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BOYDonizetti: La fille/Dessay, Florez DVD. Construction Study? Review by: Robert Levine. Hanif Essay? For most of us, there has been only one Marie and one TonioSutherland and top down construction case Pavarotti. They took their show on the road in the #8217;70s and played it all over for many years. I can still vividly recall the Met performances. Within the panynj thesis, framework of this opera, this decade#8217;s equivalent of Sutherland and Pavarottiif you#8217;re discussing superstardom, at leastis Natalie Dessay and Juan Diego Florez. In their own way they are just as charismatic as their 1970s counterparts. Case? While the kureishi, Australian and the Italian played off their grand stature, grand voices, and general dramatic incredibility, Dessay and Florez more or less epitomize what the opera was meant to be: a cute story of two cute people who sing florid, cute music that sits very high in their light, expressive voices. Top Down Construction Case? The fact that Sutherland and Pavarotti were somehow not ideally suited vocally to their roles is what made their performances so thrilling; the nutrition essay questions, fact their new equivalents are vocally ideal is what makes their performances so gloriously idiomatic and charming. Construction? And indeed, this DVD, recorded at Covent Garden (the production was later seen in Vienna and just recently in New York), is just about perfect. Panynj Thesis? As Marie, Dessay is a natural comedienne and construction a superb actress; even when her humor is at its broadest and most physical (she#8217;s as wacky as Lucille Ball on I Love Lucy) she#8217;s enchanting, and she is so secure vocally that she can run and panynj thesis jump while executing the most challenging of top down construction case study runs, staccatos, and stratospheric vocal lines.
Whether hanging laundry or peeling potatoes (or trying to curtsy like a lady), she#8217;s physically so comfortable with herself that the audience never doubts her in overnight essay the role. Study? And like Lucille Ball, she can turn on a dime from clown to human being worthy of our pathos. If her voice is not actually meltingly beautiful, she makes up for it by singing beautifully: her #8220;Il faut partir#8221;, with its exquisite legato and essay code impeccable portamento, is as moving as it is apt. She turns peals of coloratura into laughter at one point early on, making sense of what otherwise might be meaningless roulades. With regard to Florez, well, he was born to sing Tonio. His perfectly focused voice is study anything but large, but it has great muscle behind it and you never feel that he#8217;s a #8220;light#8221; tenor, a la Luigi Alva. His fluency with coloratura is essay astonishing and graceful, and the fact that high C is just another note in his voicehe has recorded a perfectly fine E-flatmakes his famous aria, with its nine high Cs, sound practically easy, which of course is the essence of bel canto. It#8217;s still a feat, and every note has body and character. Even more remarkable is construction case study his soft, sensitive singing: his second-act aria is delivered here with heart, soul, and a legato smooth as silk.
A perfectly placed bonus high D-flat certainly doesn#8217;t hurt either. He may not be quite the actor Dessay is, but his sincerity is never in exam questions doubt, and together they are an adorable, mellifluous couple. The others in the singing cast are very fine. Construction Study? Alessandro Corbelli sings fluently and in excellent French as Sulpice, with rhythmic accuracy and nice, buffo style. Felicity Palmer camps it up grandly as the Marquise, pushing her voice comically at resume csr bank both ends, and Donald Maxwell as her Major-Domo, Hortensius, is funny and musical. TV comic Dawn French plays the non-singing role of the Duchess of Crackentorp, and if it can be played more broadly, I#8217;d like to top down see it. Or, on second thought, maybe I wouldn#8217;t.
The designs by Chantal Thomas update the dance term, opera to top down construction case the period around World War I, with maps of panynj thesis Europe as flooring, disappearing clotheslines of underwear, and a rather dreary wood-paneled Castle for construction the second act. Marketing Research Paper? They are useful rather than special and leave plenty of room for the cast and chorus#8217; shenanigans. Laurent Pelly#8217;s direction (and costumes) are all fun; in fact, a bit less rambunctiousness may have emphasized the nasty class distinctions and aristocratic coldness that are part of the opera. But he wanted a romp, found a cast that agreed, and has succeeded brilliantly. Bruno Campanella leads the Royal Opera forces with some drastic mood swings vis a vis tempos: He will suddenly slow down for a tender moment in top down a manner that is the fanatic more angular than organic, and occasionally the ensemble suffers. But this is case a minor carp. The DVD on Kultur catches the term, great Sutherland a bit late in her career (1986) and the rest of the cast is case study not great; I might say the dance, same about Sills on VAI (in which she looks like Harpo Marx). I haven#8217;t heard the Devia performance on TDK, and despite how terrific the version on top down construction study, Decca with Patrizia Ciofi and Florez is, this new one takes the prize. Subtitles are available in major European languages; sound is in LPCM Stereo, Dolby 5.1 surround, and DTS 5.1 surround. The presentation/packaging is very mediocrejust a leaflet with cast and credits, and no track listing. [6/2/2008] GAETANO DONIZETTI - La fille du regiment.
Juan Diego Florez (tenor) Alessandro Corbelli, Donald Maxwell (bass-baritone) Felicity Palmer (mezzo-soprano) Latest ClassicsToday Insider Reviews: A cultural icon and perpetual best seller, Glenn Gould’s 1955 Columbia Masterworks debut recording. Continue Reading. by David Hurwitz. Since this 108 CD set contains the complete Solti/Chicago recordings, there’s no need to discuss i. Continue Reading. To mark Daniel Barenboim’s 75th birthday on November 15, 2017, Deutsche Grammophon issues a 39-CD . Continue Reading. September 17, 2017 by David Hurwitz. In these days of ecommerce research paper megaboxes and reissues, it's surprising and delightful to see a new release that couples two beautiful quartets, immaculately played, just because--well, just because. OK, the cover a. Top Down Construction Case Study? Continue Reading. August 29, 2017 by Jed Distler. Cecile Chaminade’s Op. 11 and Op.
34 Piano Trios have had decent catalog representation, although the present release is only the third time that both works are featured on the same disc. Panynj Thesis? The Trio . Continue Reading. August 27, 2017 by Jed Distler. Arthur Rubinstein once described Brahms late period piano pieces as chamber music for a solo pianist. Construction Case? In the stunning hands of Arcadi Volodos, one might extend the analogy to include a highly responsi. Continue Reading. Essay Discount Code? October 1, 2017 by Robert Levine. Oh no, Julia! I loved you so. Your Rossini CD was great - filled with flights of coloratura as well as darker, introspective moments.
Your lovely Roseanne in Decca's complete Alessandro was graceful, . Continue Reading. September 24, 2017 by David Hurwitz. Steven Osborne almost invariably turns in thoughtful, sensitive interpretations of whatever he plays, and there are some exquisite moments throughout these performances. Consider the svelte shaping of. Construction? Continue Reading. September 24, 2017 by Jed Distler. It may seem odd for the release of resume csr bank live Beethoven concerto performances featuring an American pianist, an case study American conductor, and an American orchestra to originate with Decca’s Korean branch. Be th.
Continue Reading. Exclusive music reviews and news, created specifically for classical music listeners, from the serious collector to the inquisitive newcomer. This is not a fancy, high-gloss “e-zine,” but rather a simple, straightforward newsletter-style section of our website designed for panynj thesis ease of reading and packing the maximum amount of construction case useful information into each issue.
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Black Report 6 Explanation of Health Inequalities. 6.1 Standardised death rates in present day Europe have probably reached their lowest point in the entire history of human society. The twentieth century has witnessed a dramatic decline in the rate of top down case, infectious disease, as well as the introduction of nutrition questions, powerful therapies for its treatment. Common causes of death which have thus greatly diminished, such as TB and case study, diphtheria were often linked to poverty and ecommerce marketing research, material deprivation. They have been replaced by new diseases, some of which seem instead to be linked with affluence and material abundance. On that account inequalities in health might have been expected to case diminish.
The evidence which we have presented in earlier chapters suggests that this has not been the case. Overnight Essay Discount? We must now address ourselves to the question of why social class should continue to exert so significant an influence on health in Britain, 6.2 There are a number of approaches to explanation of the relationship between social class and health, or at least some aspect of it, in the present day. In our view none of construction case study, these approaches provides a wholly satisfactory explanation of the relationship, or one that can account for life cycle differences in discount, the influence of social class on the risk of top down construction case study, premature death. Indeed the variable of social class is in itself multi-faceted and its influence probably varies according to age or stage in essay, the life cycle and top down study, according to the development sequence of a disease episode itself.
6.3 At the most fundamental level, theoretical explanations of the relationship between health and inequality might be roughly divided into 4 categories:- i. artefact explanations; ii. theories of natural or social selection. iii. materialist explanations; and. iv. cultural/behavioural explanations. In some partial respect each one of these explanatory forms sheds some light on the observed relationships between class and health in present day Britain. We will first describe and discuss in general terms the four approaches and then go on, by reference to the problems of different age-groups, to show that a satisfactory explanation must build essentially on the ideas of the cumulative dispositions and experience of the whole life-time, and of multiple causation. 6.4 In this approach to the analysis of the nutrition essay questions, relationship between health and social class, emphasis is placed on the “artificial” nature of the correlated variables. Both health and class are artefacts of the measurement process and it is implied that their observed relationship may itself be an artefact of little casual significance. Hence the suggestion that continuities in the pattern of health inequality in the twentieth century may be more a reflection of changing trends in construction, the occupational structure of British society than of a causal link between material welfare and health (see OPCS, 1978). Shifts in the occupational structure have led to dance term the decline of certain “traditional” partly skilled and unskilled manual occupations (Registrar General’s Social Classes IV and V). Those men and women who continue to follow such trades tend therefore to be older on average than the rest of the active labour force because fresh entrants have been attracted to new job opportunities or they may be in ‘residual” occupations which have always had a poor health record. (This evolution in the social structure has of course been accompanied by some change in ethnic composition of the population.) 6.5 Thus the failure of health inequalities to top down diminish is believed to be explained to term a greater or lesser extent by top down case the reduction of the code, proportional the population in the poorest occupational classes (the implication being that the upwardly mobile either had better health than those who remained and that therefore the health of some of the latter could even have since improved; or that the health of the upwardly mobile subsequently improved).
6.6 One of the problems here is that because of changes in occupational classification the change in recent decades in the distribution of population between the classes, and especially the “decline” in the proportion in class V, has been believed to be larger than in fact it has been (see Table 3.16 above). Table 6.1 gives estimates by age as well as class of the distribution in 1951, 1961 and 1971. Top Down Case? For men aged 25 and over the percentage in class V declined from 11 to 8 and in class IV from 27 to 18 in resume csr bank, the 20 years 1951 to 1971 (Most of the corresponding increase taking place in top down construction case study, class II, but also class I). However, the rate of change slowed down in 1961-1971 and it can be seen that between a fifth and a quarter of those in the youngest age-groups continued to be found in classes IV and V. Overall, substantially more than a quarter of economically active men remained in classes IV and V in 1971. Table 6.1 Percentage of men aged 25 and over in five occupational classes in my son the fanatic, 1951, 1961 and 1971 (England and Wales) according to construction case study 1960 (and 1970) classification of occupations. 6.7 Second, there are theoretical models which emphasise natural or social processes of selection.
In this approach, social class is relegated to the status of dependent variable while health itself acquires the greater degree of causal significance. The occupational class structure is seen as a filter or sorter of human beings and one of the major bases of selection is health, ie. Panynj Thesis? physical strength, vigour or agility. It is construction case, inferred that the resume csr bank, Registrar General’s class I has the lowest rate of premature mortality because it is made up of the strongest and most robust men and women in the population. Class V by contrast contains the weakest and most frail people. Put another way, this explanation suggests that physical weakness or poor health carries low social worth as well as low economic reward, but that these factors play no causal role in the event of high mortality. Their relationship is strictly reflective. Those men and women who by virtue of innate physical characteristics are destined to live the shortest lives also reap the most meagre rewards. This type of explanation has been invoked to explain the preponderance of individuals with severe mental disorders in social class V (a thesis which was reviewed critically in, for example, Goldberg and Morrison 1963). It is assumed that affected people inevitably drift to the bottom rung of the Registrar General’s occupational scale. Similar selective processes are thought to occur with other forms of disease even though the case study, extent of drift may not be so great.
6 .8 Another problem to which this mode of resume csr bank, reasoning has been applied is the distinct regional pattern exhibited by mortality rates. In this ease, the national economy is conceptualised as a mechanism of selection. Construction Study? Those parts of the UK with low rates of age-specific mortality and, by implication, apparently more fit populations are also believed to be regions where the economy is in a relatively healthy state and where job opportunities are better. This regional imbalance in economic vitality is associated with a trend in panynj thesis, migration which systematically drains the depressed industrialised regions of their fittest men and women. The net result is believed to be reflected in the differential regional pattern of age specific mortality. Processes of selection may also influence the distribution of mortality between occupations.
In certain types of manual work, the top down construction case, level of physical strength and stamina required may in itself act as a means of selecting or rejecting individuals. As a consequence although a given occupation might carry obvious hazards to the physical welfare of a worker, its tendency to attract and keep only the physically robust may disguise these inherent dangers (cf Fox and Collier, 1976). Thus it may be misleading to infer, on the basis of death rates, the level of health risk attached to different occupations; to do so is to assume that the pattern of overnight, recruitment is random rather than systematically exclusive. 3. Materialist or structural explanations. 6.9 The third general type of explanation of the relationship between class and health emphasises the role of economic and associated socio-structural factors in distribution of health and well-being. There are many separate strands of reasoning within its explanatory rubric which can be more or less ordered according to the extent to which the primary causal significance is assigned directly or indirectly to the role of economic deprivation. Amongst explanations which focus on the direct influence of poverty or economic deprivation in the production of variation in rates of mortality is Marx’s radical critique. This theory of political economy provides a theory of history linked to construction study an explanatory account of the contemporary form and inevitability of economic exploitation.
6.10 Those associated with such a radical approach see health or the physical welfare of workers as a key dependent variable determined by the system of production which also gives a particular character to the culture and the ideology of society. Not all follow Marx and hanif the fanatic, those who do risk interpreting modern problems in a way which he would not necessarily have approved. Crudely expressed in its original form, the construction, argument was as follows. Capitalism is in essence a system of economic organisation which depends on term papers the exploitation of human labour. The accumulation of profit, the case, guiding principle not only resume csr bank of the economic system, but of the construction, whole form of capitalist social organisation, is the storing up in tangible form of the human effort and resources expended by individual workers over and above what they either require or have been allowed, to maintain their bodies in a fit and healthy condition. Marx did not use the modern concept of health in his analysis and was primarily concerned with the material welfare of human beings. This is reflected in his theory of “immiserisation” which assumes a minimum subsistence level which capitalist social organisation systematically violates through its greed for panynj thesis, profit. In the process of immiseration the worker experiences economic deprivation on an ever increasing scale until finally he is left with insufficient resources to case maintain bodily health.
6.11 Placed in its historical context Marx’s analysis can be seen, at least in part, as a counter critique to resume csr bank Malthusian theory which saw the relationship between death, disease and poverty as a natural phenomenon: the demographic safety valve of the fixed relationship between population size and the natural level of material wealth in the world. Construction Case? Marx’s antidote to this “naturalistic” theory of panynj thesis, social inequality stressed the potential elasticity of construction case study, material production under the dance papers, capitalist mode of production, while at the same time drawing attention to its dependency on an unequal distribution of resources as well as its inherent tendency to promote material inequality in health as well as property between human beings. 6.12 Most modern proponents of Marxist theory do not interpret the process of material exploitation in top down construction study, terms of human bodily resources, and tend to dance term measure surplus value in terms of wealth or property, the factors into which human labour is top down study, transposed. With the resume csr bank, benefit of a century’s hind-sight the case study, validity of much of resume csr bank, this nineteenth century theory of the study, relationship between health and material inequality has been accepted today especially for the earlier phase of competitive industrial capitalism (G F Stedman-Jones 1971; Thompson, 1976). Exploitation, poverty and disease have virtually become synonymous for describing conditions of life in the urban slums of Victorian and Edwardian cities, as they are today for the shanty towns of the underdeveloped world. 6.13 What is the relevance of the materialist critique of capitalist society to contemporary health experience?
Can the premature mortality of the working class documented in Chapter 2 still be directly attributed to subsistence poverty and exploitation? It is true a relationship between material deprivation and certain causes of disease and panynj thesis, death is now well-established, but then so is the capacity of the capitalist mode of production to expand the level of human productivity and to raise the living standards of working people. Economic growth of the kind most readily associated with the top down construction case study, European style of industrialisation has in itself been credited with the decline in mortality from infectious disease during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (cf McKeown: 1976; Powles: 1975). Today death rates for all age groups in, Britain are a fraction of what they were a century ago and panynj thesis, many of the virulent infectious diseases have largely disappeared, (cf Morris 1975; OPCS 1978), and the “killer” diseases of modern society – accidents, cancer and heart disease – seem less obviously linked to poverty. Against this background, the language of economic exploitation no longer seems to provide the appropriate epithet for describing “Life and construction case study, Labour” in the last quarter of the twentieth century. Through trade union organisation and overnight code, wages council machinery it is now argued that labour is paid its price and, since health tends to be conceptualised in optimum terms as a fixed condition of material welfare which, if anything, is construction case study, put at risk by affluent living standards, it is assumed by many that economic class on its own is nutrition exam essay questions, no longer the powerful determinant of construction case, health that it once was. 6.14 The flaw in this line of reasoning is the assumption that material subsistence needs can be uniquely and unambiguously defined in terms independent of the level of dance papers, economic development in construction case, a society.
People may have too little for dance, their basic physiological needs. But poverty is also a relative concept, and case study, those who are unable to share the amenities or facilities provided within a rich society or who are unable to fulfil the social and occupational obligations placed upon exam them by virtue of their limited resources can properly be regarded as poor. They may also be relatively disadvantaged in relation to the risks of illness or accident or the factors positively promoting health. 6.15 The structure of living standards has been slow to change in Britain. Personal wealth is still concentrated in construction, the hands of a small minority of the population, as the reports of the Royal Commission on the Distribution of Income and resume csr bank, Wealth have most recently shown (see Appendix 6, Table A6.1). 6.16 The question of construction case, whether the richest men and women in Britain have maintained their economic position at the expense of less well endowed citizens eludes a categorical answer. The Royal Commission on overnight essay the Distribution of Income and top down, Wealth has referred to the “remarkable” stability of the unequal distribution of panynj thesis, income over the past 2 decades. (See also Appendix 6, Table A6.2). However there is construction, no doubt that the proportion as well as number of the population dependent on a subsistence or near-subsistence income from the overnight discount, State has grown. For some groups, and especially manual groups, relative life-time resources will have been reduced.
Earlier retirement, unemployment and redundancies, single parent status and disablement – as well as the proportionate increase in the elderly population, all play some part in case study, this development. For recent years Table 6.2 shows the tendency for those at my son essay the lowest relative income standards to increase in number and proportion. Table 6.2 Numbers of persons in case study, poverty and on the margins of poverty (Family Expenditure Survey) 6.17 A paradox has thus to be noted. While we would not wish to assert that the hanif kureishi my son the fanatic essay, evidence is consistent and complete, the proportion of the population with relatively low life-time incomes (in the widest sense of “income”) seems to have increased in recent decades, just as the top down, proportion assigned to classes IV and V seems to have decreased. People with low incomes are less able to gain access to the facilities and the knowledge commanded by those with high incomes.
Thus whilst economic growth has improved the access of ecommerce and internet research, both groups to income and other resources, other groups have gained in proportion and case, since neither facilities nor knowledge is a finite commodity, those with relatively low income (in increasing numbers) have remained relatively disadvantaged. 6.18 So it has been with health. Social class IV or V may in nutrition, time catch up with the contemporary levels achieved by I and II but by that time, the latter groups will have forged even further ahead. What is clear from all this is that there is nothing fixed about levels of physical well-being. They have improved in the past and there is every likelihood that they will improve more in the future. Meanwhile class inequalities persist in the distribution of top down construction study, health as in the distribution of income or wealth and they persist as a form of relative deprivation. 6.19 The relationship between average means and descending occupational rank is well- established in the UK – and also in other countries like the US. Reports of national surveys in both the UK and the United States for example, testify to this relationship (GHS, 1972, pl88; FES reports; US, Vital and Health Statistics Series 10, no 70, 1968-69). However there is controversy about trends in the relationship between skilled manual and the lower non-manual workers (as shown in other income and earnings surveys).
In a national survey carried out in 1968 the latter worked fewer hours, had larger employer welfare benefits in kind and longer holidays, had larger capital assets, were more likely to be owner occupiers and had fewer dependents. Hanif Kureishi My Son The Fanatic Essay? The former’s overall living standards tended to be lower. The highest earnings among skilled manual workers also tended to top down case study be temporary (Townsend, 1979, Chapters 10 and 18). 6.20 It is on the basis of knowledge of the relationship between occupational class and family income that inferences are made about resume csr bank poverty and health. Unfortunately the opportunities of examining directly the association between income and health are restricted. Relatively few data about personal health can be related even to occupation and fewer still to income and to wealth. 6.21 More frequent adoption in studies of a more reliable measure of construction study, income is desirable (as for example in the GHS) but such a measure will not always be sufficient as an analytic variable in resume csr bank, explaining health. Extension of the concept of income must be developed in 2 respects.
First, there is a substantial movement upwards and downwards in the social system. Goldthorpe and top down study, Llewellyn have shown just how widespread mobility is, not only between generations, but for exam essay, an individual male moving through his work career (Goldthorpe and Llewellyn 1977). For example, they found that those born to fathers in their classes VI and VII (roughly equivalent to the Registrar General’s III, IV and V) 43 per cent had by top down construction case the time of the resume csr bank, survey (when they were adult) moved out of these classes. Looked at in another way, of those in their classes VI and VII 31 per cent had been born into a different class. We would add that within occupational classes earnings can fluctuate very substantially. While many non- manual occupations are “secure” in construction, the sense that there is career expectation of incremental annual increases of salary, independent of any promotion, many manual occupations are insecure by virtue of dependence on overtime, the vicissitudes of trade and the economy generally and panynj thesis, the tendency to move or be moved to lighter work in middle age. (see the evidence of substantial average loss of earnings during a three-year period on top down case study the part of the uppermost quartile of skilled manual earners, New Earnings Survey reports.) Some quantified estimates of lifetime income therefore need to be made in relation to occupational designation.
6.22 Second, during the decades since the war a growing fraction of family living standards has depended on benefits in kind. These include employer welfare benefits (sometimes in terms of accommodation and subsidised accommodation), social service benefits and dance term, owner-occupation. Methods of comprehensively and reliably valuing such resources and relating them to income have been devised but remain to case be improved and resume csr bank, accepted. The evidence relating financial poverty (causally) to top down construction case ill-health is convincing, though only indirect. 6.23 The role played by material factors in the production and distribution of health and ill-health in contemporary times is a complex one. It is complex because social class presents itself in a multi-faceted form in the advanced societies. Apart from the variables most readily associated with socioeconomic position, income, savings, property and housing, there are many other dimensions of social class which can be expected to exert an active causal influence on health status. Resume Csr Bank? These other dimensions are encountered in the world of work, in the conditions under which men and women earn their livelihood, in construction, the level of danger and risk, in questions, the degree of security and stability, in the scope for self fulfilment and job satisfaction and in construction case, the physical or mental character of the task itself. These dimensions of material inequality are closely articulated with another important determinant of health status – education. 6.24 Educational attainment, or more fundamentally, the process of resume csr bank, individual intellectual development, is closely linked to case social class.
To a large extent, it is on the basis of success or the lack of it at school that children are selected for manual and non-manual work and as we have seen, this occupational distinction plays an important part in panynj thesis, measured health status differentials. But we can go farther. Bernstein has argued that distinctive patterns of child rearing and socialisation such as those which tended to differentiate between working and middle class families, produce quite different linguistic capacities which are in turn correlated with quite different intellectual approaches to the social world (Bernstein, 1971). The working class child is rendered at a particular disadvantage on account of case, these differences because of the fit which exists between middle class norms of socialisation and exam essay questions, the dominant structure of the educational system. The outcome of this is top down construction, that children from essay discount code, middle class homes enter the school system already equipped with the appropriate mode of communication and as a result, they have more successful educational careers and leave school with a greater facility to construction case manipulate their social and economic environment (which of course includes health services) to personal advantage. These ideas carry the variable of education far beyond the simple idea of the code, transmission of knowledge and skills. They imply that education and linguistic skill are amongst the most important sources of advantage and study, disadvantage in both material and overnight discount code, non-material spheres of human existence: determining the extent to which individuals are personally able to realise the level of human potential which advanced industrial civilisation has made possible. This dimension of class inequality in modern society brings us to the meeting point of the top down construction study, economic and hanif kureishi, the ideological in society.
Should we ascribe the deprivation of linguistic, cognitive and communicative skills to economic or cultural factors? Socialisation experience is seen to play a significant role in the transmission of the crucial modern form of deprivation (and may also play a role, for top down construction case study, example, in overnight code, explaining the association between smoking and educational levels [GHS 1976] but is the practice of socialisation an entirely voluntaristic feature of social life or is it constrained by economic and occupational life? This “chicken and egg” debate cannot be easily settled (cf Rutter and Madge 1976). 6.25 Two other lines of theoretical explanation require brief reference at this point. Each is concerned with the effects on the health of the population of macroeconomic variables: levels of case, production and kureishi my son the fanatic, of unemployment, sectoral distribution of economic production, and so on. Construction Study? Studies of this kind were actually carried out by Morris and Titmuss in nutrition exam questions, the 1940s, in the attempt to examine the effects of the violent economic fluctuations of the 1920s and 1930s upon a variety of top down case, health and mortality indicators (see eg Morris and Titmuss 1944a, 1944b). Essay Discount Code? First, Brenner, making use of time series data trends in the US economy and fluctuations in rates of mortality purports to show that recessions and wide-scale economic distress exert and top down construction case, impact on a number of dance papers, health status indicators including foetal, infant and maternal mortality, the national mortality rate especially deaths ascribed to: cardiovascular disease, cirrhosis of the construction study, liver, suicide and homicide rates, and also rates of first admission to mental hospitals (Brenner, 1973,1976, 1977).
In fitting the data on economic trends (essentially unemployment) to that of health status indicators Brenner lags the latter between 2-5 years choosing the lag to obtain the best fit. By doing this, he purports to be able to estimate both the dance papers, initial impact of recession on the dependent variable as well as the cumulative impact over the space of several years. Brenner posits time lags of varying numbers of years between economic change and construction case study, changes in panynj thesis, his various health indicators (on a purely empirical basis) thus establishing the direction of causality in a temporal sequence as well as suggesting the length of time involved in the development process of case, disease. The problem with such research is that of panynj thesis, casual mechanism. How does unemployment increase mortality? Brenner makes use of the somewhat ubiquitous concept of ‘stress’ to link the two. 6.26 The second approach, in study, opposition to Brenner’s. is concerned to disprove the common assumption (which Brenner’s work supports), that economic growth leads to an increase in general levels of ecommerce research paper, health.
The basic theme which runs through the ‘materialist epidemiology’ approach is as follows. In the advanced capitalist societies, surplus value, ie the excessive extraction or exhaustion of human bodily resources and top down construction, effort, in panynj thesis, the productive process, is realised not through the depression of real wages as Marx argued during the last century but through hazardous punishing and physically stressful work processes; human immiserisation is no longer manifested in case, terms of grinding poverty and deprivation, but finds expression in the spiritual and intellectual impoverishment of industrial workers. This situation is said to be the outcome of historical changes in capitalism itself. In the advanced societies, the exam questions, exploitation of human labour for profit has become rationalised. Wasteful competition between small firms has been displaced by the emergence of large scale monopolies whose profits are realised not through a penny pinching approach to workers wages but through a two-fold process: massive expansion in the production of commodities linked to the artificial stimulation of demand for them through advertising and construction case study, the like. (cf- Stark, 1977). Dance? Here again it is argued that many of the top down construction study, commodities upon which individual families as well as Western economies depend for their livelihood are either directly poisonous or potentially dangerous for human health. But in this theoretical approach, emphasis is placed more on the process of production than on what is produced. It is in the actual process of commodity production therefore that disease is produced, through physical stress engendered by tense competitive work relations and routines and through social stress manifested in neglected or disrupted networks and exam essay, relationships in the realm of domestic and community life.
As demonstration of this theory, epidemiologists working in this tradition have sought to show the way in which changes in the business cycle correlate with changes in mortality. But here, the correlation of time series data on top down study employment and death are presented in such a way that high rates of mortality appear to follow on from low rates of resume csr bank, unemployment and high levels of prosperity. (cf. Eyer, 1975, 1977a, 1977b). In periods of high unemployment death rates are said to top down construction study fall. This is said to result from the fact that the institutionalised pressure to consume is lessened, workers are relieved from stressful work routines, social solidarity increases, supportive relationships and networks are stimulated and human existence acquires a more varied and more elevated meaning. While not at all associated with this general theoretical approach Draper and term, his colleagues in Britain have been aware of the importance of top down construction case study, certain elements within it, and have argued the negative consequences for health of indiscriminate economic growth, which can mean higher pollution, encouragement of overnight discount code, consumption of commodities hazardous to health,, and so on. 6.27 Although we have so far interpreted ‘materialist’ or ‘structural’ explanations as being of a holistic, or macrostructural kind this is not wholly the case. Explanatory perspectives which draw attention to disparate dimensions or aspects of class do not necessarily embrace a holistic critique of economy and society. Such approaches, which include that of social medicine, often stress (or empirically demonstrate) the significance of single causal variables such as insufficient income, poor or crowded housing, large families, insecure employment, manual occupations, inadequate diet or low levels of educational achievement. Such factors either singly or in combination with each other can be shown to exert an important influence on health status indicators like mortality so that they offer scope for the amelioration of construction case study, inequality through special policy initiatives (Cf for ecommerce and internet research, example, Morris 1975; Townsend 1974; Zola and Koza 1967; Brennan and Lancashire 1978; Rainwater 1968; Cartwright and Dunnell 1972).
In our report we have made, and will continue to make, much of explanations of this kind. But is must be recognised that factors such as these can themselves be explained in top down construction case study, macrostractura1 terms. At what point one chooses to stop the panynj thesis, analysis – ie what one accepts as an explanatory variable – is a matter of intellectual preference and of the task at hand. 4. Cultural/behavioural explanations. 6.28 Cultural or behavioural explanations of the distribution of health in modern industrial society are recognisable by the independent and autonomous causal role which they assign to ideas and case, behaviour in the onset of disease and the event of death. Such explanations, when applied to modern industrial societies, often focus on the individual as a unit of analysis emphasising unthinking, reckless or irresponsible behaviour or incautious lifestyle as the moving determinant of health status (cf. Fuchs, 1974).
These personal traits appear to be relevant causal agents in an historical context where the majority of premature deaths are caused by degenerative disease or motor accidents. What is implied is that people unwittingly harm themselves or their children by the excessive consumption of harmful commodities, refined foods, tobacco, alcohol or by lack of exercise [see tables 6.3, 6.4 and 6.5] or by their underutilisation of preventive health care, vaccination, antenatal surveillance or contraception. Some would argue that such systematic behaviour within certain social groups is a consequence only exam essay of lack of education, or of study, shiftlessness, foolishness or other individual traits. More theoretically developed as the basis for term papers, cultural/ behavioural explanations is the ‘culture of poverty’ thesis which has much in common with the construction study, idea of essay questions, ‘transmitted deprivation’. TABLE, 6.3 Food Consumption by Income Group (oz/person/week) GB1977. Table 6.4 Cigarette smoking by socio-economic Group (males and females aged 16+) 1975-6. Table 6.5 Participation in top down, active leisure pursuits: ratio of rates for male non-manual to manual workers by age (males aged 16 or over overnight essay discount, engaging in each activity in top down construction case, the 4 weeks before interview) GB 1977. 6.29 As originally proposed by overnight Oscar Lewis, an anthropologist who studied poor communities in Central American and, later, migrant groups in New York, the “culture of construction study, poverty” was intended to apply only to market-organised social structure with poorly developed public systems of health, welfare and income maintenance (cf Lewis, 1967). Starting from discount code, a distinct cultural anthropological perspective, Lewis argued that human existence in any given environment involves a process of biological and social adaptation which gives rise to the elaboration of a structure of norms, ideas and behaviours. This culture over time acquires an integrity and a stability because of the supportive role it plays in helping individuals to understand and cope with their environment but, through its influence on socialisation practices and the like, it also comes to top down construction have an important autonomous influence in the social consciousness of individuals.
The integrity of the hanif my son the fanatic essay, culture ensures its autonomous survival even when the material base from which it emerged has changed or been modified. It is for this reason that people cling on construction case to outmoded ideas or old-fashioned practices which do not seem to accord with the changed material realities of essay discount code, modern existence. In fact, the ‘culture of poverty’ thesis has been widely criticised by British social scientists, eg Holman (1978, Chapter 3), Rutter and top down case, Madge (1976) and Townsend (1979, pp 65-71). 6.30 Consider, for example, the diffusion of acceptance of the idea of essay code, family planning. There is general agreement that this practice was first adopted by the professional classes, from top down, whence it diffused to classes beneath (Banks and Banks, 1964). Panynj Thesis? Why should it have happened like that?
To pose this question, is, in essence, to question the applicability of the ‘culture of poverty’ thesis. One answer is surely that men and women who felt secure and in control of their material lives were most reluctant to leave reproduction to the will of God – when a means of personal control was available. The question which must be posed a century later is why some young men and women, especially in the lower occupational classes, continue to leave the top down case, procreative dimension of term papers, their lives in divine hands? Is it lack of top down, knowledge, outmoded ideas, or lack of access to the means of contraception – or is it due to an underdeveloped sense of personal control or self-mastery in the material world? It can certainly be argued that what is often taken for cultural variation in cognition and panynj thesis, behaviour is merely a superficial overlay for differing group capacities of self-control or mastery, which are themselves a reflection of material security and construction study, advantage. B. Panynj Thesis? TOWARDS EVALUATION OF THE EVIDENCE ON HEALTH INEQUALLTITIES.
6.31 Seeking to apply, and to top down construction choose between, such complex approaches to explanation (some of which, like that we have labelled ‘materialist’ or ‘structural’ themselves include competing approaches) when applied to evidence as complex at that which we have assembled, is panynj thesis, a daunting task. Intellectual honesty demands that we make clear our belief that it is in some form or forms of the ‘materialist’ approach that the best answer lies. But there can be little doubt that amongst all the evidence there is much that is more convincingly explained in other terms: cultural, social selection and so on. Moreover it may well be that different kinds of factors, or forms of explanation, are appropriate to different stages of the life cycle. This possibility has guided our presentation of data for explanation. 6.32 The beginning of the human lifetime, birth itself and the first year of life, has witnessed amongst the most spectacular declines in mortality of all age groups during the last century (cf OPCS 1978). Between 1846 and top down case study, 1976, death rates for infants of and internet, less than one year fell by construction more than 90 per cent and yet at the beginning of the 1970s the ratio of deaths for infants in social class V compared to social class I was between 4 and 5 to 1. How can this inequality amidst so much improvement be explained? 6.33 In the present day the cases of childbirth involving the greatest risk are those where the mother is older and where she has already produced several children. Questions? Such eases were, of course, more prevalent in Victorian society where knowledge about birth control was scant and where rather different ideologies about top down construction case study family size existed. Nutrition Questions? In recent years the percentage of mothers in classes IV and V having a fourth or fifth child has decreased, but remains higher than in classes II and III.
Class I produces a relatively large number of 4 and 5 child families. Top Down Case? It may be that higher rates of stillbirth, or perinatal death, are a consequence of differences in maternal age and parity between the classes. Table 6.6 Still births and post-neonatal mortality rates by occupational class, age and parity, 1975-6. 6.34 However, as table 6.6 indicates, class inequalities in rates of death at birth and throughout the first year of life are found even when parity and maternal age are held constant. While age and parity exert an important influence on the risk of all stillbirths, the significance of these variables is much more evident among the wives of semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers. The risk of stillbirth for overnight, the wives of professional and managerial households is construction case, lower no matter what their age or their previous record of essay, pregnancies. (Similarly for perinatal death rates: at all ages and parities the class differentials remain.) Rates of post neonatal mortality differ somewhat. Once again the variables of construction case, age and parity are more significant sources of essay discount, differentiation among underprivileged women, but the pattern is case, different.
Class differences are now greater among young mothers under the age of 25 years except at higher parities, ie three or more previous births where the relationship between class disadvantage and increasing age reasserts itself. The conclusion which must be drawn from Table 6.6 is that occupational class differences are real sources of difference in the risk of dance term, infant mortality and not merely proxies for the variables of maternal age and parity. 6.35 Also to be explained are similar differences in the class incidence of low birth weight for, as we shall see, this is a handicap which (except under the most advantageous conditions) has long-term implications for top down construction, the health and and internet research, development of the neonate. 6.36 Examining the construction, historic decline in perinatal mortality rates Hellier (1977) has established that over half can be attributed to such factors as mother’s health and quality of obstetric care. Similarly, Doll, Hill and dance term papers, Sakula (1960) suggest that variations in the incidence of congenital malformations can largely be attributed to top down construction case the nutritional status of the mother and the presence/absence of viral infections in pregnancy (eg influenza). Kureishi? In the light of the evidence which we have presented there can be no doubt that mothers’ health, nutrition, and obstetric care received (given differences in date of presentation) are all class related.
6.37 Other explanations of early death, low birth weight, and congenital abnormalities which the literature yields are more complex. Lawrence, Carter, and David (1968), for example, suggest that genetic factors play a ‘Predisposing’ role in giving rise to congenital defects – adverse environmental factors acting as a ‘trigger’. Janerich (1972) comes to a similar conclusion. Construction Case? Illsley’s work shows a mechanism for such genetic predisposition to become class-related. 6.38 Class differences in infant mortality have been ascribed to selective processes in mating and marriage. Illsley (1955) carried out a study of resume csr bank, infant deaths in which he investigated patterns of hypergamy and top down construction study, hypogamy in relation to the physical characteristics of the overnight discount code, mothers. He found distinctive patterns in relation to variables like height. Tall women showed a marked propensity to marry hypergamously (ie to be upwardly mobile at marriage, short women showed the opposite tendency – to marry below their father’s social class. These inherent physical characteristics of women were then translated into differential rates of infant mortality; the mothers of greater stature having lower rates of top down, infant death. Illsley concluded that social class differences in infant mortality had a physical component: higher class men appeared to be recruiting as wives the most efficient child-bearing women. 6.39 Baird’s thesis of ‘transmitted nutritional deprivation’ offers another variant on the explanatory theme of selection (Baird, 1974).
He suggests the existence of a vicious cycle of nutritional deprivation which leads to low birth weight and congenital malformation. This cycle is difficult to break because it originates in the nutritional deprivation of the mother, not at the time of giving birth, but at the time of her own birth. By this account perinatal death and low birth weight are seen as caused by the effects of nutritional deprivation upon the reproductive capacity of female infants. These explanations are based upon hanif kureishi the fanatic essay data accumulated on top down study the childbearing population of hanif kureishi my son the fanatic, Aberdeen over many years and they offer important insights into the mechanisms and processes whereby social class differences in mortality are produced and perpetuated. 6.40 If the relative importance of factors such as all of case, these in determining rates of perinatal death (and of handicap among survivors) is controversial, the situation is somewhat clearer in the post-neonatal period. When we look at the causes of death in infancy which exhibit the steepest class gradients, there seems to be much evidence to suggest that the important causal variables are contained within the contemporary socioeconomic environment and resume csr bank, therefore subject to human intervention in the short term. As Figure 2 in Chapter 2 clearly indicates, the causes of infant death which are most likely to be associated with the stature or the nutritional status of the mother have the shallowest of case, gradients, whereas respiratory disease and exam, accidents show steep class gradients. These observations lead us directly to consider the role of construction study, material deprivation on the life chances of the dance term papers, newborn. 6.41 Below the age of one year, class differences in survival are at their greatest during the post neonatal phase of life. This clearly represents a point of development when the individual is in need of almost continuous care and total attention from its parents and we may hypothesise that any factors which increase the parental capacity to provide adequate care for an infant will, when present, increase the chance of survival, while their absence will increase the construction case study, risk of premature deaths The most obvious such factors fall within the sphere of term papers, material resources: sufficient household incomes a safe uncrowded and unpolluted home, warmth and hygiene, a means of rapid communication with the outside world, eg telephone or car, and top down construction case, an adequate level of man – or woman power (ie two parents would normally provide more continuous care and protection than one). In addition to these basic material needs must be added other cognitive and ecommerce and internet research, motivational factors which are not independent of the distribution of material advantage.
Those factors would include knowledge, certain skills and resources in verbal communication and case study, a high level of motivation to provide continuous and loving care. When all these factors are present the infant’s chance of survival is very good indeed. When some or even many of these are absent, then the outlook is less propitious. Moreover it should not be forgotten that these very same factors play a part in determining the development of the infant’s own cognitive/linguistic and other skills. Competences acquired at this stage of my son the fanatic essay, life can profoundly influence later intellectual (and hence educational) achievement. Health Inequality in Childhood (1-14 years) 6.42 The evidence for health inequality between children in the different social classes presents something of a paradox. Rates of mortality throughout childhood form quite steep class gradients when parental occupation is used as a basis of presentation and top down, yet, as the evidence in Chapter 2 shows, self-reported rates of morbidity for this age-group display a rather less consistent picture of disadvantage. Panynj Thesis? This recorded divergence demonstrates to some extent the gap between age-specific mortality and morbidity as substitutable measures of the same phenomenon, and we must deal separately with each. 6.43 The most important causes of death amongst all children aged 1-14 were (in descending order): accidents poisoning and violence; respiratory disease; neoplasms; congenital abnormalities; and infections. Among 1-4 years olds, and this we wish to construction stress, almost all the differences in mortality rate between social classes I and V is due to: accidents, poisoning and violence; respiratory disease; and congenital abnormalities (which of course play a more important role at younger ages).
Among older children, deaths from accidents, poisoning and violence remain highly class related (Table 6.7 gives the accidents data) though deaths from respiratory disease become less so. Table 6.7 Fatal accidents in childhood by sex and social class (1-14 years) 6.44 Since a great deal of the ecommerce, class differential in mortality among 1-4 year olds is due to top down construction case study just two causes: respiratory disease, and accidents and violence one approach to explaining this inequality is by unraveling those aspects of social situation, of way of resume csr bank, living, responsible for respiratory disease and accidents/violence – and which may then prove to case be closely associated with social class. Term Papers? There are a number of epidemiological studies which enable us to do this. 6.45 Reviewing clinical examinations of the 1946 birth cohort up to the age of 15, Douglas and Waller (1966) found that the principal correlate of respiratory symptoms was the extent of air pollution in the children’s area of residence. There was no tendency for top down construction case, working class children to be more concentrated in high pollution areas, and panynj thesis, social class had a small independent effect. A study of construction case, 2000 children living in Harrow (which did not permit consideration of a range of air pollution levels) concluded (Leeder, Corkhill, Irwig, Holland and term, Colley, 1976): “illnesses occurred much more commonly in top down construction case, infants born to exam essay questions families which had several other children already, and in those families where the parents had respiratory disability or were smokers”. When all relevant variables were taken together in a logistic model, the most important proved to be: 1. bronchitis/pneumonia in siblings. 2. parental smoking.
3. number of siblings. 4. parental history of asthma/wheeze. Social class had no effect independently of these factors. It may thus be that much of the class gradient in morbidity (if not mortality) from construction, respiratory disease can be explained in terms of parental smoking (ie secondary inhalation of smoke) and size of family (and the likelihood of infection by siblings). Both smoking and family size are clearly related to class. 6.46 Colley and essay, Reid’s (1970) study of over top down construction case study, 11,000 children aged 6-10 in a number of urban environments was concerned with the exam essay questions, interplay of social class and physical environmental variables. Here too, a past family history of respiratory disease was associated with chronic cough in top down, the 6-10 year olds (who were examined by school medical officers). There was a clear class gradient (though family size and parental smoking was not considered). There was a rather complex relationship with air pollution levels. Thus, age-adjusted morbidity ratios for chronic cough were calculated for social classes I/II, III and IV/V for each of three kinds of area differing in air pollution levels (Newcastle and Bolton; Bristol and Reading; and a number of rural area).
It was found that for class IV/V children, but not for classes I/II or III, morbidity rose with increasing air pollution; ie only for classes IV and V was pollution an exacerbating factor. (For all classes, morbidity was distinctly higher in exam questions, Wales, even in rural Wales where pollution was lower, This was felt to require explanation in genetic terms or in terms of selective emigration). Construction Case? Colley and resume csr bank, Reid argued that geographic variations within classes IV and V could not be explained by domestic circumstances such as differing levels of crowding (which were not great). 6.47 Finally we might refer to analysis of data from the US National Health Survey (which, like the GHS, is based on self-reporting). Case Study? Speizer, Rosner and Taget (1976) found “a strikingly higher prevalence of reporting asthma and bronchitis in exam, children over 4 years residing in the same household as a parent with CNSLD (chronic non-specific lung disease)….. [this] is not due to top down construction confounding by age, sex or smoking. Occupational differences are also unlikely to be important since 76% of the children aged 16 or below”. Their conclusion is that the principal factor is a “familial (household) aggregation of disease”.
This they take to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Evidence for the relevance of the former was the dance term papers, six-fold excess of disease in children with both parents having CNSLD compared to those with only top down construction one. Higgins and dance, Keller (1975) provide further evidence for some genetic factor in transmission. [In general, evidence on the genetic contribution to health inequalities tends to be indirect: little is really known of the importance of genetic factors]. 6.48 The general implication of these studies seems to be that the class gradient in bronchitis among children is largely a consequence of parental smoking, family size (and the increasing likelihood of construction case study, infection by siblings), and a parental history of lung disease (which may to some degree genetically place the child at risk). Parental history of panynj thesis, lung disease is also, as shown independently, a function of type and severity of top down construction, occupation. Environmental pollution is also implicated, and may be a particular danger for those children (from classes IV and V) rendered prone through other factors. TABLE 6.8 Causes of death from accidents of children aged 1-14 years 1968-84.
6.49 The second condition responsible for much of the nutrition exam essay, gradient in child mortality at ages 1-4 was accidents and top down construction case study, violence of which, as Table 6.8 shows, accidents were the principal cause of panynj thesis, death. The increased risk of death faced by lower class children in ordinary everyday activities such as playing at home or in the neighbourhood or (among older children) travelling to school by foot or bicycle, has to be viewed in terms of differences in the environment to top down case which children from resume csr bank, different classes axe typically exposed. Among child pedestrians for example, the construction case, risk of death from the resume csr bank, impact of a motor vehicle is multiplied by top down construction case study 5-7 times in passing from questions, class I to class V; for accidental death caused by fires, falls and drowning, the case study, gap between the exam essay, classes is case study, even greater. These differences demonstrate the non-random nature of accidents as a collective class of events. While the overnight, death of an individual child appears as a random misfortune, the overall distribution clearly indicates the social nature of the phenomena. Top Down Study? How is questions, it to be explained? 6.50 From among the different modes of top down case, explanatory reasoning outlines above, we may quickly dispense with those which attribute causality to the influence of selection or which reduce the problem to resume csr bank an artefact of the measurement process. Accidents have two primary causes: either environmental hazard, or dangerous behaviour reflecting carelessness, adventure or irresponsibility. These primary causes involve both material and cultural factors and indeed full explanation of construction case, inequalities in essay questions, the risk of death in top down study, childhood implicates each of them. 6.51 As Table 6.7 shows, while boys in all social classes bar I experience double the risk of a fatal accident of girls, the gap between the social classes is nutrition exam questions, much more striking most especially for boys. When the two extremes of the occupational spectrum are compared it can be seen that children in the lowest social class are almost five times more likely to die before reaching school leaving age.
The sons of other manual workers carry over twice the risk of accidental death. Top Down Construction? The loss of these lives so early in the lifetime, surely reflects the interaction of both material and cultural factors. 6.52 The consistency of the sex differential in each social class is a measure of differences in the way in which boys and girls are socialised. Patterns of child-rearing for all social classes with the panynj thesis, exception of professional households, appear on the basis of Table 6.7 to sanction, encourage or merely tolerate a greater range of careless risk-taking behaviours among boys, the outcome of which is recorded in a higher incidence of fatal accidents. 6.53 Health inequalities in childhood expressed in the form of construction, mortality rates can therefore be seen to be at least in part the code, reflection of cultural practices in socialisation. In the modern world there is nothing obligatory about the different preferences which parents show towards the behaviour of construction case study, their sons and daughters: a fact which is panynj thesis, perhaps reflected in the reduced sex ratio of social class I and which offers some scope for a reduction in this specific form of inequality. Class differences between children in the risk of accidental death, too, may appear in part as a manifestation of distinctive patterns of child-rearing on the part of parents in the different occupational classes. Construction? But such “patterns” have to kureishi essay be seen in the light of the great differences in the material resources of parents, which may place significant constraints on the routine level of care and protection that they are able to provide for their children. Children of parents in social classes IV and V are amongst the poorest members of their age group in the population. Their opportunities to play safely within eye – or earshot of top down study, their parents are far fewer than those of their better endowed peers higher up the social scale. Nutrition Exam Essay? Furnishings, including forms of top down construction case, heating in the home, are likely to be less safe, as are the other domestic appliances which they encounter.
6.54 These manifestations of the differences in the material resources of households mean also that the children of semi and unskilled workers are more likely to be thrown onto their own devices during holidays and out of schools hours and this alone would be sufficient to increase the probability of their being involved in resume csr bank, an accident. In reflecting upon these forms of health inequality in childhood and adolescence it is impossible to escape the conclusion that the physical welfare of children is closely linked with material resources, and that the distribution of the former is a reflection of the distribution of the latter. In the context of childhood therefore, the most straightforward of materialist explanations is capable of providing a simple chain of causation by which the pattern of health inequality is illuminated. Top Down Case? Households in social classes IV and ecommerce marketing research paper, V simply lack the means to provide their children with as high a level of top down case, protection as that which is overnight essay, found in the average middle class home. These resources consist of income, property and territorial space but they may also take an top down, associated non-material form. As Brown and Harris concluded on the basis of their research in Camberwell, one of the reasons for greater prevalence of accidents in dance papers, working class homes is the higher incidence of stressful life events experienced by mothers. Such women, who lack the means to resolve the recurrent setbacks which dominate their domestic lives, are less well equipped to provide continuous and vigilant protection and care to their children: “The mother’s psychiatric state and the presence of a serious long-term difficulty or a threatening life event were related to increased accident risk to children under 16. Top Down Construction Study? These factors were more common among working class children, and in so far as they are causal, they go a long way to explain the much greater risk of accidents to nutrition exam essay working class children.” (Brown and Harris, 1978). Because Brown seeks to link aetiological factors back to social structural differences which both generate them and determine the severity of their impact, his work provides a unique link with the second approach to the explanation of health inequalities. 6.55.
The second, methodologically distinct approach, which also enables us to make sense of differences in morbidity among children (including self-reported data on both morbidity and GP consultations), focuses upon characteristics of life in the deprived household. A valuable recent such study has focused upon 6-7 and 10-11 year old boys from severely deprived large families in Birmingham, known to the social services department. Children were compared with a control group of similarly aged children, living in the same area but not under social service department supervision. The study fell into, and top down construction case study, was published in, two parts. 6.56 In the first Brennan focused upon medical characteristics (Brennan, 1973), but interpreted broadly. She found that both sample and control children were below national age norms in height – the sample children more so. There was a high degree of visual impairment again more marked among the sample children. (Moreover, out of 20 sample children having visual impairment (out of 46) only one wore spectacles). Nutrition Exam Questions? There was a higher degree of hearing loss among children.
Finally 78.2% of case, sample children (and 58.9% of control children) were diagnosed as having some illness on clinical examination (far higher than indicated for the city as a whole from school health records): the most important were respiratory disorders, orthopaedic defects, speech defects, skin disorders, and chest complaints. 6.57 The second study (Wilson and Herbert, 1978) considered also the 3-4 year old siblings of those older brothers, and made extensive Use of interviews, observation over a long period, and my son, psychological test data. This study vividly illustrates the nature and construction study, the effects of considerable poverty on hanif my son the fanatic essay family life and on child development. It suggests that ill-health, inhibited cognitive development, and behaviour problems are associated in a general ‘poverty syndrome’. For example, of the 3-4 year olds in a specially established experimental play group: “The pervading impression of the construction case, group is one of bewildered, ‘lost’ children, who did not know what to expect, who continued to be worried, and who seemed unable to relax; an impression which was reinforced by their very poor clothing, unkempt appearance and resume csr bank, smell” (p64). 6.58 Accidents to the children were common: 34 out of 56 families had experienced severe accidents (1 child had lost an eye, 16 suffered burns or scalding needing skin grafts … ). Particularly striking (once again) is the extent to which ill-health was found to top down case cluster in families.
Of the 56 families studied:- “In forty families all, or most, members of the family were reported (ie by themselves) as having had much illness, or as suffering from dance term, defects or conditions which affected their activities. Respiratory diseases were most frequently mentioned, followed by gastric conditions and skin conditions.” Moreover, “only 4 among the case study, 16 fitter families can be truly said to be healthy”; and obstetric problems were frequently mentioned. 6.59 The following quotations illustrate how these authors make sense of their findings: “Thus the children, in term, the process of growing up, have many shared experiences. They live in top down construction case, overcrowded conditions, being members of large families; their homes are inadequate by current standards; the panynj thesis, neighbourhoods are rough and disliked by most who have to live in them. They experience poverty, by which we mean that they go short of things considered essential or normal by others around them.
Most, if not all, the children have first hand knowledge of illness, disability, accidents and mental stress expressed in a variety of symptoms” (p104). “The objective is construction case, survival, the operative unit is the family. The needs of individuals must take second place. Decisions were made at family level and ecommerce and internet marketing, related to the main wage earner or recipient of benefit rather than to the needs of individual children.” (pl86) 6.60 The GHS shows that acute disorders are, on top down construction study the whole, more prevalent amongst the sons of non-manual parents, a pattern which is reflected in the distribution of GP consultations in childhood. Essay Code? An approach like that illustrated above may enable us to make sense of this divergence from mortality data. Self-reported sickness is not a standard health indicator and it might be expected to vary between socioeconomic groups as much on construction study account of variation in nutrition exam essay, cultural values, in the meaning of everyday experience, and on the degree of behavioural flexibility available to men and women in different socioeconomic groups, as on the more obvious manifestations of study, sickness or disorder. Consultation is obviously easier for non-manual households. They are more likely to have a telephone readily to hand to make enquiries or arrange appointments and access to private motor cars means that a visit to the GP’s surgery causes less trouble and inconvenience. These sorts of differences represent inequalities in the distribution of opportunities to consult and, given that the act of consultation itself is likely to resume csr bank make an episode of sickness seem more “concrete”, certainly more memorable, that might even make an important difference to the incidence of “remembered” ie self-reported-sickness.
Since self reports of sickness amongst children are generally provided by parents, the top down case study, much higher rate among boys in non-manual households may reflect greater accuracy of recall on essay the part of case study, their mothers or fathers. Perhaps professional parents might be more likely to remember or to acknowledge episodes of overnight essay discount, acute sickness among children because their own daily activities may be more flexible, making it easier for them to top down construction study care for a sick child or attend for medical consultation. For the opposite reasons a working class parent would be more prone to scepticism of children’s complaints. If keeping a child at home presents greater disruption to marketing paper the income generating activities of a household then parents might be expected to have a higher tolerance for minor disorders amongst their children. 6.61 At various points in this report we have indicated the importance which we attach to the promotion of health in its ‘positive’ sense. In childhood this may reasonably be interpreted in developmental terms, and it is relevant to consider finally research evidence relating to physical, behavioural and cognitive development in children.
6.62 In a series of studies over construction study, 2 decades, Pasamanick and his associates in the USA found associations between prematurity and birth complications and a subsequent history of ecommerce marketing research, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, mental deficiency, behaviour disorders, reading disabilities, strabismus, hearing disorders, and autism (see eg Pasamanick et al 1956: Pasamanick and Knobloch 1960). Douglas in an analysis of top down case study, IQ, tests administered to children from the nutrition, 1946 birth cohort aged 8 and top down, 11 matched ‘premature’ babies (who had had birth weights of 5 ? lbs or less) with controls similar in terms of sex, ordinal position in the family, mother’s age, social group, and degree of panynj thesis, crowding in the home (Douglas, 1960). The low birth weight babies scored significantly lower than their controls. They also did less well in the ll+ examination. Douglas attributed this to construction case study significant differences, which he also found, in social and educational backgrounds of parents and grandparents, parental interest in school progress, etc. Resume Csr Bank? In other words, he attributed both prematurity and poor achievement to adverse home conditions. Drillien, however, found that children of birthweight less than 4 ? lbs contained a high proportion of construction case, dull, retarded, and grossly defective children. Exam Essay Questions? Below 3 lbs birthweight only 13% were of average or above average intelligence (Drillien, 1959).
Illsley (1966) found a clear association between birthweight and IQ within each social class at age 7: the effects of low birthweight being greater for children born into the lowest classes. Study? Illsley does not feel it is possible to distinguish the possible routes by which this may come about: the parallel effects of environmental influences on reproductive health and cultural background; organic impairment in utero; and genetic inheritance. 6.63 Birch and Gussow (1970), reviewing numerous studies from discount, many countries, conclude that whilst a good postnatal environment can compensate for top down construction case study, the perinatal stress associated with prematurity, an papers, environment which is not satisfactory can represent a cumulative hazard. They argue that for children born into poverty the circumstances surrounding their development in utero and their birth may be significantly responsible for “minor disorders of perception and cognition, an increase in impulsivity or distractability, a delay in the mastery of certain bodily functions … 11 (p67). 6.64 One aspect of the postnatal environment to which these authors attach special significance is nutrition. There is circumstantial evidence that nutritional deprivation can affect not only external physical growth, but also the study, brain and central nervous system. Eichenwald and research, Fry (1969), amongst others, have related nutrition to learning. Birch and Gussow suggest that the effect of malnutrition upon the brain during the period in which this is construction case study, growing fastest (first 6 months after birth), unlike the effect on other growth, is not fully compensateable. Whilst in the case of humans there is no direct evidence that effects observed are due to malnourishment rather than other aspects of deprivation, laboratory studies of animals provide some confirmation. Here an effect of nutrition exam essay questions, malnutrition during the period of rapid brain growth upon brain size and number of brain cells has been demonstrated, and an effect which cannot fully be made good later. Malnutrition appears also to produce abnormal EEG patterns, in both animals and human infants.
Birch and Gussow conclude (p2l2): “Thus the evidence would seem to indicate that severe undernutrition during, the early months of a child’s life may reduce the number and case, size of resume csr bank, cells in his brain as well as the extent of myelination, and that nutrition imbalance of a severe degree may produce structural changes in the brain and spinal cord, abnormal electrical activity, and pathological lesions of the central nervous system … However … the top down construction study, relationship between these findings and children’s mental development is an open question, because we know too little at present about the functional implications of most of what we can learn by looking at the brain, weighing it, or its constituents, or reading the pattern of electrical activity on its surface.” 6.65 It is, of course, less controversial to point out that “a hungry child is unlikely to be alert during lessons,” (DHSS Eating for Health 1978; 43). There is, it must be reiterated, ample evidence for dance papers, the association of adequate nutrition with achievement of full potential for physical growth. The importance of milk in the nutrition (and hence growth) of children has been shown in case, a number of nutrition essay questions, studies reviewed by the Sub-Committee on Nutrition Surveillance (Report, 1973). Construction Study? Moreover, the lessons of the food policy introduced during the Second World War, to ensure fair shares for all, and which resulted in one of the ecommerce marketing research, most rapid falls in perinatal mortality rate (between 1940 and 1948) should not be forgotten. 6.66 Social scientists, of course, have stressed the top down construction study, effects of different aspects of the impoverished early environment on intellectual development, including patterns of parenting (themselves relatable to the effects of economic stress, housing, and family size). Wilson and Herbert (1978), for example, refer to the effects of “delegation of mothering to older siblings; early severance of mother-child contact and play in the unsupervised stress play-groups, scarcity or absence of toys” for “the training of the young child in papers, the achievement of age-appropriate behavioural standards … language development … the development of creative activities, power of construction case study, concentration, manipulative skills” etc (p184-5).
6.67 It seems clear, therefore, that cognitive development in early childhood has important implications for subsequent educational experience, and that inhibited or inadequate cognitive development is associated with those same factors of deprivation responsible for ill-health and inadequate physical development. Moreover, it thus becomes possible to trace a link (all too often reinforced by overnight discount code social processes) to occupational ascription/attainment. At the same time, too, child ill-health has important implications for adult health (in the negative sense), as research shows. 6.68 Evidence that conditions (such as lower respiratory tract disorders) contracted in early childhood may place the individual continuously at risk, or may persist, derives principally from longitudinal studies. The study of 1,000 Newcastle families illustrates dramatically how repeated respiratory infections in the first 5 years, if inadequately treated, can lead to some degree of disability at age 15 (Miller, Court, Knox and Brandon, 1974: pp 94-128). This is sometimes due to permanent damage caused to top down construction study the respiratory tract. My Son Essay? In the Newcastle study 208 children aged 14 were identified as being ‘at risk’ of respiratory infection, on the basis of severe illness in the first 5 years and other indications, and compared with a group of 97 controls of similar age.
Out of these 305 children clinical examination, cytological and other tests showed that 119 experienced respiratory symptoms. Of these 107 came from the ‘high risk’ group. Top Down? In 45 cases disability was substantial. 6.69 Studies such as these (and there are many more) suggest, as the Court Committee put it, that inadequately treated bouts of term papers, childhood illness “cast long shadows forward”. Health Inequalities in Adult Life. 6.70 The rate of mortality in Britain today, once it has been standardized to take account of trends in the age composition of the population, continued to exhibit the steady pattern of decline which has been in evidence for the last 70 years, (though, as we showed in Chapter 3, this is not the construction case study, case for men in certain social classes or age groups). Respiratory disease, which, among the major causes of death, has the essay, steepest and most linear of class gradients has declined substantially for top down, all age groups over the last two decades (Opcs, 1978: 11). Standards of nutrition essay, health have continued to improve in post-war Britain, but differences between occupational classes have remained or even widened. The phenomenon is principally one of relative deprivation – the maintenance of a gap in case, life chances, against the dynamic background of improved prospects.
6.71 This feature of contemporary trends suggests that there is discount, nothing natural about top down class inequalities in health. Men and women in resume csr bank, social class V do not die before their fellow human beings in social class I as a matter of biological fate. Indeed, they are quite capable of collectively achieving the low rates of mortality achieved by social class I, the only difference being that it takes longer and by top down construction case study the time it is achieved, social class I has moved on exam essay to record an even lower rate, thereby ensuring the maintenance of the health gap. 6.72 Explanations of this failure to distribute the health benefits of social and economic progress evenly and top down construction case study, contemporaneously among the occupational classes have taken a number of forms. 6.73 The twentieth century has witnessed and will continue to witness a series of revolutionary changes in the structure of occupations. To date these changes have resulted in a contraction in overnight essay discount code, the size of the semi and unskilled manual labour force and an expansion in top down construction case study, non-manual occupations (see Table 6.1). These changes have given rise to alterations in the age composition of each occupational class, older workers tending to be found in the contracting areas though not as emphatically as some people suppose – younger and more recent recruits to the work force tending to be found in the expanding area. Besides making comparisons between the occupational classes over time somewhat difficult, these shifts in the occupational structure in resume csr bank, themselves offer an analytical solution to top down study the continuing pattern of marketing research paper, health inequality, for it is argued that the higher death rates of social class IV and V are at least, in part, a reflection of the older age structure of these occupational groups. Case Study? The same argument can be used conversely to explain the relatively low death rates of social class I. This explanation which reduced class differences to an artefact of resume csr bank, measurement has a certain plausibility. It is true that while social class V is today made up of workers who are older on top down construction case study average, social class I has a larger than average share of younger men. Nevertheless the ecommerce marketing research, grounds for asserting that age is the construction case, primary causal determinant of the higher mortality of social class V are weakened when class differences are examined for each age group.
Figure 6.1 shows the ecommerce research paper, relationship between age and occupation for some of the major causes of top down study, death. For all causes except malignant neoplasms class gradients are steepest in early adulthood and discount code, most shallow in the decade before retirement. The artefact explanation does not throw light on these observed patterns of fatal disease incidence amongst younger men. Mortality Ratios by Occupational Class, Age and cause of Death (men 15-64; England and Wales) 6.74 These same distinctive trends also highlight the limitations of the thesis that the health gap is caused by age-related processes of social mobility. Occupational drift throughout the span of working life may help contribute to class differences among the over-fifties but it cannot be said to be the cause of top down construction study, class inequalities between the ages of dance term, 15 to 45 years. Among these age groups health inequality reaches a peak which it makes little sense to attribute to processes of social selection. In addition lack of continuity between children and adults in the class related incidence of fatal disease gives very limited plausibility to the idea of natural selection as an explanatory form. 6.75 The limitations of these paradigms especially among the male workforce of top down construction case, 45 years and dance, under leads to a consideration of the direct role of material life on study the production of health differentials.
The most obvious starting point in the search for relevant causal relationships within a materialist perspective is the division between manual and non-manual occupations. Men engaged in nutrition exam questions, manual occupations routinely confront a much higher degree of risk to health and physical well-being in top down study, their work task than their non-manual counterparts. These risks are manifold. And Internet Marketing Research Paper? They may result in direct loss of life either suddenly in the form of accidents or in top down construction case study, an attenuated manner through long-term exposure to dust, dirt or poisonous substances in the workplace. Exam Questions? The same eventualities may also entail antecedently, physical injury, disability and chronic illness. Case Study? The direct risk of physical disability in manual work presents itself in ecommerce and internet paper, a variety of forms.
Amongst these, accidental injuries are the most obvious but other forms of physical impairment affecting vision, hearing and top down construction, breathing are also common accompaniments of productive processes involving manual employment which it must be said, are in no way compensated for by way of financial reward or wages. 6.76 But significant as is occupational hazard in the production of broad differences in health between manual and non-manual workers and and internet marketing research, between men and women, it is not a sufficient explanation. 6.77 The influence of material deprivation in the aetiology of top down construction case study, modern degenerative disease processes is my son, poorly understood in the present day especially amongst workers below the age of 45. In the past poverty was an top down case study, obvious antecedent in code, mortality associated with starvation, infection, and respiratory disorders but its possible influence in deaths traced to, for example, cancer or circulatory disease is less clear-cut. These causes of death, because they dominate the disease profile of the wealthy advanced industrial nations have been dubbed the diseases of affluence and, although their aetiology is in top down study, general poorly understood, it is thought that they have their origins in overindulgence rather than poverty and in behaviour which abuses and overnight discount code, misuses the construction case, human body.
The modern diet, with its emphasis on highly refined foods, and modern sedentary patterns of work and resume csr bank, leisure are prime targets in the search for causes of premature death in the twentieth century and, at a rather more specific level, the mass consumption of tobacco products is blamed for the early onset of some diseases (eg lung cancer) (see Tables 6.3, 6.4 and 6.5). 6.78 This association between disease and death on the one hand, and the consumption of tobacco products on the other, provides an construction case study, example of the way in resume csr bank, which threats to health and well-being continue to be tied up with the top down case, productive activities of ecommerce research, human beings on which they depend for top down construction, material subsistence and on which, in the long run, social progress tends to be judged. The mass production and consumption of commodities (including cigarettes) is at the heart of economic life in the advanced societies, and cigarette production is a source of government revenue as well as industrial profits. Governments have been unwilling to bring in legislation to ban the resume csr bank, production and construction, the sale of tobacco despite the almost irresistible case that has been built up against it on resume csr bank health grounds in recent years. 6.79 The habit of case, cigarette smoking therefore provides a convenient focus around which to explore the causal relationships in patterns of health inequalities among adult men and women. This is so because of dance papers, social life and specific patterns of behaviour which are often attributed to culture. 6.80 Among heavy smokers in Britain men outnumber women and, following trends over construction case, the last decade or so, manual workers have increasingly come to panynj thesis outnumber their non- manual counterparts.
6.81 This demographic picture of cigarette consumption reinforces the clinical view that smoking is damaging to health, since the statistical characteristics of heavy smokers are the study, same as those of the people who are most likely to lose their lives before retirement. 6.82 Can this demographic coincidence help us to nutrition questions understand the underlying cause of the top down study, health inequalities that have been observed among adult men and women? Given that cigarette manufacturers are now obliged to ecommerce warn their customers of the dangers of smoking it would seem on the face of it that smoking is a wilful, self-destructive habit and that those people who fail to take heed of the risks have only themselves to case study blame if they forfeit their health as a result. Such a conclusion assumes that smoking is an entirely voluntaristic behaviour, the indulgence of the ecommerce and internet paper, irresponsible. This idea does not square with the fact that the consumption of cigarettes depends on a multi-million pound industry, is sanctioned by construction case Parliament, treated as an important source of taxation income, and freely permitted in public places, even on premises owned by the National Health Service. As health educationalists are fond of pointing out, tens of millions of pounds are spent every year in Britain on the promotion of nutrition, smoking through advertising and top down, sports sponsorship while only a fraction of this amount goes on publicity about the attendant health risks. 6.83 These facts about tobacco and its role in the economy are an panynj thesis, indication that smoking remains part of material and cultural life in Britain. But changes are taking place and not surprisingly the avant garde of culture change are drawn from people in the higher social classes. If cigarette smoking is top down construction study, a major contributory cause of panynj thesis, deaths due to cancer or heart disease, then the construction, uneven response in discount code, the population to study the news that it is dangerous is likely, in the future years, to make class differentials in health even wider than they are at present. 6.84 Moreover, in recent years sex differences in the pattern of smoking have begun to even out, perhaps a reflection of the dance, increased earning capacity of women and their claims for equality with men. But the overriding characteristic of top down case, people who have continued to be heavy users of tobacco products despite the adverse publicity is manual work.
Why is ecommerce marketing, this so? 6.85 In general it seems likely that people who have the scope within work and leisure relationships and activities to top down construction study find compensatory means of fulfilling the needs which smoking satisfies, will be more likely to take the warnings about cigarettes seriously and to amend their behaviour in favourable directions. This inference serves as both reminder and reflection of the fact that the structure of work opportunities and the associated levels of financial rewards (what sociologists term the social division of labour) remains fundamentally unequal in present day Britain. This structure of inequality which discriminated, between men and women, between races, regions and social classes, has many dimensions. Income, wealth, job security, pension rights, credit-worthiness, are among the most obvious, but equally significant, especially in panynj thesis, their implications for health are education as a continuing lifelong process, and protection from threats to physical well-being.
These characteristics of the work that people do and the context in which they do it, are reflected in the quality of the top down construction study, lives they lead. Dance Papers? From this perspective smoking behaviour cannot be taken as a fundamental cause of ill-health, it is rather an epiphenomenon, a secondary symptom of top down case, deeper underlying features of economic society. 6.86 The drift of this section has been to argue that it is from the realm of the code, materialist perspective that the top down construction case, most plausible explanation of health inequality between adults in Britain is to be found. It has also been argued that it is not possible to distinguish clearly between cultural and material influences in human behaviour. It is no good treating cigarette smoking as an aberrant or irresponsible behavioural response while society as a whole permits, even depends on, the widescale production and promotion of tobacco goods.
Human health is a part of the organisation of material existence. Nutrition Exam Essay? It is both produced and endangered by the work which men and women do in order to top down construction study earn their livelihood. The manufacture and consumption of tobacco products and its effects on health provides a very clear example of the limitations of conventional health policy as a means to reduce health inequality. Ecommerce And Internet? The prematurely lost lives of working class men and construction, women will not be saved in the acute hospital or in the GPs surgery. 6.87 The classification of elderly men and women into occupational classes is made more difficult by the fact of retirement. Occupation becomes a less centrally point of retired person’s social identity and, in consequence, it is often forgotten, ignored or treated superficially in the process of collecting survey data. These tendencies feed into code the processes of generating statistical, rates, making it rather more difficult, for example, to compute class based rates of mortality. There is little doubt, however, that the class-based mortality gradients which follow the population from birth, through youth to middle age not suddenly disappear after retirement.
6.88 The new longitudinal survey being produced in the OPCS will, in time, provide a sound picture of class inequalities in top down construction case, rates of mortality among the retired. The early returns for this survey suggest that observed gradients will be more shallow for exam questions, this age group. This trend is construction study, not unexpected. In adult life class inequalities in mortality become reduced in late middle age as the risk of death increases; the resume csr bank, expected trends for top down construction case, old age merely complete this already established pattern. 6.89 If we were to argue along the lines of panynj thesis, a “Selection of the Fittest” theory we might conclude that the flattening out of gradients amongst the elderly was the result of a filtering process which preserved only the most robust of social classes IV and V for survival into retirement. Top Down Case? It is difficult either to prove or discount this inference but the data of morbidity differentials in overnight code, old age do not support it. Chronic or longstanding disorder is more prevalent among retired manual workers and their wives suggesting, if anything, that the link between relative material deprivation and poor health is construction case study, sustained throughout the whole lifetime. At the same time it is likely that some men or women engage in semi or unskilled manual work in the years immediately before retirement may well have arrived at their present jobs because poor or failing health caused them to hanif the fanatic forfeit a more demanding but better paid skilled manual occupation. In such cases, the descent into the lowest occupational classes on account of ill-health may well be a portent of an construction case study, earlier than average age of death. 6.90 After retirement the appropriateness of mortality rates to health status measurement is increased by the fact that health may literally become a matter of life and death for dance, the over sixty-fives.
At the end of the lifetime’s use, the body begins to exhibit the effects of wear and tear and sooner or later the manifestations of degeneration in disease are a “natural” outcome. In general, it is reasonable to conclude that these processes occur sooner rather than later in men rather than women, and in top down construction, manual workers rather than non-manual workers. An equally reasonable conclusion is overnight discount, that the timing of these outcomes are the end product of inequalities in the use made of, and the demands upon construction study the human body earlier in the lifetime. In practical terms what is implied is that men in our society lead lives which are more punishing to the human frame, and that among men, manual work involves greater use of dance term, sheer physical resources and hence more ‘wear and top down case, tear’ on the body. Appropriate forms of redistribution between the sexes and the occupational classes might be expected to introduce a greater degree of evenness in these lifetime processes of resume csr bank, physical growth, maturation and decay. 6.91 This interpretation stems from a materialistic model of explanation.
It suggests that inequalities in top down case study, health are the direct reflection in a dynamic sense of inequalities in the social division of Labour. Essay? In the collective effort of social production, some workers literally give more of themselves than others and hence their bodies wear out top down first. But inequalities in health at the end of the lifetime also emanate from the distribution of rewards associated with the social division of labour. Old age is a time of poverty, albeit poverty expressed in the form of relative deprivation. But relative deprivation among Britain’s aged can mean material scarcity in very real terms (as deaths from resume csr bank, hypothermia among the old reveal in severe winters). A recent DHSS Report estimated malnutrition at 7% among a sample of the elderly who were studied (DHSS 1980 p3).
In old age the relationship between income and construction study, the capacity to protect personal health is stronger perhaps than at any other time in the life cycle, and in general it is fairly certain that individuals who are well endowed through generous or index linked pension schemes will lead the overnight essay discount, healthiest, the most comfortable, and the longest lives after retirement. These material fortunes or misfortunes of old age are closely linked with occupational class during the top down construction case study, working life. To have secure employment and an above average income when one is at work is to be better able to provide for one’s retirement. It is in this way that continuity in the distribution of material welfare is sustained, and inequalities in health perpetuated, from the cradle to the grave. This consideration, seriatim, of different stages of the life cycle leads to several conclusions. In the first place, although different kinds of explanation have to be combined, and although cultural explanations and a genetic contribution of importance to early childhood conditions have their place (although knowledge, of the latter is panynj thesis, inadequate), nevertheless we feel that more of the relevant evidence is explained by what we call ‘materialist’ or ‘structural’ explanations than by any other form of explanation. However this rubric, it will be recalled, covered many subsidiary approaches which need to be remembered and construction, carefully set out. 6.93 The second important conclusion we wish to questions draw is this. Some of the top down, evidence on class inequalities in health is adequately understood in terms of resume csr bank, specific features of the socioeconomic environment: features (such as accidents at work, overcrowding, smoking) which are strongly class-related in Britain and also have clear aetiological significance.
Since such features are recognised objectives of various areas of social policy we feel it sensible to offer them as contributory factors to be dealt with in their own right and not to go on to explain their incidence further in social structural terms. The same is true of other aspects of the evidence which we feel show the importance of measures related to the health services. Antenatal care, for example, is of clear importance in preventing perinatal death, and the international evidence presented in Chapter 5 shows that much can be done through improvement of construction case study, antenatal care and of its uptake. The international evidence also suggests the importance of preventive health within health policy, despite studies (to which we have alluded earlier) which suggest that little of the differences in mortality either between nations, or between British regions can be explained in overnight essay code, terms of top down construction study, health care provision. But beyond this there is undoubtedly much which cannot be understood in terms of the impact of so specific factors. Much we feel, can only be understood in terms of the more diffuse consequences of the class structure: poverty, work conditions (and what we termed the nutrition exam essay, social division of labour), and deprivation in its various forms. 6.94 It is this acknowledgement of the complex nature of the construction, explanation of health inequalities – involving access to research and use of the health services; specific issues in other areas of construction case study, social policy; and more general features of class, material inequality, and deprivation – which informs and structures the recommendations we make in Chapters 8 and9. 6.95 These recommendations draw in another way upon our interpretation of the evidence It is our view that early childhood is the period of life at which intervention could most hopefully break the continuing association between health and class.
That is, not only may subsequent health (or propensity to ill-health) be to some degree determined in early life, but there may be some co-determination of subsequent educational (and hence to some degree occupational) achievement and future health status at that time. In our recommendations, therefore, we focus particularly (although not exclusively) upon measures directed towards reduction of health inequalities in childhood. REFERENCES – CHAPTER 6. Abel-Smith, B and P Townsend The Poor and the Poorest (London: Bell, 1965) Banks, J and 0 Banks Feminism and Family Planning (London: Routledge, 1964) Baird, D. “Epidemiology of congenital malformations of the central nervous system in (a) Aberdeen and (b) Scotland” J. Biosooial Sci 6 (1974) 113. Baird, D. “The epidemiology of overnight discount code, low birth weight: changes in incidence in Aberdeen, 1948-1972” J. Biosooial Sci 6 (1974) 323. Bernstein, B. Class.
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O.P.C.S. Social and Biological Factors in Infant Mortality (Occasional Paper No 12, 1978) O.P.C.S. The Demographic Review (London, HMSO, 1978) O.P.C.S Trends in Mortality (London, HMSO, 1978) Paeamanick, B. et al “Pregnancy experience and the development of top down, childhood speech disorders: an epidemiological study of the association with maternal and fetal factors” Am. J. Diseases of the Child 91 (1956) 113.
Pasamanick, B. and H Knobloch “Brain damage and reproductive causality” Am. J Orthopsychiatry 30 (i960) 298. Powles, J. “Health and industrialization in Britain” (Proc. First World Congress on Env. Medicine and Biology, Paris, 1974) Rainwater, L. Panynj Thesis? “The lower class: health, illness and medical inEtitUtiOflB” in II PeVrischer and E. Construction Case? J. Thompson (eds) Among the People; Encounter with the Poor ^N. Y. Basic Books, 1968)
Rutter, M and N. Madge Cycles of Disadvantage (London; Heinemann, 1976) Speiser, F.E., Rosner Band Tager I “ Familial aggregation of kureishi essay, chronic respiratory disease: use of national health Interview Survey data for specific hypothesis testing” Int. J Epidem 5(1976) 2 167. Stark, E. “The epidemic as a social event Int J Health Services 7 (1977)4 681. Stedman-Jones, G. Outcast London (Oxford Clarendon Press, 197 1 ) Thompson, P. The Edwardians (London, Paladin, 1976) Townsend P “Inequality and the health service” The Lancet (1974) Townsend P Poverty and Britain (London Penguin Books 1979)
Wilson H and Herbert GW Parents and Children in case study, the Inner City (London Routledge 1978) [The Socialist Health Association (SHA) regularly posts articles on its independent blog about the social determinants of nutrition questions, health. Except where explicitly stated, these articles should not be taken as official statements of policy on such matters. For example, this recent blogpost talks about the social determinants of dementia, and is unrelated to official SHA policy.]
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Nassim Nicholas Taleb on Accepting Uncertainty, Embracing Volatility. The day before a big game, regardless of the sport, a team’s coach or star player is often asked, “How will you stop the opposing team tomorrow?” The answer typically goes something like this: “We can’t worry about the other team. We just have to play our game.” That, in a very simplified nutshell, is the essence of Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s highly polemical, always thought-provoking new book, Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder. Here, though, the opponent is top down construction, not another team’s slugger, quarterback or point guard, but the future and change. The defining characteristic of future change, according to Taleb (who continues a line of argument developed in previous books like Fooled by Randomness and The Black Swan ), is that it is impossible, and foolhardy, to try to predict it.
Instead, the author argues, it is kureishi essay, essential to study make peace with uncertainty, randomness and volatility. Those who do not — who insist not only on trying to predict the future, but also on somehow trying to resume csr bank manage it — he disparagingly calls “fragilistas.” Antifragile is divided into seven sections that Taleb calls “books.” In a prologue, he explains that each is, in a sense, a long personal essay, “mixing autobiographical musings and parables with more philosophical and scientific investigations.” The author introduces fictional characters such as Fat Tony, who epitomizes the straight-talking “street” knowledge of the practitioner as opposed to the fragilista. Top Down Study. In addition to “fragilista,” he coins or adopts a number of other terms; delves into extended asides on overnight essay, Greek philosophy and mythology; and in general fashions a thoroughly idiosyncratic approach to his subject matter. The result is a work that is readable and entertaining, if at times a bit unwieldy. Taleb advocates what he calls “nonpredictive decision making” focused on the ability of the unit in question (whether that be an individual, institution, industry or society) to withstand unexpected change.
Yet to simply survive is not enough. Taleb is interested in things that actually thrive on uncertainty. To merely avoid harm is, in his terms, to be robust — and at times this is an acceptable result. Construction Case Study. Robustness falls in the middle of a continuum he calls The Triad. At the far left is fragility — that which requires tranquility, certainty and predictability — and at the far right, in the absence of a better word for it, is antifragility. Antifragility, it should be pointed out, doesn’t mean that volatility will always be experienced positively. Exam Essay Questions. It simply means that the antifragile has more of an upside than downside from random events. As Taleb notes, “Some things benefit from shocks; they thrive and top down case, grow when exposed to volatility, randomness, disorder, and stressors and dance term papers, love adventure, risk, and uncertainty.” Another sports analogy, one Taleb himself uses, effectively illustrates the idea of benefiting from top down construction study, shock. When we go the gym and panynj thesis, lift heavy weights (barbells later become a key image in the book), we intentionally apply stress to our body.
Muscle tissue is strained and even broken down. The body’s response is to overcompensate to the trauma and emerge stronger than before. This process of overreaction to stress and setbacks, the author argues, is intrinsic to our very being, to all of evolution, to nature and to every human system that has survived. It is the top down construction, process of life itself. The reverse holds true as well: Remove stress from a system, and that system grows weak; it becomes fragile.
Stay in bed for three weeks instead of lifting weights, and muscles atrophy. The Cat and the Washing Machine. A key distinction for Taleb is that between the organic and the mechanical , and the title concept is central to this. Organic entities are intrinsically antifragile, while artificial creations are at best robust and likely fragile. Resume Csr Bank. The split corresponds roughly, but not entirely, to the living and the non-living. Taleb argues that certain man-made things like ideas, technologies, businesses and even the economy operate more by organic principles than mechanical ones: “They are closer to the cat than to the washing machine but tend to be mistaken for top down study washing machines.” Nature and nutrition exam essay questions, natural systems are an ongoing reference for Taleb — not just as illustrative analogies, but as part of the very fabric of his worldview.
For him, nature is the ultimate model for how to deal with uncertainty. Nature does not need to predict the future in top down construction study, order to deal with its unexpected turns. The information volatility provides is digested and adapted as part of the nutrition exam questions, evolutionary process. In this sense, nature “loves small errors.” Nature is top down case, also not “safe.” It accepts short-term loss for long-term gain. For example, Taleb cites the ecommerce marketing, natural cycle of construction case forest fires that clear the forest of highly flammable material and weed out weak and vulnerable growth. Suppressing these fires artificially (i.e., suppressing volatility) imposes a false short-term stability while increasing long-term risk. We get fewer fires but more devastating ones. This basic principle can be applied to human systems as well. Government bailouts that prevent certain businesses from going under, for example, only increase the possibility of system-wide collapse.
Error and nutrition essay questions, failure, Taleb insists again and again, are essential sources of information as long as they are limited and localized. Every plane crash brings us closer to safety. Attempts to eliminate error and volatility will backfire in the long run. Paradoxically, there is no long-term stability without short-term volatility. A concept Taleb developed in a previous book, Black Swans are game-changing, world-altering events he contends are the driving force in history. Top Down Case. Though they are impossible to dance papers predict, fragilistas (especially the policymakers and academics Taleb loves to ridicule) make the mistake of trying to impose a clear narrative on top down construction case, them in retrospect. With that narrative in place, they tell themselves the Black Swan could have, and perhaps should have been, anticipated, and they set about trying to resume csr bank successfully predict the next one. For example, events in the Middle East that have caught the construction case, U.S. government by surprise (such as the 2011 Egyptian uprising or the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran) are labeled “intelligence failures.” The solution, according to fragilistas, is simply better forecasting. This approach misses the point, which is to assess the fragility of a system, not the particular event that will expose that fragility.
In a discussion of the earthquake and tsunami that produced the overnight essay, 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan, Taleb writes: “Not seeing a tsunami or an economic event coming is construction, excusable; building something fragile to them is not.” And in the case of the Fukushima disaster, authorities seem to be responding appropriately: not by the fanatic essay developing better predictive models, but by building smaller and less vulnerable reactors. It is important to point out that Black Swans are not always negative, destructive events. Construction Case. The explosion of the Internet and the rise of Google are examples of kureishi essay positive Black Swans. Top Down Construction Case. What cultivating antifragility does, Taleb says, is enable us to minimize the potential harm from negative Black Swans while capturing the dance term, benefits of positive ones. It is study, all about developing a productive and flexible relationship with volatility. Nonetheless, the dominant impulse among policymakers and so-called experts is to try to reduce volatility, rather than deal with it more productively. These fragilistas overestimate the reach of resume csr bank scientific knowledge and top down study, the possibilities of human control. Intolerant of the messiness of trial-and-error volatility, they avoid small errors and the essential feedback those errors provide. The end result is to create something that is dance, steadier and more predictable, but fundamentally fragile.
Risks are hidden and suppressed, and the stimulation of top down construction case randomness and stressors is resume csr bank, denied. Top Down. But the effort to avoid small mistakes and minor pains makes larger ones more severe. Ironically, the imposition of false stability with the intention of avoiding Black Swans makes them more likely and more dangerous. Narrowly, the fragilista is dance papers, marked by a preoccupation with theory, risk assessment and strategic planning — all of which Taleb disdains. More broadly, the fragilista is symptomatic of the fundamental shortcomings of modernity, which the author defines as “humans’ large-scale domination of the environment, the systematic smoothing of the world’s jaggedness, and top down case study, the stifling of volatility and stressors.” Modernity has made a religion of rationalism, optimization and efficiency.
By contrast, Taleb invokes Nietzsche and his embrace of the “Dionysian”: the “dark, visceral, wild, untamed, hard to understand.” Epistemology, the inquiry into the nature of knowledge, is a central concern for Taleb, and resume csr bank, an eminently practical one as opposed to a theoretical one. In a world ruled by uncertainty and top down construction study, unpredictability, and in which precise causes are impossible to isolate, abstract and theoretical knowledge is of limited use. His own encounter with these limits came when, as a recent graduate of business school and then the recipient of a doctorate in management science, he did a stint on a foreign exchange trading floor. The professional traders he worked with had no background in panynj thesis, theory, and they didn’t read economic reports or forecasts; they simply had a nose for when to buy and when to sell.
They knew what worked; they didn’t need to know why. Ever since, Taleb has had a deep respect for practitioners as opposed to theorists. Construction Case Study. Real, usable knowledge emerges from doing, not studying. Technology is often described as the application of scientific knowledge to practical projects, implying a hierarchy with priestly “science” on one level and mere “practice” far below. Taleb lists numerous examples in the development of technology, and medicine as well, demonstrating how theory and knowledge emerge from practice, not the other way around. Key advances grow organically (and sometimes randomly) from individuals the author likes to call “tinkerers” engaged in hands-on trial-and-error experimentation.
Accordingly, Taleb embraces the apprenticeship model of learning as opposed to the academic model. He doesn’t oppose formal education, but says its purpose should be learning for learning’s sake, and that education should not be justified as an engine of economic growth. He cites studies by economists who call into question an assumed causal link between education levels and productivity. Code. Instead, he argues, wealth and economic growth eventually result in good education systems. The logical conclusion of Taleb’s preference for practice over theory is to question the classical Socratic ideal of truth in the first place. Being right, knowing how to define things, understanding the difference between what is true and case, false: None of this is the point. What is important is to understand the results of events, not the events themselves. An even deeper implication of resume csr bank this approach is that real intelligence lies not in the individual, but in the evolutionary process — the top down construction case study, ongoing process of trial-and-error. In this process, he argues, options (essentially, the freedom to experiment with uncertainty) can be more important than knowledge or information. Options allow you to benefit from the feedback trial-and-error provides.
And knowing how to apply that feedback to future decisions can be the ecommerce and internet research paper, highest form of wisdom: “wisdom in top down, decision making is vastly more important — not just practically, but philosophically — than knowledge.” The practice of modern Western medicine is term, a topic of case great interest to Taleb in its own right. Term. But it also provides him with a set of clear examples of the perils of the fragilista’s tendency toward what he terms “naive interventionism.” This is a category of top down construction study intervention that produces small (or no) visible gains, while creating the possibility of dance papers large (but often not immediately visible) harm. Examples include statin drugs to treat high cholesterol (where fifty patients have to be treated, at construction, uncertain cost, to prevent a single cardiovascular event) and panynj thesis, annual mammograms for construction case women (which actually increase all-cause mortality for panynj thesis the test group). In opposition to this approach, the author cites the part of the Hippocratic Oath that cautions, “First, do no harm.” Unfortunately, the pervasiveness of professionalization in top down construction study, our society creates a bias toward intervention — in other words, the restraint of inaction is not likely to be rewarded. Nonetheless, in discount code, medicine and other areas, he asserts that the first rule should be to “avoid interference with things we don’t understand,” which, in Taleb’s view, covers a lot of ground. Taleb is a fan of study barbells as an exercise tool. But he also uses the image to convey the “bimodal” approach he suggests is the term, best way to deal with uncertainty and cultivate antifragility. In keeping with the image of the barbell, the idea is to avoid the wishy-washiness of the supposed “Golden Middle” and construction case study, instead concentrate on two contrasting but complementary strategies: extreme risk aversion on one side, and extreme risk loving on the other. For example, in the area of personal investment, you might invest 90% of your funds in something as radically safe as cash, while putting 10% toward extremely high-risk, high-reward investments. Your maximum loss would be capped at 10% of your assets, whereas putting 100% of your assets in so-called “medium” risk securities carries a danger of losing everything.
Strive to be 90% accountant, 10% rock star, Taleb cheekily suggests. He applies this model across a variety of arenas. Questions. For example, in medicine, we should treat the healthy or near-healthy with an extremely conservative, less-is-more approach, while treating the seriously ill much more aggressively. In socio-economic policy, it would imply aggressive intervention for the very weak while letting the top down construction case study, very strong alone — in contrast to the current policy of focusing on the creation of minor gains for the middle class. For Taleb, the term papers, barbell is construction, a tool for engaging risk and uncertainty in a way that is both responsible and vigorous. He praises those who take risks, whether they be entrepreneurs or poets, as adventurers and doers essential to the continued evolution of society and overnight essay, the economy. At the other end of the spectrum are those who talk or act without any risk or exposure. Taleb has nothing but disdain for policymakers or pundits who enter the fray of construction case study public policy without any personal stake in the issue at hand. They have no “skin in the game,” as he likes to put it.
In a final section devoted to the ethics of nutrition questions fragility and antifragility, Taleb laments that this kind of disconnect between influence and personal risk is only growing: “At no point in history have so many non-risk-takers, that is, those with no personal exposure, exerted so much control.” Here, the construction, author takes the exam essay, gloves off and names names — with columnist Thomas Friedman and economist Joseph Stiglitz among those singled out. Taleb is particularly troubled by top down construction case corporate managers who don’t own the nutrition exam questions, businesses they run. Top Down. They have incentives (bonuses) without disincentives (penalties), upside without downside. Dance. Robert Rubin, for example, earned nearly $120 million in bonuses from Citibank, but suffered no personal consequences when the top down, bank collapsed and resume csr bank, required a multi-billion–dollar government bailout. Taleb characterizes this as essentially a “transfer of case study antifragility,” with certain individuals exerting influence without cost (remaining antifragile) while others bear the consequences (increased fragility). Such a transfer is, he asserts, a kind of theft, and it raises a profound ethical question, perhaps the dominant one of our time. Somehow, he writes, we have to dance term “make talk less cheap.” Antifragile: Things That Gain from construction case, Disorder (Incerto) accessed October 04, 2017. http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/nassim-nicholas-taleb-on-accepting-uncertainty-embracing-volatility/ How Bike Sharing Is Maturing in China. Wharton vice dean Karl Ulrich describes the latest shifts in China’s growing bike-sharing market.
What Defines Millennials – and ecommerce research paper, How Marketers Can Reach Them. Digital culture, fragmentation, distrust of big business and a heavy dose of skepticism are key facets of the millennial generation – and they have led to construction case study profound changes in mass marketing, advertising and messaging. Turning Waste Streams into Value Streams. Remanufacturing, cascading materials through several lifecycles and rethinking the panynj thesis, idea of ownership are more effective than recycling waste. Get [email protected] delivered to your inbox every week.
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Emerging Trend in Deep Basement Construction: Top-Down
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Top Down Construction Alongside Of Bosphorus – A Case Study
The Family Check-Up in construction case study, Early Childhood: A Case Study of overnight essay discount Intervention Process and Change. This article describes a case study in top down, the use of the Family Check-Up (FCU), a family-based and ecological preventive intervention for children at risk for problem behavior. The FCU is an assessment-driven intervention that utilizes a health maintenance model; emphasizes motivation for change; and offers an adaptive, tailored approach to hanif kureishi, intervention. This case study follows one Caucasian family through their initial assessment and subsequent treatment for their toddler daughter#x02019;s conduct problems over a 2-year period. Clinically meaningful improvements in child and family functioning were found despite the presence of child, parent, and neighborhood risk factors. The case is discussed with respect to the findings from a current multisite randomized control trial of the FCU and its application to other populations. There is top down construction case study, growing interest in questions, identifying young children at risk for early and persistent trajectories of antisocial behavior (Shaw #x00026; Gross, 2008), motivated by several studies of early-starting antisocial youth (Moffitt, 1993). Top Down Study. Several researchers have documented that compared to late starters (who begin delinquent activity in mid-to late adolescence), early starters (who typically initiate antisocial activities before age 10) show a more persistent and chronic trajectory of antisocial behavior extending from middle childhood to adulthood (Moffitt #x00026; Caspi, 2001; Patterson #x00026; Yoeger, 1993). Early starters represent approximately 6% to 7% of the general population of youth yet are responsible for almost half of all adolescent crime and three fourths of violent crimes (Offord, Boyle, #x00026; Racine, 1991). Dance Term. During the past 2 decades, prevention scientists have focused on top down case generating interventions for preventing early-starting pathways from developing, including programs for expectant mothers with first-born children (Olds, 2002) and preschool-age children (Webster-Stratton #x00026; Hammond, 1997).
However, despite research suggesting that early-starting pathways of antisocial behavior can be identified as early as age 2 to papers, 3 (Shaw, Gilliom, Ingoldsby, #x00026; Nagin, 2003), few interventions have focused on the developmental transition of the #x0201c;terrible 2s,#x0201d; a time of great maturational change (Shaw #x00026; Bell, 1993). The Family Check-Up (FCU) is construction, a preventive intervention that has been adapted specifically to kureishi my son the fanatic, address the normative challenges parents face during the terrible 2s, particularly in top down case study, high-risk environments where these normative challenges are more likely to lead to negative outcomes (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw, Dishion, Supplee, Gardner, #x00026; Arnds, 2006). Our article discusses a case study that follows one family through their involvement in the FCU. The FCU was initially developed and shown to resume csr bank, be efficacious in reducing problem behavior among adolescents (Connell, Dishion, Yasui, #x00026; Kavanagh, in press; Dishion #x00026; Kavanagh, 2003). However, it has recently been associated with reductions in young children#x02019;s conduct problems and construction, internalizing problems, as well as improvements in maternal depression, parental involvement, and positive parenting in two independent, randomly controlled trials (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw, Dishion, Connell, Wilson, #x00026; Gardner, 2008). In these studies, changes in maternal positive parenting and depression were found to mediate improvements in child problem behavior. The FCU model differs from traditional clinical models and and internet marketing, practice in three important ways: it utilizes a health maintenance model, derives much of its power from construction case study, a comprehensive assessment, and code, emphasizes motivating change. In contrast to the standard clinical model, the top down construction case study, health maintenance approach of the FCU explicitly promotes periodic contact with families (yearly at a minimum) over the course of dance key developmental transitions.
Whereas traditional clinical models are activated in top down case, response to clinical pathology, the health maintenance model involves regular periodic contact between client and provider to proactively prevent problems. Examples of health maintenance models include the use of semiannual cleanings in dentistry and well-baby check-ups in pediatrics. Another key difference from traditional clinical practice is the panynj thesis, FCU#x02019;s explicit focus on providing a comprehensive assessment of child and family functioning. Data obtained from top down study, assessments are shared with families in feedback sessions to enhance motivation for change (Miller #x00026; Rollnick, 2002). Feedback sessions are often followed by overnight discount, family management meetings (Forgatch, Patterson, #x00026; DeGarmo, 2005) to promote change in parenting and child problem behavior. The comprehensive assessment drives the intervention, providing detailed information about domains of child (e.g., negative emotionality, child behavior problems), family (e.g., parental depression, marital quality), and community-level (e.g., neighborhood dangerousness) risk factors that past research has shown to be directly related to the development of early-onset conduct problems. In addition, there is a primary focus on evaluating caregiving practices through direct observation of parent-child interaction.
In the case of the FCU for toddlers, this task is accomplished by study, having parent#x02013;child dyads participate in a series of papers structured (e.g., clean-up and teaching) and semistructured (e.g., preparing a meal and serving it to top down construction case, the child) tasks. The FCU is also #x0201c;ecological#x0201d; in its emphasis on improving children#x02019;s adjustment across settings by motivating positive parenting practices and involvement in those settings. Moreover, the comprehensive assessment allows tailoring and panynj thesis, adaptation, in that the intervention is #x0201c;fit#x0201d; to the family#x02019;s circumstances and their desires for more or less or different forms of intervention. The FCU utilizes two main components to facilitate change: motivational interviewing and top down case, family management practices. The motivational interviewing component is based on Miller and Rollnick#x02019;s (2002) work using the Drinker#x02019;s Check-Up, in which assessment data regarding the negative consequences of alcohol abuse on individual#x02019;s work and exam essay, family life are shared in a feedback interview with clients. This approach has been shown to be as effective as 28 days of costly inpatient treatment for reducing problem drinking in adults (Miller #x00026; Rollnick, 2002).
In working with families of young children, the FCU feedback session is case, designed to elicit motivation for the parent(s) to change problematic behavior in their child, which is often achieved by modifying parenting behavior (Forgatch et al., 2005) or aspects of the caregiving context that compromise parenting quality. Whereas motivational interviewing was originally developed for adult drinkers, it has been incorporated into the FCU model to engage parents in overnight discount code, preventive interventions. In one study of the FCU with parents of adolescents, analyses comparing those adolescents showing significant reductions in substance use and antisocial behavior to those who did not indicated that motivational interviewing was the key strategy for promoting change (Connell et al., in construction case, press). After addressing motivation, the exam, FCU provides options for intervention. The therapist (i.e., Parent Consultant) may provide referrals for help with problems outside of parenting (e.g., language development) or work with families themselves on these issues depending on his or her expertise (e.g., parental depression, marital therapy); however, the construction, core of most intervention addresses family management issues. Family management includes a collective set of exam parenting skills, commonly referred to as Parent Management Training (PMT), based on social learning principles of reinforcement and modeling (Forgatch et al., 2005; Patterson, 1982; Webster-Stratton #x00026; Hammond, 1997). PMT has been consistently associated with improvement in parenting and top down case, reductions in child conduct problems (Bullock #x00026; Forgatch, 2005; Patterson, Reid, #x00026; Dishion, 1992) and overnight code, has been formally deemed an #x0201c;empirically supported treatment#x0201d; (Chambless #x00026; Ollendick, 2001). PMT focuses on four main skill sets for the parents of young children: limit setting, proactive parenting, positive reinforcement, and relationship building. Using PMT typically involves providing parents with a rationale to top down, stimulate interest, careful explanation of new skills, and in-session practice using role plays and in vivo practice with the child. In the FCU, PMT is applied to specific behavior problems highlighted in the assessment.
THE FCU IN THE EARLY STEPS MULTISITE STUDY. The current case illustrates how the FCU integrates basic research on the developmental antecedents of early-starting pathways with validated methods for effecting change in young children#x02019;s conduct problems. The case was drawn from the Early Steps Multisite Study (ESMS), which is the second randomized control trial to test the nutrition essay, effectiveness of the FCU with young children. The ESMS is an early intervention project aimed at construction case reducing early-onset conduct problems among high-risk families with toddlers and offers the opportunity to examine the efficacy of the FCU with a nonclinical yet high-risk sample of families whose children are at elevated risk for early-starting conduct problems. Essay. The ESMS examines the efficacy of the FCU among 731 low-income families with toddlers recruited between 2002 and 2003 from Women, Infants, and Children Nutritional Supplement programs in the metropolitan areas of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Eugene, Oregon; and Charlottesville, Virginia. The current case was recruited from the Pittsburgh site.
Families were approached at Women, Infants, and construction study, Children Nutritional Supplement offices and invited to participate if they had a son or daughter between 2 years 0 months and kureishi essay, 2 years 11 months of age, following a screen to ensure that they met the study criteria by having socioeconomic, family, and=or child risk factors for child conduct problems. Families who met the screening criteria and agreed to participate were contacted by research assistants to schedule the initial home assessment. During the study, initial home assessment, described in detail next, examiners carefully reviewed a comprehensive consent form with each primary caregiver. Families were informed about the reason for conducting the nutrition, research, the source of funding, study procedures (i.e., description of random assignment procedures and top down, intervention), risks and benefits, payment, their right to withdraw at any time, and dance term papers, confidentiality. Regarding confidentiality, participants were informed that they would not be identified by top down case, name in overnight discount code, any publication of research results unless they signed a separate form giving their permission. The FCU intervention involves at least three sessions. First is the in-home family assessment. The second session involves rapport building via the Parent Consultant#x02019;s (PC#x02019;s) initial interview with the caregiver(s), referred to as the Get-to-Know-You (GTKY) visit.
The third is a feedback session during which the PC discusses the results of the assessment and initial interview with attention focused on the caregiver#x02019;s readiness to change and the delineation of specific change options. The assessment, which is the construction case study, first component of the FCU, typically takes place in the family#x02019;s home when research assistants visit the family to collect questionnaire and observational data. The assessment, which lasts 2.5 hr, is organized by three central theoretical domains: (a) family management, (b) sociocultural contexts and resources, and (c) problem behavior at home and in alternative care settings. Term Papers. Careful attention was given to top down study, selecting measures that could provide useful information in each of the aforementioned domains. When possible, constructs within each domain are measured using multiple informants (parents, other care providers, observers) and methods. Ecommerce And Internet Marketing Research Paper. This assessment provides a wealth of information about child behavior, parenting skills, family dynamics, and top down case study, life stressors; it also sets the nutrition, stage for the therapeutic contact between caregivers and parent consultants. The initial contact between the PC and the family occurs when the PC calls to set up the GTKY session. At this time, the PC introduces himself or herself, briefly explains the top down construction study, intervention portion of the study, and invites the parent to participate in an introductory meeting and a feedback session. The caregivers#x02019; first session with their PC, the discount code, GTKY visit, is top down construction case study, usually held in the family#x02019;s home. The GTKY visit focuses on developing a collaborative framework for subsequent intervention activities by emphasizing rapport building and resume csr bank, exploring concerns with respect to parenting and the family context (Dishion #x00026; Stormshak, 2007). Caregivers also provide information about family resources (e.g., help of extended family members, strong marital relationship) and liabilities (e.g., unstable housing, a father who is incarcerated).
By the end of top down case this visit, caregivers have discussed their concerns and hanif essay, perceptions of their motivation for top down construction case study, change. Ecommerce Research Paper. The PC works to ensure that caregivers feel understood and clarifies discrepancies between caregivers#x02019; goals and current family functioning. Finally, the PC discusses the purpose of the feedback session and how it will be used to review and construction case study, address caregivers#x02019; identified concerns. For example, given a concern about noncompliance and temper tantrums, the PC will review the assessment with attention to specific strategies that might help improve the cooperation between the caregiver and nutrition, the child. The third session of the FCU, the family feedback session, takes place at the family#x02019;s home or at an ESMS office, whichever is preferable to the family.
Case conceptualization is a critical feature of the top down case, feedback session and essay code, is informed by top down construction study, both the assessment and GTKY visit. Family change is approached in a realistic, stepwise fashion, focusing first on issues of safety and security, then moving to issues of behavior management, parenting skills, and relationship building. The feedback session involves a delicate balance among reporting the facts about nutrition essay strengths and problems, building motivation for change, and maintaining rapport with parent(s). The feedback session is a collaborative process, one in which the PC delivers the factual information from the assessment and frequently checks in with parents about their perspectives (see Figure 1 ). An emphasis on strengths helps build rapport and therapeutic alliance with the family while encouraging maintenance of positive behaviors. Statements about problem areas are framed in a way that reflect the current research findings and in construction study, doing so, ground the information in a meaningful way for parents. The PC tailors the feedback material so that it takes into consideration the contextual factors of the panynj thesis, family, including cultural variation, child development, family structure, socioeconomics, and top down study, community and neighborhood factors. At the end of the essay, feedback session, the PC discusses a menu of family-based interventions with the caregivers.
The intervention options stem from previous work using the FCU and top down, focus groups with parents (Dishion #x00026; Stormshak, 2007). These options include (a) monthly to weekly follow-up support, either in-person or by phone; (b) assistance with specific child behavior problems or parent issues; (c) PMT; (d) preschool/day care consultations; and (e) community referrals. The PC encourages the parents to resume csr bank, choose the level and type of services that best meet the top down construction, family#x02019;s needs. The family chosen for this case study qualified for papers, inclusion in the ESMS based on the presence of top down study sociodemographic risk (i.e., low income and overnight essay discount, educational attainment), child risk (i.e., high levels of conduct problems and high levels of parent-child conflict), and construction study, family risk (i.e., elevated maternal depressive symptoms and ecommerce and internet paper, parenting hassles). In addition to study, using a pseudonym, identifying information about the family has been altered to protect their confidentiality. At the hanif kureishi my son the fanatic, time of the age 2 assessment, the Smith family consisted of the mother, a 34-year-old Caucasian female; the father, a 36-year-old Caucasian male; and five children living in top down case study, the home (ranging from 11 months to 15 years). Discount. The Target Child (TC) is their daughter who was 2 years old. The mother was a stay-at-home parent and top down construction case, the father was an unemployed former bus driver. Kureishi. Neither parent held a high school diploma. Construction Case. This marriage was the mother#x02019;s third with multiple children by each husband, including two children with her current husband. The father had children from a previous marriage with whom he has no contact.
The mother and TC participated in a home-based assessment, during which the mother completed questionnaires about TC#x02019;s behavior and her own well-being. Well-established measures were used when possible (see Table 1 ), and PCs were trained to code the videotaped tasks using an ecommerce and internet marketing research paper observation manual (Veltman et al., 2003) derived from top down case, research with families from panynj thesis, similar high-risk environments (e.g., Shaw et al., 2003). Both mother and child participated in observational tasks, including clean-up, teaching, waiting, and meal preparation tasks. The father was not present for the home visit but did complete and return his questionnaires 1 week later. Results from the assessment measures and observational tasks are noted in Table 2 and were incorporated into the feedback session. Both parents were present for the GTKY at age 2. Top Down Construction Study. The mother was very talkative during the 1-hr interview.
The mother provided a detailed history of the family and talked openly about her own struggles with depression. She reported that she refused antidepressant medication because of unpleasant side effects. She also talked about an ongoing source of familial stress: severe harassment by her second ex-husband despite the procurement of several Protection from Abuse orders. The harassment by the ex-husband was persistent over the course of 2 years, and both parents expressed a sense of hopelessness about its resolution. In addition, the family lived in a high-crime neighborhood, as described by both parents and observed by the PC and assessment team. The parents expressed their intention to move to another part of the city within the next year. When asked about the dance term papers, TC, the top down study, mother reported concerns about the child#x02019;s developmental progress and the father reported that she had a #x0201c;bad attitude.#x0201d; When asked about the TC#x02019;s behavior problems, both parents agreed that it was #x0201c;her anger.#x0201d; Both parents reported that TC had a #x0201c;quick temper and dance term papers, lashes out,#x0201d; hit her siblings, and yelled frequently.
The parents also agreed that she had an #x0201c;emotional problem,#x0201d; referring to her temper tantrums. The parents did not spontaneously state any positive qualities about the TC; when asked, the mother reported that she felt that she had a good relationship with the TC. Feedback Preparation and Case Conceptualization. Consistent with typical practice, the feedback session at age 2 was held 1 week after the GTKY. The PC used videotaped and questionnaire data from the assessment to prepare a Child and Family Profile (see Figure 1 ) designed to visually represent the top down case study, child#x02019;s and family#x02019;s strengths and areas of concern. Areas of panynj thesis strength and concern were determined based on published norms, when available, and data from similar high-risk samples (Shaw et al., 2003). At a broader level, components of the data were used to generate a conceptualization of the family#x02019;s strengths and challenges so the review follows a logical storyline for the parents. In the FCU process, the PC prepares a comprehensive report about the family#x02019;s and child#x02019;s strengths and potential problems based on the assessment. Scoring the Smith#x02019;s assessment measures revealed a number of strengths, including that the mother and father viewed their marital relationship positively and were willing to participate in the feedback session. In addition, the mother felt confident in her parenting skills (see Table 2 ). When coding the observational tasks, the PC observed that the mother was responsive to her daughter#x02019;s bids for positive attention and demonstrated a warm and affectionate relationship with her. The child demonstrated strengths in her language ability, as indexed by a score at the 70th percentile on the McArthur Communicative Development Index (Fenson et al., 2000).
Several areas of top down case study concern were evident, most notably the TC#x02019;s level and breadth of problem behavior and the mother#x02019;s level of depressive symptoms. According to mother#x02019;s report on resume csr bank two different measures of top down construction case child behavior, the code, TC was well into the clinical range for both internalizing and externalizing problems (see Table 2 ). Based on construction case study 45 min of observational data, she was found to be in ecommerce and internet marketing, the clinical range for noncompliance (i.e., follows directions less than 50% of the time) and in top down construction, the borderline clinical range for positive play (i.e., exhibits neutral to positive affect) and aggression (two to five instances of aggression toward both objects and people). Compared with other girls her age, the TC appeared to panynj thesis, be on a worrisome behavioral trajectory. There were some areas of concern regarding the mother, namely, that she reported levels of depressive symptoms consistent with clinical depression, a high level of daily stress, and construction, a high level of conflict with her daughter. Resume Csr Bank. Mother also demonstrated few skills for setting limits and being proactive during observational tasks.
The family#x02019;s residence in a high crime neighborhood was also seen as an important factor that impacted their level of stress (see Table 2 ). The combined clinical picture for the TC and top down, mother suggested that there were deficits in parenting skills, perhaps because of the mother#x02019;s depressive symptomatology and daily stress, which contributed to the child#x02019;s behavioral and emotional problems. In addition, the child was demonstrating high levels of behavioral and emotional problems, which were posited to contribute to coercive cycles of interaction with her mother (Patterson, 1982). A related concern was that if the mother and child did not find more positive ways to interact, both child and maternal behavior would become exacerbated, moving the child into a more entrenched and less malleable trajectory of problem behavior. Papers. Interventions aimed at top down construction study improving these areas could capitalize on existing family strengths, namely, the positive marital relationship, parental willingness to participate, and panynj thesis, TC#x02019;s language skills. The family#x02019;s high crime neighborhood and harassment from the ex-husband were also noted on the Child and Family Profile and incorporated into case the feedback session, reflecting the family#x02019;s particular needs and context.
During the age 2 feedback, the Smith family expressed a willingness to receive information about their daughter and some hope that they might receive help to better manage her problem behavior. After a brief rapport-building introduction, the nutrition exam questions, PC began the feedback session and top down case, asked the self-assessment questions (#x0201c;Over the course of the assessment, what did you learn about TC? What stood out for you?#x0201d;). Both parents responded by stating that their child #x0201c;behaves better when other people are around.#x0201d; The PC clarified that the mother believed that the panynj thesis, videotaped portions of the assessment reflected better-than-usual behavior from the top down construction case study, TC. After orienting the parents to the FCU profile and explaining the hanif kureishi, feedback process, the PC discussed the identified areas of top down strength and concern (see Figure 1 ). The Child and Family Profile begins with a focus on child behavior in an effort to align parents with a shared focus about their child#x02019;s well-being. The PC informed the parents that TC was in the clinical range for her aggressive behavior and anxiety-related problems. The mother#x02019;s initial response to this information was to elaborate on the areas where TC was aggressive, in particular with her siblings. When the PC asked the mother about her biggest concerns related to ecommerce and internet research paper, TC#x02019;s fights with siblings, she initially minimized the problem by stating that TC would probably outgrow her aggressive behavior. The PC agreed that this was a possibility (rolling with resistance) and then inquired about alternate outcomes.
When invited by the PC to consider what would happen if TC did not #x0201c;outgrow#x0201d; the problem, the mother admitted to top down construction case study, her fears that TC and siblings might seriously hurt each other #x0201c;by accident.#x0201d; Mrs. Hanif Kureishi Essay. Smith then elaborated on several parenting strategies she and her husband had tried without success. The PC affirmed their efforts and then offered a normalizing statement about the study, parents#x02019; struggles with TC. Overnight Discount Code. Next, the PC discussed the potential usefulness of additional or new parenting strategies to address TC#x02019;s problem behavior.
The PC also provided information about TC#x02019;s likely behavioral trajectory (i.e., behavior problems would likely get worse) and the benefits of early intervention versus #x0201c;wait and top down, see.#x0201d; The PC utilized observational data about TC#x02019;s observed defiance and noncompliance to underscore the seriousness of the concerns about her conduct problems. In addition, the PC and parents discussed TC#x02019;s fearfulness and anxiety, as reported by panynj thesis, the mother and observed by the PC. The mother and construction, father expressed moderate concern here and were able to identify some ways in which TC#x02019;s fearfulness is a problem for them, including her #x0201c;clinginess#x0201d; and inability to sleep through the panynj thesis, night in her own bed. PC also reported on TC#x02019;s strengths, most notably her language skills and positive affect when spending time with her mother. Construction Case Study. TC#x02019;s language development was presented as a positive indicator of panynj thesis her ability to learn new behavior and respond to her parent#x02019;s requests.
In addition, the PC worked to enhance the parent#x02019;s understanding that a positive relationship with their daughter could motivate their daughter to change her behavior. When reviewing the profile sections on study parent wellbeing, the PC informed the parents that the mother#x02019;s scores on ecommerce and internet self-report measures were indicative of clinical depression. The PC expressed concern about the severity of the mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms, and when PC inquired about them, the mother began to cry and stated that she #x0201c;didn#x02019;t want to talk about it.#x0201d; The PC acknowledged that it would be difficult to parent when feeling so depressed. The PC also provided her with information about the impact of maternal depression on child behavior, as well as effective interventions and possible resources. Later in the session, the PC indicated that her level of daily parenting stress was another area of concern and linked this to her depressed mood. In addition, the PC noted that the harassment by her ex-husband was also a significant source of stress likely to be influencing her mood. The mother agreed to look into intervention for case, her depression and stated her intention to resolve the situation with her ex-husband.
When the PC reported to the mother about her strengths, including her parenting confidence and relationship with TC, the kureishi my son the fanatic essay, mother responded with big smiles and verbalized appreciation. Top Down Construction Case. Acknowledgment of her strengths provided the hanif my son the fanatic essay, mother with the opportunity to verbally elaborate on her positive skills and to express how much she values the top down construction study, relationship she has with her daughter and husband. Furthermore, the overnight essay code, PC invited the parents to elaborate on the strengths of their marital relationship, stating that the qualities they mentioned (e.g., communicating well, ability to top down, reach agreement about challenging issues) provided a foundation from dance, which they could parent more effectively as a team. The PC highlighted parent strengths with the aim of supporting parental efficacy and instilling hope for successful behavior change. A key element of the feedback process is the goal setting that concludes the top down study, session. When the entire profile has been reviewed, the PC offers the parents a summary that highlights the strengths and areas of concern. In this case, the PC revisited the concerns about the mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms and essay questions, linked them to other areas of stress and challenges in top down, parenting. The PC also highlighted the parents#x02019; concerns about TC#x02019;s behavior problems and noted the kureishi essay, congruence with the observations of noncompliance and defiance. These concerns were presented with the acknowledgment and construction case study, validation of child and overnight discount, parent strengths. Case. The PC then asked the parents to consider the feedback and invited them to set goals for resume csr bank, their child and themselves. They set three goals: (a) for top down study, the family to move to a new neighborhood that was safer and removed from the ex-husband, (b) for the mother to meet with a psychiatrist to discuss antidepressant medication and other intervention options, and (c) for the parents to work with their daughter to reduce her temper tantrums and hanif kureishi my son essay, aggressive behavior.
As part of the FCU, families are able to determine the top down construction, amount and intensity of follow-up intervention, if any, they wish to receive. The intervention plan is nutrition exam essay, derived in a collaborative manner, focusing on the issues identified in the feedback session and any other issues the parents want to address. In this case, the PC met with both parents for 10 sessions following the feedback session. Sessions were scheduled for every other week. Early sessions focused on the mother#x02019;s depressive symptoms and harassment from top down construction case, her ex-husband. With regard to nonparenting issues, clinicians using the FCU model typically respond in a manner consistent with standard clinical practice, for example, utilizing cognitive behavioral techniques to term papers, deal with depression, offering advocacy and creating a safety plan for top down, domestic violence. Nonparenting issues are addressed with the aim to support family functioning and cohesiveness, as appropriate. For example, a common service PC#x02019;s provide is referral and advocacy for accessing community resources. The FCU model works to facilitate connection with services in and internet marketing paper, a family#x02019;s community to increase their network of support and self-sustainability. In this case, while the PC worked with the mother to reduce her depressive symptoms, she also assisted the mother in finding a psychiatrist.
Regarding the harassment from the mother#x02019;s exhusband, the PC explored possible responses with both parents. The family formalized their plans to move to a better neighborhood farther away from the ex-husband and completed this move within 3 months of the construction, feedback session. Once these initial issues were addressed, the mother expressed willingness to work on TC#x02019;s disruptive behavior. Specifically, she was interested in reducing the number of fights her children had during the day and increasing TC#x02019;s compliance. Over the course of the next seven sessions, the PC explored TC#x02019;s problem behaviors and their associated patterns with both parents by using several tools. Papers. These included the Good Behavior Game (Dishion #x00026; Patterson, 1996); the use of incentives, praise, and encouragement; troubleshooting problem areas; and teaching the proper administration of a Time Out. In general, the intervention phase of the FCU prioritizes teaching parents better skills for positive reinforcement, including praise and construction case, encouragement. When parents choose to focus on parenting skills, the PC typically spends about 45 min on research paper the chosen skill area, with the additional 15 min of the session addressing nonparenting concerns and generating a plan of action. Typically, sessions involve the parents and bring the child in on occasion for top down construction, in vivo practice. Hanif. For each content area, which in this case included incentives, praise and encouragement, and limit setting, the construction, intervention followed a typical process: (a) providing parents with the dance term, rationale for the new skill; (b) having the PC demonstrate the new skill to parents; (c) having parents practice the new skill in session with role plays and making corrections; (d) assigning parents homework; and (e) reviewing homework, successes, and top down case, challenges during the panynj thesis, next visit.
This model is drawn from PMT (Bullock #x00026; Forgatch, 2005). For example, these parents expressed an interest and willingness to top down, learn more about the proper use of incentives. Marketing. The PC first provided the parents a rationale for incentives, explaining that they can be used to help children learn new behavior by rewarding positive behavior. The PC then invited the top down construction study, parents to generate a list of positive behaviors they would like to hanif kureishi the fanatic essay, encourage in top down construction case, their daughter. Once the parents generated this list, they were asked to select one behavior that they would like to focus on resume csr bank for the next week. The PC then invited the TC into construction the room and demonstrated to the parents how a sticker could be used to encourage positive behavior. The PC provided parents with stickers and asked them to practice this, thus clarifying an effective way to explain and introduce the behavior to the TC. Another tool used to encourage good behavior is The Good Behavior Game.
The Good Behavior Game promotes prosocial behavior among young children by (a) asking the parent to tell their children that they can earn a reward if they can play nicely for 10 min (with use of a timer), (b) establishing and panynj thesis, describing reasonable and motivating rewards, (c) carefully explaining what #x0201c;play nicely#x0201d; means, (d) asking children to repeat back the top down construction, instructions, and essay, (e) using a sticker chart to keep track of top down construction children#x02019;s positive play. In sum, the PC provided information about motivating children, the benefits of praise and encouragement, the role of parent involvement, and key components of proactive parenting. In addition, the PC introduced the book Preventive Parenting with Love, Encouragement and Limits (Dishion #x00026; Patterson, 1996) and provided ESMS project-based brochures and informational materials. Over the course of the next two assessment periods (when TC was age 3 and 4, respectively), both TC and the mother demonstrated marked improvement in several domains. At the age 3 assessment, TC#x02019;s behavior had improved to the extent that she was no longer in term papers, the clinical range for either the internalizing or externalizing scales on the Child Behavior Checklist, improvement that was maintained at the age 4 assessment.
In addition, the mother#x02019;s Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale score, which was well into the clinical range at the age 2 assessment, dropped to well within the normal range at the age 4 assessment. In addition, observations of parent-child interaction revealed steady and stepwise improvement over the next 2 years, including marked improvements in child noncompliance and aggression, as well as maternal limit setting and case study, proactive parenting (see Table 2 ). The FCU represents a cost-effective intervention that can lead to clinically meaningful results, such as improvements in child behavior and maternal wellbeing. The main components of the FCU are the GTKY and Feedback Sessions, which last 30 min and 90 min, respectively. Upon completion of the feedback session, parents can choose to participate in tailored follow-up sessions, if they wish. Even when more numerous follow-up sessions are involved, the FCU is time and cost effective.
To date, there has been no formal cost effectiveness assessment of the FCU. However, compared with other relatively brief and empirically validated interventions for child problem behavior, such as Forgatch#x02019;s PMT and Webster-Stratton#x02019;s family-based intervention, the FCU appears to require a fewer number of sessions to achieve beneficial effects. Conducting a cost assessment of the FCU is and internet marketing research, clearly an issue that merits attention in the near future. In the case study presented in this article, the PC spent a total of 18 hr of face-to-face time with the Smith family in the 1st year. Top Down Case Study. The time spent decreased steadily over the subsequent years of the study, with a total of 8 hr of direct contact in the 2nd year and 2 hr of direct contact in the 3rd year. In terms of case preparation (scoring assessment measures, coding videotaped interactions), the amount of time the PC spent in these activities also decreased over the years.
Activities not involving direct service delivery, including case preparation and scoring, required 10 hr of PC time in Year 1, 3#x000bd; hr in Year 2, and kureishi my son essay, only 2 hr in Year 3. Thus, once the process is learned and top down case study, PCs become adept with the essay code, process of preparing for feedback sessions, the FCU becomes a potent and brief intervention. In terms of completing the home assessment, research assistants spent an average of 1 hr of top down travel time in addition to the 2#x000bd; hr home visit, for a total of 3#x000bd; to nutrition exam essay questions, 4 hr per assessment. Top Down Construction Case Study. Whereas in actual practice the same individual might be responsible for conducting the assessment and the intervention, the research project elected to kureishi my son the fanatic essay, have a different person serve these roles. The FCU was designed to integrate research on risk factors for children#x02019;s early conduct problems into top down construction study an ecological, family-based intervention to prevent problem behavior among high-risk families with toddlers. The Smith family is a representative illustration of this innovative method to my son the fanatic essay, reach families at key developmental transitions in top down construction study, at-risk environments. The Smith family presented with a complicated family history, a number of contextual risk factors, and a 2-year-old daughter who was demonstrating both conduct problems and emotional problems. Over the resume csr bank, course of the FCU, the construction case, family showed improvement in several areas, including parenting and child problem behavior, as well reductions in maternal depression and contextual risk. This is resume csr bank, consistent with the research showing that improvements in child conduct problems are accompanied by increases in the mother#x02019;s positive parenting and decreases in maternal depression (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw et al., 2008; Shaw et al., 2006). This family was atypical in one respect#x02014;families in the ESMS participate in an average number of study 3.7 in-person sessions with the PC per papers year, including the GTKY and the Feedback sessions , whereas this family engaged in 12 sessions their first year, and then 3 to 4 in the following 2 years. After their 1st year of more intensive involvement, which was consistent with the construction, family#x02019;s breadth of risk, the resume csr bank, family followed the more typical pattern of direct contact with the construction study, PC.
One of the strengths of this health-maintenance model is the repeated nature of assessment and intervention. The FCU model involves yearly #x0201c;check-ups,#x0201d; which provide clinicians with the unique opportunity to collaboratively track family and child behavior over time and continue to motivate families to change persistent areas of panynj thesis difficulty. For example, it is not uncommon for a family to minimize problems and decline intervention in the 1st year and then engage in the intervention the next year when they discover that the problem behavior has not changed. With some frequency, during the age 3 GTKY, families are able to acknowledge the reality of a problem situation in their 2nd year that they were #x0201c;waiting to see#x0201d; about at the age 2 FCU. It is sometimes the repeated review of data, demonstrating that without intervention these problems persist and construction case study, often worsen over time that can elicit motivation from parents to kureishi my son, take action. This phenomenon is an essential strength of the FCU approach: Through repeated regular contact with families using assessment-driven feedback aimed at motivational change, families who would not usually seek intervention on their own are motivated to change . This change in motivation is particularly important for toddlers at construction case study risk for early starting conduct problems based on their high probability of persistence (Shaw et al., 2003; Shaw, Lacourse, #x00026; Nagin, 2005). In addition, it is dance, common for case, interventionists to spend time working with basic issues related to safety and harm reduction early in intervention (e.g., excessive conflict between divorced spouses).
We find that this initial work sets the foundation for and internet, establishing trust in the PC, for families to be open to viewing their child#x02019;s behavior more realistically, and for families#x02019; willingness to learn new child management strategies. It is important to note that the FCU can be adapted and tailored for use in a range of service settings such as the public school environment or community-based clinic (Dishion #x00026; Kavanagh, 2003). For example, interventionists may choose to focus the assessment primarily on school-related behavior or only on top down construction case study the child#x02019;s behavior in the home. Overnight Essay Discount Code. In addition, the assessment portion of the FCU could be shortened to make it easier to deliver in a typical mental health clinic or school setting. The content of the FCU can also be tailored to the needs of different developmental stages (toddlerhood, school age, adolescent), client populations and specific issues. For example, the FCU has been adapted to examine the top down construction, health-related behaviors of children transitioning to hanif essay, adolescence, with a particular focus on children#x02019;s sleep, emotion regulation, and physical activity. In this #x0201c;health promotion#x0201d; version of the FCU, the assessment and follow-up interventions focus on youth#x02019;s sleep quality, level of construction physical activity, and emotion regulation as a set of nutrition exam questions domains that are relevant for navigating the challenges associated with this developmental stage.
In addition to top down construction, showing intervention effects on child problem behavior, parenting, and maternal depression, the FCU has been found to be effective for promoting change in a wide range of family structures, cultural backgrounds, and papers, contextual risk factors as well as across a broad range of age groups (Dishion et al., in press; Shaw et al., 2008; Shaw et al., 2006). For example, the FCU is currently being used with older children and adolescents in construction, Oregon and with American Indian families living on a reservation. Perhaps the most novel feature of the FCU is the flexibility it provides clinicians in tailoring interventions to the individual family#x02019;s challenges and hanif kureishi the fanatic, strengths, as well as to top down case study, the family#x02019;s perception of the child#x02019;s problem behavior. By integrating the use of motivational interviewing within an ecological framework and utilizing empirically validated methods for promoting change, the model also fits well with current conceptualizations of developmental psychopathology that recognize multiple risk factors and pathways leading to similar problematic outcomes for overnight essay discount, children (Richters #x00026; Cicchetti, 1993). One important issue for the use of the information provided in this case study in clinical practice is that family participation might follow a different pattern or level of engagement outside of the research setting. ESMS families receive payment for their participation in the assessment and gift cards for their participation in the feedback session.
It remains to be seen whether the FCU will appeal to families in pediatric or other community settings without such incentives. In addition, retention of families over time may be more challenging in case study, a traditional community setting, where staff may not have the time to search for families who have moved or to conduct follow-up phone calls. Presently, the creators of the FCU are considering innovative ways to apply this model more broadly and are working to tailor the overnight discount, assessment and construction case, feedback process so that it is term, more user friendly for both therapists and construction case, parents. Essay Discount. Ideally, the FCU assessment can be reduced to about 35 to top down construction, 45 min with the feedback session more finely tailored to specific family needs. Despite these limitations, we believe the FCU holds much promise for preventing the onset of child problem behavior across developmental status of the child, the type of child problem behavior, the family#x02019;s cultural and essay discount code, socioeconomic background, and the setting for contact with families. Future follow-up studies of the ESMS efficacy trial will test whether intervention effects found for reductions in early child problem behavior and maternal parenting and depression will endure across time and setting as children transition to construction, the school-age period. Nutrition Exam. However, as such effects appear to be evident across adolescence for a similar sample of at-risk youth (Connell et al., in study, press), we are optimistic about the FCU#x02019;s effectiveness and use in other settings with other at-risk populations for promoting child and family well-being.
Moreover, as the presented case illustrates, the FCU can be a powerful preventative intervention for families who might not otherwise seek services for their children by dance term papers, addressing motivation and giving families flexible intervention plans that match their unique situation. This research was supported by grant DA16110 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to the third, fourth, and fifth authors. Top Down. We gratefully acknowledge the Early Steps staff and the families who participated in this project. This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the ecommerce marketing, contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources.
The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. Anne M. Gill, Department of Psychology, University of top down construction Pittsburgh. Luke W. Hyde, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh. Daniel S. Code. Shaw, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh. Thomas J. Dishion, Department of Special Education, University of Oregon.
Melvin N. Wilson, Department of Psychology, University of construction study Virginia.