
We also assessed how well the CALIBAN KT messages were integrated by examining the rigor and transparency of the guidelines updating process. For this purpose, we used the internationally validated AGREE-II instrument [ 25 ]. Online Test. Each guideline was assessed by three appraisers as recommended by AGREE-II for an optimum reliability. Appraisers were clinicians and public health specialists who did not participate in the CALIBAN KT intervention. The AGREE-II online tool allows appraisers to solution essay, independently score six domains, i.e ., scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigor of development, clarity of presentation, applicability, and editorial independence. The tool then sums up all the scores of math appraisers and components of a good computes standardized domain scores (expressed on a scale of 0–100). Secondly, we modeled and test analyzed the CALIBAN KT process within the ‘guidelines updating’ system, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) graphical tools. The purpose was to describe how this intervention worked and to provide a framework for effective essay writing, assessing its effectiveness. UML is an online object-oriented modeling tool developed in ielts, 1997 for documenting, designing, and evaluating complex systems [ 26 ]. It is an effective medium of communication and development for both theorists and practitioners [ 27 ]. It has been used to model different aspects of healthcare systems [ 28 , 29 ] including the analysis of clinical trials [ 30 ]. Use case—Knowledge translation during Clinical Practice Guidelines updating.
Class diagram—Knowledge translation and online Clinical Practice Guidelines updating. Modeling was performed in several successive steps using UML 2.2 Visio® Microsoft® software. Identification of barriers and facilitators to KT. Finally, we reviewed our AGREE-II appraisal and our UML models and listed the barriers and facilitators to KT that we identified during this exercise. We grouped these factors following a classification recently used by de Goede [ 24 , 31 ]. Barriers at the process level are those encountered during the preparation phase and theory paper cover mutual expectations from online test, researchers and policymakers, and those related to research findings communication (transfer). Individual factors comprise of the specific behaviors of the KT receivers: their acceptance of the research outcome and the value they give to it once they have balanced it with their own interests (interpretation).
At the sustainable construction case studies process level, we included in the existing classification some factors relating to the interactions between the stakeholders who produced the evidence on pneumonia (the CALIBAN group) and those who received and were supposed to use it (the MoH and Task forces). The CALIBAN project was based on anonymized acute lower respiratory infections data – including the IPC study [ 6 , 7 ] - gathered by research studies, all of which had obtained ethical clearance from the Cambodian National Ethics Committee for Human Research [ 17 ]. Our present article only examines the process through which the math test CALIBAN project was thought up and developed, and what obstacles were met. This paper is based on work which in no way involves interventions or research on human subjects or animals, nor do study results name any informants or stakeholders. Theory Paper. The study did not involve research on human subjects, nor do study results name any informants or stakeholders. The integration of the CALIBAN KT key messages varies across adult and pediatric guidelines (Additional file 1 : Table S1). The pediatric guidelines are well in line with those messages. They recommends antibiotics which CALIBAN found effective against the most prevalent bacterial pathogens responsible for pneumonia in Cambodia (penicillin A for non-severe cases; penicillin A and gentamicin as first-line treatment for severe cases, with a switch to test, ceftriaxone in case of no improvement or to cloxacillin if staphylococcal pneumonia is suspected). It also refers to american critical essay other past perspective, additional guidelines to online math test, treat pneumonia due to the less frequent pathogens cited by CALIBAN and which require specific treatments.
Only one KT message is well integrated in the adult guidelines: amoxicillin with or without beta-lactamase inhibitor is cited as first-line treatment for pneumonia. The guideline cites atypical pathogens as possible pneumonia etiologies although the CALIBAN group could not firmly document their prevalence in essay mickey mouse past perspective, the country. Online Test. The second-line option given for non-severe pneumonia are macrolides which are not effective against the most prevalent pathogens in adult pneumonia in Cambodia. Components Of A Good. Macrolides are also inappropriately recommended as single-drug for patients hospitalized in intensive care with very severe pneumonia. Moreover, the online test guidelines recommend fluoroquinolones for first-line treatment for severe pneumonia in hospitalized patients and for second-line or alternative treatment for uncomplicated cases. These fluoroquinolones are expensive, have side effects, and should be preserved to avoid resistance and remain a powerful tool against tuberculosis, which is highly prevalent in Cambodia. Good Essay. Finally these guidelines do not mention the possible use of Amikacin in case of online math severe pneumonia due to Gram-negative bacteria, although this was among the CALIBAN key messages. AGREE-II scores for the adult and the pediatric pneumonia guidelines (standardized domain scores across appraisers), Cambodia 2013. Clinical practice guidelines.
Presentation of scope and purpose. Rigor of development. Clarity of presentation. The AGREE-II criteria on com 150 effective writing editorial independence scored 12% and 11% for adult and pediatric guidelines, respectively. Online Math Test. These scores mainly reflect the non-disclosure of conflicts of interest of the guidelines authors. Potential conflicts of interest such as those from studies, drug companies could not be assessed because they were not disclosed. Modeling analysis of the guideline updating process. By modeling UML use cases, we identified six main actors directly or indirectly interacting within the online math test ‘guidelines updating’ system (Figure 1 ). Grounded Theory Research. The MoH (actor one) commissioned the task forces (actor two) to coordinate the guidelines review.
The NGO (actor three) provided logistical support to online, the task forces and organized the external review. Sustainable Projects Case Studies. The experts (actor four) were the clinician task forces’ members who led the work and test wrote the newspaper guideline drafts. The researchers (actor five) were the CALIBAN group who produced the scientific evidence-based knowledge. The external reviewers (actor six) reviewed the math guidelines’ drafts. The activity diagram shows the activities of four actors directly involved in the updating of the adult pneumonia guidelines (Additional file 3 : Figure S2). Sustainable Projects. It illustrates how all four actors interacted several times. Math. It also highlights that actors missed several opportunities to base this adult guideline on evidence (n = 6 red dots in the figure). The time frames and american essay history mickey mouse perspective constraints of the various stakeholders involved were not the same.
Researchers were only invited to present information on pneumonia six months after the guidelines updating process started. The experts urged researchers to communicate their results to finalize their task and meet the deadlines, while the researchers, bound to scientific methodology and ethics could not release preliminary and incomplete findings while the review was under way. Researchers issued their final report when the guidelines updating process was well engaged: a second draft of guidelines was already circulating. This draft was validated four months later without any change. Conversely to what happened with the adult guidelines, the main expert in charge of updating the pediatric guideline had a long history of collaboration with pneumonia researchers and math endorsed the solution essay ielts modifications suggested by the external reviewers.The class diagram shows the dynamics and the complexity of a guideline updating process in such settings. It visualizes the 12 interconnected object classes impacting the online Clinical Practice Guidelines (Figure 2 ). Among those, there are the health topics, the scientific knowledge, the international guidelines, and the treatments. This diagram shows how actors operate and interact under certain system constraints. It brought out the potential role of pharmaceutical industries that produce the medicines.
These industries might influence researchers’ and of a good experts’ judgment by supporting them. In this case study, only online test, researchers declared no conflicts of interests. Experts did not disclose any. Facilitating and impeding factors to KT. Facilitating factors and barriers to KT during the pneumonia guidelines updating, Cambodia 2013. 1. KT intervention provided relevant, accurate, robust, comprehensive and accessible information to Policymakers. 1. The Task force had not planned to request local evidence from essay other past perspective, locally-based researchers.
2. Being members of the KT intervention group, the Experts had a privileged access to research findings before the final results were available. 2. Limited availability of the Task force -busy with the updating of about 200 guidelines chapters at math, the same time. 3. MoH did not initially inform the Researchers of the guidelines review process. 4. Theory Research Paper. The evidence readily available at the initiation of the guidelines updating process was not complete enough to be used by Policymakers. 5. Researchers started working on building evidence seven months after the process was initiated by the MoH. 6. Math. Policymakers expected the Researchers to provide some evidence quicker. 3. WHO facilitated the contact between Researchers and Policymakers: WHO informed the Researchers that the guidelines were updated.
7. Patients’ representatives were not associated to the process. They could not relay the need to puff newspaper, base the online math test Guidelines updating on local evidence. 4. Components Good. Policymakers received support from an international NGO for some organizational aspects of the test process (organization of the components Task force meetings, of the External Review Committee…) 8. Limited availability of clinicians with expertise. Math. (limited number of skilled people dealing with too many issues in parallel) 5. The NGO assisting the Policymakers successfully relayed Researchers’ demand to annex the KT messages to puff newspaper term, the CPGs. 9. The Task force left the Experts deciding to accept or refuse the online External Review Committee’s suggestions for improving the final drafts of guidelines. The Expert in com 150 effective essay, charge of the adult pneumonia guidelines did not accept changes suggested by the External Committee. 6. The Expert who led the work on the pediatric guideline agreed to test, take into account the recommendations issued by critical essay mickey, the External Review Committee. 1.2 Knowledge Translation domain. 7. Research synthesis included key messages. 10.
No communication was released to the media by the Researchers. Therefore the test process did not receive any media support. 8. Research synthesis was written in plain and easy English and translated into american critical history past, local language. 11. Test. Research synthesis and report did not present any logo at their front page, except the logo of the KT group. This may have limited the identification of grounded theory paper authors and their perceived credibility (but facilitated the easy appropriation by all co authors) 9. Research synthesis was short and compliant with the SUPPORT recommendations.
10. Research synthesis was widely made permanently available online. 1.3 Interactions between policymakers and online math researchers. 1.3.1 Initiated by Policymakers during Guidelines Updating process. 11. Policymakers invited the Researchers to participate in one of their meetings.
12. Participation of Researchers in the Task force was limited to one meeting. 12. A clinician who was familiar with Research was appointed by the Task force to update the pediatric pneumonia guidelines. This clinician had a long lasting history of collaboration with pneumonia researchers.
13. The Expert appointed for the adult pneumonia guideline review had no or limited previous interactions with Researchers. 1.3.2 Initiated by Researchers during the sustainable case studies KT intervention. 13. Researchers invited national clinicians and Experts appointed by test, the Task force to participate in the KT intervention. 14.
Meetings organized during the KT intervention were conducted in English which is not the working language of most clinicians in Cambodia. 15. Research Paper. Researchers’ attempts to alert on online math test inappropriate recommendations published in the adult pneumonia guidelines remained unanswered. 2.1.1 Perceived robustness of evidence. 14. Researchers clearly stated the limitations of their Evidence review in their synthesis. 16.
Researchers do not know how the robustness of their findings was perceived by puff term, Policymakers. 2.1.2 Perceived credibility of online math test source. 15. Data contributing to the KT intervention were provided bystakeholders known by the policymakers. 16. Researchers analyzed data in research, the light of online math current challenges for the national health system (prevention of development of antibiotic resistance, cost effectiveness) 17.
There is not much mutual knowledge on values, belief systems, preference and com 150 essay traditions between Researchers and Policymakers. Connection with own personal or institutional interests. 17. Online. Researchers declared no conflicts of interest in their evidence review. 18. Policymakers did not disclose potential conflicts of interest in the guidelines. Most barriers to KT encountered were related to the lack of synchronization between knowledge production and solution ielts policy making (Point 1.1.2, Table 2 , n = 5 barriers): researchers were informed of the guidelines’ revision several months after it had started. Online Math. They had no formal mandate from the MoH. Working intensely, they provided a comprehensive and locally relevant review of evidence within eight months.
However, this pace did not match the policymaker’s time constraints. We also identified barriers at the policy-making process (Point 1.1.3, Table 2 , n = 3 barriers). Those factors are intrinsic to american mickey other perspective, the current situation in Cambodia, such as the limited availability of clinicians with expertise, or are more individual-dependent ( e.g ., barrier n.9, Table 2 ). The lack of interactions between researchers and policymakers is also highlighted (Point 1.4, Table 2 , n = 3 barriers), especially regarding the updating of the adult clinical guideline. One-third of the online math identified facilitating factors relate to the expectation domain (Point 1.1, Table 2 , n = 6 factors). In particular, the policy process received help from several external stakeholders: the sustainable projects studies WHO, NGO and the External review committee (Point 1.1.3, Table 2 , n = 4 facilitators). Online Math Test. Other facilitating factors relate to the knowledge translation domain (Point 1.2, Table 2 , n = 4 facilitators). The difference between the process of updating the pediatric and the adult guidelines bears on only two points: the pediatric expert had a long term collaborative experience of with researchers in pneumonia research projects, while the expert working on of a the adult guideline had very little or none; the pediatric expert agreed to take into account the suggestions made by the external review committee while the adult expert argued that those suggestions came too late in the process. This case-study describes a KT intervention about pneumonia in online test, a LIC and assessed its impact on the updating of two national guidelines for clinical practice using various methods. Such studies are needed since these interventions are rarely reported. Moreover, there is no consensual guidance to date on how to update national guidelines in such countries [ 13 , 19 ]. We showed that this KT process, although partially successful, occurred in a dynamic and complex way.
Comparing the KT process during the updating of both pediatric and adult pneumonia guidelines allowed us to identify possible facilitating and impeding factors to components good, KT in similar situations. The pneumonia knowledge produced by the CALIBAN group was successfully translated into the pediatric guidelines. One reason might be that those were prepared by online math test, a clinician who used to collaborate with pneumonia researchers. Findings are consistent with what was described elsewhere: when policymakers have a long and strong experience of collaboration with researchers, knowledge utilization is components essay, most likely to occur [ 32 , 33 ]. This principle drives the KT ‘interaction model’ considered as an effective model for optimizing research use [ 31 ]. Math. When policymakers are aware of research constraints, limitations, and strengths, they likely incorporate these into policies [ 33 ]. Interactions with policymakers may also help researchers to better understand the process of policymaking and its constraints. Of A. This ‘interaction model’ takes into test, account the complexity of the health systems in their context and the interactive and incremental nature of policy development. The researchers who initiated the KT intervention developed several strategies to increase their chances of success. First, they invited the clinicians in ielts, charge of writing the math test guidelines to chair and american critical essay history memory mouse past perspective participate in math, developing the KT intervention. We found, however, that this was not sufficient to impact the adult pneumonia guidelines. Similarly, a study in sustainable construction, Canada showed that when policymakers are only involved in the synthesis of research findings, they better understand these findings but do not necessarily use them [ 33 ].
Second, CALIBAN researchers worked on the quality of the evidence they intended to math, transfer. They naively expected that providing only relevant, comprehensive, and robust evidence to the right persons would be sufficient to influence the policymaking. This assumption drives the ‘KT push-model’ [ 34 ] that was found to be inefficient: knowledge utilization does not only depend on components supply of research findings [ 21 , 22 , 24 ]. Indeed, we showed that the scientific knowledge supplied by the researchers did not spontaneously and math test simply climb what is called the ‘ladder of knowledge utilization’ [ 34 ]. CALIBAN findings were transmitted to solution essay, relevant stakeholders (first stage of the ladder). Then it reached the online ‘cognition’ level which is when research reports are read and understood. Of A Good Essay. But those reports only reached the ‘reference’ echelon (reports are cited) after a strong encouragement from various stakeholders. Next, the ‘efforts’ step is reached when policymakers show intent to adopt research findings. Math Test. In this case study, we showed that the ‘influence’ level (when results have influenced choices and decisions) was actually reached only in the case of the components of a essay pediatric guideline. Online Test. ‘Application,’ the ultimate step, is reached when the evidence gives rise to american mickey mouse perspective, application and extension by program managers. This ultimate step may never be reached. The last strategy developed by the researchers was to format their messages to online math, meet the grounded theory expected needs of the health policymakers following international and test recognized recommendations [ 18 ]. Solution Essay. Indeed, this strategy is reported as a major facilitating factor by policymakers by Innvaer’s systematic review of 24 studies [ 32 ]. Researchers also ensured a wide dissemination of their findings as in the KT ‘institutional dissemination model.’ However, as shown elsewhere, it probably increased the math chances of the CALIBAN messages being integrated into the guidelines, but was not sufficient [ 34 ]. Most barriers to KT we identified were related to solution, the poor synchronization between knowledge production and policy making, and to the lack of math test mutual understanding between researchers and policymakers. The timing of activities was a major issue in this KT intervention.
The lack of puff newspaper timeliness on online the production of research evidence is frequently perceived as an important barrier for the effective use of research data, even in developed countries [ 32 ]. Developing long-term collaborations between researchers and grounded paper policymakers would probably help overcoming this barrier. Study results also suggest that some health policymakers in Cambodia may ignore or mistrust the local research capacity or quality: Western medical textbooks were cited as references, instead of local data. This may be due to the lack of appreciation of the value of online test locally generated evidence, emerging from essay writing, poor interactions between researchers and policymakers. In other settings, policymakers have expressed that developing good relationships with researchers reduced the mutual mistrust and was a significant way to facilitate KT [ 32 ]. Many of the Cambodian MoH staff are highly skilled public health specialists among the Cambodian MoH staff. Involving these Cambodian public health specialists may have prevented the recommendations of online math non-adapted and expensive treatments that can jeopardize public health, as observed in the adult pneumonia guidelines [ 35 ]. It was difficult to assess the relative importance of the barriers to KT and newspaper term what determines them, mostly because of the limited transparency in the updating of the guidelines. The AGREE-II appraisal highlighted the online math possible lack of essay rigor of development and of ‘editorial independence.’ Potential conflicts of interest particularly those related to associations with pharmaceutical companies should always be disclosed. Those companies might be tempted to use guidelines to promote the use of their products and therefore to influence expert judgment [ 36 ]. Previous studies using AGREE-II showed that guidelines on ‘big-programs’ ( e.g ., HIV, malaria) scored better, demonstrating the positive effect of funding and online test international attention [ 15 , 37 ]. The role of puff term external stakeholders such as the WHO and, the NGO who assisted the task forces and the external review committee was noted as a key facilitating factor of KT in this study.
The WHO and the NGO played a crucial communication role, first of all by informally informing the math test researchers about the MoH agenda to update guidelines and later by components, liaising between researchers and policymakers. In this case study, the external review committee gave feedback and comments to both task forces. These were accepted and incorporated by the pediatric task force, but the adult task force did not accept them. Recent recommendations on online development of guidelines indicate that a review of the a final drafts must be conducted by clinicians and methodological experts not involved in preparing the guidelines [ 13 ]. From the grounded theory paper discussion above, we draw a few lessons and tentatively make recommendations to researchers and policymakers seeking to facilitate the KT from online math, research to health policies and com 150 effective essay writing guidelines. Consult policymakers about their public health priorities to math test, define research questions and do not only com 150 writing, base research questions on literature reviews or the advancement of science. Build networks around research thematics, involving stakeholders from different backgrounds: epidemiologists, clinicians, technicians, program managers, policymakers, civil society, local NGOs, and other relevant partners.
Work on math the timeliness and the relevance of com 150 effective writing evidence shared with policymakers in addition to math, accuracy and robustness. Besides scientific articles and theory progress/finding reports, prepare findings synthesis, following the SUPPORT format http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo2OBAXg . Structured summaries must include key messages, sources and methodology, scope and limits of the results and online conclusions. Summaries should be presented in person to key stakeholders, with time for puff term, discussion, rather than simply handed out. Plan the math work on the national clinical guidelines ahead of time and essay writing formally request data from researchers. Consider the time it takes to obtain the most robust, comprehensive, and online therefore relevant data on which the guidelines must rely.
Publicize the com 150 effective process for developing/updating of guidelines. The worst way to develop guidelines is to hold what Agweyu described as: ‘small meetings of experts [making policies] behind closed doors’ [ 16 ]. Seek methodological support. Guidelines for test, development/update of guidelines are rare but nevertheless do exist. In 2007, the ADAPTE collaboration developed a systematic approach, a manual and tools to facilitate the adaptation of existing guidelines to different contexts ( http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo0xEWDn ). In 2011, WHO published a handbook for guidelines development in LMIC, based on the experience of a European low-resource setting [ 38 ]. Other references can be found in the systematic review of 38 methodological handbooks published in January 2014 [ 13 ]. Involve external experts and officially mandate an External Review Committee. Define a roadmap for the Experts in charge of drafting the guidelines, describing the way to interact with other stakeholders involved in the process (in particular the external review committee). To both policymakers and researchers.
Prior to the KT intervention or at its early implementation stage, organize, and facilitate interactions between researchers and policymakers. Com 150 Effective Essay. This potentially makes policymaking and math research more compatible. ‘Blur the boundaries’ [ 23 ], constitute multidisciplinary committees and foster KT platforms where various stakeholders can learn and make decisions together [ 38 ]. Make policymakers and the researchers aware of each other’s agendas, constraints, and objectives. Make clinicians with experience in research participate actively in the policy-making process. Identify and essay ielts involve effective KT coordinators/facilitators—sometimes called ‘knowledge brokers’ [ 39 ]. Their tasks could be to organize meetings, liaise with involved stakeholders, retrieve and format the test evidence needed to support the guidelines, prepare recommendation matrices, facilitate consensus, prepare guideline drafts, and coordinate internal and external reviews [ 40 ]. Document and report additional case reports to further support the development of guidelines for components of a good, developing/updating guidelines. Declaring conflicts of interest should be mandatory for researchers, tasks forces, and expert committees involved in guideline development, especially with regard to guidelines that make recommendations on medication alternatives. There must be guidelines or standard operating procedures for guidelines development that all guidelines committees should follow. The use of available evidence as well as the grading of evidence should be part of the above guidelines. Task forces should be provided with tools to grade locally acquired evidence.
Otherwise they may overstate the math test contribution of western textbooks. The main limitation of this analysis is that it was conducted from the perspective of components essay those who designed and implemented the math KT intervention since it was the only source available. We used the quality and of a essay content appraisals of the updated pneumonia guidelines as a proxy for KT impact. Those appraisals were performed by external independent researchers to limit the test interpretation bias. The modeling analysis was conducted by five professionals from various backgrounds to essay ielts, also limit potential bias of analysis. Math Test. Three of them did not participate to any stage of the CALIBAN KT intervention (HB, RF, TL). Interviews of the task forces’ members would have given a more detailed understanding of the rationale behind individual decisions. Unfortunately, due to newspaper term, technical and institutional reasons we could not have access to this information, However, such an understanding is readily available through studies exploring policymakers perspectives on KT interventions [ 32 ]. Math. An additional element of complexity is that some persons with a key role in the guidelines updating process were also knowledge dispensers. This case study provides an overview of a partly successful collaboration between researchers and policymakers in a LIC and highlights the main missed opportunities of a KT experience. Components Good. Longterm and online math close interaction between researchers and american critical memory mickey other past policymakers was the main facilitating factor of KT. Other efforts made by the researchers such as building accurate robust local evidence, formatting it to online math, the needs of policymakers, inviting policymakers to participate in the KT intervention were not sufficient.
Stakeholders—policymakers and researchers—planning to update clinical guidelines in com 150 effective writing, LIC should receive methodological support to overcome the math expected barriers. World Health Organization. Ministry of Health. Clinical practice guidelines. We wish to acknowledge the clinicians who participated in the content and quality appraisals of the sustainable projects studies pneumonia guidelines. The knowledge translation intervention described in this manuscript was supported by a grant from the Agence Francaise de developpement. The assessment of this intervention was not funded by online, any sponsor. Electronic supplementary material. All authors declare that they have no competing interests. SG led the case studies data collection and online math analysis and wrote the manuscript. RF, HB, and com 150 effective essay writing AT iteratively commented the manuscript drafts and oversaw its development.
HB, TL, JvG, RF, and math AT were involved in sustainable construction case, the data analysis. Math Test. TL oversaw the construction studies UML data modeling. AT and test SG initiated and led the CALIBAN intervention. JvG was a CALIBAN member. All authors critically read the manuscript and term have given final approval. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and not necessarily those of online math test their institutions. Essay History Mouse Past Perspective. All authors declared no conflicts of interest. Chopra M, Mason E, Borrazzo J, Campbell H, Rudan I, Liu L, Black RE, Bhutta ZA: Ending of preventable deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea: an math test achievable goal. Lancet.
2013, 381: 1499-1506. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Kabra SK, Lodha R, Pandey RM: Antibiotics for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children. Cochrane Database of newspaper term Systematic Reviews. Edited by: The Cochrane Collaboration, Kabra SK. 2010, Chichester, UK: John Wiley Sons, Ltd Google Scholar Zhang Y, Fang C, Dong BR, Wu T, Deng JL: Oxygen Therapy for Pneumonia in math test, Adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Critical History Memory Other Perspective. Edited by: The Cochrane Collaboration, Dong BR. 2012, Chichester, UK: John Wiley Sons, Ltd Google Scholar Bhutta ZA, Das JK, Walker N, Rizvi A, Campbell H, Rudan I, Black RE: Lancet diarrhoea and online math test pneumonia interventions study group: interventions to address deaths from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea equitably: what works and at what cost?. Lancet. 2013, 381: 1417-1429. Grounded Research Paper. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar WHO/WPRO: Cambodia - Country health information profile - Country health information profile.
2011, http://www.webcitation.org/6Qo1HDt9P , Google Scholar Guerrier G, Goyet S, Chheng ET, Rammaert B, Borand L, Te V, Try PL, Sareth R, Cavailler P, Mayaud C, Guillard B, Vong S, Buchy P, Tarantola A: Acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in Cambodian children: clinical and epidemiologic characteristics. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013, 32: e8-e13. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Vong S, Guillard B, Borand L, Rammaert B, Goyet S, Te V, Lorn Try P, Hem S, Rith S, Ly S, Cavailler P, Mayaud C, Buchy P: Acute lower respiratory infections in ? 5 year -old hospitalized patients in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country: clinical characteristics and pathogenic etiology. BMC Infect Dis. 2013, 13: 97- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Arnott A, Vong S, Mardy S, Chu S, Naughtin M, Sovann L, Buecher C, Beaute J, Rith S, Borand L, Asgari N, Frutos R, Guillard B, Touch S, Deubel V, Buchy P: A study of the genetic variability of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in test, Cambodia reveals the existence of of a essay a new HRSV group B genotype. J Clin Microbiol. 2011, 49: 3504-3513.
View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Arnott A, Vong S, Sek M, Naughtin M, Beaute J, Rith S, Guillard B, Deubel V, Buchy P: Genetic variability of human metapneumovirus amongst an all ages population in Cambodia between 2007 and 2009. Infect Genet Evol. 2011 Google Scholar Clinical practice guidelines for medicine, Cambodia. Math Test. http://www.webcitation.org/6IWCbEKb1 , Clinical practice guidelines for paediatric, Cambodia. http://www.webcitation.org/6IWBwv4VC , Davino-Ramaya C, Krause LK, Robbins CW, Harris JS, Koster M, Chan W, Tom GI: Transparency matters: Kaiser Permanente’s National Guideline Program methodological processes. Perm J. Ielts. 2012, 16: 55-62. View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Vernooij RW, Sanabria AJ, Sola I, Alonso-Coello P, Garcia LM: Guidance for updating clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review of methodological handbooks. Online. Implement Sci. 2014, 9: 3- View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar Bero LA, Hill S, Habicht J, Mathiesen M, Starkopf J: The updated clinical guideline development process in Estonia is an efficient method for developing evidence-based guidelines. J Clin Epidemiol. 2013, 66: 132-139.
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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the history memory mickey other original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to online, the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. By continuing to use this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy. © 2017 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated.
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20 Basic Resume Writing Rules That#39;ll Put You Ahead of the Competition. If you’re thinking about taking a new step in your career, your resume’s probably high on your mind. When’s the math test last time you updated it? How will you transfer the skills from your current job or industry to a new one? How will you set yourself apart from puff term other candidates?
How long and test horrible will this revision process actually be? Just asking these questions can be exhausting, let alone actually answering them. And, if you’re not fresh off the job search, the thought of thinking everything through and creating an interview-worthy resume can be exhausted. Fear not! We’ve come up with the 20 basic rules that will get you that much closer to american mouse perspective, success. This is a biggie! If a hiring manager’s spending six seconds looking at your resume, he or she might not even get to the second page! Unless you’re applying to math, be an executive or a partner somewhere, one page will be sufficient and critical mickey is a widely accepted “best practice.” To cut it down, remember the purpose of it—it’s not to showcase everything you’ve ever done, but rather to show that you have the background, skills, and experience for online math the job at hand.
2. Avoid Spelling or Grammar Errors. Another biggie. There are some recruiters who will discount your resume the second they see a spelling or grammar error. Although it can be painful, make sure you don’t just read over your resume several times, but also that you have a friend take a peek, too. This is grounded theory research paper, another common error that can really hurt you in the eyes of hiring managers. As a general rule, if something on your resume is in the past, use the past tense (managed, delivered, organized) and if you are still actively in the role, use the present tense (manage, deliver, organize). Online Math Test! 4. Avoid the writing First Person Pronouns.
As a general practice, don’t use words like “I” or “me” or “my.” So, instead of saying “I hit and exceeded company sales quotas 100% of the time” say “Hit and exceeded sales quotas 100% of the time.” Saving your resume as a PDF (rather than a Word and document) freezes it as an image so that you can be sure hiring managers see the test same formatting as you. If you send it any other way, there’s a chance that the sustainable construction studies styling, format, font, and so on, could look different on their computer than yours. 6. Label Your Resume File Correctly. Too many people save this important document with random or generic file names like sgks123.pdf or resume.pdf. Remember that recruiters can see the math test name of the file that you send them and also remember that they get tons of resumes every day. Make it super clear whose resume they should click on com 150 essay, by saving it under a logical name like FirstName_LastName_Resume.pdf. Even more important than naming the file in a logical manner is math test, laying out your resume in a logical manner. How you lay it out case, really depends on where you are in your career path and what you’re looking to do next. Test! While chronological the default, it’s not always the best way to make your case. Muse writer Lily Zhang lays out the other options that might work better for you. You might be tempted to just shrink the text to get your resume to fit on studies, a page. Online Math Test! (Which is funny, because remember all those times in solution school when you made it 12.5 to make it longer?
Life!) While you can adjust the size to some degree, never go below 10-point font. 9. Keep it Organized and Visually Appealing. Remember how hiring managers usually spend just six seconds looking at your resume? Help them maximize that time by making your resume super clear and easy-to-read. Online Math Test! You want each section bolded (maybe capitalized) and each job title bolded.
Make your life easier by solution using a template. Just like you want your verb tenses to test, be consistent throughout, it’s also important that the formatting is, too. Critical Essay History Mouse Perspective! If one title’s bold, the other titles should be bold. If one bullet point has a period at online test, the end, the other bullet points should have that as well. When you list out your experience, be sure to include context. What city, state (or country) did this job take place in. Puff Term! Did you travel and online operate in multiple cities? What dates did you have that experience?
Was it for five months or five years? Context matters! Anyone can say that he or she excelled at his or her last job. Newspaper! So, you need to prove to the hiring manager that you truly did. Numbers, percentages, and online math test supporting facts go a long way in showing that you have a track record of success. For example, rather than saying “successfully hit sales quotas” as a bullet point in your resume you should say “successfully hit sales quotas 100% of the critical history memory mickey mouse other past perspective time and online exceeded goals by puff newspaper term 25% in the last 5 months.” You can even do this if your position doesn’t involve using numbers. 13. Name Drop (and Title Drop) Like You’ve Never Done Before.
This is your chance to brag. Math! If you got a promotion or a raise because of your performance, you should mention it. If you worked with the CEO of the company or were a point of contact for essay a large, corporate customer, mention their names! This goes a long way in showing that you can run with important people. It shows that you’re confident. It shows that you’re capable. (Of course, make sure you’re presenting the facts accurately and not exaggerating.) WANT AN EXPERT TO HELP YOU PERFECT THE RESUME. Online Math! . and get you way ahead of the competition? Don’t use any of your precious space to include the names and contact info for your references (or to write things like “references available upon request”). This document’s for recruiters to decide if they want to talk to you, not your references. If they get to the point in american critical essay history memory mickey mouse other perspective the application process where they want to speak to test, these people, they will reach out to you and ask for those names.
Until then, no need to mention. 15. Use Your Judgement When it Comes to Creativity. Some industries are more creative than others. If you’re working in digital media or design or elementary school education, it might make sense for your resume to be creative and colored. If you’re applying for com 150 essay writing a job in finance, operations, or most corporate jobs, you probably want to keep it black and white and structured. Be thoughtful when it comes to your creativity (or lack thereof).
16. Don’t List Everything You’ve Ever Done. There should be a purpose for math every word. When you’re writing and editing, ask yourself this question, “Will this sentence help me get the grounded research paper job I want?” If not, you should consider editing that sentence or removing it. 17. Think About the Person Reading Your Resume. It’s important to remember that there’s a real person reading this. Math! And it’s also important to sustainable construction, remember that it’s her job to find awesome candidates to test, interview and com 150 effective essay present to her boss or team. Online Math! It’s also not her job to do you any favors.
So you should think about her when you’re writing your resume. Com 150 Effective Essay! How can you make her job easier? How can you write your resume in such a way that she gets excited when she sees it, thinks you’re perfect for the job, and is willing to put herself out there by presenting you to online, her team. 18. Think About What Makes You Different. It’s important that you be yourself during the newspaper application process (obviously putting your best foot forward).
This includes what you write on your application materials. Don’t hesitate to show who you really are, your likes and interests, your personality, what makes you unique, and math so on. Grounded Paper! While this definitely requires some judgment calls (for example, expressing personality when applying for a traditional role in test a traditional industry might not be the best move) it could ultimately be the thing that sets you apart and gets you hired. After all, these are real people hiring you and they’d probably prefer to work with someone who’s enjoyable and a good culture fit. Solution! And if your personality isn’t a fit for online math test the job, you probably wouldn’t have been happy there any way so it works out for everyone.
19. Think About the puff term Specific Job You’re Applying To. One of my favorite tricks to help communicate that you are the test perfect person for components of a good essay a job is to read the job description and list out key phrases. Then, when you’re writing or editing your resume, find ways to incorporate those words and phrases from the math test desired job description into your resume. This can be super useful when a machine or human recruiter skims it. 20.
Think of This as a Storytelling Document. Puff Newspaper! Many of the tips that I’ve mentioned all point to the general idea that your resume should clearly and concisely tell the story of “you”—helping hiring managers understand why you’re the right person for the job. This is, in fact, the math entire purpose. Ultimately, when you re-read and edit it, make sure that it tells the story of your background, the skills you gained along the way, the construction case experiences that you’ve had, and makes it crystal clear why you’ve ended up where you are today and why the online math role that they are hiring for is the perfect next step for you. Photo of hands on case, computer courtesy of Dougal Waters/Getty Images#46; Jody loves anything that has to do with people, business, and technology. Math Test! With these passions (and perhaps the memory mickey mouse other perspective fact that her parents are a psychologist and math a counselor) it only effective makes sense that Jody manages Coach Connect at The Muse. In her spare time, Jody enjoys writing, spending copious amounts of time outside, falling in love with NYC, and visiting friends and family in online math North Carolina. (Go Heels!) Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
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Without this enriching knowledge, there is a hollow yearning. No matter what our attainments in life, there is still a vacuum, emptiness, and the most disquieting loneliness.” –Alex Haley This quote explained to me the importance of math test, my grandparent’s legacy and their history. American Essay Mickey Mouse Perspective. A long twisting family tree inspires one who does not know. Family , Genealogy , Grandparent 999 Words | 3 Pages. ? MY HOLY WEEK CELEBRATION During April we celebrated the online, Holy week. It is grounded theory, when Jesus Christ was crucified and died under Poncioplilate and rose . again after three days. Hundreds of people belong to math, the church to get to the great unwashed, they prayed and thanked Jesus for saving the construction case studies, world from test, sins and temptation.
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I learned to grounded, cherish every minute spent with my father. Family , Father , Mother 1438 Words | 4 Pages. ? Family Essay I have gathered a lot of information on some family members of mine about their history, things . that affect them, and just about them so I could do a family essay . While doing this research I learned so much about where I came from, what each family member has experienced throughout their life, the troubles, the good and bad, the fun and boring things, how growing up was like and so much more! Now I am going to share with you my experience through this and math test, the amazing things I. Family , Grandparent , High school 1165 Words | 3 Pages. management.
A hard working people have not their personal time, because they spent most of time doing their job. Ielts. They usually start job in test the early morning . and do it until night. Moreover, this problem causes a numerous influence in the family man. The relationship in puff their family will be quite distant so far, because the parents pay more attention to their job than take care their children. On the math, other hand, it brings about the solution ielts, enormous negative effects in term of health. Test. There are many disease that are. Asthma , Cough , England 1033 Words | 4 Pages.
Essay about term, Red Nose Day The purpose is to math test, entertain and change lives in the UK and Africa. The money spent to aid young who live on the . street and protect people living with domestic abuse. In Africa for vaccines etc. People make donations, people also do something fun as games, parties, karaoke night, contests and other things and it's like winning money. Of A Essay. This program is great, I think there should be more people like them, generous y caring. This type of action I love. It is best to math test, help and. British Museum , Cardiff , Remembrance Day 678 Words | 3 Pages.
you already know, is construction projects, about my family . My family is a nuclear family (a couple with . Math. their unmarried children) of five. Essay. They are: ? My father, Jai Chand Prakash (Aged 40) ? My mother, Reshmi Babita Prakash (Aged 36) ? Myself, Raina Prakash (Aged 14) ? My little sister, Neha Prakash and (Aged 13) ? My brother, Jash Prakash (Aged 4) These are the Prakash Family members. There is also a family tree on online math, page 4 for better understanding. My family resides in theory paper a house in Wainisasa. Extended family , Family , Father 1297 Words | 3 Pages. Why Is Family So Important? | Document Processing – BN 1228 | | | | Daisy Martinez | 4/16/2013 | | E ver heard . the online test, saying, “blood is thicker than water”? If yes, you know it means no bond is tighter than your family . In our families we love, serve, teach, and learn from each other. Grounded Research Paper. We share our joys and online math, our sorrows. Family ties may bring us difficult challenges, but they also give us strength and some of our greatest happiness. Puff Newspaper Term. Through my own personal perspective, if.
Family , Family values , If You Have to Ask 1581 Words | 4 Pages. Family is where love begins and never ends. Having someone to love is family . Having somewhere to go is home and having both is a . blessing. My family unlike others is small. We enjoy spending time with each other and making memories we will cherish forever. My mother had my brother at a very young age but unlike any other teenager at her age she did what she thought it was right which was keeping my brother. Since that day my mother has worked very hard to provide for me and my siblings. A year ago. English-language films , Family , Father 1377 Words | 3 Pages. First Essay I am interested in becoming a special education teacher because every type of child needs and deserves a proper education. . Online. Unfortunately not all children receive the type of education they need.
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Culture , Family , Family history 2158 Words | 6 Pages. physically appearance (as opposed to dancing ability) in online math test the dance world? Do you agree with the prevailing attitude? Why or why not? Mikaela Esquivel . American Memory Mickey Mouse Other Perspective. Advanced Dance Silver 2 Topic 9 Physical appearance Introduction: Include a hook (Grab my attention! Make me want to read on!), summary of the topic (Why are you writing – give me an overview, nothing specific), and a thesis statement (e.g. “There are three differences between dance and an aesthetic sport, , , …”) Topic 1 –. Dance , Greek loanwords , Psychology 392 Words | 3 Pages. Family Definition with Classification Essay. ? My Definition of Family with Classification The definition of “ family ” may differ from online math, one person to puff newspaper term, the next. . Even the various dictionaries have multiple definitions for the simple yet ever so complex word.
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Having participated in sustainable studies planning and executing both types of math, parties, I have found that the informal picnic not only has greater employee participation, but more positive feedback. Employment , Formal , Formal wear 745 Words | 3 Pages. ________________________________ Period ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed final drafts are due on com 150 effective, . Test. _______________________ at the beginning of the period. Your graded final draft will be placed in your portfolio. Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. Use one of the “hooks” from the six choices on side 2. Don’t forget to let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family , friends, relationships, house, and vehicle).
Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages. April 11, 2013 Period 2 English 3 Honors Today I am going to american critical essay history memory mickey mouse past perspective, explain to online test, you about Judy Blume and her childhood, education, and com 150 essay writing, all . of her great achievements. I chose Judy Blume to write my paper on test, because she is an amazing writer and I was intrigued to american critical history memory mouse, learn more about her. Math Test. She is an inspiration to a lot of people and com 150 effective essay, is very successful. Judy Blume was born on math, February 12, 1938 in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Her parent’s names are Rudolph Sussman, a dentist, and Esther. A Great Way to Care , Children's literature , Early childhood education 1786 Words | 5 Pages. Family Unit Essay What I have Learned When I think of the word “ Family ”, I take in everything from . Of A Good. my life to think of an answer. My definition of family is anyone who will be there for you through the online, rough times. They don’t necessarily have to solution essay, be blood related, though this is the common thought when thinking about family , but they just have to be there for you. The official definition of test, family is the most basic unit of civilization in organized life.
Experts define family in two ways. American Critical Other. The first. Extended family , Family , Father 1298 Words | 3 Pages. do sociologists believe the Nuclear Family to be functional? (12 Marks) The Nuclear Family is a traditional family . Online. type that is tied by solution essay ielts blood and marriage, it will include a mother, father and a dependent child/children. The Nuclear family is seen as a positive part of math, society by paper consensus theorists such as functionalists and the new right, whereas it’s seen as a negative by conflict theorists such as feminists. Functionalist theorists see the online, nuclear family as an important aspect of society and. Family , Father , Feminism 985 Words | 2 Pages. story ending with: “…he left and components essay, closed the door behind him quietly.” 4) Success comes to those who work hard.
Do you agree? 5) Strength 1)Why should . children help their parents at home? 2) Describe the scene during recess in math test school 3) Power 4) My life is a joy 5) Write a story which begins with: “It was a miserable day until the phone rang….” 1) An ideal holiday 2) The benefits of saving when you are young. 3) Social networking brings more harm than good. Discuss. Solution. 4) Write a story which.
Fiction , Novel , The Last Five Years 802 Words | 7 Pages. My Live Verses My Parents' Lives Compare and Contrast Essay. 06/20/11 Essay 2: Rough Draft My Life verses My Parents’ Lives I thought I always had a perfect life . Test. growing up because we went on sustainable construction projects, family vacations together; we went on picnics as a family and had family movie nights on the weekends. But, as I am becoming older and online, trying to term, start my own stable family , I look back at my parents’ issues they had as I was growing up for example, their financial issues, which ended up resulting with our family moving at least twenty times in my childhood. 2007 albums , Drug addiction , Family 1145 Words | 3 Pages. I grew up in a nuclear family . Test. There are four people in my family , consists of my father, mother, . my sister and me. My father is 62 years old. He’s working as a insurance agent. American Memory Mickey Past. My mother is 10 years younger than my father. She used to work as a store manager before she gave birth to me.
She quitted her job in order to take care of math, me and components of a good essay, my sister because she believes that the mother daughter bond can grow stronger day by day by spending time with us. My sisters and online, I are four years apart. She is. Family , Father , Mother 1888 Words | 5 Pages. update me in my daily lives, like what is good essay, happening in test the government, education, religions, and economy or to our social institutions which is . the structure of our society. These will also develop my own behavior and my interaction to other people. I can clearly understand why there are different peoples with different characteristics, ideas, beliefs, principles and values. It can also affect me through the influence of the different peoples in my own environment.
It lets me know what is my role as. Better , Institution , Person 1247 Words | 3 Pages. My Role in the Family Every man and woman, boy and girl, possesses a certain role within their family . Despite . the frequently used titles of sister or daughter, my role in the family delves much deeper than that; I am more than just a daughter to my mother, a sister to my elder sibling, and the baby of the family ; I bring a sense of comfort, comedy, and completion to it. Grounded. I am the online test, confidant, the best friend, and construction studies, the final child who completes the test, family to sustainable projects, a satisfactory degree. Online Math Test. My role of the sarcastically. Bedroom , Family , Father 1548 Words | 4 Pages. Family Analysis Paper from Family Interventions both formal and informal. Solution Essay Ielts. Introduction: My . Online Math. family shows signs of being a healthy family for com 150 writing, the most part with a few exceptions.
The biggest exception is test, that the individuals are not assigned to particular roles. This means that our roles as individuals provide organized chaos as we rotate from newspaper term, situation to situation. These role rotations allow my family to experience both enmeshment and disengagement. An example of this would be when. Family , Father , Individual 1040 Words | 3 Pages. ? My family consists of only online math, four members, my mom, my two brothers and com 150, me.
It was bigger when . my dad was alive. He died from a cardiac arrest when I was nearly four, not realizing how tragic and irrevocable the event of his death was for my mom and test, my siblings, I could not utter even a tear, I was not being merciless or cruel toward my father, for I loved him so much and history memory mickey perspective, tried to spend as much as time with him as I could. My mother became a single parent at 29 with three children. Time goes by. English-language films , Family , Father 877 Words | 2 Pages. accompanied your mom to buy some stuffs then you couldn’t come to the competition that I took last week.
Do you know that your coming is really important for . Online Test. me. Sustainable Construction Case Studies. Don’t you realize that?” Ami was so sad. “Well, I do have sin with you, Mi. Online. But, I have my own reason why I couldn’t came lastweek. Believe me that I’ve tried to come, unfortunately God didn’t allow me to puff newspaper, see you directly on that competition. Sorry…..” Denny explained. “Just tell me the real reasons!” “I……….I’ve something to do at that.
2005 singles , 2006 singles , 2007 singles 2316 Words | 6 Pages. My Unforgettable Experience with My Family. Ma. Aleli M. Rustia PSC21 My Unforgettable Experience with my Family This was the moment when we were down, . helpless, and totally disappointed after we tried hard to math test, earn a name for our family . Term. This was the moment when my mother and other members of the family tried to test, console my father to be calm and not to be desperate at all. We advised him also to be positive in everything he does and always believe that there is always sunshine after the rain.
This was also the moment of struggling, in search. Leave , Leave of absence 1934 Words | 5 Pages. Romulus, My Father- belonging to family. ?How is Belonging to a Family Shown Within the Text? It is intrinsic to human nature to essay ielts, desire a sense of belonging to a group or community. Online Test. . One of the first ways in grounded research paper which mankind does this is through one’s family . Belonging is test, shown through the familial relationship between Raimond and his father Romulus. The depths of their relationship is depicted in grounded contrast to both Raimond’s and Romulus’ relationships with Christine, Raimond’s mother. The juxtaposition of math, Christine’s care for Raimond, with. Cousin , Family , Father 1087 Words | 3 Pages. conducted in two parts: the first one is of a good essay, called the akad nikah (marriage contract) and the other one is math, called the bersanding (enthronement).
Akad nikah is . the moment when the wedding is of a good essay, being legalized in a religious manner, while bersanding is a family celebration. While the math, akad nikah session is done in a very low-profile manner (it’s usually done at a mosque), the puff newspaper, bersanding session might be elaborately celebrated and cherished. Here are the different stages prior to a Malay wedding: Stage 1. Engagement , Family , Malays 1808 Words | 6 Pages. ? Family by Pa Chin Essay In Pa Chin’s novel, Family ; it revolves around the Gao family and online test, the many . obstacles that the three sons have to go through to obtain their freedom. Since the setting for this novel was based in the early 1920’s, there are many conflicts and struggles that the book expresses and there are many situations where now a days it is american critical history memory perspective, understandable but during that time period it was really hard for many of China’s youth to be able to endure and online, accept the facts.
The social conflicts. Family , Filial piety , Han Dynasty 1537 Words | 5 Pages. Connecting Information: Having goals is the best way to achieve success in life. Com 150. Goals are the building blocks to a happy and prosperous life. C. Math Test. Thesis . Statement: Over my lifetime I would like to achieve many things but there are three main things I would like to accomplish those being: to join the army national guard after my 2 years here at Leeward, to become a certified accountant, and to travel the components of a good essay, world. II. BODY: A. Paragraph 2 1. Online Test. Topic Sentence: To join and become a member of the army National. Accountant , Army National Guard , Need 819 Words | 5 Pages.
‘It’s Not My Fault That It’s Default’ By Georgia Mitchell When you sit down in sustainable construction front of the online math test, television on Friday night and think about solution, what . you are going to watch, you should definitely consider the hilarious British sitcom, My Family . This modern day sitcom is test, based around the lives of an average, middle-class English family and their day-to-day experiences. The program is set within an enclosed world which changes between the Harper’s residence and a dental surgery. Solution Essay Ielts. The funny and opinionated. Comedy , Daisy Donovan , Daniela Denby-Ashe 900 Words | 3 Pages. for Romeo and online math, Juliet. The Friar still believes that Romeo and Juliet are merely infatuated with each other and are not truly in love, but he agrees to marry . them anyway. He does this because he still hopes that he could help bring their feuding families together. Friar Laurence’s sense of duty here identifies him as the “peacemaker” of the play.
Ironically, his intentions were never truly fulfilled because the grounded theory research paper, circumstances surrounding the marriage made it almost impossible for math test, peace to occur. Characters in Romeo and puff term, Juliet , John Gielgud , Juliet Capulet 931 Words | 3 Pages. spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAWstarr.htm * www.socialwelfarehistory.com/people/barrett-janie-porter | | 8 8 | For pity or . betterment of society As settlement housing improves slum families . Many think it’s for online, pity. Sustainable Construction Projects Case Studies. Some think it’s for the betterment of city families and online math, neighborhoods. Jane Addams, a influential member of the movement says settlement houses help people “learn from life itself”. But Jane Addams wasn’t the com 150 essay, only influential members of the movement. Ellen Gates. Chicago , City , Ellen Gates Starr 573 Words | 3 Pages. with an end not in online math test sight. Poverty has become a severe problem that seems to worsen with the passing of time. Grounded Theory Research. Those who choose to look away get peace only in . Online Math. their minds, never thinking about the outcome it has on others.
The effects of poverty on families in America create not only an unstable environment, but also put children in risk to have serious illness and american critical history memory mickey perspective, health problems. What qualifies as poverty? Merriam-Webster’s dictionary defines poverty as the online test, state of one who lacks a usual or socially. Causality , Census , High school 1001 Words | 3 Pages. In the essay The Color of Family Ties by Naomi Gerstel and Natalia Sarksian, the projects studies, authors assert that traditional nuclear . families are not the only ones capable of supportive relationships and strong family connections. Online Math Test. In the other hand, minority families also discover that their families illustrate the most supportive relationships and strongest family ties. According to Gerstel and Sarksian, they states Black and term, Latino/a, especially Puerto Rican families are more disorganized than White families. Critical thinking , Extended family , Family 860 Words | 3 Pages. My Extended Family By Amy Markle Composition I It seems like yesterday all the kids where little and needed me all the math, . American Mouse Past Perspective. time. Now Francesca is math, married, with children, Kaitlin is effective, living on her own with her daughter, and online math, JJ and April live with them. I feel like it was only the other day we were all crowding around the dinner table having a nice family meal, while John their father was off who knows where, drunk, high, spending money he didn’t really have to even spend.
I stop and american essay mouse other perspective, think how these. Aerosmith , Family , Father-in-law 1216 Words | 3 Pages. = that society starts with the math test, individual, and that one must first develop oneself, to develop one's family . The family . serves as a model for solution ielts, the community, the community as a model for the state, the state as a model for the country, and the country as a model for other countries. The educational process is first and most importantly the responsibility of the online math, individual, then the family , then the community, then the state, and then the grounded theory research paper, country. = he teach anyone come to online, him. Newspaper. . Aristotle , Chinese philosophy , Epistemology 1444 Words | 6 Pages. Thumb wrestling federation Regan Lee Block C/D Paolo!! Paolo! My mother said, Paolo what did I say about watching those thumb . wrestling matches” “come on ma what has thumb wrestling ever done to you” said Paolo “you know what I finally think your old enough to know. Now Paolo you’re Grandfather Enrique you know the test, man you always see in the old pictures well when he was 22 he was drafted into essay, the TWF, he was better known as rumble because of his monstrous thumb. Anyway he was knocking. Animation Collective , Family , Ice cream 1625 Words | 4 Pages.
4. Online Math Test. Does this recipe include a good balance of essential nutrients? Explain your answer. Yes. This recipe only theory paper, has 120 calories and includes milk and online math test, . cheese which are good for the bones and provide vitamins that are healthy. I like to give my children mac and cheese because its kid friendly and solution essay, I know they are eating a meal that is healthy for them.
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Age is a problem to people because they think that there is no way the relationship will work out since one person is immature and the other is an adult and is mature. Age difference between two people. AIDS , Chlamydia infection , Human sexual behavior 1125 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Little Bit of Country We all have that favorite place from our childhood where many of our happiest memories take place. For someone it . is a special spot where something extraordinary happened. Other people might remember something as simple as their own tiny backyard where they used to play soccer in the summer holidays. This place remains important to test, us for the rest of our lives as we look back and think of it as a part of who we have become and solution essay, therefore we hope that others will see and.
Central Park , Central Park Zoo , Chicago 936 Words | 2 Pages. 10/29/2011 Food in my family English: . 1841 I come from a very diverse ethnic background, with many variations of what maybe considered cultural foods. I have many fond memories of family reunions and math, all the interesting dishes my relatives would prepare. Food in my family holds so much meaning; it’s the glue that has held us together for many years even before I was born. Food in my family isn’t just a substance. Cooking , Flavor , Food 922 Words | 3 Pages. Social and Cultural Influences on Death and Funerals in My Family. Social and Cultural Influences On Death and sustainable construction projects studies, Funerals in My Family Each family confronts death and funerals in . a different manner. Math Test. Some families follow long held traditions, while others seem to solution essay, have no such precedent to serve as a guide. At first consideration, I thought it would be nearly impossible to write an essay on death and math, funerals in my family , because I don’t have much in the way of personal involvement to draw upon. After contemplating this absence of experience, I came to the realization.
Afterlife , Burial , Cremation 919 Words | 3 Pages. Stacey Wilson October 14, 2011 Swrk 251 Social work value essay My mother likes to tell the story of when I was four . years old going to my reading circle. While I was waiting for my reading circle to effective essay writing, start, I noticed a baby crying so I picked up toys and started shaking them and making the baby smile. For as long as I can remember I have always like to help others, I got enjoyment out of making my friends happy. Test. Whenever one of my friends had a problem I was always there for them, to listen. International Federation of puff term, Social Workers , School social worker , Social change 2231 Words | 5 Pages. Writing Assignment 1 Family conflict affects everyone in the family however it’s more harmful to the children. Every . family has a different approach in how they deal with the math test, conflict.
As a class we have read and sustainable construction projects studies, discussed Caroline Hwang’s essay “The Good Daughter.” as well as Janna Malamud Smith’s essay “ My Son, My Compass.” There is different approach illustrated by Hwang's and math test, Smith's essay as they choose their own lifestyle and confront their parent’s arrogant behavior. Hwang essay explains how immigrant. Family , Father , Marriage 877 Words | 3 Pages. 'Looking for Alibrandi' essay. Theme: Family. Essay question: Family has a strong influence on our lives. Projects Case. It affects the way we view ourselves and online math, those around us. How has . family influenced Josephine and what impact does it have? Family is one of our main influences in components our lives, although we are not always aware of it. It shapes the people we are and the choices we make in math our lives.
In the text 'Looking for puff newspaper, Alibrandi' by Melina Marchetta, Josephine Alibrandi is math, seeking to grounded theory paper, be free from the world and online math, its misunderstood societal regulations throughout. 2007 albums , 2009 albums , Accept 1128 Words | 3 Pages. My Ambition In Life Essay To Become A C. My ambition in life essay to effective essay, become a collector Free Essays on math test, My Ambition In Life To Become A . Collector for students. Use our papers to help you with yours. My Ambition Become a Collector: exaggeration of your dream and thoughts of how you want to be in your life. My ambition is to become an IAS officer. Though I. My ambition in life is to become a teacher.
There are a number of reasons for my choice. First, about solution essay ielts, 35 per cent of the people in India are illiterate. They are. Plan essay thirsha Websites. Essay , Writing 1073 Words | 4 Pages.
English 101 25 June 2012 My Family Value Without family where do we learn values from? We are not born with . values, but learn values from our families . All my values developed from online math test, my family , and as I grew into an adult, I made them my own values. As a child, one is dependent on his or her family for emotional, physical, and mental support. Good Essay. The way a person values things is determined by one’s upbringing. Family is the most important value to me.
Without my family , where would I be? How would. Coco , Cousin , Extended family 795 Words | 2 Pages. ?Migrating at Nine Family Migration Paper Joan Gallagher October 4, 2013 It was 1956 in the town of Corbin, Kentucky. Three . small girls, ages 11, 9, and 8 got into the car of their World War II Veteran, Uncle Charles Heathcott, accompanied by their 34 year old mother, Frances Heathcott Gallagher.
It is therefore in everyone’s best interest to help create a positive environment for all families . The family unit has changed over the years but its importance is still quite relevant. Both success and theory, failures are faced with much more love and intensity when you have a family unit to fall back on. Family is the staple. Emotion , Family , Identity 798 Words | 3 Pages. ? Families Now and Then Essay Below is a free essay on online, Families Now and Then from Anti . Puff Newspaper Term. Essays , your source for math, free research papers, essays , and term paper examples. Families now and then Our society has been witness of a series of theory research paper, changes as regards the roles of family members during the 20th century up to test, these days. At the beginning of the ielts, last century the idea of a family was very clear unlike the one we have nowadays. Families have changed in a lot of ways and the pace in which they have developed. Adoption , Cousin , Family 2058 Words | 6 Pages.
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ENGLISH ESSAY The concept of belonging is math, more complex than it first appears is a true statement and can be proven through the deconstruction . of the research paper, texts ‘Romulus, my father’ and ‘Neighbours’. Math Test. The meaning of belonging is generalised as a process where an individual or individuals learn to connect with other people, groups, communities and the larger world. Com 150 Essay. There are several ways that proves this statement above in both texts such as not belonging at the start of test, each story, complications with trying. Critical thinking , Evidence 887 Words | 3 Pages. 10/21/12 A Family Dinner WriteWork Essays Writing Guides for essay ielts, Students Worried about math, plagiarism? Read this. Puff Term. Login | Help . Essay Topics Area Country Studies Essays (1,406) Art Essays (6,960) Businesss Research Papers (18,154) Humanities Essays (11,253) Literature Research Papers (31,778) History Term Papers (13,690) Law Government Essays (5,807) Science Essays (9,853) Social Science Essays (16,730) Writing Guides How to write a book report How to write a research paper How to write an essay Search . Creative writing , Essay , Essays 1580 Words | 6 Pages. presence always leads into a celestial experience of all who enter in and experience it. This essay is an exploration of the contribution of math, . forests to the welfare of humankind, and human response to term, forests in online math order to understand the theory research, present scenario and online math, reflect on the future of human-forest relationship. Forest as thriller From my childhood onwards I was indoctrinated about forests through various ways.
Most of my childhood bedtime stories started with “there was a deep forest in which…” In addition. Cattle , Forest , Nobel Peace Prize 1501 Words | 4 Pages.
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General Biology/Classification of Living Things/Eukaryotes/Animals/Phyla. There currently are almost 40 recognized phyla. Phylum — Number of Species — Common Name. Placozoa — 1 Monoblastozoa — 1 Rhombozoa — 50 Orthonectida — 50 Porifera — 9,000 — sponges (figures) Cnidaria — 9,000 — corals (figures) Ctenophora — 100 — comb jellies Platyhelminthes — 20,000 — flatworms (figures) Nemertea — 900 — ribbon worms (figures) Rotifera — 1,800 — rotifers (figures) Gastrotricha — 450 — gastrotrichs Kinorhyncha — 150 — kinorhynchids Nematoda — 12,000 — roundworms (figures) Nematomorpha — 230 — horsehair worms Priapula — 15 Acanthocephala — 700 — (figures) Entoprocta — 150 Gnathostomulida — 80 Loricifera — 35 Annelida — 15,000 — segmented worms (figures) Sipuncula — 250 — peanut worms (figures) Echiura — 135 Pogonophora — 145 — beard worms Vestimentifera — 8 — beard worms Arthropoda — 957,000 — arthropods (figures) Onychophora — 80 Tardigrada — 400 — water bears Pentastomida — 95 — tongue worms Mollusca — 100,000 — molluscs (figures) Phoronida — 15 Ectoprocta — 4,500 — sessile zooids Brachiopoda — 335 — lampshells Echinodermata — 7000 — echinoderms (figures) Chaetognatha — 100 — arrow worms (figures) Hemichordata — 85 — acorn worms Chordata — 50,000 — chordates (figures) Name means pore-bearing. This phylum consists of the online math, sponges. Grounded Theory Paper? The number of species is estimated to be between 5,000 and 10,000. Online? All are aquatic and almost all are marine. Animals in this phyla have no true tissues, which means, for example, that they have no nervous system or sense organs. Although sponges are multicellular, they are described as being essentially at a cellular level of organization. They are sessile as adults, but have a free swimming larva.
Their bodies are porous. Sustainable? They are filter feeders; water flows in through many small openings (ostia), and online math, out through fewer, large openings (osculum). They have inner and outer cell layers, and a variable middle layer. The middle layer often is gelatinous with spiny skeletal elements (called spicules) of silica or calcium carbonate, and essay ielts, fibres made of spongin (a form of collagen). Choanocytes are flagellated cells lining the inside of the online math, body that generate a current, and trap and phagocytize food particles. Their cells remain totipotent, or developmentally flexible: they can become any type of cell at any point in the sponge's development. This allows for the great regenerative power sponges have. Sponges are an ancient group, with fossils from the early Cambrian (ca.
540 mya) and american critical essay memory mouse perspective, possibly from the Precambrian. Sponges often are abundant in reef ecosystems. They somehow are protected from predators (spicules? bad taste?). Many organisms are commensals of sponges, living inside them. Some sponges harbor endosymbiotic cyanobacteria or algae (dinoflagellates, a.k.a. Math? zooxanthellae). See text pages 886 - 889. Name comes from the Greek knide- meaning nettle.
This phylum formerly known as phylum coelenterata consists of the jellyfish, hydra, sea anemones, corals, sea pens, sea wasps, sea whips and box jellyfish. There are about 9,000 species. Almost all are marine. This is another ancient group, with fossils perhaps reaching back to theory paper, 700 mya. Cnidarians exhibit radial symmetry . Their basic body plan is a sac with a gastrovascular cavity, or a central digestive system. They have one opening, which serves as both mouth and anus.
The body wall has an outer ectoderm, an inner endoderm, and a variable undifferentiated middle layer called mesoglea or mesenchyme that may be jelly-like. The mesoglea is online math test NOT considered to be true mesoderm and american memory mickey mouse other perspective, so the online test, Cnidaria are described as diploblastic. Tentacles usually extend from the american essay memory mickey other past perspective, body wall around the mouth/anus. There are two basic body plans: the polyp and the medusa. The polyp is sessile and attaches to online math, substrate by puff term, the aboral end (i.e., the end away from the mouth). The medusa (jellyfish) is math a floating form, and looks like an upside-down version of the polyp. Some cnidarians only have the polyp stage, some have only the research, medusa stage, and others have both. The typical life cycle of a cnidarian involves what is called alternation of generations: an alternation between an asexual polyp stage and a sexual medusa stage. The tentacles are armed with cnidae (or nematocysts), small intracellular harpoons that function in math defense and prey capture. Com 150 Effective Essay Writing? When fired, the cnidae deliver a powerful toxin that in online test some cases is dangerous to humans. Projects Case Studies? The phylum is named after the cnidae.
Cnidarians have no head, no centralized nervous system, and no specialized organs for gas exchange, excretion, or circulation. They do have a nerve net and nerve rings (in jellyfish). Many cnidarians have intracellular algae living within them in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship (Dinoflagellates = zooxanthellae). This combination is responsible for much of the primary productivity of math, coral reefs. There are three main classes in sustainable case studies the phylum. Class Hydrozoa (hydras and Portuguese man-of-war are well-known but atypical examples of online math test, this Class) Class Scyphozoa (jellyfish) The medusa stage is dominant and com 150 effective, the polyp stage often is reduced. Class Anthozoa (sea anemones, most corals) No medusa (jellyfish) stage, so sexual reproduction occurs in the polyp stage in this group. Online Math? The polyps also can reproduce asexually, which is essay how individual corals grow. See text pages 890 - 893. Name means flat worm Most members of this phylum are parasitic (flukes and online test, tapeworms), but some are free living (e.g., planaria).
There are about 20,000 species. They are dorsoventrally compressed (i.e., flat). Animals in this phylum are acoelomate, triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical, and unsegmented. Platyhelminths have a simple anterior brain and critical essay history memory past, a simple ladder-like nervous system. Their gut has only one opening. Flatworms have NO circulatory or gas exchange systems. They do have simple excretory/osmoregulatory structures (protonephridia or flame cells). Platyhelminths are hermaphroditic, and the parasitic species often have complex reproductive (life) cycles. There are four main classes of test, platyhelminths:
Class Turbellaria (mostly free living flatworms, e.g., planaria) Class Monogenea (parasitic flukes) Class Trematoda (parasitic flukes, e.g., liver fluke and newspaper term, the human blood fluke, Schistosoma) Class Cestoda (tapeworms) Cestodes are endoparasitic in the gut of vertebrates. They do not have a mouth or digestive system. See text page 900. The Rotifers. Online Test? The name means wheel bearing, a reference to theory paper, the corona, a feeding structure (see below). They are triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical, and online, unsegmented. Essay Writing? They are considered pseudocoelomates.
Most less than 2 mm, some as large as 2 – 3 mm. Rotifers have a three part body: head, trunk, and foot. The head has a ciliary organ called the corona that, when beating, looks like wheels turning, hence the online math, name of the phylum. The corona is a feeding structure that surrounds the animal's jaws. The gut is complete (i.e., mouth anus), and regionally specialized. They have protonephridia but no specialized circulatory or gas-exchange structures. Most live in projects fresh water, a very few are marine or live in damp terrestrial habitats. They typically are very abundant.
There are about math test, 2,000 species. Parthenogenesis, where females produce more females from paper unfertilized but diploid eggs, is common. Males may be absent (as in bdelloid rotifers) or reduced. When males are present, sexual and asexual life cycles alternate. Males develop from online test unfertilized haploid eggs and american critical memory mickey perspective, are haploid. Males produce sperm by mitosis which can fertilize haploid eggs, yielding a diploid zygote that develops into a diploid female. Test? Sexual reproduction occurs primarily when living conditions are unfavorable. Most structures in rotifers are syncytial (a mulitnucleate mass of protoplasm not divided into separate cells, or a multinucleated cell) and show eutely (here, constant or near-constant number of nuclei). See text pages 894 - 895. Name from the components of a essay, Greek for thread.
This phylum consists of the online, round worms. Essay Mickey Past Perspective? There are about 12,000 named species but the online, true number probably is 10 - 100 times this! These animals are triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented pseudocoelomates. They are vermiform, or wormlike. In cross-section, they are round, and covered by a layered cuticle (remember this cuticle !!).
Probably due to components good essay, this cuticle, juveniles in this phylum grow by molting. The gut is complete. They have a unique excretory system but they lack special circulatory or gas-exchange structures. Online Test? The body has only longitudinal muscle fibers. Newspaper Term? The sexes are separate. Nematodes can be incredibly common, widespread, and of great medical and economic importance.
They are parasites of humans and our crops. They can live pretty much anywhere. In one rotting apple, there can be up to 90,000 nematodes, and in one tablespoon of coastal mud, there can be 236 species of nematodes! Nematodes can be free living or important parasites of math test, our crops, or of humans and other animals. Grounded Theory Paper? They have become very important in development studies, especially the species Caenorhabditis elegans, presumably due to its small size and constancy of online, cell number (eutely - 959 cells in components of a good C. elegans). See text pages 906 - 909. Name means ringed, from the Greek annulatus. This phylum consists of earthworms, leeches, and online math test, various marine worms given many different names (e.g., sand worms, tube worms). There are about solution essay ielts, 12,000 - 15,000 species. Animals in this phylum are triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical, segmented coelomates.
Development is typically protostomous. Online? They have a complete circulatory system, and a well-developed nervous system. Typically, each segment has paired epidermal bristles (setae or chaetae). Most are marine but they are successful occupants of almost anywhere sufficient water is memory mickey mouse available. They can be free living, parasitic, mutualistic, or commensalistic. Major advances of online math, this phylum include the true coelom, segmentation, both longitundinal and circular muscles, a closed circulatory system and, for grounded theory research, most, a more advanced excretory system (metanephridia). There are three main classes of Annelids. Class Oligochaeta (earthworms) Class Polychaeta (marine worms, fan worms, sand worms, paddle worms) Class Hirudinea (leeches) Name means jointed feet. This phylum consists of spiders, ticks, mites, insects, lobsters, crabs, and shrimp, and is the largest of all the math, phyla. So far, over sustainable construction projects studies 1 million species have been named, and it is likely that the true number out there is 10 - 100 times greater.
This phylum also includes the extinct trilobites, which were prevalent in the Paleozoic era. Because of their exoskeletons, these animals fossilized well and over 4000 species have been named. These animals are triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical, segmented, protostome coelomates. Online Test? The coelom is sustainable case generally reduced to portions of the reproductive and excretory systems. They have an math open circulatory system. The most notable advancement of this phylum is a rigid exoskeleton. Com 150 Effective Writing? It has major implications in math these organisms' locomotion, flexibility, circulatory systems, gas exchange systems, and growth. It also was partially responsible for the ability of the components essay, arthropods to move on to land. There are several major groupings of arthropods: Major subgroups include: The chelicerates (eurytperids, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, spiders, ticks) have clawlike feeding appendages.
They lack antennae and usually have simple eyes. The Trilobites. they get their own grouping The uniramians (centipedes, millipedes, insects) have one pair of online math test, antennae and unbranched (uniramous) appendages. The crustaceans (crabs, shrimp, lobsters, barnacles and many others) have two pairs of antennae and effective, branched (biramous) appendages. Major Classes Include Class Arachnida (mites, scorpions, spiders, ticks) Class Diplopoda (millipedes) Class Chilopoda (centipedes) Class Insecta (insects) Class Crustacea (crabs, crayfish, lobsters, shrimp) See text pages 900 - 905. Name means soft. This phylum consists of online, snails, slugs, bivalves, chitons, squids, octopus, and many others. About 110,000 species. All molluscs have a similar body plan: A muscular foot, usually used for movement.
A visceral mass, containing most of the internal organs. A mantle, a fold of tissue that drapes over com 150 effective writing the visceral mass and secretes the online, shell, if present. Most have a radula, or a rasping organ to scrape food. Molluscs are bilaterally symmetrical, or secondarily asymmetrical. They are coelomates, but the coelom generally has been greatly reduced; the main body cavity is a hemocoel. Development is typically protostomous. Ielts? The gut is complete with marked regional specialization.
Large, complex, metanephridia (excretion). Many molluscan life cycles include a trochophore larva. This stage also is characteristic of annelids. There are several major classes of molluscs: Class Polyplacophora (chitons) Class Gastropoda (snails, limpets, conchs, slugs, nudibranchs) Class Bivalvia (clams, mussels, scallops, oysters) Class Cephalopoda (squids, octopus, nautilus, cuttlefish) Class Scaphopoda (tusk shells) Name means spiny skin This phylum consists of sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers.
Echinoderms are mostly sessile or very slow moving animals. As adults, they are radially symmetrical, but in the larval stage, they are bilaterally symmetrical. They are considered deuterostomes. Echinoderms are unique in that they have a water vascular system composed of a system of online test, fluid-filled canals. American Critical Essay History Memory Mickey Mouse Other Perspective? These canals branch into the tube feet, which function in feeding, locomotion, and gas exchange. There are six major classes of echinoderms: Class Asteroidea (sea stars) Class Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) Class Echinoidea (sea urchins, sand dollars) Class Crinoidea (sea lilies and math test, sea feathers) Class Holothuroidea (sea cucumber) Name means the chordates, i.e., these animals have a notochord at some stage in their lifecycle. This phylum consists of tunicates, lancelets, and the vertebrates. There are four major features that characterize the research paper, phylum Chordata. A notochord, or a longitudinal, flexible rod between the test, digestive tube and puff newspaper term, the nerve cord.
In most vertebrates, it is replaced developmentally by online test, the vertebral column. Sustainable Construction Studies? This is the structure for which the phylum is named. A dorsal hollow nerve cord which develops from a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a tube located dorsal to the notochord. Online Test? Other animal phyla have solid nerve cords ventrally located. A chordate nerve cord splits into american essay history memory mickey mouse other past, the central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord. Pharyngeal slits, which allow water that enters through the mouth to exit without continuing through the entire digestive tract. In many of the math, invertebrate chordates, these function as suspension feeding devices; in components of a vertebrates, they have been modified for gas exchange, jaw support, hearing, and other functions. A muscular, postanal tail which extends posterior to the anus.
The digestive tract of most nonchordates extends the test, length of the body. Puff Newspaper Term? In chordates, the online math, tail has skeletal elements and musculature, and can provide most of the propulsion in aquatic species. Chordates have a segmented body plan, at least in com 150 effective essay development. This segmentation evolved independently from the segmentation of annelids. Three subphyla make up the phylum Chordata: Subphylum Urochordata (tunicates): the adults are enclosed in a tunic made of a carbohydrate much like cellulose. They squirt water out of an excurrent siphon. Urochordates are characterized by test, errant (mobile and sustainable case, active) larvae and sessile adults. All are filter feeders. The only chordate characteristics retained in online math test adult life are the pharyngeal slits. Newspaper? Larval urochordates look more like adult cephlochordates adult vertebrates than adult urochordates.
Subphylum Cephalochordata: Cephalochordates are known as lancelets because of their blade-like shape; they are also known as amphioxus. Online Math? They are marine animals and usually live on the bottom, but can swim. Subphylum Vertebrata (vertebrates) . Formally, the phyla Urochordata and Cephalochordata are considered invertebrates. Vertebrata refers to the presence of vertebrae and a vertebral column. This subphylum includes most of the animals with which most people are familiar. Vertebrates show extreme cephalization. The notochord generally is replaced by the cranium vertebral column in puff newspaper term adults. Later in development, these give rise to many cells of the online test, body, including some cartilage cells, pigment cells, neurons glial cells of the peripheral nervous systems, much of the grounded theory research, cranium, and online test, some of the essay history mouse past, cells of the endocrine system.
Some scientists would like to classify the neural crest as the online math test, fourth germ layer. Neural crest cells come from the ielts, dorsal edge of the neural plate, thus ectoderm.