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Truth | Why Truthfulness is Very Important for Life | Essay for Students
Biotechnology An Introduction to Biotechnology | Essay. Essay? In simple terms, biotechnology refers to the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and human environment. It is an amalgamation of molecular and cellular biology and plant, animal and human genetics. Online Essay Evaluation Application? Renowned fiction-writer Ken Follett has written about the truthfulness eleven #8216;twins#8217; in his best seller #8216;The Third Twin#8217;. Personal Project? All these eleven young men are born to different sets of parents in different parts of the essay about country, and yet have the same face, physical features, blood group, and even the same fingerprints. Of course, Follett was just using his imagination when he plotted a team of scientists who created these eleven clones through genetic manipulations. Evaluation Application? But true- life scientists who created #8216;Dolly#8217;, the essay sheep, and #8216;Flavr-Savr#8217;, the perfect tomato, have achieved these feats for real. And now, we can talk of producing roses without thorns and wheat with extra doses of proteins without being laughed at. All this is essay on story, thanks to the advent of biotechnology.
The seeds for biotechnology were sown in 1953, when James Watson and Francis Crick revealed how four bases could pair to form the self- copying code of a DNA molecule. These two Nobel laureates could have never imagined how their discovery of DNA would change the very concept of life. But before we discuss the various advances that have been made in biotechnology, and the impact that these have had on our lives, let#8217;s take a look at how this technique functions. In simple terms, biotechnology refers to the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and human environment. About Truthfulness? It is an amalgamation of molecular and cellular biology, and plant, animal and human genetics. In simple terms, biotechnology refers to the use of living organisms or their products to modify human health and human environment. Elements Of An Research? It is an amalgamation of molecular and cellular biology and essay, plant, animal and human genetics. Photo Essay? All living things are made up of cells, which are programmed by the same basic genetic material called DNA (Deoxy Ribonucleic Acid). Essay? Each unit of DNA is made up of four nucleotides.
These are Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), and Cytosine (C) The other two ingredients being sugar and a phosphate. Action Research Paper? These nucleotides pair up in essay about truthfulness, strands that twist together in a spiral structure, called a double helix. Thus, all DNA whether from a microorganism, a plant, an animal or a human is composed of the same material. While every cell is an individual organism, each cell has the essay same number of DNA units. The different segments of DNA (genes) tell individual cells how to differentiate: i.e., to develop either into an eye, a blood cell, a muscle, a skin cell, and so on. DNA also instructs different cells -to produce specific proteins, enzymes and other substances that the host organism uses to fight disease or fend off predators and other threats. Over the years, researchers have discovered the methods of transferring a specific piece of DNA from one organism to essay about truthfulness, another the first step in transferring DNA is to cut or remove a gene segment from a chain of DNA, using enzymes as #8216;scissors#8217; (restriction enzymes). Essay On Story? These scissors are then used to cut an opening into the plasmid the ring of DNA often found in bacteria outside the essay core DNA. The next step is to paste or place the gene segment into the plasmid. The cut ends of both the plasmid and the gene segment are chemically sticky, and they promptly attach to review, each other, thus forming a plasmid containing new gene. Finally, another enzyme (ligase) is used to paste or secure the essay about new gene in place.
These transferable genes can be used to transmit the elements research paper desired genetic traits from one organism to another which is the fundamental approach of about biotechnology. Various advances made in the twentieth century have put biology on online a molecular footing. For instance, biochemists have purified proteins and truthfulness, studied them in vitro in a test tube, crystallographers have solved their structures, and geneticists have used mutations to focus on the role of individual genes. And now, the sequencing of the human genome has added a whole new dimension to these processes. Using such techniques, we have made substantial advancement in our understanding of the genetic blueprint, and help, how it controls the growth and development of living organisms. This has been made possible by the development of artificial genes coding for specific traits. Gene transfer has given birth to development of essay about transgenic and we now have transgene in plants, animals and online essay evaluation, microorganisms. Truthfulness? In fact, now we can even look forward to passing on man-made genes to the next generation through these transgenic. The progress in the field of biotechnology certainly sounds impressive. But its truth worth lies in its implications.
Modern biotechnological tools have helped us scale even the chegg laws of nature, and turn various biological disadvantages to our convenience. The simplest example of such manipulation is essay about, with the plant life. The application of biotechnological techniques can make the flora more resistant to chegg homework review, pests, bacteria, fungi and essay about, viruses, which claim over thirty five per cent of the global vegetation. Evaluation Application? These losses amount to a whopping US$200 billion every year. Biotechnological tools can help ward off these threats to vegetation, but one would not forget that the use of this technology is subject to social, economic and ecological pressures.
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Bt Toxin, which holds strong against about insect larvae. But Bt toxins are insecticidal, and unless Bt plants are carefully designed, the elements of an action research insects and pests may develop a resistance to them. Nonetheless, thirty years of success have crowned Bt as one of the truthfulness fastest acting bio-pesticides available. The successful expression of the Bt fusion gene in a hybrid crop provides a good resource for boxer photo essay, management of about truthfulness rice pests in tropical Asian countries. Now we can even look forward to growing transgenic trees. Scientists are engineering various species like sweet gum and cottonwood with the aim of creating a #8216;Super Tree#8217;. This super tree will grow faster than the normal species, and will also retain their hardness. Isolation of specific promoter elements has also helped in designing the essay on story crops expressing proteins in specific tissues. We can even think of blue roses and pink dahlias! Such engineered products will be extremely useful in creating ornamentals for export purposes. Already the essay about first genetically modified tomato called Flavr-Savr has been produced.#8217;
Another area where modem biological techniques and elements of an action research, bioengineering principles hold great potential is that of about truthfulness food production the largest industry in the world. The recombinant DNA has been used to improve the flavour and texture of fruits and vegetables. Genetic transformation also helps prevent frost damage in food products. The gene from essay on story, flounder has been used to protect plants against freezing damage. But perhaps the greatest achievement of this technology lies in the field of nutrition. #8220;Child is the father of the essay about truthfulness man#8221;, as said by William Wordsworth holds true. So, we need to preserve our future by producing nutritionally rich food for our future generation. At present nearly 800 million people or about eighteen per cent of the homework review world#8217;s total population, do not have sufficient food to meet their nutritional needs. The situation is quite alarming in the developing world, where nearly twelve million children below the age of five die of malnutrition every year. About? This problem can be successfully tackled by the application of biotechnology, which enables the growth of essay on story healthier and more nutritional food, even under unfavorable conditions. These techniques prompt a sustainable increase in the yield per hectare for staple crops like com, rice, wheat and about truthfulness, potatoes, and also increase the nutritional content of food crops.
For instance, the #8216;Golden Rice#8217; is an engineered variety of rice that is rich in Vitamin A, precursor P-carotene and iron. This inexpensive solution will counter the action research wide incidence of childhood blindness and maternal anaemia among millions of people whose staple food is rice. Biotechnology has also proved its worth in fighting natural adversities like drought. Modern science has helped us develop drought-tolerant plants. Recent work from Michael Thomashow#8217;s group and Kazuo Shinozaki have explored the intricacies involved in stress resistance mechanisms, which involve master switch type of genes. These reports show that a battery of proteins can regulate freezing and drought tolerance. About Truthfulness? This concept has been referred as Region Engineering. In the nineteenth century, medicine mainly consisted of morphine- based drugs and boxer essay, crude remedies.
The subsequent evolution of antibiotics and vaccines enabled the eradication of entire classes of diseases. The next medical revolution will come through genetic engineering, which will help conquer cancer, grow new blood vessels in tumors, create new organs from stem cells, and even reset the primeval genetic coding that causes ageing of cells. In fact, biotechnology has already yielded dozens of therapeutics like human insulin, growth factors for bone-marrow transplants, products for treating heart attacks, and diagnostic kits for infective agents like AIDS and hepatitis. The first life-saving drug, Humulin was also produced by recombinant DNA technology. These bio-pharmaceuticals are not only produced in a form identical to that normally present in the human body, but also have improved activity, stability and bio-availability. Such products are also free from contamination. Research on these lines will give way to developing internal organs for essay about truthfulness, human transplantation.
The breakthrough in developing stem cells hold solutions to how much to charge to proofread a thesis, control cancer, regenerate the spinal cord and brain tissues, and curb many other diseases associated with ageing. Biotechnology has also become an indispensable tool in testing of biological materials, which are used as evidences in legal and criminal proceedings associated with cases like paternity dispute, sexual harassment and murder. Essay About Truthfulness? Another remarkable success has been in the area of nuclear transfer technology, which has already proved its mettle in the cloning of Dolly the sheep and Polly the lamb. Biotechnology can also come in handy for enhancing the performance of vaccines. #8216;Gene Therapy#8217;, the latest feat of bio-technology, has opened up a whole new treatment paradigm. The #8216;Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)#8217;, which uses the #8216;Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), has further made it possible to personal project software, use the umbilical cord stems cells of a yet unborn (only foetus) to cure genetic disorders. The merging of medical and agricultural biotechnology has opened up new vistas to essay truthfulness, develop plant varieties with health-inducing characteristics. Modern techniques have unraveled how natural plant substances (phytochemicals) confer protection against cancer and other diseases. This knowledge is now being used to enhance the level of such substances in the food supply.
Ongoing research will soon perfect the delivery of a thesis medicines and about, vaccines through common foods. These #8216;Neutracutical#8217; foods could be used to immunize individuals against a wide variety of enteric and other infectious diseases. Biotechnology has made significant contributions to the field of marine aquaculture. The tremendous potential of marine resources still lies untapped, and can be actively harnessed for the benefit of the mankind. As over-exploitation of of an paper natural resources takes its toll on these natural reserves, the development of transgenic fish will play a key role in the aquaculture industry in the near future. Increasing Avenues in essay about, Biotechnology: Ever since the discovery of the DNA, the field of biology has experienced a series of revolutionary changes.
The recent development of high capacity methods to analyse the essay structure and about, function of genes has given birth to what we now know as Genomics. Instead of analysing a single or few genes- at a time, it is boxer essay, now possible to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of all the genes in an organism. Scientists are already looking forward to the day when they will decipher the whole human genome, all the genes (approximately to about, be around 35-40 thousand) encoded by help review the three billion bases (chemical pairs) in our DNA. Essay About? Deciphering of the human genome has opened new vistas in elements action research paper, understanding the functional machinery of these genes in a human body. Just like the human genome, the plant genome too has wide implications in helping us understand the function of plant genes in their cellular, organismal and evolutionary context, and to create an information structure of plant biology. In plant-life, the Arabidopsis genome has already been mapped. This achievement could open the floodgates to a new green revolution of the so-called #8216;Super-crops#8217;.
A total of 25,498 genes expressing 11,000 proteins have been reported. This gene mapping would provide insights into all the livestock- supporting plants like soya bean, wheat, com and fruit. Such genomic discoveries have indeed paved the way for learning the essay truthfulness functions of all plant genes, and unraveling the elements of an action research processes that are fundamental to the mechanisms of plant life. And as the human genome project approaches conclusion, the translation of information from DNA to protein is fast catching up. Essay About Truthfulness? This may end up virtually revolutionising human medicine and health care. But one of the key challenges lies in understanding Proteomics the science of cellular protein universe. As in the case of genomics, proteomics helps catalogue and characterize the proteins in a group, and in an automated large-scale manner. Proteomics include transcriptional profiling to determine which genes encode proteins in a particular cell type, developmental stage or disease state, high-throughput expression, protein folding and photo essay, protein- protein interaction studies. It also helps understand transduction and other complex cell processes, large scale protein folding and three- dimensional structures. This process can even reveal an essay truthfulness, overall picture of how the how much a thesis genes in all organisms (total genome) function, including the expression profiles at the mRNA (Transcriptome) and protein (Proteome) levels.
Based on these studies, maps can be made, which could eventually help identify both the defects as well as the about positive aspects of the concerned gene or protein. Biotechnology also plays a great role in chegg homework review, preserving our environment. The scope of essay Environmental Biotechnology ranges from the search for microbes that will reduce acid rain by removing sulphur from power plants, to the biological production of biodegradable plastics. As the world battles the dilemma of boxer photo essay protecting the essay about truthfulness environment while simultaneously promoting economic development, environmental biotechnology will play a key role in striking a healthy balance between competing interests. The other area of reckoning is the conservation and sustainable use of Biodiversity. Management Software? Advances in biotechnology offer powerful tools for conservation, evaluation and the use of genetic structures of various species. Truthfulness? Applications of essay application modern biotechnology for bio-remediation of contaminated land and water have already helped transform hazardous wastes into non-hazardous wastes. Moreover, biotechnology has played a major role in recovery of degraded ecosystems.
Some of the methods based on plant biotechnology include reforestation through micro propagation and the use of mycorrhiza. Maintaining a wide genetic base, which is an important element of biodiversity, is also essential to the future of biotechnology and the sustainable use of biological resources. Biotechnology also holds tremendous implication in increasing our bio-energy resources by increasing the acceptability of biomass, biogas and fuel alcohol as commercially feasible energy options for the future. Computers have added a new dimension to biological research and in turn, biological material in the form of bio-chips will have a tremendous impact on computerization. These bio-chips would soon replace conventional silicon chips used in computers today.
The proposed range of essay about truthfulness bio-molecular computers promises to essay application, be ten to essay, thousand times smaller than the best super computers available at present, with much faster switching times and extremely low power dissipation. So, with all this excitement in the field, and new avenues being added every minute, you have surely made a wise decision if you think biotechnology is the field for action research paper, you. Read on to find out what might be in store, and how you can achieve it. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to essay about, post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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Value of Truthfulness - Important India
Shooting Holes in Wounding Theories: III. Essay About? Myths, Misconceptions and Miscalculations. If I haven't already gotten someone into a stew with what I've said so far, I'm certain to do so now. I want to examine some very popular myths, misconceptions and miscalculations of terminal effects with a view to demonstrating not only why they are not true, but also to elements action paper account for the phenomena which caused them to be formulated. I think that's fair. About? If I can't explain to your satisfaction the observed phenomena that supports your favorite stopping power theory, I can't ask you to essay on story ditch it. III.
A. The Mythology of Wound Lethality. III. A. i. Kinetic Energy, Part I: Energy Dump, Overpenetration and Hydrostatic Shock I lump together energy dump theories, the essay truthfulness concept of overpenetration and the arguments involving the essay on story term hydrostatic shock because they all tend to share a common idea, which is that the abrupt deposition of the kinetic energy of the bullet is responsible for its lethality. I don't wish to be misunderstood and we are in danger of this discussion being taken for a mere matter of semantics, so let me be clear: the salient point is that the about adherants of these views are fixated on essay evaluation, the idea of the about rapid transfer of energy to the target, rather than on the mechanics of the boxer photo essay work being done by the bullet in about truthfulness terms of chegg wounding (i.e., penetration and cavitation). Truthfulness? Specifically, in the extreme, some such advocates have emphasized the temporary cavity produced by the bullet with little regard for the permanent cavity created. There is a prevalent belief that a bullet which remains inside a target is more effective in essay application terms of stopping or killing power than one which completely penetrates; the idea being that all of the kinetic energy has been spent inside the truthfulness game animal. It seems reasonable. To Proofread A Thesis? Why wouldn't it be true? This belief is not new. Colonel Townsend Whelen writes in his very illuminating treatise, Small Arms Design and Ballistics , that the essay about thought at that time was that the ideal bullet should just shoot through the animal to its opposite side, and lodge under the skin without penetrating clear through, thus expending all its energy on the beast (p.
137). Elements Action Paper? The time he is essay about describing is the latter half of the 19th century when the weapons were rifles of .45 caliber, shooting a bullet of 350 to 550 grains and action research paper, with a charge of about truthfulness black powder sufficient to give it a muzzle velocity of from essay on story, 1300 to 1500 fps (p. 136). Even in these early days of ballistics inquiry the significance of kinetic energy was being examined. Unfortunately the conclusion reached by some is mistaken, or at truthfulness, the very least misdirected.
It is interesting that the 19th century model of energy dump required the bullet to to charge completely pass through the about truthfulness body, but stop under the skin on the off-side; combining the features of an energy dump with lethal penetration and cavitation. If such arguments invariably took this position there would be little or nothing to argue against. The arguments heard today have been around for decades. Consider the following excerpt from an article written by chegg homework review (then) Major Charles Askins Jr. of the US Border Patrol that appeared in the November 1930 issue of The American Rifleman : Let a man tell what he considers ideal penetration, and he will state that is where a bullet goes through an essay, animal, lodging in the skin on the opposite essay, side. Essay About? He doesn't like to say that the bullet went entirely through, making a big hole on the opposite side, and going on, because he very well knows that the bullet would then be expending part of the energy after it got through.
He is obsessed with the conviction that the missile must spend all of its energy within the beast, or else it is a defective bullet. Now, with some misgivings I question the how much to charge a thesis wisdom of all this. About Truthfulness? I believe that if we could have a bullet which would pass entirely through the game - a brown bear, say - and make a hole on the other side as big as your two fists, we'd get that bear. Elements Paper? Same thing with anything else we shot. There are at least two contemporary variations on about truthfulness, the energy dump premise. The principal argument seems to center on the concept of online essay evaluation application overpenetration, which is essentially the same thought as expressed in the 19th century but with the added evidence of actual results from gunfights on the street (the chief culprit being the rather pointed 9 mm FMJ bullet). Bullets which overpenetrate do not stop opponents as readily as those that remain in the body, it is about alleged. Therefore, if the online essay evaluation application energy isn't wasted on exit, the bullet is more effective. Right? Not necessarily. It depends on the target as well as the load under consideration.
A bullet of a given construction and impact velocity will create a cavity of predictable dimensions over its path, whether it stops or penetrates completely. Therefore, if the hole created can penetrate all the way through, it causes more damage than if it stops at some point. Obviously, we can have a bullet that expands even more violently than this (or disintegrates) and which will never exit the target of essay truthfulness interest. How would it compare to the foregoing case of boxer essay (let us say) controlled expansion? The critical issue here is what sort of about truthfulness hole are we making, not whether it goes all the a thesis way through. Essay About? Overpenetration is a misnomer.
The ineffective stopping attributed to boxer photo essay overpenetration of handgun bullets (to the extent that its even fair criticism) is actually caused by inadequate cavitation (not surprisingly for a pointed FMJ). Let's make a practical comparison of extremes. Consider a .41 Magnum load with a 280 grain LBT-style WFN hard cast bullet with an impact velocity of 1400 fps. About? Now, comprare this load with a .224 caliber 55 grain Nosler Ballistic-Tip having an impact velocity of 2800 fps. These two loads have exactly the same kinetic energy at impact: 957 ft-lbs. However, their respective terminal behaviors are very different. At this velocity, the 55 grain Ballistic Tip would not exit anything larger than a varmint, say a coyote. The .41 Magnum load will easily break both shoulders on an elk and exit. Photo? Between these two loads, the .224 Ballistic Tip would be the better performer on smaller game (or human targets), but I am confident that the advocacy for its use on game such as elk and bear would be very much in the minority, and rightly so.
It would definitely deliver more energy to the target, but its effectiveness would suffer from truthfulness, inadequate penetration. So, the energy deposition in the target is online evaluation not the sole or even the primary determinant of the utility of the load. If there were an ideal case from the about standpoint of efficiency , I suppose it would be for a bullet which completely, but just barely, penetrated and fell to the ground. Homework? One must appreciate the difference between efficiency and effectiveness. (The engine tunings of dragsters are not efficient!) In this case the bullet has done all the damage that it can do to essay about that particular target at that particular angle of elements paper entry. The problem here, of course, is that one cannot predict the essay about exact size and toughness of the game encountered, or the exact range, which would have to be known in order to online application achieve the about precise impact velocity required for ideal efficiency.
All of these uncertainties drive bullet loads to exceed the minimum performance, and elements action, this is accomplished by designing a bullet that will create an adequate cavity while deeply penetrating over a wide range of impact velocities. Naturally, at some ranges the bullet may exit with considerable residual velocity. Truthfulness? This wasted energy is irrelevant if the wound is adequate. At this point I again call attention to my previously stated definition of adequate, namely a wound track of 0.75 to personal project management software 1.00 inches (19 to 25 mm) in diameter through heart, lungs or major arteries. A smaller hole through major arteries only (for example) will kill, but the game may run a significant distance and be lost. It is essay about also infinitely more difficult to track wounded game without a blood trail than with one that looks as if it were painted with a roller, and entrance wounds rarely bleed much. A larger cavity at review, shallow depth may drop a game animal instantly, but what is gained by less than 25 to 100 yards at the risk of an inadequate wound if a difficult angle is involved or major bones intervene or the bullet self-destructs unpredictably? There are circumstances in which reducing that distance is crucial and others in which an exiting bullet can be a liability. It is not a cut and dried issue.
In general though, I have come to believe that most experienced hunters prefer a generous exit wound. One could devote a lengthy essay to the ethical considerations of the contemporary hunter, vis-a-vis what was acceptable in times past. In the 19th century skilled hunters, who hunted for subsistence, would put their bullet through the heart or lungs and if the game ran half a mile they could still bag it. For most of us, times have changed. We lack the tracking skills of about truthfulness our forebears and the moral justification to use marginally effective weapons. Personally, I hold the one-shot instant kill as my ideal and boxer, therefore absolute reliability and predictability in essay truthfulness terminal performance.
The point that I have attempted to press here (perhaps in a rambling fashion) is that complete penetration is not something to avoid in the hunting field. In fact there is good evidence that through and online evaluation application, through wounds cause collapse quicker in many instances. Tactical considerations concerning penetration are a different matter entirely. Bullets such as the Glaser Safety Slug were designed primarily with tactical considerations in mind, rather than optimal wounding. Glasers are designed not to essay about penetrate aircraft or sheetrock walls, or to exit from the homework review body of the target and endanger someone immediately behind. Glasers and similar such designs create extremely effective wounds if they do not have to penetrate deeply in order to about reach the vitals of the target. However, it is this end of the design spectrum that is problematic. Taken in its extreme, were the mere deposition of energy by evaluation any mechanism or in any fashion the sole object of bullet design, then it would be fairly simple to design a bullet that would never exit practically any target. It would be extremely frangible in construction and provide very shallow penetration.
In fact, it need not penetrate at all. Consider a hypothetical example of two projectiles with equal kinetic energies. About Truthfulness? One is elements of an research paper a 1 lb gel-filled bag launched at 60 fps. The other is truthfulness a 490 gr broadhead arrow travelling at 225 fps. Both have a kinetic energy of 55 ft-lbs. Which would you rather be hit by?
The kinetic energy of the gel-filled bag would be completely absorbed on impact, probably causing a painful contusion; but it wouldn't kill unless it just happened to break your neck. The arrow would easily and completely penetrate a human torso from any angle and continue travelling with residual energy, but prove highly lethal. However, one might object, we're only considering a mere 55 ft-lbs. What happens when the homework help energy levels are comparable to that of essay about truthfulness a high powered rifle? An excellent counter-point. (Apparently I confused some in the past, so here is a clearer explanation) Assume 3000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy, about that of a .338 caliber, 250 grain Nosler Partition fired from to charge to proofread a thesis, a .338 Winchester Magnum with a remaining velocity of 2325 fps at 100 yards or so; well within its effective range for lethal dispatch on large game - in fact, an extremely effective load.
This equates, in strict energy terms, to a tackle by about truthfulness a 225 pound defensive end moving at essay on story, 20 mph (29.3 fps). That sounds like quite a smackdown and I daresay it would clobber most people and a lot of big game, but its also rarely injurious, let alone fatal. It is not the essay about truthfulness 3000 ft-lbs of energy itself that kills, it is the character of the work done by it. Another example of the fallacy of the energy dump theory of stopping power is one from my own experience. I once shot a thin metal screen with my 41 Magnum (210 gr. HP, 1350 fps, 850 ft-lbs) at a very close range ( do not try this at home!). Photo? The bullet was completely stopped; it lay on the ground in front of the mesh screen. The screen apparently had completely absorbed all of the kinetic energy of the bullet.
However, the screen suffered no serious damage; there was only essay about truthfulness, a faint depression where the bullet had struck and glanced. Elements Of An Research Paper? What actually occurred is that the screen gave against some tall grass when impacted and essay, caught the bullet like a catcher's mitt. When I attempted to reproduce this spectacular behavior for a friend of mine, the screen was supported so that it did not give and was easily perforated by help review the bullets. This last example from personal experience graphically demonstrates why the energy dump premise is fundamentally flawed. In the former case the screen (with the assistance of some grass) completely absorbed the kinetic energy and received no damage; in the latter it was penetrated with energy to spare. You would observe a similar result if the target were wearing body armor (admittedly, the aramid fiber absorbs part of the energy and aids in essay about truthfulness distributing the applied forces over a larger area, but the same would hold true if skin had the mechanical characteristics of aramid fiber).
I wouldn't suggest that game animals or unprotected people can absorb 3000 ft-lbs of management kinetic energy instantaneously (and this is essential) with complete impunity. Moreover, I can think of no hunting bullets for rifles today which do not provide adequate penetration under most circumstances within the impact velocity range and against the game for which they are intended. But there are frangible bullets composed of compressed metal powders for use in confined shooting ranges which disintegrate upon about truthfulness, impact, expending all of their kinetic energy without penetrating, and these are not suitable for hunting, although they may inflict wounds which are ultimately fatal (from infection or secondary consequences such as starvation). Kinetic energy deposition alone is not what is sought after. How Much A Thesis? Experienced hunters will affirm that deep penetration into the vitals, coupled with an adequate degree of destructive cavitation is about truthfulness essential for success in the field. Varmint bullets and most match bullets likewise are demonstrated miserable performers on big game, although under ideal conditions (missing all heavy bones on a clear broadside lung shot) they can kill spectacularly against smaller bodied deer and boxer photo, antelope. Truthfulness? Hit the essay on story shoulder bones or angle the shot from the rear and it is often ruinous. However, one should not assume from essay, this that kinetic energy means nothing, or is somehow unrelated to wounding potential. Clearly, the essay on story naked human torso (and that of even large and essay, tough game) is far more capable of absorbing a low velocity impact than the kinetic energy of a rifle bullet.
The rate of energy transfer to the target is vastly more important than the quantity of energy transferred. This is the technical definition of power. Anyone sunbathing on boxer photo essay, a clear summer day at the beach will receive an irradiance equivalent to over 4600 ft-lbs every minute. Eventually, this bombardment by essay about truthfulness extremely high energy particles will result in sunburn, but the of an action research body can withstand the energy it receives because it is spread over essay about, a large area and arrives at a relatively slow rate (compared with bullets). The power and intensity (power per unit area) is much less than ballistic events. The other popular contemporary misconception results from the management software belief that the essay about truthfulness rapid transfer of the kinetic energy of the bullet thereby kills instantaneously through hydrostatic shock. Application? This term gets used rather loosely to essay describe quite a lot of things, including some actual wound mechanics, but for the sake of the following discussion I confine my reference to how much to charge to proofread a thesis purported effects induced far from the wound cavity that are attributable to essay about a shocking effect ascribed to certain bullets or loads.
I don't know where this term originated, but it is boxer essay pseudoscientific slang. In the about truthfulness first place, these are dynamic - not static - events. Moreover, hydrostatic shock is an oxymoron. Shock, in essay on story the technical sense, indicates a mechanical wave travelling in excess of the inherent sound speed of the material; it can't be static. This may be a flow related wave like a bow shock on the nose of a bullet in air or it may be a supersonic acoustic wave travelling through a solid. In terms of essay truthfulness bullets striking tissue, shock is never encountered.
The sound speed of muscle tissue has been measured to be about 5150 fps, and personal project software, that of fatty tissue around 4920 fps ( A Cavitation Model for Kinetic Energy Projectiles Penetrating Gelatin , Henry C. Dubin, BRL Memorandum Report No. 2423, US Army Ballistic Research Laboratories, December 1974). Even varmint bullets do not have an impact velocity this high, let alone a penetration velocity exceeding 4900 fps. Unless the bullet can penetrate faster than the inherent sound speed of the about medium through which it is passing, you will not observe a shock wave. Instead, the bullet impact produces an acoustic wave which moves ahead of the penetration. The initial acoustic wave causes no damage (it has been observed in testing passing harmlessly in advance of the bullet's path). Some people use shock in the colloquial sense to describe a violent impact, but it is confusing, especially in boxer photo connection with the term hydrostatic and lends undeserved quasi-scientific merit to the slang. It also tends to get confused with the essay about truthfulness medical expression attending trauma. We are not describing what is essay on story meant by essay truthfulness shock to essay on story the medical profession. The word shock should never appear in a gun journal, in my opinion. Before I become too dogmatic and overstate the situation, let me concede that there may be some merit to the idea that hydrodynamic (not hydrostatic) impulse created by essay about truthfulness bullets which have a high kinetic energy (or perhaps simply a high velocity) and boxer essay, generally exhibit violent cavitation (or merely generate local pressures of a certain magnitude in combination with specific shotlines), can cause some secondary effects due to about pressure on the nervous system or circulatory system.
In addition to the pressure induced cranial hemorrhage described previously, it is possible to essay on story kill manually by nerve strangulation. In this case actual damage to the central nervous system is essay about not caused, but the chegg homework review signals governing the heart or diaphragm are shut off, resulting in instantaneous unconsciousness or even death. This sort of thing makes for about truthfulness lurid mythology in the martial arts and bad movies, but there is some real science behind it. Certain rare sports fatalities have been definitely attributed to a swift blow which interrupts the personal cardiac rhythm. Acoustic pressure on the spine can also cause temporary paralysis. These phenomena may account for essay truthfulness the rapid effectiveness of some high-velocity hollow-point pistol bullet wounds, especially in cases in which the victim is not mortally wounded and recovers consciousness within a few minutes. Some special handgun loads (e.g., the chegg help review THV bullet) have been designed allegedly to achieve this result. Truthfulness? Unfortunately, this is an how much a thesis, unreliable mechanism of incapacitation, generally obtained at the expense of essay about truthfulness effective penetration. No bullet yet designed will produce this rapid shocking effect on essay on story, demand because it depends more on the hit location and perhaps even the timing of the hit than it does on the design characteristics or velocity of the bullet. Many of the handgun bullets designed to use this effect can be defeated by common barriers, such as glass, sheetrock, and even clothing.
More to the point, its less a matter of the bullet than the specific aimpoint. Doing this deliberately by about hand, even with a profound understanding of the mechanism and vital points, is extremely uncertain; using the passage of online application a pressure wave from a bullet to accomplish this falls into the freak event category. Such is essay never an acceptable mechanism for the hunter. On the other hand, as I have alluded to previously, some contemporary bullet designs (e.g., Nosler Ballistic Tip) as well as some renowned performers from years past (e.g., the original 130 grain bullet of the .270 Winchester and the Remington Bronze Point) achieve a high percentage of instantaneous kills by blowing to bits and never exiting the game. I find this interesting in view of the current obsession with avoiding bullets in which the lead cores separate from the jacket. There are few situations in which simple slip separation (core and jacket traveling forward together) would be disadvantageous, although complete separation invariably leaves the jacket behind, makes the core vulnerable to premature fragmentation and can cause a very abrupt termination of penetration. But returning to the issue, the successful frangible bullet designs nevertheless always penetrate to the vitals and have never been regarded as reliable for rear raking shots requiring deep penetration or against very tough heavy game and most knowledgeable authorities prefer bullets which exhibit modest cavitation with deep penetration because of their flexibility in elements paper the field. In conclusion, if kinetic energy merely being imparted to essay the target is not inherently indicative of lethality, what can kinetic energy tell us about a load?
Well, the elements of an action research essential questions are what sort of about truthfulness bullet are we discussing, at what impact velocity and against what sort of target? Considering all of that, though, kinetic energy can be a good indicator of the potential for management cavitation when coupled with the proper bullet. III. A. ii. Momentum and Stopping Power There is another branch of armchair ballistics which favors the use of momentum as a raw measure of stopping power. I confess that I was long enamored of this view because it seemed to give more credit to lower velocity big-bore cartridges that were strong performers than the kinetic energy story told, but momentum alone is equally inadequate to describe terminal behavior and the arguments given in truthfulness support of that view are as full of blue sky nonsense as any claim made of kinetic energy.
The old African hunters talked of essay stoppers which would cause a charging pachyderm to halt its forward progress in its tracks and stand stock still in a daze. This situation applied only to (if you carefully note the details) the truly huge weapons such as the 8 and essay, 4 bore blackpowder rifles and later .577 and .600 Nitro Expresses when fired into the spongy skull of an elephant, but when the brain is closely missed. In this case, the impact of the essay on story blow was literally sufficient to stagger the animal. It is to be noted, however, that these ancient blackpowder weapons could only be used by essay about truthfulness men of considerable size and strength and even they dreaded pulling the trigger. Frederick Courteney Selous says that using such weapons crippled him and help, Sir Samuel Baker foreswore such things as soon as he developed guns and loads capable of dependable penetration, preferring the essay about truthfulness far less punishing 10 bore! Unless you hunt elephant with these antique monsters, and I don't know of essay on story anyone alive who does, then stopping an animal in this sense isn't a matter of concern. Essay? From what I've read, one cannot depend upon a similar effect on the remarkably tough Cape buffalo until something like a .577 NE is used (if then), and then a well aimed shot will penetrate clean through end to end, so that its really not the same scenario at all. Proper stopping of personal management a charge depends on shot placement.
Similar rules apply to human targets. The human frame is so lightly constructed that any stopper class weapon will easily penetrate through even after encountering major bones. Here we have a case of massive trauma, not stopping as a result of an impact by a magnum or a big-bore powerhouse. Essay About? Again, the elements action paper force of the blow is comparable to essay about the recoil of the gun. It has to boxer photo be. That's physics. Essay About? In either case the bullet is acting under high acceleration loads over a short distance. Online? Naturally, bullets which penetrate completely do not deliver the same impact as those that come to rest (ie, solids are felt less strongly than soft points).
There are always anecdotal accounts (invariably told by those who have never shot anyone) of people being hurled off their feet by a .45 ACP using hardball when pathetic little .38 Special bullets are shrugged off without effect. In actuality, there are quite as many incidents of people shrugging off .45 slugs as for many lesser calibers. It is hypothetically possible for the impact to essay cause a pressure pulse of essay on story such magnitude through the body of the target, that it is instantly killed (notice I deliberately avoided the word shock). This happens, for essay truthfulness example, when you shoot a chipmunk with a .30-`06, even if the chipmunk wears body armor. It doesn't happen often (if ever) against big game and review, humans with ordinary (ie, shoulder fired) weapons (NOTE: I'm not referring here to hits against the central nervous system, or to truthfulness any hit which results in a penetration; only to hits which could kill exclusively from the force of the impact). I haven't yet seen any cases in which a wound that did not reach to the vital organs resulted in death - except as a result of septicemia. What this means is essay on story that if all of the momentum of a high-powered rifle bullet were delivered by a non-penetrating blow, the damage inflicted on essay, any game larger than a small varmint would be relatively insignificant. I've asked people who have been shot to describe their sensations of being shot, physical reactions, etc. The common response is that the personal project management software impact feels precisely like the impact of a punch.
It is not any more impressive. This is consistent with other testimony that I have read, and serves as a useful analogy for argument. A punch is not staggering unless it also causes debilitating damage, usually to the brain, but alternatively to the lungs, etc. - or in the case of the truthfulness victim being surprised, off balance, etc. Essay On Story? The impact of a bullet behaves according to about similar constraints, all things being relative (ie, a .458 Winchester Magnum causes relatively more of an impact to a man than to an elephant because of the size difference, assuming the force of the impact is absorbed in both cases). The actual momentum transfer of a typical hunting bullet is slightly less than that of the gel-filled 1 lb bag previously described, and if one were wearing body armor to slow the boxer photo absorbtion of essay about energy at impact, that is what would be felt - a good solid thump. With the body armor one's body absorbs all of the kinetic energy and momentum without harm, without it the bullet penetrates and exits using only a portion of its kinetic energy and essay, momentum but delivers a lethal wound. Interestingly, in the case of body armor, the impulse is higher than if the bullet penetrates and exits, yet it is intuitively apparent which of about truthfulness these two scenarios is lethal and which is insignificant. Were that not the case, then body armor would be ineffective. Many readers will doubt the truth of this assertion. Some will say, I have actually seen a deer do a complete somersault!.
Many people have, but it wasn't caused by the force of the impact. For the skeptical among you, if you require proof that the personal project software spectacular flips often reported are merely an apparent effect of the bullet impact, I challenge you to rent a video of dangerous game hunting in Africa and observe the effect of bullet impact on downed, already dead, animals when the insurance shot is essay about made. This practice isn't carried out on deer and it separates the effect of the bullet from the effect of the living animal. Lions and essay on story, even buffalo may seem to flip high in truthfulness the air, but if they are dead the bodies only quiver ever so slightly; its barely visible, and online evaluation, these are shots through the most massive shoulder and spinal bones, delivering the greatest resistance and impact with very powerful rifles. Alternatively, you can perform a penetration test into essay about truthfulness, wet phonebooks that completely absorbs the impact in a manner very similar to management software a game animal. I have shot 28 inches of saturated phonebooks in a plastic tub (weighing approximately 80 lbs - comparable to a small deer) with a .340 Weatherby Magnum firing a 225 grain bullet at 2900 fps (at ten feet). The wetpack did not budge, although the plastic tub rested on a smooth surface.
More recently, that same load was used to kill a springbok in Namibia. My first shot seemed to crush the diminutive antelope in its tracks. After perhaps a half a minute or more the animal staggered to its feet and began to graze, though bleeding profusely from its wound unawares. I shot it lengthwise of its body. Truthfulness? It did not move at all this time, but after a few seconds it pitched over sideways, stiff-legged and dead.
Same load, but the numbed beast did not feel the second impact, even though the bullet did not exit. I have conducted the same test into boxer photo, a wetpack using a .458 Winchester Magnum firing a 500 grain bullet with the same result - no movement. Competitive shooters in the sport of metallic silhouette are quite familiar with this. The big 200 meter rams weigh about 25 kg or 55 lb, but can be toppled over by most of the more powerful cartridges. About? We're talking about, at boxer essay, most, a 220 grain bullet at say 2000 fps or a 150 grain bullet at maybe 2500 fps. So, now if we move those bullets along at only a few hundred more fps, to about 2500 fps and 3000 fps, respectively, they aren't suddenly going to acquire the ability to truthfulness take an animal weighing ten times as much and throw it into boxer photo essay, the air. There is some force imparted, but its just not that dramatic. A big .375 Holland Holland delivers more wallop than a .30-06 Springfield, but even a .577 Tyrannosaur has less than five times the momentum of a .30-06 - we are a long way from the kind of values necessary to produce the effects claimed. Again, its comparable to the recoil.
The same fallacy as seen with kinetic energy dump theories can be demonstrated with respect to momentum-based stopping power theories by substituting a 3 lb spear moving at 50 fps alongside a 3 lb gel-filled plastic bag moving at the same velocity. Now we have two projectiles with exactly the same masses and momentum. Intuitively, we can evaluate the relative lethality of these two weapons without field testing. Essay About? Incidentally, these both produce the same momentum as a .458 Winchester Magnum loaded with 500 grain bullets. The .458 Winchester Magnum is review a heavy hitter. Do you think that a Cape buffalo would be staggered by the mere impact of a 3 lb gel-filled bag? A haymaker punch (15 fps), using about essay about 50% of the body weight of a 180 lb man would have a kinetic energy of about 300 ft-lbs, but a momentum over eight times greater than that of a .458 Winchester Magnum or .450 Rigby Nitro Express; indeed a hard swift jab (50 fps) would have a kinetic energy of still only about 350 ft-lbs, but a momentum almost three times greater than the standard in stopping class rifles! I wouldn't even dream of punching a Cape buffalo. So, stepping aside from the boxer photo idea that stopping power is essay about a function of momentum, what can we ascertain from the relative momentum of a particular load?
Does it convey anything? Well, without knowing the specific bullet (caliber, brand, design, etc) and the impact velocity, we can't make absolute statements about essay on story performance. However, that aside, momentum is in general terms a good measure of the essay potential for penetration. This potential will only be realized with the proper bullet and, as will be shown in the next article in this series, a relatively mild handgun load can easily penetrate more than a very potent rifle load with more than twice the momentum. But, high momentum can translate into deep penetration with the right bullet. III. A. iii. Kinetic Energy, Part 2: Thresholds of Wounding Potential Based on Kinetic Energy. I think it was the sage and revered (and great favorite of mine) Col. Online Evaluation Application? Townsend Whelen who first proposed the idea that modern sporting arms ought to deliver at least 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on the target for quick dispatch of about deer and 2000 ft-lbs for larger species such as elk (Craig Boddington, American Hunting Rifles , Safari Press, 1995, pg. 20).
This guidance has been reiterated for probably half a century or more now, but the world of smallbore ballistics today is very different than in the days when the esteemed Colonel was at the forefront of modern military small arms development with the chegg homework U. S. Army Ordnance Department. Moreover, here is what he had to say in his own treatise on the subject of Killing Power over seventy years ago: The killing power of a bullet in flight depends entirely upon the average size of the wound it makes in the animal, and upon nothing else. The size of the wound in turn depends upon the size, weight, construction, and shape of the bullet, and the velocity with which it strikes, and upon truthfulness, no other details. . We frequently see it stated that the killing power of a cartridge depends upon its energy, and tables of the properties of cartridges often give the energy of each. Boxer Essay? Now energy depends upon the weight of the bullet times its velocity, and on essay, nothing else, and thus can have only a very distant bearing on our subject. (Townsend Whelen, The Hunting Rifle , Stackpole Sons, 1940, pg. Essay On Story? 236) An important fact to remember is that not all energy is created equal. Essay? What this ultimately means is that a kinetic energy value used as a measure or threshold for lethality is practically meaningless. The character of the work done by a certain quantity of kinetic energy will be dependent upon the mass, construction and velocity of the how much to charge to proofread projectile. In other words, 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy generated by a slow-moving rock is not as lethal as that of a bullet.
Furthermore, the damage actually caused by a lesser amount of essay about kinetic energy may easily exceed that caused by a greater quantity of kinetic energy! Expressed differently, kinetic energy has quality as well as quantity. This is elements of an paper easier to understand in terms of heat energy, which has temperature (degrees F or C) as well as quantity (BTUs or Joules). Kinetic energy is governed by similar laws. As further evidence of this fact, observe that when terminal ballistic experiments are scaled the velocity is held constant. Kinetic energy, mass and the dimensions are scaled, but velocity is not. In like manner pure water at standard pressure boils at 100° C, regardless of quantity. A small amount of water does not boil at a lower temperature than a larger amount.
The heat required to bring a quantity of essay about truthfulness water to a boil is boxer photo directly proportional to the mass of the water (just as the essay truthfulness kinetic energy is proportional to the volume of how much displacement by a bullet), but the character of the work done on the water by that heat energy is determined by the temperature it produces. About? It is velocity, not kinetic energy, which is the quantity of greatest interest in the terminal ballistics of small arms. Since a knowledge of the velocity and projectile construction is essential to evaluating the character of the kinetic energy and how much, its wounding potential, simply relying on a quantity of energy can be quite misleading. The way in about truthfulness which a sporting bullet (say, a 7 mm 140 gr spitzer boat-tail at an impact velocity of 3000 fps) expends its first 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on a target (from 2797 ft-lbs to essay on story 1797 ft-lbs) will little resemble the way in about which it expends its last 1000 ft-lbs (at an impact velocity of 1794 fps, where it will most likely fail to deform and simply drill straight through causing a neat little hole with negligible cavitation). In the former case, a lung shot would result in a wide wound track and a gaping exit wound as it exits the body at 2405 fps, but cause rapid collapse; in the latter case even a lengthwise shot which fully absorbed the online essay energy of the projectile would probably mean a lost game animal because of the low probability of causing rapid hemorrhage. About? Interestingly, in the former case probably 20% or more of essay that kinetic energy would be lost to deformation of the bullet, whereas in the latter case all of essay about truthfulness it would be delivered to the target. However, that same 1000 ft-lbs of personal management software energy delivered by a .41 caliber 280 gr LBT-WFN flatnosed hard-cast bullet at 1268 fps would quickly drop a bull elk with the same lung or lengthwise shot because its larger diameter and strong flat nose would create a large diameter and deep wound even after smashing through heavy shoulder bones. (Incidentally, this misunderstanding is not confined to the ballistics of sporting arms. I have encountered the notion in recent years in my profession of a tank killing threshold of 10 MJ.) A popular term among some gun buffs is essay about (or once was) the foot-ton, a magical quanta of chegg review kinetic energy that is supposed to translate into all sorts of killing authority. Aside from the problem described above in assigning an arbitrary kinetic energy level for lethality against a type of game, there is the matter of about unit definitions.
If you like to boxer photo think of it as the energy required to raise a one ton block a distance of one foot, that would be correct (again, not necessarily the same as being crushed by that falling block!). About? Forget the comparison to automobile impacts. Two foot-tons of kinetic energy does not equate with the essay on story impact of essay truthfulness a full-size sedan. However, simply because an arbitrary quantity of essay on story kinetic energy is not, in and of essay about itself, sufficient to describe the of an action wounding characteristics of our weapons does not imply that kinetic energy is not a valid measure of about ballistic performance. We need not be reactionary or worse yet suppose that someone got it wrong and that what we need is a better formula for kinetic energy. This truly novel and disturbing misconception was once highlighted in a feature article, the essence of which was that kinetic energy is to charge a thesis simply the arbitrary fabrication of some gun writer, not based on physical laws, and is fundamentally incorrect. Reading something like this, its as if the cancerous pseudoscience of gun writers has spread to corrupt even the hallowed precepts of true science. Essay Truthfulness? I shouldn't make it seem as if the author of this particular article were alone in his assumptions. The history of popular terminal ballistics in the 20th century saw several examples of this kind of crackpot science, such as Elmer Keith's ridiculous invention of pounds-feet.
What is most astounding about particular outrage against science and clear reasoning is that the (long since departed) editors of the magazine didn't know enough themselves to boxer essay prevent its publication. I expect this sort of thing in cyberspace, where ignorance abounds, but I expect a higher standard from publishers (incidentally, the present editorial staff has a much more scientifically founded perspective). Men like Townsend Whelen knew their basic science and would not have made such errors, nor permitted them to be published in about their journal. It troubles me that our knowledge has diminished so much in 70 years. When gun writers attempt to describe terminal ballistics in terms more technical than wallop they take on the mantle of science and bear the responsibility to their readership to convey an accurate discussion of the mechanisms involved. Science does not merely belong to scientists nor only in the realm of the scientific journal. It is truth on a fundamental level.
There are no everyday meanings to terms such as velocity, momentum, kinetic energy and impulse. They are not slang or jargon used to describe nebulous, ill-defined concepts. They hold precise meanings. To carelessly misuse scientific language is to render a disservice to the readership, even though it be predominately composed of non-technical readers. Before going any further let me make an apology to the reader. This article and the letter exchange is boxer now ancient history.
It was not my intent then nor is it now to essay about pillory anyone. I wrote my own letters to the editor of the essay evaluation magazine at about truthfulness, the time in hopes of inspiring a more fastidious editorship in photo terms of technical matter. About? I feel justified in rehashing the argument in cyberspace because it represents a viewpoint with which I suspect many reasonably educated shooters would sympathize - and I don't mean my viewpoint! I understand that much of of an research paper what I am pressing here seems arcane and unimportant to truthfulness most shooters. But the integrity of personal such concepts is the fundamental underpinning to all ballistics, the technology on truthfulness, which we depend.
Is it necessary for the average shooter to online essay evaluation application understand all these concepts and be thoroughly conversant? No, it is not. However, when they are discussed, the discussion needs to truthfulness be scientifically correct. I guess I expect too much and perhaps I am being too critical, but whether the average Joe understands the ins and outs of physics is not the issue - its the attitude that accredited science is no better than hip-pocket hooey that bothers me. Its the attitude that science is online evaluation based on opinion, rather than fact. Essay About? Its the elements of an action same mentality that has lead to the wholesale disrespect of essay about science in America, and that has allowed a culture to flourish with notions such as New Age mysticism, literalist religious extremism trumping science in the classroom and denial of how much to proofread a thesis global warming despite undeniable evidence. Those who throw around quasi-technical terms without understanding them only create confusion. Essay About Truthfulness? Velocity is not impulse. It is not like impulse.
Kinetic energy is not momentum and velocity combined. Elements? Momentum will not describe the load with the essay about truthfulness hardest thump. Research? There is no room in true science for a private opinion about a better definition of energy, and those who ask Is the ft-lb an accurate KE label? should not be published. This kind of tabloid quality science is overtaking the firearms community. Essay Truthfulness? In the essay on story age of bioengineering, quantum electronics and relativistic physics, the essay about firearms community is becoming mired in a level of scientific ignorance comparable to Medieval Europe. The truth is not marketable but crackpot theories about better formulas for kinetic energy warrant feature articles.
Falsehood and error need to be corrected. Those of us who care about the management software quality of the literature and the accuracy of the inquiry into essay, terminal ballistics bear the responsibility to repudiate the nonsense and to authoritatively instruct concerning the facts. Since this has proved to be a pitfall for some I will unravel the essay on story mystery. The definition of energy is based upon physical laws. A ft-lb is a valid unit of kinetic energy - by definition. Truthfulness? There is nothing to prove. The unit definition has nothing to do with antiquated perspectives on energy. Kinetic energy is calculated as (1/2) mass times velocity squared.
But pounds are actually a unit of force (i.e., weight), which is mass times acceleration (due to gravity in this case). So, to get kinetic energy we must divide by 32.174 ft/s 2 , which reduces the velocity squared terms of ft 2 /s 2 simply to essay on story feet. This leaves units that correspond to another definition of energy, being force times distance. Its really only confusing in the old English system of units because we normally think of pounds as mass rather than as force; in metric its obvious that all forms of energy are the same thing because they are all in Joules or kg-m 2 /s 2 . Just in case somebody doesn't know, foot-pounds are a real quantity and about truthfulness, can be converted into to charge to proofread, BTUs, Joules, kilowatt-hours, calories, ergs, electron-volts or any other measure of energy as you please. All of these resolve down to the same fundamental quantities of essay mass times distance (divided by time) squared. Not all energy is the same, but all energy has the same fundamental units. Essay On Story? Kinetic energy was not invented for the delight of about gun writers. The different definitions of energy are based upon inter-related physical laws, none of which have been overturned since God created the universe, let alone in the last century.
Offering correction is as uncomfortable for the corrector as for the one being corrected. It disappoints me that many people actually despise or fear the truth (I am not pointing a finger here, this is a general observation more applicable to web forums and fireside talk). To Proofread A Thesis? It is a subtle thing, typically taking the form of a resistance to let go of cherished misconceptions and an egoistic tendency that we all share to be knowledgeable. I have been proved wrong many times in my life and while the essay experience is not always a comfortable one, I am happier for being corrected. Not everyone is made happier by correction. An even more troublesome tendency that I have encountered is the insistence that everything is subjective, that fact and opinion are equivalent. This viewpoint holds that objective reality has no inherent meaning, science is just a matter of expert opinion and such experts are plentiful.
If, as some have contended, all measured data such as penetration depth and wound diameter (even in game animals) provide us no absolute knowledge, if any degree of uncertainty removes all hope of understanding, then truly we have embraced superstition (or a weird form of agnosticism) and are equally well served by consulting an astrologer about the performance of our weapons. III. Project Management? A. iv. The Bullet Zipped Straight Through I see this kind of thing referenced persistently on web forums and in the customer product reviews at about truthfulness, Midway. The prevalent belief is that some bullets, by dint of poor design or insufficient velocity (or perhaps even because they have too high an online essay evaluation, impact velocity - how does that work?), will pass through an essay truthfulness, animal without expanding or imparting any appreciable amount of their kinetic energy or causing any respectable wound.
It is an extenuation of the overpenetration worry that many hunters have, which gives rise to homework help review the suspicion that their bullets do not expand properly. It is, of course, rubbish. Almost all of essay truthfulness these anecdotes describe situations in to proofread a thesis which the game is in fact bagged, because the curious detail of a tiny exit wound is invariably a feature, indeed the key piece of evidence, offered to truthfulness justify the accusation of sub-par performance. I have never once seen such a claim accompanied by any depiction of a post-mortem. Had it been done, I believe almost all of these situations would never be reported because it would be apparent that the bullet had performed very well, despite the small exit hole in the hide. Of course the bullets are never recovered in such scenarios, so there is no hard physical evidence to contradict the claim of no expansion. Nosler Partitions of .308 caliber and application, smaller, Barnes X-Bullets and most other monolithic bullets as well as a number of softer cup and core designed bullets will make a small exit wound.
The smaller caliber Nosler Partitions and the soft cup and core bullets end up, not with a wide expanded mushroom, but instead with the truthfulness jacket laid back tight against essay on story the remaining shank of the essay about truthfulness bullet. The monolithic bullets can shed petals at higher impact velocities, but even if they don't the exit wounds may be small. The only instance of an expanding bullet that failed to expand that I have observed was an original Barnes X-Bullet that struck fully sideways making a perfect keyhole in the hide so, obviously, it wouldn't be expected to expand. The tip was mashed over as it tumbled. It was, by the way, extremely effective for all that, churning across the thorax and essay on story, ending up buried in essay the opposite hind leg.
The warthog thrashed around for a few seconds, but barely moved. There is a prevalent tendency to boxer photo essay believe that killing power is attributable to essay about the cartridge chambering, rather than to the bullet and impact velocity. Please don't think me facetious. Obviously, ultra magnums produce more velocity and boxer essay, can send the essay same bullet downrange with far greater kinetic energy than a cartridge of the same caliber based on paper, the Mauser or 1906 Springfield base case. More propellant in the case translates into more muzzle energy. Essay About? However, by the same reasoning, at some distance downrange no cartridge is any more potent than any other cartridge of like caliber when that bullet has achieved the same velocity.
The .300 Shock Awe Magnum firing a 180 grain bullet at a muzzle velocity of boxer photo essay 3200 fps is no more potent at 500 yards than a .30-40 Krag-Jorgensen at essay, the muzzle, and an elk shot at that range wouldn't know the difference between that bullet and one fired at close range from the essay humble Krag. Yet I seriously doubt if the advocates of overbore magnums, and of shooting at essay about, game at distances in excess of 400 yards, routinely consider that their weapons are equivalent to cartridges that were in vogue in 1920 when used at such extreme distances. What increased muzzle velocity has purchased hunters over the last 150 years or so is online evaluation principally increased range, at the expense of reliability in some cases at the closer distances in which game will most often be encountered. I am not opposed to high velocity, it is generally a good thing, but there is a point of diminishing return. And there is nothing magical about any cartridge, no intrinsic property that imbues its projectiles with special lethality. Truthfulness? Cartridges are simply containers of propellant stoppered with bullets. Choose the ones that make sense in to charge to proofread a thesis terms of the bullet weights that you use and the ranges that you hunt and don't be misled by hype about the supposed power of others because, as we will see in essay about truthfulness Part IV, higher velocity doesn't increase wound size as much as one might expect. III.
B. Miscalculations of Lethality. The following sections describe a series of quasi-scientific attempts to homework help review describe bullet load effectiveness. All of these are relatively simple relationships of essay truthfulness basic quantities: bullet weight and/or diameter, sectional density and research, muzzle or impact velocity. Each is an attempt to go beyond the measure of merit of about kinetic energy or momentum alone and produce a more accurate and realistic measure of to charge performance. Each has its following and some are quite well regarded. The OGW formula was published in the April 1992 issue of GUNS magazine and essay about, has since appeared in several references. It is purportedly the result of careful examination of the various contributions of kinetic energy, momentum, bullet sectional density, bullet diameter, bullet nose configuration, impact velocity and a number of other criteria (pg. 62) to online evaluation terminal effect. The author, without elaborating on his methodology, settled on essay about truthfulness, the following formula: OGW (lbs) = Velocity (fps) 3 x Bullet Weight (grains) 2 x 1.5 x 10 -12.
This is, of course, nothing more than kinetic energy multiplied by momentum, then multiplied by some constant to arrive at the desired weight range (momentum is actually velocity times mass, not velocity times weight, but the two are related by management software a constant). There is absolutely nothing magical about the game weights derived by this calculation; they are entirely the result of truthfulness a subjective selection of the elements of an action constant (i.e., 1.5 x 10 -12 divided by the acceleration due to gravity). Although the choice of this constant may be assumed to be based upon about, sage judgement, drawing on years of field experience, the research paper result is merely a scaling factor. The only terms in this calculation are velocity and bullet weight. The basic premise of the formula is about worthy of closer examination.
The OGW formula attempts to combine in one measure the separate contributions of essay on story kinetic energy and momentum, or perhaps the two schools of thought: fast and disruptive versus slow and deep. This is essay about well intentioned; however, simply multiplying the two values is an unacceptable method of essay application deriving a composite effect. For instance, a certain load may have a very high velocity and therefore a high kinetic energy, yet have a very light bullet weight and a correspondingly low momentum. How will it perform? The most useful description of essay truthfulness its performance would be found by separating its component functions, cavitation and penetration, and analyzing these in relation to chegg review the game in question. From experience, we know that very lightweight, small-bore ultra-velocity loads are poor performers against essay about truthfulness large game. Yet an 85 grain .243 cal light game bullet traveling at 3500 fps would have an essay on story, OGW rating of 389 lbs at essay, the muzzle! Compare this to a 575 grain ball traveling at 850 fps with an essay on story, OGW rating of 305 lbs. Essay About? The former load is essay evaluation appropriate only for coyotes, jackrabbits and very lightly framed deer.
The latter load is for essay about truthfulness a 16 bore howdah pistol intended to stop charging tigers! Important caveats are in order. Chegg Homework Help? The author included an exhaustive list of cartridges and loads, but the distinctions of essay truthfulness OGW are only applicable between bullet weights and velocities. The model itself makes no consideration whatsoever of the effect of sectional density, bullet diameter or nose configuration, although these were considered in its development. Personal Project Management Software? Most glaringly, bullet construction is neglected. A 150 gr. bullet moving at 2800 fps is identical in this analysis, no matter whether it be a .264 caliber RWS H-Mantel or .358 caliber Remington Core-Lokt. However, these two loads would have vastly differing performance on game. The model assumes you have selected a reasonable bullet weight and construction for the application in mind (in fairness to the author, Matunas makes this point clear, but it does beg the question of just what this model does tell you if you must already know the answer before you begin). What the OGW Table really attempts to be describe is the essay about approximate heaviest weight of animal that could be reliably killed from any angle using modern high-powered cartridges (not 19th century big-bore blackpowder weapons or even early 20th century weapons), assuming the bullet selected was reasonable. Online Evaluation? Strictly speaking, a true optimum game weight would be that size of beast which this load killed most effectively, and essay about, any game animal either heavier or lighter would be less effectively dispatched, so the use of the term optimum is misplaced.
Unfortunately, by making velocity a third order term it wildly exaggerates the effect of this component in paper terminal behavior, which (as will be shown in Part IV) has surprisingly little meaningful effect for deforming bullets. Moreover, the dramatic degradation in effectiveness with increasing range is also far from accurate. A typical high velocity bullet is shown to essay about lose half its effectiveness between the muzzle and 250 yards. In practice, no meaningful loss of performance is experienced for most high velocity rifle cartridges and indeed some performance improvement may be observed with many bullets of conventional construction at moderated velocities! Worse, it suggests that if one uses light for caliber bullets, then the online essay application most effective employment of these projectiles is at close range and very high velocity - in direct opposition to all conventional wisdom and test data. About Truthfulness? Under these conditions very lightly constructed bullets are most likely to disintegrate.
Comparisons between different calibers and boxer, bullet weights in this analysis, as suggested by the author, are simply not valid for reasons outlined previously. I almost hate to comment on this one because it happens to be a favorite of one of my favorite gun writers, a man of outstanding skill and a reputable hunter whose guidance in such matters should not be taken lightly (and I don't refer to Taylor!). Taylor himself was also a man of unimpeachable experience and his views on rifles and calibers, especially for dangerous game, is taken as gospel on the subject. However, this formula has got to go. I'm sympathetic to the motivations which brought about its creation.
The smallbore cranks were a cult phenomenon at the time, preaching vehemently about high velocity and about, kinetic energy. A number of this following ventured to Africa, and like their predecessors in the heyday of blackpowder express cartridges, experienced miserable failures in the field, sometimes with fatal consequences to the shooter or guides. Help? Taylor was attempting to counter this scientific kind of argument with a kind of scientific methodology. Applying his many years of essay truthfulness experience to the problem (and it must be confessed, his biases as well), he developed a formula which favored the kind of bullets and cartridges he knew to work reliably: TKO = Bullet Weight (lbs) x Impact Velocity (fps) x Bullet Diameter (in) Regrettably, this formula is as misleading as any kinetic energy figures or OGW or any other I've seen. For example, a hand-thrown baseball would have roughly twice the TKO of the to proofread a thesis standard nitro express load. I doubt if anyone would argue that bouncing a baseball off the noggin of an elephant would produce any positive result.
Taylor himself acknowledged that there wasn't any appreciable difference in the killing performance of the various .400s, .416s, .450s, .465s, .470s, .475s, and .500s on dangerous game when loaded with reliable bullets of essay about sound construction. But his TKO formula (as generally interpreted) exaggerates any difference that might exist because it makes the bore diameter equally as important as the velocity; thus a .488 caliber .475 Jeffery No. Evaluation Application? 2 is seen to be 7% more potent than a .458 caliber .450 NE even though they both have the same ballistics. The comparison becomes even more exaggerated between a .450/.400 NE and a .500 NE in which the larger bore is calculated to be 55 % more potent, even though Taylor regards them as being very similar in killing performance. In fairness to the author, the TKO value is generally misinterpreted (notice that the table he provides only includes loads for solid bullets). Taylor himself said of it: I do not pretend that they [TKOs] represent killing power; but they do give an excellent basis from essay truthfulness, which any two rifles may be compared from the point of chegg homework view of the essay truthfulness actual knock-down blow, or punch, inflicted by the bullet on massive, heavy-boned animals such as elephant, rhino and buffalo. Essay Evaluation Application? ( African Rifles and essay about truthfulness, Cartridges , pg. xii) There seems to be a lot of how much to charge misunderstanding about this word shock; men seem to be under the impression that it implies killing power.
But that is erroneous. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. 58) Elaborating, the essay about truthfulness author indicates that this stunning effect truly applies for online essay the most part to near misses of the brain on elephant, enabling a more leisurely dispatch with a follow-up shot (possibly of lesser caliber) or, especially, permitting the shooting of other nearby elephants, while the first is down. Such tactics are no longer permissible and were never ethical in my view (Taylor was a self-acknowledged poacher). Indeed, whether his TKO is essay about true even in this sense is a highly contentious matter, disputed by some very experienced African hunters (I will not pretend to boxer photo essay be highly experienced in this regard, but I have seen a Cape buffalo shot between the eyes, within millimeters of its brain, with a .500 NE which did not produce any effect whatsoever). About? More recently, Craig Boddington has voiced a similar doubt on the basis of his observations and those of research paper other contemporary hunters and game control officers ( Like a Freight Train , Rifle Shooter , November - December 2009, pgs.
38 - 42). But the point here is that Taylor never offered this formula as an essay about, indicator of killing or even shocking performance for hits on the body. That is an American gun pundit extrapolation of thought. Taylor includes TKO values for everything down to the .256 Mannlicher, but not with a view to software offering the relative merits of one small-bore or medium-bore against another for general hunting use - its to about truthfulness show how puny these are relative to the big-bores for chegg homework review stopping an elephant. Still, Taylor also made the point that even a stopping rifle was ineffective with poor shooting: Both barrels from a .600 in the belly will have little more apparent effect on [an elephant] than a single shot from essay truthfulness, a .275 in elements of an research paper the same place. Essay Truthfulness? ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. 59)
American hunters and gun writers use terms like stopping power, shock and essay on story, killing power to describe how quickly a deer (elk, antelope, etc.) falls when hit. Essay About? Practically no one hunts elephant anymore and I can't remember the last time I saw an article on evaluation application, that subject. Promotion of the TKO is indicative of the careless way in which any quasi-scientific method is seized upon, even though the truthfulness originator of it may reject that purpose to which it is put (though, again, I am not endorsing or placing validity on Taylor's TKO calculation, even for the purpose he intended). Incidentally, if there is a knockout effect it will almost certainly be a function of bullet shape, presented area and velocity. Essay On Story? Bullet mass will not matter greatly, but a separate calculation would be necessary to assess whether sufficient penetration was provided. John Wooters is another old salt who ought to be listened to reverently.
I love Wooters, even if he is essay a bit of a curmudgeon (when one has graduated to the plateau of veneration upon which he resides, one can be forgiven for curmudgeonhood). Personal? No doubt frustrated with the ceaseless litany of kinetic energy figures, he concocted a formula for what he felt was a better measure of a bullet's effectiveness on game. Unlike Taylor's Knockout rating, the Lethality Index (or L-Factor) is intended to be a real measure of killing effect on thin-skinned game by expanding rifle bullets (Finn Aagaard, The Truth About Stopping Power , Big-Bore Rifles , pp. 8 - 11). The author's formula is described below:
LI = Kinetic Energy (ft-lbs) x Sectional Density x Bullet Diameter (in) To be fair to Wooters, let me assert that indeed, large diameter bullets do make more cavernous and effective wounds than smaller diameters, kinetic energy certainly is essay about a significant component in the measure of the wounding, and bullets with a high sectional density tend to penetrate deeper and expand with a higher residual weight (all things being equal). The trouble is: all things aren't on equal footing and quickie formulas that don't even take bullet performance into online essay, account cannot be considered meaningful measures of terminal effect. To be meaningful and scientifically sound (ie, correct and true), a formula or theory must be founded on about, carefully collected test data, not gut feelings, prevalent perceptions and anecdotal evidence (which is little better than hearsay). Again, to be fair, this formula is an assessment of the potential of review a specific cartridge-load combination and its components are assessed at the muzzle, but (as I will demonstrate in about Part IV) the downrange performance of otherwise identical loads can be very different and sectional density, in essay on story particular, is an unreliable indicator of bullet performance. Not to pick on the Lethality Index alone, but I am suspicious of any lethality, killing or stopping formula which just goes up and up without end. What exactly does this mean? Something can only be so dead. Does a value twice as high as another mean that it kills twice as quickly, twice the game weight, two animals standing side by side, or with twice the probability? Just what is conveyed by these figures?
Even their creators cannot tell you. After all the computations and three or four significant digits of precision, it all comes down to a touchy-feely sort of thing. I fear that this whole fascination for performance indices ultimately arises from the American passion for statistics and our competitive spirit. It is about truthfulness sports stats on essay on story, a different plane. My rifle load is better than your rifle load and I can prove it! As a young person, I was as guilty as anyone of about truthfulness making all sorts of comparative calculations of to proofread a thesis kinetic energy and about, momentum for various cartridge-load combinations. But this is a pretty pointless exercise, too far removed from the real mechanics of wounding to be of any practical value.
III. Online Essay Application? B. iv. Hornady Index of Terminal Standards (HITS) The most recent attempt to quantify terminal performance in simple terms has been put forward by Hornady in the form of an truthfulness, online calculator . Its stated purpose is to assist hunters in selecting a bullet and boxer photo essay, cartridge combination suitable for any hunting situation. After a little experimentation I derived the terms of the calculation, which is given below: HITS = Bullet Weight 2 / Bullet Diameter 2 / 7000 x Impact Velocity / 100. Alternatively, recognizing that some of the terms constitute the sectional density: HITS = Bullet Weight x Sectional Density x Impact Velocity / 100. Having calculated this value, one then compares the score to four categories: 500 or Below -- Small game weighing less than 50 lbs 501 to 900 -- Medium game with a body weight of 50 to 300 lbs (e.g., deer, black bear and essay, caribou) 901 to 1500 -- Large and essay on story, heavy, but non-dangerous game weighing from essay about, 300 to 2000 lbs (e.g., elk, moose, African plains game, bison, etc) 1501 or Above -- Dangerous game of any weight (including, for essay on story example, big cats)
This system bears a strong resemblance to the Optimum Game Weight calculation, but differs in important respects. About? While, unavoidably, any calculation would lead to splitting hairs and comparisons between cartridges, the HITS system only indicates the general class of management software game animal suitable for that load. Hornady makes no advertisement that the values correspond to the relative capabilities of the essay truthfulness loads in anything more precise than the four general categories. Online Essay Evaluation Application? Clearly, higher is deemed to be better, but it does not follow that mathematical proportions between the values can be assumed to indicate how much better. In other words, a HITS of 1500 does not indicate that the load is essay twice as powerful as a load with a HITS score of 750. Elements Research? That's a more reasonable posture than was put forward by the OGW, which claimed to tell you the actual weight, to the pound, of the optimum game size.
Additionally, unlike some other calculations, the HITS doesn't pretend to tell you how effective a bullet / catridge combination will be; its not a measure of lethality. While I don't endorse any of these quick calculations as rendering some deeper insight into essay about, the actual mechanics of terminal ballistics, the HITS methodology does tend to online essay evaluation push the user toward solutions which are known to work better: higher sectional density and heavier bullet weight for heavier game. It doesn't include the essay about unfortunate bias of velocity that the OGW creates, nor the bullet diameter bias of the TKO. Online Evaluation Application? For the most part, its a conservative result. Perusing the tabulated HITS for all the Hornady ammunition, at first nothing leaps out as an obvious case of mathematical mischief. None of the .223 Remington loads is judged to essay be suitable for medium game, not even the 75 grain loads. None of the of an action research paper 6 mm or .257 caliber loads is judged to be acceptable for elk and other large game. If anything the scores result in an overly conservative categorization.
Goodness knows how many elk have fallen to the .32 Winchester Special and .30-30 Winchester, despite their sub-900 HITS scores. But a little conservatism these days is not necessarily a bad thing. The problem begins with the medium bores, in which all three parameters tend to be high. Essay About? The .338 Winchester Magnum with a 225 grain bullet is boxer photo essay judged suitable for essay dangerous game, which might be true depending on the game in mind (think leopards, lions or bears) and the bullet chosen. However, the Hornady Super Shock Tip shown in the table, a rapidly expanding and lightly constructed, boat-tailed bullet, would not be a good choice for any of these game animals. It might even be a fatal choice. Still more egregious is the suggestion that the 250 grain boat-tail hollowpoint load of the .338 Lapua might be a dangerous game load.
Obviously, a match bullet has no place whatsoever in any dangerous game hunting situation. On the other hand, none of the big-bore lever gun loads of the .405 Winchester, .444 Marlin, .45-70 Government or .450 Marlin are judged minimally acceptable for dangerous game, including the big cats or bears, and these would all be first rate for boxer photo essay that role even if we leave aside the debate over essay about, their utility against heavy, thick-skinned dangerous game. Once beyond medium bores that possess enough velocity to score as dangerous game loads and the lever gun loads lacking enough to qualify, things return to expectation, which is to say that the chegg homework review truly big bores are all judged to be suitable choices for essay dangerous game. No surprises there. On the essay on story whole, unless one has literally no notion of what makes a suitable load for a given hunting application (and, granted, their numbers are legion) I don't really see the utility of this. About? But then again, maybe I am missing the forest for the trees. Maybe Hornady is right and essay on story, basic shooter education trumps technical validity from their vantage point. The worst outcome of this sort of about calculation to my mind is the impression fostered that the performance of personal project management software a load is largely or even totally independent of the bullet chosen.
The HITS treats every bullet of equivalent weight and about, sectional density (i.e., caliber) the same. In reality, the bullet chosen has a far more significant effect on the terminal performance than the velocity. How Much To Charge To Proofread A Thesis? Across a wide velocity spread the wound pattern will be similar for a given bullet of good design, but the differences between a monolithic solid, a bonded core hunting bullet and a varmint or match bullet of equal weight and caliber would be dramatic. Truthfulness? Hornady does speak to chegg help the applicability of the bullet to the purpose in general terms, but its clear that their desire to use this new tool and apply it without further elaboration to their current line of ammunition outweighs any concern for misuse of their products. A simple statement in about a footnote indicating which loads do not qualify as dangerous game loads (in fact why are match loads even shown here at all?) would suffice, without impugning the validity of how much to proofread what the HITS provides, at least in the mind of the truthfulness target consumer. III.
B. v. Chegg Homework Review? Bekker Knock-Out Value (KOV) Well, here is what appears at first blush to be a step forward. About Truthfulness? Invented by South African pundit Chris Bekker, whose column The View from the Veld appears in the UK-based quarterly webzines Sporting Rifles and Deerstalker , the Knock-Out Value (KOV) formula is to charge a thesis based on a simplified (and again, slightly erroneous) terminal momentum calculation: KOV = Terminal Momentum (lb-ft/s) x Sectional Density x Mushroom Factor Terminal Momentum = Impact Velocity (ft/s) x Retained Bullet Weight (lbs) Sectional Density = Original Bullet Weight (lbs) / Bullet Diameter (in) 2.
The author has presented more than one version of this formula in his writings at various times (for instance, dropping the Mushroom Factor and using muzzle values for bullet weight and velocity), but the truthfulness above is said to be the proper form. This formula inverts the bias of kinetic energy, effectively giving us mass squared times velocity, and uses a mix of pre-impact and post-impact values. It looks pretty good for all that. After all, we have retained weight, impact velocity, and some accounting for expanded diameter. So what is wrong? Well, for one thing, as with the chegg other shortcut calculations, we are expected to simply accept this formula as the definition of truthfulness killing power at face value. Why should it be terminal momentum multiplied by online sectional density? Why not kinetic energy multiplied or divided by expanded frontal area, for instance? From where did this insight arise? Where is the physical evidence justifying a Mushroom Factor assessed to essay truthfulness three or four significant digits for essay on story a plethora of bullet configurations? To paraphrase Jerry MacGuire: Show me the data!
The only evidence that the essay about truthfulness author offers to support its validity is in the form of comparisons to other popular indices and factors or to kinetic energy alone. No documentation or analysis is provided to show how these relationships in the KOV were derived. If there were any objective analytical basis for this formula then the author would have presented that data instead of how much a thesis simply making unsubstantiated claims about the correspondance between the KOV and actual field experience. When the about support of real world field experience is drawn upon for evidence, it is entirely subjective, simply the conventional wisdom, thusly: Everybody knows that the of an research 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser would be far superior on essay, Cape buffalo than the .300 Remington UltraMag, and the KOV shows it to be 28 % better. Whether or not such assumptions are true is debatable; it really depends on the behavior of the bullet, and just how exactly does one judge 28% better performance in the field? Deeper? Larger hole? Fewer steps until it collapses? Was it actually 32 % better or only 24 % better? See the problem?
In any event, the KOV does not take into consideration the animal to be shot. Why then a Cape buffalo for the comparison? Why not a much smaller animal such as a springbok? I seriously doubt if the 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser can be shown to be 28 % better on a springbok. What then can such a measure really tell us? This sort of reasoning does not qualify as scientific argument or evidence. None of this mathematical dexterity demonstrates anything but that one can multiply several numbers together and end up with a result that subjectively and qualitatively satisfies one's preconceived notions about how things work - most of which are based on popular notions of terminal ballistics (better known as conventional wisdom and frequently incorrect). By a careful (or haphazard) selection of online terms and their arrangement, one can make almost any cartridge-load combination seem far superior to others. At best this sort of approach results in a gross generalization that tells us what we already knew: namely that high retained bullet weight is good, as is expanded diameter, that bullets with high sectional density often perform better than those with less, likewise velocity is good, etc.
However, some of these also have a downside. Scientific, analytic methods and measures must be as objective and quantitative as possible. Essay Truthfulness? Consequently, theories of terminal effect must be evaluated in quantitative terms, meaning that dimensions of boxer photo essay wounds must be evaluated. None of these formulaic approaches can be defended with a study of field results, nor have their creators (including Taylor) ever attempted such an essay about, analysis. Field experience without measurement and records is next door to boxer photo essay useless. Essay About Truthfulness? It is no better than armchair opinion or hearsay. Science is not founded on faith in photo essay the analytical powers of an individual, it is founded on fact which can be examined and tested by any individual. In his defense (I suppose) Bekker asserts that he has never argued that his method was based on scientific principles.
In constrast with the OGW which never even considered the caliber or the TKO which looked only at nominal caliber, the essay about truthfulness KOV at least considers the expanded diameter; however, the expanded diameter and impact velocity do not occur together in personal software time. The KOV has associated the terminal rest state of the bullet with its velocity an instant before impact. This is a bit like suggesting that a person can walk away from a head-on collision with a 10-ton cement truck at 100 mph in exactly the essay truthfulness same state that one steps into the vehicle as it is sitting in the driveway at action research, home. Essay Truthfulness? These two quantities are associated with completely different states. Most the essay bullet's kinetic energy is expended in getting it into that shape. A Knock Out Value created by multiplying them together just doesn't mean anything in real terms.
The KOV calculation assumes that the final shape of the bullet is realized instantly and without loss of velocity. About? In actuality, the velocity changes instantly with each millimeter of penetration as the bullet gradually expands to its maximum expanded diameter, then assumes its smaller fully deformed diameter that it will hold when the hydrodynamic pressure falls below the homework effective flow stress of the bullet (at a velocity of roughly 1900 to 2100 fps for essay about most rifle bullets). Though transpiring in a matter of time on the order of a fraction of a millisecond, this is not an of an, instantaneous process and about truthfulness, the interval between impact and the termination of hydrodynamic deformation in the bullet dominates the chegg homework mechanics of the essay truthfulness penetration event. The following figure illustrates the point. It shows a series of curves describing the fraction of the kinetic energy at impact which is expended during the action paper hydrodynamic deformation phase (of the bullet) for various retained bullet weights, assuming a hydrodynamic termination velocity of 1900 fps. It will be quickly observed that, for 3000 fps impacts, between 60% and 80% of the kinetic energy at impact is expended by the time the essay truthfulness bullet has assumed its final form. Even at impact velocities only slightly above the hydrodynamic termination velocity, the energy of the bullet deformation and resultant cavitation amounts to between 10% and 55% of the help total kinetic energy. Truthfulness? If we care about essay on story retained weight and expanded diameter, we ought to essay care about the homework help review interaction which resulted in those dimensions.
However, even if one knew the termination velocity for about truthfulness deformation in the bullet (which could be anything from personal project management software, 1400 to 2300 fps), any statement about the character of the wound (or the essay about truthfulness impact velocity) based solely on the final expanded diameter and retained weight would amount to project management software mere speculation. It is the process by which the truthfulness bullet assumes that final form that dictates the elements action dimensions of the wound. I have tested many bullet designs and there is no obvious correspondance between the appearance of the recovered bullet and the hole it produced during its penetration. Two bullets having the same recovered appearance may create very different wounds based on essay about truthfulness, their impact velocity and design characteristics. A bullet with smaller frontal surface area may make a significantly larger diameter wound than one which has expanded to a perfect classic mushroom. You may not believe that - I wouldn't have believed it a few years ago - but I have proved it with testing (as will be seen in Part IV). In fact, if I may generalize, I have observed that the bullets recovered with the smallest expanded diameters frequently produce the chegg review largest cavities (not that they are the best overall performers). This is why, in essay about truthfulness my mind at least, both testing and careful observation and elements of an, measurement of field performance are infinitely more meaningful than homemade formulas based on no physical evidence or pontifications safely removed from the contrary facts. Although he has offered no physical evidence for his theories, Bekker may well have a wealth of hunting and shooting experience. That can be incontravertably said for Pondoro Taylor and John Wooters and others who have attempted to create a mathematical expression consistent with their experience. Truthfulness? I do not wish to be perceived as casting doubt on the substantive creditable field experience of anyone.
Still, these methods do not work. In the final analysis, the KOV is little better (nor any worse) than the TKO, OGW or any of a score of other formulas trying to to charge get at the answer. They all fall short of about truthfulness telling us more than we already knew. Photo? I don't wish to be unduly criticizing the KOV or Bekker. Truthfulness? These formulas are merely the manifestations of the biases we have all held as hunters. The KOV looks like it has a little more thought behind it than many such calculations, but precisely for that reason (and as a springboard to elucidate what is really happening during bullet deformation) I have given its features a more studied treatment. What most or all of these shortcut attempts suffer from at the very outset is to charge a thesis old-fashioned human prejudice - the pre-conceived notion on the part of the creator concerning what the answer ought to be. We are all guilty of this. Essay? Not even the best of us is free from prejudice (which is why objective methods must be adhered to), but if we seek the truth, we must be prepared to be divested of our cherished beliefs, not always see them upheld. Insistence that the facts must be somehow wrong because my formula holds otherwise, and I have a vast body of hearsay and essay, conjecture supporting me! in the face of plain physical evidence is nothing more than denial, an inability to face reality.
Theory must bend to empirical evidence. A better understanding will follow. The other great fault of these attempts is about truthfulness rooted in a (perhaps innocent and online essay evaluation application, unwitting) misuse of scientific principles, in essay about the arbitrary combination of physical quantities until a satisfying result is how much to charge to proofread a thesis obtained. Mechanics works only in certain prescribed ways, and what we wish to understand is the mechanics that result in a wound of discrete specific dimensions. Truthfulness? Pseudoscience doesn't advance our understanding and those of us who know better need to improve the understanding of those who genuinely seek to know, yet stumble here and there with the details.
At the far extreme of this spectrum is a distrustful perspective of science. Tragically, America seems to place about as much confidence in how much a thesis science as in superstition. That makes a damning statement about the quality of our education efforts, because it wasn't that way 150 years ago. I frequently encounter the attitude on cyber forums that physics and biology cannot really answer our questions about terminal performance, that it all comes down to some kind of personal thing, like faith, or that it is far too complex to ever understand or quantify. That is about nonsense. The truth isn't up for essay grabs, no matter how poor our grasp of it may be. However, even the introduction of more disciplined scientific approaches can have its pitfalls, as the next section will demonstrate. III. C. Bad Science: Misrepresentations of Physics. Anyone who has persevered this far is either with me or else hopelessly confused but doggedly staying in there. For the hopelessly confused I now offer some hope.
Probably I should have included this discussion in the Mechanics of Terminal Ballistics , but I wanted that discussion to be general and essay, easily accessible. Of necessity, we must now get down to the details. III. C. i. Relationships of Force, Momentum and Energy. I am appalled by the articles that I see published which evince an homework help, ignorance of about truthfulness basic science. Just for my own sanity and peace of mind, lets review a few fundamentals. Mass is an intrinsic quantity of matter (as near as we can tell, but lets not get into string theory!) which describes the inertia of an object.
Inertia is the how much a thesis property of an object that resists changes in its motion. Mass and weight are not the same thing, but we normally associate the essay truthfulness two. Weight is actually a force exerted on a mass in online application a gravitational field. We live with gravity so we think of mass and weight as being the same thing. It is vital in mechanics to about truthfulness recognize that they are distinct.
This distinction was not perceived at first by scientists (understandably) and so the original English system of units is personal management software based on essay, the fundamental quantities of force (pounds), length (feet) and time (seconds), rather than more properly on mass (kilograms), length (meters) and time (seconds), as was done in the late 18th century when the metric system was developed (yes, its over 200 years old!). Force is actually a derived quantity, not a fundamental quantity, but that's water under the homework bridge, so lets not brood about it. [This conundrum has led to the introduction of pounds-force, lbf, and about truthfulness, pounds-mass, lbm, where 1 lbf = 32.174 lbm-ft/s 2 , but this convention has not removed the confusion, only boxer essay, resulted in NASA Mars probes falling from about, orbit! Vive le Systeme Internationale!] Velocity is the rate of change in how much to charge a thesis the position of an object with respect to time. Here too, we normally use the words speed and velocity interchangeably, but this is about truthfulness incorrect. Speed is the magnitude of the elements action research paper velocity, but velocity is a vector quantity which means that it carries with it an implicit direction of movement.
I throw the term around rather loosely when speaking of terminal ballistics, but its important to recognize that there is more to velocity than mere speed. Because next we get to acceleration. Acceleration is the time rate of change of essay velocity. Note that this is essay on story any change in the velocity, either in magnitude or direction. A classic example is essay about a mass suspended on a string which is being whirled with constant speed . It is being subjected to chegg help review a constant acceleration because its velocity direction is constantly changing as it turns around its center of about rotation. Essay On Story? [Deceleration is essay truthfulness slang for a negative acceleration and you won't find me using that term (I hope!)]. Obviously then, acceleration is also a vector quantity. It can be in the direction of motion or against it or in any other direction. Momentum is the physical quantity of a mass moving with a given velocity, or simply mass multiplied by velocity.
The units in the English system are lb-s, not lb-ft/s as some might suppose (remember, pounds are a unit of essay evaluation force, not mass). Force is the physical quantity describing a mass experiencing a change in velocity, or mass multiplied by acceleration. Clearly then, the about time rate of to proofread a thesis change in essay about truthfulness momentum is the same as force. Forces act on masses and induce changes in motion and, hence, the momentum. More on that in a moment. Sir Isaac Newton is the most important person in the history of mechanics, possibly in the history of all science and mathematics. He not only chegg homework review, established the rules of mechanics in terms of its fundamental physical quantities, he also invented the calculus, which is essential for solving the problems of mechanics.
It is useful to understand the essay difference between a derivative and an integral for the following discussion. A differential quantity is an infinitessimally small slice of a whole. A derivative is a rate of change between two differential quantities. It is usually expressed as a symbolic (indefinite) fractional differential quantity, such as dx / dy. Personal? Velocity can be expressed as: v = ds / dt, that is, the differential quantity of distance (s) with respect to (divided by) the differential quantity of time (t). Acceleration can be similarly expressed as: a = dv / dt. Since acceleration is the time derivative of velocity and velocity is the truthfulness time derivative of distance, then it is essay clear that acceleration is the essay about truthfulness second time derivative of distance, a = d 2 s / dt 2 . Sometimes we speak of the differential quantities of mass, distance, velocity and acceleration as dm, ds, dv, and essay on story, da, but it is important to truthfulness note the distinction between a differential quantity and a derivative. Not all derivatives are taken with respect to time, for instance. An integral, on the other hand, is the sum of the differential quantities integrated over some boundary. For example, the total distance (s) covered by a bullet can be described using calculus by performing the time integration of the velocity, taking each instantaneous velocity (ds / dt) and multiplying by each differential time quantity dt and summing at each step.
If this calculation is performed numerically with enough resolution the answer will be very good. It can be performed analytically for boxer essay an exact answer if the essay about expression describing ds / dt is known and essay on story, has an analytical solution (not always the case). Energy is a term that gets abused more than any other scientific term. Crackpots love energy. Its does not mean power, force, impulse, momentum force, or lifeforce for that matter. Energy is a physical quantity describing the activity state of matter. It occurs (or manifests itself) in many forms. For our purposes, the most significant of these are kinetic energy, work and heat. There is also chemical, nuclear, and electromagnetic radiant energy (potential energy is an imaginary concept useful for describing closed systems). Kinetic energy is that attributed to a mass with a given velocity, or KE = (m / 2) v 2 . Work is the energy expended by about truthfulness a force acting over a distance, W = Integral (F ds). Heat is a form of internal energy which is basically kinetic energy on to proofread a thesis, the scale of atoms.
Heat can be expressed as the mass multiplied by the specific heat of a material and its absolute temperature, U = mCT. Even though these different energies are calculated using different methods and often expressed in different units (ft-lbs, Joules, BTUs, calories, etc.), they all resolve back to the same fundamental units of mass x length 2 / time 2 and essay about, are totally interchangeable. In other words, energy is not simply some arbitrary term tossed about by scientists that means one thing in essay on story one context and something else entirely in another context. Power, in a scientific sense, is the time rate of about energy change, transfer or usage, expressed as the derivative de / dt. Personal Project? If any term gets abused more than energy it would have to be power. Here again, ft-lbs/s, horsepower and Watts can all be interchanged with a simple conversion constant. Freshman level physics textbooks are notoriously bad sources for an understanding of essay truthfulness ballistics.
I can sympathize with the confusion that many have in this regard. One would like to believe that the college level science class is personal free from error. Essay About Truthfulness? Sadly, the late American penchant for making things accessible to the student has led to some regrettable abuses of the truth. Typical example problems describing ballistic events are invariably sprinkled with phrases like, . Chegg Help? neglecting air resistance. , . assuming perfectly elastic (or rigid) bodies. Essay Truthfulness? , and . a collison between perfectly plastic bodies. . Such assumptions are utterly unrealistic and throw away the entire problem in real world exterior and terminal ballistics. One could more sensibly neglect gravity than air resistance! The acceleration due to gravity is only 32.174 ft/s 2 , but the (negative) acceleration due to action paper air resistance is on the order of 1700 ft/s 2 or more for essay truthfulness high velocity rifle bullets. The equations of elements of an action motion governing ballistic flight of projectiles are a set of highly complex, coupled second order differential equations that have no analytical solution, so the textbook manufacturers don't want to discuss it. Essay Truthfulness? Its easier to give the boxer essay student a false impression of reality with a problem that is essay about truthfulness simply solved. Worse things occur when textbooks attempt to describe terminal ballistics. All real bodies are imperfect, plastic (inelastic) and non-rigid.
Elastic deformation is recoverable, meaning the object is not permanently deformed. Plastic deformation is permanent. All ballistic events of to proofread interest involve large plastic deformations. Elastic and plastic equate to the terminal ballistic terms of essay temporary cavity and online, permanent cavity. About? Rigidity is the completely imaginary property of management not deforming, either elastically or plastically, when loaded. There is about no such thing as a rigid body, but the assumption is often used in textbooks for simplicity when (typically static) loads are small in relation to the strength of an object.
It ought to how much to proofread be pretty clear that rigidity is not an assumption that makes much sense in terminal ballistics (unless we are talking about solids, and well constructed ones at about truthfulness, that). Furthermore, any degree of penetration implies plastic deformation, which is not described by the most commonly offered relations of elastic mechanical behavior (such as Hooke's Law), and to charge to proofread a thesis, which involves a significant expenditure of strain energy. Thus, the invention of the concept of perfect plasticity, in which no energy is expended. This abomination violates the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and should never even be discussed. Newton's Second Law of Motion, also known as the about truthfulness principle of Conservation of Momentum, states: The time integral of the management change in momentum (or, the impulse) of a system is equal to the time integral of the resultant of all applied forces acting on the system, or: I = Integral (F dt). This has been restated in the more familar form that the about truthfulness resultant of all the forces acting on a system is equal to essay evaluation the integral of the mass multiplied by essay truthfulness the acceleration, or Integral (F) = Integral (ma). This is the how much to charge to proofread a thesis most important expression in all mechanics. Everything builds on this, but it is vital not to be confused about what it means. This is not an algebraic expression, it is an integral expression in vector form. Different rules apply.
Newton's Second Law is often violated in textbook sample problems. A classic textbook problem allegedly illustrating the conservation of momentum typically states: A bullet has a mass of 10 g and a velocity of 800 m/s. The bullet strikes a block at essay about, rest with a mass of essay 4 kg, and is fully embedded in the block. Assuming that the bodies are perfectly plastic and essay about, that the block rests on personal project management, a frictionless surface, find the final velocity of the block. [Solution: This is rubbish and essay about truthfulness, does not demonstrate Newton's Second Law. The effects of time and force are completely lost! The attempt to make the principle seem real to the student results in gross unreality. Online Essay? Such examples should be confined to billiard balls moving at very low velocity.
But even here we have a problem. The classic freshman physics class demonstration of the about principle of conservation of essay on story momentum is the truthfulness rack of billiard balls suspended by wires. The ball on one end is raised and released to strike its neighbor and instantly the far end ball is kicked away! Very cool! Ever wonder though why it is homework help that the balls do not go on clacking forever? They return to rest in just a few seconds! What they didn't tell you in school is that there is essay about truthfulness more to mechanics than conservation of momentum. In fact, the gross way that conservation of momentum is typically described, as the a thesis resultant of all the gross mass-velocity interactions, is simply untrue. But Newton didn't express his second law in these terms. It is essay clear in the case of the boxer photo essay clacking billiard balls that something steals a piece of momentum with each cycle until the whole system returns to essay truthfulness rest. Essay On Story? [In fact, there exists a finite number of balls such that if one is clacked into its neighbor on one end there will be no movement by essay the ball on the other end due to the accumulation of small robberies of chegg energy along the way.] Some have argued that this is entirely due to the frame or the truthfulness wires or contact with the Earth, but this is simply not true.
The result would be no different if the boxer same experiment were repeated in deep space, far from any gravitational field and essay about, not contacting any other body, with a series of hard spheres interconnected by springs. Once released, it would be only a matter of chegg help seconds before the movement ceased. This is a closed system, from which the energy is not escaping as radiant heat fast enough to explain why it stops moving (and heat is essay about truthfulness not a term in Newton's equation anyway - however, this serves to illustrate why energy methods are the only methods of analysis that really prove dependable in some situations). Ah! However, some will say, this is a closed system and project software, its net momentum is essay zero. Homework Review? Indeed, but that misses the truthfulness point. The momentum of the cycling masses within the system will still degrade to zero and the laws of help review motion apply to them as surely as to anything else. Moreover, if you built a device that permitted the momentum of these interconnected masses to be transmitted in about truthfulness all directions (due to their interconnections - as is true in atomic matter) then the linear momentum of an how much to charge, impact would not be preserved for about truthfulness an inelastic event, even in space far from any gravitational influence. Understand what I am saying.
I am not contending that Newton's Second Law is how much a thesis invalid; quite the contrary. What I am saying is about truthfulness that real mechanics is not simplistic. Action? Newton's Law holds that the time integral of the momentum is the integral of the resultant of the forces acting on and within a system. About Truthfulness? I am trying to emphasize that those forces depend on the system; the motion of the balls depends on the microstructural makeup of the balls. If the forces vary with physical properties then the personal project management mechanics of motion cannot be assumed to be invariant. That thieving something is the resistive forces in the atomic structure of matter. Its the same something that was expressed in about truthfulness the Third Law of boxer Thermodynamics long after Newton. All movement encounters resistive forces, such as friction. There are forces akin to about truthfulness friction between the atoms in every body. Essay On Story? There are even resistive forces within the structure of the atoms themselves.
We often think of atoms as being perfect, rigid bodies, but even this assumption is essay about not true. So, the hard fact is, that even on the most fundamental level the simplistic view of the conservation of momentum is a thesis not perfectly true. It is essay almost true for low velocity impacts between elementary particles (certainly not true for relativistic impacts). So Newton was wrong? Absolutely not! Its only that we often do a sloppy job of personal management accounting for all the forces which act on and within a system. If you neglect any force, then the about truthfulness answer is how much to charge a thesis wrong.
Maybe its only slightly wrong and you don't care, but in essay truthfulness the case of terminal ballistics involving large plastic deformations we simply cannot neglect the complex interactions of the materials. Most interesting terminal ballistic events involve hydrodynamic flows and in these situations the forces are continuous field functions acting in countless directions. Recall that energy may be expressed as force acting over a distance. One may then say that a certain quantity of energy, say 100 ft-lbs, is equivalent to raising 100 lbs up against gravity a distance of evaluation one foot. Here we see the difference between pure science and engineering. Science can easily give you an answer that is technically correct as far as it goes, but utterly useless and untruthful. In the real world, the example I just gave is true only truthfulness, if the weight is raised at quasi-static velocity, barely moving. Essay On Story? It matters how fast you do something.
Fast work wastes energy. There is less efficiency and effectiveness in the work and more entropy is expended. Truthfulness? Engineering is the business of looking at homework help, the real world complexities of mechanical (and other) systems using the principles of science. We often state that mass is conserved (none is about lost) and that energy also is conserved. Project? Mass and energy must be accounted for to preserve the whole truth of mechanics. For ballistic events, kinetic energy is converted to strain energy (causing both elastic and plastic deformation) and this energy is essay finally converted into homework help review, thermal internal energy when the body assumes a rest state. All elastic and plastic cavity expansions result in some non-recoverable energy loss to entropy as well. This last fact of reality makes the dumbed down principle of the conservation of momentum an unrealizable ideal. However, we may still make good use of the expression developed by Newton. As an aside, the most dramatic demonstration of this elastic energy dissipation that I have seen was on a late night infomercial for some high tech golf clubs. The heads were made from a metallic glass that is composed of zirconium with a half dozen other metals mixed in to fully occupy all the essay about truthfulness spaces in the crystal lattice.
Imagine a box spring structure but with rigid braces placed all around the springs so that they can't flex anymore. To Proofread? A golfball was dropped in a tube onto a plate of this material at the same instant as other balls were dropped onto plates of stainless steel and titanium alloy. The motion damped out in about 10 seconds for the steel, maybe 15 or 20 for the titanium, but the golf ball bounced on that metallic glass for over two minutes! A worse case of the bullet striking the block example was brought to my attention some time back, in which the conservation of momentum was again reduced to mass times velocity resultants, but the problem then went on to compare the initial kinetic energy of the bullet to the final kinetic energy of the moving block and essay, concluded by photo stating that the difference in these energies was absorbed by deformation and resistive forces. I say this is worse because it is almost correct and sounds correct, but isn't. You don't start with the idea that gross body motions must be preserved and then declare any discrepancies in energy to about truthfulness be resistive losses.
This is particularly important where hydrodynamic behavior dominates the problem. The correct solution is to treat the interaction at online evaluation application, a scale of resolution appropriate to the deformation, perform basic calculations of the fundamental equations of motion and visco-plastic deformation while numerically integrating, account for the energy explicitly at each step, and then describe the gross body motions. Doing this manually is out of the truthfulness question, which is why the personal project management defense sector uses high powered computer workstations and finite element or finite difference methods. The reason why a simplistic assumption of preserving gross body motion does not work can be shown rather easily. If we describe an impact between two perfectly rigid bodies, m and M, the larger one of about which is initially at rest, we may express the force exerted by the smaller mass on the larger at impact as: F = m d 2 s / dt 2 , and the force exerted by the larger mass on the impacting mass as: F = M d 2 s / dt 2. (Note: the forces are equal in magnitude and software, opposite in direction and the accelerations are not the same). However, we are interested in penetration, so we ought (at the very least) to model the impact as a spring-mass system to indicate some elastic deformation. Let's concentrate on about, the larger mass (the target), recognizing that what applies to the target also applies in chegg help its own way to the projectile.
According to Hooke's Law the force applied to a spring in essay elastic deformation is equal to essay evaluation the spring constant multiplied by the deformation distance. Essay About? For a spring-mass system, the total force exerted by and on the projectile is given by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + K s. Observe that already the essay on story acceleration on the mass is reduced by the quantity Ks / M. The energy absorbed by the spring is described by: E = Integral (F ds) = ( K s 2 ) / 2 (assuming a linear spring behavior). This is why we put suspension systems on essay, dynamic systems (like automobiles). If the online essay application acceleration on the mass is less, it doesn't move as far or as fast. Its that simple. In other words, the force varies with the internal mechanics of the truthfulness bodies. Newton isn't violated.
I have said that this perfectly elastic view of mechanics is photo unrealistic because of the resistive forces in real matter. So, lets add some nonrecoverable energy losses. Real dynamic systems include damping, usually represented in simple models by a dashpot, which is a mechanism that uses fluid viscosity to resist movement (this is the same mechanism used by those mercury recoil reducers). The viscous fluid offers resistance in proportion to the velocity of the motion. In consequence, the total force is expressed by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + D ds / dt + K s. The energy dissipated by the damper is given by: E = Integral (F ds) = Integral ( D v ds ). The acceleration is reduced by: ( Ks + Dv ) / M. About? Since in application each case the input is identical, we must conclude that the acceleration on the mass in the case of the viscous damped spring-mass system is about less than the acceleration experienced by the rigid mass. In ballistic events a portion of the damping is governed by a velocity squared function.
Therefore, neglecting the damping and online, elastic dissipation of energy results in essay an overestimate of imparted motion. The May/June 2002 issue of Petersen's Rifle Shooter has an article entitled, Where Do the Foot-Pounds Go? - Relating Kinetic Energy to Hunting Cartridge Effectiveness , which is much improved over the pseudoscience of four years before, and even begins to address the conversion of kinetic and strain energy into residual internal energy; however, it introduces one misunderstanding worth clearing up. The article states that high velocity small bore bullets penetrate steel plates like truck leaf springs by melting the steel. This sort of mythology is prevalent in my field and seems plausible, but even shaped charge jets moving at 9000 m/s (29,500 fps) do not melt the steel armor plates that they penetrate, nor is the soft pure copper jet melted (this is not conjecture, it has been demonstrated). A shaped charge jet penetrates strictly using its velocity and density. The dynamic pressure vastly exceeds the strength of the steel and the penetration velocity exceeds the sound speed, so the steel effectively has no strength at essay on story, all.
Most bullets do not penetrate so fast through steel targets that hydrodynamic flow conditions exist, but the force per unit area still governs the behavior. I have shot slabs of essay truthfulness 6061-T6 aluminum with a variety of chegg help small arms ranging from the 5.56 x 45 mm M193 and M855 (SS109 type) bullets up to the .458 Win Mag using a 500 gr Hornady steel jacketed solid ( this is extremely dangerous - do not attempt it! ). At no stage in any of truthfulness these penetration tests did melting occur, either in the target or in how much to proofread the bullets (aluminum, copper and lead have much lower melting points than steel). The bullets were recovered and exhibited mechanical strain, which would not be evident if they had melted. The target exhibited similar behavior. Any bullet capable of melting steel would leave scorch marks through tissue. When was the last time you saw that? The author theorizes that the steam generated by all this heat transfer causes the violent cavitation during a bullet's passage through tissue. One need not guess at it. We know that dynamic pressure is responsible for essay about truthfulness cavitation in hydrodynamic penetration. Bullets actually deliver very little energy: 2000 ft-lbs is 2700 J or just enough energy to light a 100 W bulb for online essay application 27 seconds.
I don't fault the author of that article for the mistake, as even sources that ought to be authoritative in the defense field make similar errors with regard to penetration mechanics (I still regularly see references to shaped charges producing plasma jets, and that sort of truthfulness misinformation). Real world penetration is best described as a fluid mechanics problem. For inviscid hydrodynamic flow, the dynamic pressure is boxer photo (according to Bernoulli's Law) proportional to essay about truthfulness the fluid density and the square of the velocity: P = ( rho / 2 ) v 2 . The force exerted on the bullet at essay on story, the stagnation point is essay equal to online the dynamic pressure multiplied by the presented area of the projectile in the direction of the flow, F = P A. The first thing that this tells you is that the mass of the bullet has no direct bearing on the diameter of the cavity created - rather, that is governed by shape and essay about, velocity. The kinetic energy expended during penetration is given by the force exerted over the distance of travel by boxer essay the bullet, or: E = F ds. So, the differential penetration depth, ds, is essay truthfulness simply the kinetic energy divided by essay on story the force acting on the projectile, ds = E / F. Penetration depth then clearly does depend on bullet mass (a component of kinetic energy). Essay? This expression could be integrated very easily (and conveniently) in terms of boxer photo essay velocity. Unfortunately, for all the reasons laid out in this discussion the above is still too simplistic. Essay About Truthfulness? Living tissue is not a Newtonian fluid. It is action solid, with fluid characteristics in high velocity impact events. Essay Truthfulness? It obeys non-linear behavior laws. It is viscous and exhibits second-order damping effects, as well as compressibility and elasticity (fluids are inelastic and, notwithstanding popular mythology to the contrary, all fluids are compressible), so calculations of the permanent cavity created by the bullet will be complex.
We need a velocity dependent drag function and homework help, a constitutive relation governing the strength, elasticity, compressibility and failure mechanisms of the about target material(s). So, where do we go from here? Can we have an objective assessment of the effectiveness of our weapons? I think the answer is in the affirmative and elements of an, hopefully the next two sections will begin to essay give some hint as to online essay evaluation application that understanding.
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Apple, Inc. About. The Strategy of Success. When you hear the name Apple, you think Steve Jobs. Software. He was ultimately the face of the about, Apple, Inc. organization. Jobs was the genius behind many Apple products used today, (i.e. iPhone, iPod, iPad). Homework Help. For many companies, the focus is on shareholders and maximizing revenue, but Apple throws in a slight twist; “delight customers” first and then worry about shareholders (Heineman, 2011).
Steve Jobs was about making innovative products that wowed customers. He believed customers do not know what they want until they see it. Mr. Jobs set the path for Apple’s future and they are still following the essay truthfulness, same strategies today under leadership hand-picked by Jobs to carry out his legacy and goals for the organization. When covering Apple’s Strategic plan it is important to first explore the company’s mission and vision statement. Apple has a mission statement that simply says- “Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and of an research paper, Internet offerings.” Additionally, the vision statement is “We believe that we are on the face of the earth to make great products and that’s not changing. We are constantly focusing on innovating. We believe in the simple not the complex.
We believe that we need to essay truthfulness, own and control the primary technologies behind the products that we make, and participate only in markets where we can make a significant contribution. We believe in saying no to thousands of projects, so that we can really focus on essay on story, the few that are truly important and meaningful to us. We believe in deep collaboration and essay about, cross-pollination of chegg homework our groups, which allow us to innovate in a way that others cannot. And frankly, we don’t settle for anything less than excellence in essay about truthfulness every group in the company, and we have the self-honesty to admit when we’re wrong and the courage to change. Boxer Essay. And I think regardless of who is in what job those values are so embedded in this company that Apple will do extremely well. ” Based on the company’s mission and vision statements, Apple has identified several long-term goals which include, environmental responsibilities, leveraging ability to design and develop, enhancing and expanding, and supporting the community . The first long-term goal, environmental responsibility , is a part of Apple’s vision statement to be a company that focuses on innovating. Therefore, the company wants to about, focus on utilization of renewable energy in help its offices and stores. Although renewable energy is utilized in 94% of the corporate offices, the challenge Apple faces is that renewable energy is not readily available for all of their in-store locations. A way Apple is attempting to achieve environmental responsibility is through eliminating toxic substances from about their production process and products.
Another long-term goal of the company is leveraging their ability to design and develop . This goal is an ongoing one because in review order for the company to maintain a competitive advantage they must offer superior innovation and integration through all products. Leveraging these abilities will enable Apple to rise above its competitors. This goal also leads to the next long-term goal, which is enhancing and essay about, expanding . In order to enhance and expand continuously, Apple invests heavily in Research and Development (RD). Over the last three years Apple has increased investment in RD from $2.4 in 2011 to evaluation application, $4.5 billion in 2013. This investment has again proven the about truthfulness, importance of enhancing and expanding. Additionally, Apple believes in a high-quality buying experience. Therefore, the company strategy also includes expanding its retail and how much, online stores to provide high quality sales and post sales. Lastly, supporting the community for the development of third-party software and hardware products is also long-term goal for the company. Strategic Capacity Plan.
Part of what allows the company to be successful with the plan is its product portfolio analysis. Essay Truthfulness. According to authors Michael L. Mallin and Todd A. Finkle (2011), for essay on story, a company such as Apple, product portfolio analysis is essay about truthfulness necessary as it helps to determine where its resources should be applied or reallocated, which will ensure the maximum profitability of the organization (para. 14). One place in which the boxer photo, resources of essay about truthfulness Apple were applied was the innovation that was unibody construction that helped to minimize resources while manufacturing more products. Author Matt Deatherage (2011) noted that although the actual work behind unibody construction is difficult, in order to achieve the simplicity that Apple manufactures with its products it is necessary that those working on them continue to work harder than those that use them (para. 11). In terms of the of an action paper, process behind unibody design, it was introduced to establish a level of perfection in Apple devices by replacing multiple parts of a device with just one part. It was a large breakthrough when it was first introduced with the MacBook and was done so by machining the one part from essay a single piece of aluminum. Using this process has allowed Apple to achieve a level of precision that was not heard of previously in the industry.
That process has worked to the company’s advantage, as evident in the first quarter of the 2013 fiscal year. Apple reported record revenue of over $54 billion and sales of over 75 million iOS devices. Maintaining this method of construction has allowed Apple to implement simple and seamless design into how much to charge to proofread a thesis many of its products and has placed the company above many of its competitors (“Feature”, 2013). Another way in which Apple is limiting its resources and producing more is truthfulness with the lesser amounts of water that the personal management, company is using when manufacturing its products. At the company’s data center which is located in Maiden, North Carolina, employed is an innovative cooling system that can reuse water up to 35 different times and results in a 20% reduction of overall water consumption at that location alone. In addition, Apple has established a Clean Water Program in an effort to get its suppliers to take part in the company’s water conservation practices (“Everyone”, 2014). As far as the manufacturing processes at Apple, there are some within the company’s supply chain that use larger amounts of water than others.
Not only does the Clean Water Program reduce these larger sources of water usage, it also promotes the recycling of water and prevents the company’s supply chain from being illegally polluted by water (“Introducing”, 2014). The suppliers that manufacture product parts that generally use the most water are the ones that Apple targets to essay truthfulness, participate in this program. This group typically consists of suppliers of essay on story PCBs, enclosures, cover glass, packaging, printing and electrical boards. In 2013, thirteen different water-intensive sites were chosen as the pilot facilities for the Clean Water Program based on essay about, the fact that as a whole, these sites consumed over 41 million cubic meters of water per year. An in-depth evaluation of the facility’s reuse/recycling programs and essay on story, wastewater treatment processes is about truthfulness conducted along with measurements of water input and output, and water samples are also taken throughout the facility’s entire treatment process (“Introducing”, 2014). After this process, the suppliers are then scored within several individual categories including water usage, wastewater management, wastewater treatment facility operation, maintenance, performance, monitoring, storm water management and hazardous waste management.
Based on the different improvement needs, Apple then provides the supplier with specific remediation actions that will be worked on chegg homework review, between them with the additional help of third-party technical consultants. Apple has planned to do even more with this program in 2014 using its best practices and will apply those to additional suppliers that go through intensive water production processes (“Introducing”, 2014). These methods by Apple have been very instrumental in allowing the company to find ways to get more out of its products while utilizing fewer resources. Its strategic capacity plan seems to have worked well for the company up to this point and if continued along the same path, it will more than likely continue to work well in the future. Flowchart of Portfolio Management Process. During this process of the PPM it is important to gain the approval of the about truthfulness, project and eventually the essay on story, portfolio. Once the approval is granted and we are assured the project(s) and portfolio aligns with the strategic goals of the organization we can establish the budget necessary to fulfill our goals. After the about truthfulness, budget has been defined, we begin to develop the timeframe in which the portfolio is to be completed and give a breakdown for individual projects deadlines. The next step is to personal software, assign the appropriate resources and we can finally begin on the project itself. The Project Manager should ensure he or she has clearly explained the goal of the project to the resources and essay, ensures all the resources understand their individual assignments.
Project Selection Criteria. One of the biggest challenges for any organization after defining its strategic plan, strategic capacity plan and portfolio process is finding the right type of projects that will align with the goals and strategic plan of that organization. The project selection process and the prioritizing of the projects that are selected are critical for an organization’s aspirations to fulfill its plan. Generally speaking, organizations typically utilize multiple criteria to determine which projects to select. For instance, project selection criteria may consist of elements of an action paper any of the following: Financial Criteria – Cost of project and profitability Strategic Criteria – Alignment with organizational goals Urgency Criteria – Product or service needed immediately or can it be placed on the ‘back shelf’? Stakeholders Criteria – How will all parties involved in the project process be affected? Human Resource Criteria – Are resources motivated, interested, and skillful?
Are there enough resources to complete the project? Risk Criteria – The probability of encountering resistance which can lower profitability (Vargas, R., 2010) With Apple, Inc., their project selection criteria is predominantly consumer oriented rather than internally oriented. From the very beginning, the late Steve Jobs and Steven Wozniack sought to essay about truthfulness, create products that had consumer-friendly interface in which would make Apple products easy for the customer to use (Lynch, R. To Charge. (N.D.). With this in truthfulness mind, one of Apple’s goals is to essay on story, become the tech device of choice in the realm of education (Finkle, T. A. Mallin, M. About. L., 2011, pg. 64). Management Software. Their objective is to essay about truthfulness, have their products, such as the Macbook and iPad, to be the #1 devices utilized in classrooms in the world. Another part of Apple’s project selection criteria is that the potential project must push the envelope of innovative technology. Online Essay Evaluation Application. It was part of Steve Job’s philosophy to always integrate new, cutting edge technology with every project with the about truthfulness, end result being a product that makes life easier for the customer.
Furthermore, Apple selects projects that are revolutionary in the sense of design, development and the distribution of products. Apple’s main focus is designing for user convenience and productivity. Apple’s desire is to capture the productivity, communication, and entertainment needs of a very loyal customer base (Finkle, T. A. To Charge To Proofread A Thesis. Mallin, M. L., 2011, pg. Essay About Truthfulness. 65). Last, but certainly not least, Apple’s project selection criteria includes the concerted effort to exploit the growing worldwide market in personal electronic devices. Around the year 2000, Apple identified an opportunity to essay, become a major player in the consumer electronics industry to compete with its own version of CD players, MP3 music players, digital cameras, etc. (Lynch, R. (N.D.). Products such as the essay about truthfulness, iPod, iTunes Music Store, the touch screen for iPhone and essay evaluation, more allowed Apple to essay truthfulness, position itself as a leader in consumer electronics with high end products that bore the elements research, Apple brand. Apple continues to compete for global prominence because of its strategic effort to select projects that will continue to be appealing worldwide. Program Management Plan. Overall view of essay truthfulness how projects are managed at Apple. Inc.
The project management process has changed since Steve Jobs passed away from more of a dictatorship to a democracy with new CEO Tim Cook. Photo. The shift in management philosophy has resulted in an odd twist: Apple’s pace of essay about truthfulness innovation has slowed and it now looks more like a conventional company than the corporate rebel Jobs tried to cultivate. Apple is to proofread one of the best-run companies on the planet and it has years of growth ahead of it due to essay about truthfulness, the incredible talent assembled by Jobs and elements, Cook. People are not going to stop buying iPads and iPhones. About. Other companies are not going to online essay application, suddenly make killer products that make Apple’s look like last year’s castoffs.
Tim Cook has the reins firmly in hand; I only wish others who doubt me could spend two minutes in about truthfulness the same room with him. Apple has the elements action paper, right CEO to carry it into about truthfulness the post-Steve Jobs era, and the company will continue to thrive. Apple, Inc. has a company vision – “To make a contribution to the world by making tools for homework help review, the mind that advance humankind”. With this vision, they can set goals and track their progress based on this vision. Essay About Truthfulness. Also, when they manufacture a product, they produce it based on photo, this vision. When customers know their vision, they will think of Apple products when they want a smart and reliable gadget. As an example, MacBook, an invention of Steve Jobs, is about really amazing. It helps people in every aspect from businesses, education, and chegg homework help, even in the music industry. They invented the computerized multi-tasking system that mankind has never imagined before. It really works for essay about, people because usually people do more than a job when they use a computer.
With multitasking, every person can do many jobs at the same time because the program is organized neatly and is easier to use for every person with different types of jobs. Apple innovates new products by learning from their customer’s complaints and boxer, experiences. Before they plan to market their new product, they study the errors of their previous products first. They focus on the reparation of the errors and about, as a result, the research, new product is better than the previous one and they will reach their yearly aim because they have targeted based on the surveys of the customers’ criticisms and complaints. About Truthfulness. As an example, Apple discovered that a lot of customers complained when they bought an album of an artist because they frequently lost their physical albums. Essay. Therefore, Steve Jobs invented the electronic album which is easier for the customer to keep their song data in the computer and can bring them everywhere without feeling afraid of losing the album. Another example is before they made iPhone 4, they created a survey about the customer’s satisfaction of using iPhone 3Gs. They fixed the truthfulness, errors of iPhone 3Gs and as a result, four million units of iPhone 4 were sold in the first three days of launching, October 2011. An action plan for the product launch is generated, which is called the essay on story, “Rules of the Road”. About. It’s a top secret document that lists every significant milestone of a product’s development up until launch.
Each milestone is annotated with a DRI (directly responsible individual) that is in charge of making that item happen. To Proofread A Thesis. Losing or revealing this document to the wrong people results in an immediate firing, as noted in the document itself. As you can see from the breakdown, Apple often makes decisions that make the process more expensive and less efficient in order to produce a seriously better product. These are things that shouldn’t pay nearly the dividends they do, but consistently fail to disappoint. Many companies are too complex, or too hidebound in the traditional way of doing things, to take on many, if any, aspects of about truthfulness Apple’s process. Software. Still, there is an alluring simplicity to Apple’s accountability schemes and its devotion to ‘good products first’. And there is, of course, the essay truthfulness, massive financial success of the photo essay, company over truthfulness, the past 10 years. It is how much to charge to proofread a thesis without question that any project will encounter conflict in essay truthfulness some form or fashion throughout the life cycle of that project. Many variables play into the reasoning for boxer, conflict.
Whether it is personality differences, work style differences, variations in trains of thought as it pertains to various tasks, or whatever it may be, conflict will be inevitable. However, the most important thing for any project to have is an atmosphere which fosters open dialog in which conflict resolution can come in a professional manner. Communication is essay critical to the success of any project and is absolutely necessary when addressing conflicts. Conflicts in general are either goal-oriented, administrative in nature, or interpersonal (Verma, V. (N.D.), pg. 2). The three areas of conflict that we will focus on are Quality (goal-oriented), Cost/Budget and Scheduling (administrative). The table below defines those areas of conflict and addresses the resolution for each: In terms of prioritization as it pertains to cost, schedule and quality, we believe that the project schedule is the highest priority. Being that we live in a fast paced technocratic society where technological advancement happens at a rapid pace, it is personal project essential that the projects remain on schedule and are completed on about truthfulness, time in order for resources to be available for re-allocation to new projects.
External factors such as competition and market demand are the driving forces behind making the schedule the homework help review, highest priority. Of the about truthfulness, three items in question, cost will be last in how much to proofread a thesis terms of priority. Apple, Inc. already positions itself as a high-end provider of goods and services. Hence, Apple gadget prices reflect this sentiment because there continues to be a desire for high-end products. Apple, Inc. Truthfulness. seeks to how much to charge to proofread a thesis, maintain its status as being the #1 provider in that regard. Change Management Plan. Change management is a systematic approach to about truthfulness, dealing with change, both from the photo, perspective of an organization and on the individual level.
A somewhat ambiguous term, change management has at least three different aspects, including: adapting to change, controlling change, and effecting change. A proactive approach to dealing with change is at the core of essay all three aspects. For an organization, change management means defining and implementing procedures and/or technologies to deal with changes in the business environment and to profit from changing opportunities. Change is undoubtedly a part of any organization. The important aspect to remember of essay on story a change management plan is that it needs to be implemented appropriately.
When attempting to implement a change plan, you must consider the scope of your project, any associated costs, and what will this change bring about if implemented. Will there be any additional value added to the project? One of the about, biggest questions that must be addressed, is will this change align with the online, strategic goals of the company? Apple has been able to handle change pretty well over the years. Due to their innovative products, they have built a following of users who love and look forward to about truthfulness, the new technologies being introduced or updated by the company. Apple releases their products on their own timetable and tries not to make releases based on their competitors. There have been some problems with software releases at Apple just as there is with any other company, but their goal is to release during certain times of the year after progressively testing and ensuring the release is essay application ready for the public. Change at Apple is exuded by about truthfulness intrigue and mystery. However, under the leadership of Tim Cook, Apple has changed and become a little more transparent.
Many people have complained for years of Apple being so secretive, but the reaching out boxer essay, Tim Cook has done is slowly changing that perception. Cooks appears to communicate more with consumers than his predecessor, Jobs. Resource Utilization Plan. According to author Henrik J. Brandt (2011), resource utilization involves planning, managing and deploying the right people skills at the right time on the right projects (para. 6). There are a variety of different tips to utilizing human resources effectively and we will take a look at some of those now: Management should make it simple to register time and relevant data into the business solution as this will show how work hours are billable (para. 12). Management should not make “guesstimates” when it comes to aligning work estimation, execution and existing capacity (para. 13). Management should integrate its sales pipeline with its resource management system as it will provide the necessary information and confidence to about truthfulness, bid and work on new projects (para.
25). Resource utilization and management provides organizations with the benefit of having a highly visual, intuitive and transparent resource overview. Of An Action. This can be accessed and about, reviewed by senior, department and project managers as well as employees in real-time and based on factual information. Having a single integrated solution which supports everybody in the organization in regards to work and resource planning can certainly be a help in increasing profitability. In addition, I believe that Apple can benefit from a fully-realized resource utilization plan and the aforementioned suggestions could definitely lead the essay on story, company in the right direction. Due to Steve Job’s unique business approach to building Apple, Apple is not seen as a company that used mainstream techniques in its business development. Truthfulness. However, their project management techniques are very conventional. Where many companies like to cut corners in development and try to save money in essay application production, oftentimes resulting in a lower quality product, this has not been the case with Apple.
Apple is not interested in lowering up-front costs in essay order to drive products; instead their focus has been on providing the highest quality, most technologically innovative product possible. This has resulted in a high amount of profits for Apple over the last decade. After the essay on story, death of Steve Jobs there was a fear that the new CEO, Tim Cook has taken a different approach in terms of transparency, but the same concept in terms of quality and ingenuity in order to keep the Apple brand prosperous. Where Steve Jobs was secretive, Tim Cook is about more interactive with customers. This is an important concept within project management in essay on story that it is essay truthfulness important to take what has been learned in past projects and use this knowledge to make future projects even better. Another important aspect of project and program management is quality management. Photo. Old wisdom states that a company should try to cut corners in price and not worry about the essay about, quality so much as the company profits. Apple did not take heed to this conventional wisdom, and instead Apple cares about using the best techniques in order to build the best product. This actually increased Apple’s products while at the same time being able to charge a premium for their products. Apple also cares about evaluation sustainability which is also key in helping to maintain a positive image in a world where a reputation can take years to build but a few minutes to destroy.
Apple is committed to sustainability and environmental responsibility by reusing water and creating renewable energy sources where available. Overall, through its innovation and commitment to quality and excellence, Apple is now one of the truthfulness, most recognized companies in to charge the world. By being more transparent and improving qualitative research, Apple can continue to create innovative products despite the essay about truthfulness, passing of Steve Jobs. Even though there has been a slowdown of new Apple products being created they can continue to release products that will awe consumers. Apple, Inc. (2014), “Environmental Responsibility: Everyone should have water to essay on story, use and reuse”, Retrieved on September 25, 2014 from http://www.apple.com/environment/finite-resources/ Apple, Inc. Essay Truthfulness. (2014), “Supplier Responsibility: Introducing the clean water program”, Retrieved on of an action, September 25, 2014 from http://www.apple.com/supplier-responsibility/environment/
Brandt, H. J. (2011). Top 8 best practices to essay, increase your resource utilization: How to increase. your utilization rate and reduce the need for subcontractors. Deltek . Retrieved from. Deatherage, M. (2011). What Steve Jobs Did. Macworld , 28(12), 52. Retrieved on September 25, 2014. Edgar Online (October, 30, 2013), APPLE, INC. FORM 10-K (Annual Report) For the Fiscal Year Ended September 28, 2013, pg.
33, Retrieved on September 26, 2014 from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/AAPL/3502820743x0xS1193125-13-416534/320193/filing.pdf. Feature: Steve Jobs — the man who made aluminum sexy. (2013). Chegg Review. Metal Bulletin Daily , (363), 1. Essay About. Retrieved on September 25, 2014. Finkle, T. A. Project Management Software. Mallin, M. Essay About. L. (2011). Apple Inc.: product portfolio analysis. Journal Of The International Academy for Case Studies , 17(7), 63-74. Retrieved on September 25, 2014. Heineman, Ben W. (October 12, 2011), “Steve Jobs and homework help, the Purpose of the Corporation.” Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business Publishing. Web.
Retrieved on September 26, 2014 from essay about truthfulness http://blogs.hbr.org/2011/10/steve-jobs-and-the-purpose-of/ Lynch, R. (N.D.) “Strategic Management Case plus Case Answer – Apple’s Profitable but Risky Strategy”, Retrieved September 14, 2014 from http://www.global-strategy.net/apples-profitable-but-risky-strategy/ “Management of Apple, Inc.” (May 6, 2013), Retrieved on September 25, 2014 from http://applemanagement.wordpress.com/ Vargas, R. How Much To Charge. (June 9, 2010), “Videocast – Project Selection Criteria”, Retrieved on September 25, 2014 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vD__pVFGCt4. Culture, Lifestyle, Sports, Entertainment and Politics. Writing, Humor, Advice, Parenthood and Oddness.
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4 Steps to essay Writing a Job-Winning Resume. Essay Application? Writing your resume, or even updating your resume, can be a scary, daunting task. But with the right approach and truthfulness, know-how, you can create your own standout document in no time. And the good news is photo essay we’re here to help. We’ve broken down the resume-writing process into 4 simple steps to make it easier for essay, you to essay on story get started! Our Resume Writing Guide gives you an overview of each section of your resume, followed by some quick tips and actual resume examples that you can use as model for essay about, your own resume. Every great resume begins with a strong summary statement.
This is a short description of who you are professionally that includes a brief list of your top skills. Your summary statement is the first thing that recruiters will see. So think of it as your big chance to personal project software catch someone’s attention. You also want to show hiring leaders that you’re a great fit for the job. You can do this by about truthfulness using the skills and keywords that are in the job description in your summary statement – just make sure you only essay application, use those that reflect your experience (no exaggerating or lying on essay about, your resume!). Your statement can be written in either sentence form or bullet-point form and should be short, but effective – no more than 3 sentences or bullet points; it should also contain the research paper following information: Your professional title Top 2-3 skills Specific expertise, professional traits, accomplishments.
Need help writing your own professional summary statement? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of expertly written summary statements and truthfulness, career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to your resume. Registered nurse with 9 years of experience in boxer photo essay medical centers and operating rooms ICU and ER experience in 40+ bed units Strong organizational and about truthfulness, interpersonal skills. Dedicated assembly line worker with 5 years of experience. Well-versed in machinery assembly and production line efficiency . Fast learner who picks up new processes and technologies easily. Senior Sales Associate with excellent customer relations skills in business-to-business sales Increased global sales by 20% over the last two years, exceeding goals each quarter for the past year Seeking new sales challenge with management opportunities.
Experienced veterinary technician with 3 years of experience in delivering comprehensive care to animals at animal rescue facilities and shelters. Seeking to use shelter experience and formal training at a respected veterinary office. Personal Management Software? Responsible cashier experienced at managing front-of-store needs in busy environments. Friendly and energetic with strong communication and organizational abilities. Seeking role of about, increased responsibility where strengths in service and sales will be valuable. Motivated sales professional with 8 years of fashion retail sales experience who truly enjoys helping customers find their best fit and of an research, style. Highly results-oriented and energetic, with unsurpassed customer relations skills. The skills section – often called the #8220;Qualifications#8221; or #8220;Areas of Expertise#8221; section of your resume is truthfulness a list of your top skills. Online Application? This section of your resume is your chance to showcase your abilities to employers in a quick and easy-to-read way. Although this section is typically short and concise (think two columns of 3 to 4 bullet points), it contains very important information about essay truthfulness your ability to perform a particular type of job.
Hiring managers should be able to scan your resume and find this list of skills easily. Online Evaluation? Here are a few helpful tips for essay truthfulness, writing a skills section that will get you noticed. Target your skills to the job : This is one of the best ways to customize your resume for action research, the job you are applying to. Read the job description and list all of the truthfulness required and desired skills for the position. Then, see if you have any skills that match up with those on your list; these are the abilities you should include in your skills section. This way, when hiring managers skim your resume, they will see that you have the skills they’re looking for in a candidate. Include transferable skills : Transferable skills are skills that cross from one career field to another.
These skills can be applied to a variety of positions. Some examples include communication skills, presentation or public speaking skills, any foreign language skills you have, social media skills, organizational and planning skills, and boxer, management and leaderships skills. Use keywords : If you are applying to a job online and essay, are asked to upload your resume or fill in an application online, chances are you are entering your information into project management an application tracking system. About Truthfulness? This is a machine that companies use to scan a resume for keywords specific to the job. Boxer? Be sure to pick out keywords from the job description and your industry and use them in your resume and about truthfulness, application to help review make sure it gets past this machine. Using keywords directly from the essay truthfulness employer will increase your chances of getting noticed by the hiring manager. Need help writing a skills section that gets you noticed? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to your own resume.
While all parts of boxer essay, your resume are equally important, your work history section is essay about truthfulness where you will be discussing your direct experience and your accomplishments, and it’s critical to get this one right.Let’s start with the basics. Your work history section should include the following: Positions and/or titles you held Names of organizations where you were employed City and state of each organization Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Brief descriptions of your experience in bullet format. This section will be a combination of your job responsibilities and duties along with your work achievements. Elements Of An Action Paper? Hiring managers will be looking for your achievements and successes, not just your responsibilities, so it’s important to essay about include both. When listing your responsibilities and duties, be sure to use action verbs to increase the strength of your writing and chegg homework review, make potential employers take notice. Essay About? Some action verbs to use include: Communicated Negotiated Joined Reported Customized Initiated Planned Budgeted Developed Prepared Contributed Ensured Provided Led. It takes practice and time to photo essay come up with your accomplishments and successes and to add numbers to them numbers such as how much money you saved the essay company, how you increased efficiency, or how many sales you achieved in a certain period of time. However, using two or three bullets under each job to describe your successes, along with metrics, will land you an interview. To Charge A Thesis? Need help writing a work experience section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and about truthfulness, quickly add to your own resume.
Bayle Industries, Hutchins Creek, MD. How Much A Thesis? July 2010 – present. Prioritized and managed multiple administrative projects while managing day-to- day tasks such as receiving and distributing mail, maintaining conference rooms, managing calendars, and maintaining office supplies. Increased conference room scheduling efficiency by 25% by implementing new company-wide online booking system. Provided travel arrangement support for about truthfulness, 25+ employees per month for offsite meetings and national conferences. Managed operations and logistics for essay on story, annual onsite company conference for essay, 150 employees and 200+ guest attendees. Parkview Elementary School, Summerfields, PA.
September 2014 – May 2016. Assisted in a classroom of 25 elementary school children, ages 5-6, for two consecutive school years. Engaged children with diverse and enjoyable activities involving theatrical play, musical instruments and hands-on learning. Offered detailed weekly reports that outlined each child’s activities and implemented new email letter system to essay offer reports online, saving the essay about truthfulness faculty 4 hours per week. Ft. Hood, Killeen, TX. January 2008 – August 2015. Developed and led 5 new training programs over 12 months in preparation for combat. Performed reconnaissance operations in compromised regions to develop combat training programs. Performed as a fire team member during situational training exercises and all infantry dismounted battle drills. Communicated urgent orders and directions effectively to team of 200+ military personnel.
Your educational background can be an important part of your resume and should communicate your background quickly and simply to potential employers. Even if you don’t have previous experience in a particular job, you may increase your chances of being considered for essay on story, the position if you can show that you have taken courses that are relevant to about truthfulness the position at hand. How Much To Charge? Here are some tips to essay truthfulness help make your education section work for you: List the highest level of education first. This will help catch the hiring manager’s eye and ensure that he or she is able to determine your education level quickly. If you are recent graduate without a ton of work experience, then you can place your education section at essay on story the top of essay about, your resume for essay on story, emphasis. Include your educational information in this order: Degree or diploma name is listed first. Essay Truthfulness? Major(s) follow the personal management degree. If you have minors, these are optional to about truthfulness list but it’s recommended to project list them if they are relevant to the job you are applying for.
List the date you received the degree or diploma by year (for example, 2003). If you are soon-to-be grad, you can list your expected graduation date. Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Do not include your GPA on truthfulness, your resume unless you are a recent graduate. If you don’t have a degree, never fear! If you have an personal management software associate’s degree, you can list it in the same way as above. It is also perfectly acceptable to about list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. In the absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Then, make sure to emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to evaluation application show employers that you are qualified for truthfulness, the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an education section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and effectively outline your classroom achievements. More Articles about online essay evaluation application How to Write Your First Resume.
3 Critical Mistakes to Avoid on truthfulness, Your First Ever Resume. Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career. How to Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience. Get Hired In 30 Seconds: Resume Summary Tips. Chegg Homework Review? Get Your Resume In Front of the Right People: Four Tips. Create a Resume That Stops Traffic. How to essay truthfulness Write a Resume that Lands More Job Offers. Resume Tips for Job Search Newbies. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.
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essay on spaceship During the latter part of 1958, work being carried out on the foundations of a new office block in Knightsbridge leads to the discovery of an alien spacecraft buried deep inside the London clay where it has lain hidden for essay about truthfulness, over five million years. Although little now remains of its propulsion system or controls, the hull itself shows no signs of corrosion – in fact, it seems to be alive in essay on story some way. An attempt to drill through the bulkhead produces unearthly sounds never heard before by the human ear. Nigel Kneale’s script for the BBC’s television serial Quatermass and the Pit refers to a ‘wailing screech’ to which is added ‘a deep thudding vibration’ that grows in intensity, filling the entire excavation site. Those within earshot are thrown into strange convulsions: bodies tense, eyes shut tight, limbs shuddering. Only when the drilling stops do the strange sounds subside . Originally screened from the end of essay about December 1958 through the first few weeks of 1959, Quatermass and the Pit is chegg review very much an essay about echo of its times. The third adventure to feature British rocket scientist Bernard Quatermass, it manages to speak to a growing audience of viewers already becoming uncomfortably familiar with the accelerating pace of modern change. In October 1957, the to charge to proofread a thesis Soviet Union surprised the entire world by announcing that they had successfully launched Sputnik I, the essay about truthfulness first manmade satellite, into orbit around the Earth.
Within three months it was joined by an American satellite, Explorer I; the Space Race has now begun. Tracking their remote bleeping from its location in the Cheshire countryside is the Jodrell Bank Experimental Station with its giant Lovell Telescope, which has been studying cosmic rays since the boxer summer of 1957. The universe suddenly seems to be pulsating with an energy that had previously gone undetected: one that is so new and unfamiliar that it can still only be heard . Not surprising then that the alien spacecraft in Quatermass and the Pit should first exert its influence through the medium of unearthly sounds, or that the essay about newly-formed BBC Radiophonic Workshop should be given the photo essay task of essay about making them. Essay On Story? Established, according to the official press release, to produce ‘a new sound – suggestive of emotion, sensation, mood rather than the literal moaning of wind or the opening of a door’, the unit has only been in operation since May 1958. Quatermass and the Pit is essay about consequently one of the first major television series to make a prominent feature of these ‘suggestive’ sounds. To produce them, Radiophonic Workshop cofounder Desmond Briscoe, assisted by Dick Mills, utilizes one of the most significant developments in sound technology to emerge since the end of the Second World War: the of an paper commercial tape recorder. Magnetic tape has already played an important part in early experiments to create ‘musique concrete’ through the essay about truthfulness manipulation of raw sound: most recently the composer Edgard Varese has used a whole battery of them to compose his groundbreaking Poeme electronique, currently wowing visitors to the Philips Pavilion at evaluation application the 1958 Brussels World’s Fair.
A new type of music has begun to be registered upon magnetic tape: one that cannot be contained in the traditional concert hall but requires instead equally new spaces and new media to be appreciated fully . Also present at Expo ’58 is the Radiophonic Workshop’s other founder, Daphne Oram, sent by essay about truthfulness the BBC to take part in an international symposium on experimental music, where she encounters the works and chegg homework help ideas of Karlheinz Stockhausen, John Cage, Luc Ferrari and Pierre Schaeffer. What will be later described by Desmond Briscoe as the ‘great electronic churnings and throbbings’ that reverberate through Quatermass and the Pit are the truthfulness direct result of the experimental techniques made possible by magnetic tape. “For these sounds,” he later recalls, “we used tape feed-back started with a side drum beat, and tape recorders that went into oscillation with themselves. We also connected and boxer essay disconnected amplifiers to make great splats of essay sound. Finally, we transferred all the sounds that we made onto essay on story, discs to play in the television studio.” The process Briscoe describes here is one in about truthfulness which the production of sound becomes wired into personal project, itself. Electric and acoustic pulses are simultaneously recorded and then played back over themselves; the resultant repetitions mutate and decay, giving the impression of eerie distortions rebounding over a measureless and artificial distance . At the same time, the electrical amplification allows feedback to be controlled not in terms of pitch or harmony, but timbre and duration. Once volume changes, so does time itself: sound becomes plastic, capable of being stretched and moulded into any shape or form required. Just as the modern office blocks going up in about truthfulness the UK’s major cities and how much to proofread the Jodrell Bank radio-telescope constitute an emerging architecture of the future, this elementary form of electronic music has become the sound of space itself: echoing and vibrating, breathing and alive.
While sustained reverberation results in the blurring of truthfulness notes into one sound that marks the outer limit of a cavernous space, the process of repetition suggests something vaster still. The more precisely something is repeated, the essay application more closely it approximates the ultimate loneliness of an infinite echo. Like Sputnik’s repeated signal, it lays down a carefully regulated sonic grid that defines and limits human apprehension of the expanding universe. The characters in Quatermass and the Pit soon find themselves caught up in just such a grid. The ‘suggestive’ screeches and vibrations produced by the alien spacecraft with its crew of long-dead Martians sealed inside the about truthfulness bulkhead cut through those encountered during everyday life . Even the transistor radio relaying breezy light entertainment and news bulletins to the workers at the Knightsbridge excavation soon falls silent, unable to compete with these extraterrestrial noises. Although the management Radiophonic Workshop has succeeded in connecting the essay truthfulness nation’s living rooms with outer space through the medium of personal project management electronic sound, this achievement is not enough for Daphne Oram. Frustrated by the BBC’s determination to see the new unit only as a means of manufacturing jingles and sound effects for essay about, its regular broadcasts rather than an personal project experimental laboratory to be used by the musical avant-garde, she resigns and essay about relocates to a deserted coast house in Kent. Here she starts work developing ‘Oramics’: a system of photoelectric cells capable of evaluation converting images drawn onto 35 mm film into pure electronic tones.
The future, it appears, belongs to the lone pioneer as much as the large organization. It is, after all, the lone pioneer who ensures that space is never left unoccupied for very long. “Comets, I believe, are the pulsating spermatozoa of space,” wrote Desmond Leslie in 1959, “darting on their eccentric orbits seeking new ‘world eggs’ to fertilize.” Privately released on an acetate disc, Leslie’s Music of the Future contains material previously recorded for BBC radio dramas, a sci-fi movie and a London stage play. Essay? Manipulating recordings of humming tops, motor horns and plucked piano strings, Leslie creates evocative works bearing titles such as ‘Comet in elements Aquarius’ and ‘Asteroid Belt’, defining his work as “the arrangement of sound patterns into an intelligent, evocative and potent new musical form.” Leslie is also the well-known co-author of the essay bestseller Flying Saucers Have Landed. Boxer? This landmark in UFO literature is perhaps best known for containing George Adamski’s account of his encounter with a visiting Venusian near the Mount Palomar Observatory in about truthfulness California. This, however, is nothing compared with Leslie’s own enthused probing of the elements of an action flying saucer myth. Like the author of essay about truthfulness Quatermass and the Pit, he suggests that the secrets of space travel may be found in our distant prehistory. Elegantly working Theosophy in with Hinduism, perpetual motion machines with ectoplasm, and the Great Pyramid with ancient Celtic folklore, Leslie has helped to create the complete New Age package before the New Age has even dawned fully: from drive-in movies to album covers, pop culture iconography might be considerably the poorer without it. A licensing agreement with the Joseph Weinberger music library ensures that much of Leslie’s ‘Music of the Voids of Outer Space’ is online heard by the public as soundtracks to essay about radio mystery serials, science-fiction movies and television series.
Also charting the personal project management hitherto unheard depths of the cosmos innovative young record producer Joe Meek, busily at work in 1959, recording ‘I Hear A New World: An Outer Space Music Fantasy’ in his homemade studio on essay about truthfulness, London’s Holloway Road. Only part of online essay this ambitious project is initially released to the public, on an Extended Play disc in 1960, but its contents hint at a troubled loneliness. A sense of isolated introspection clings to the dry static and radioactive clicking of compositions such as ‘Magnetic Field’ and ‘Orbit around the Moon’. To help fill this universal emptiness, Meek employs a steel guitar, on loan from the Cavaliers: the about first combo to feature the instrument on a UK pop record. The glissando produced by running a slide up its strings evokes the thrill of ascension. Its bent notes, clear tones and extended lines, capable of going from the particular to the infinite in a matter of essay on story seconds, will become some of the quintessential sounds of the Space Race. In 1962 Meek’s international hit tune ‘Telstar’, written and produced for the Tornadoes, becomes the first theme to celebrate human space technology in its own right. Titled after an American telecommunications satellite, its vaulting theme is played back on a Univox Clavioline, an essay about truthfulness early electronic keyboard, while the sense of vast distances covered is once again conveyed by the increasingly familiar sound of tape echo feeding back on itself. ‘Telstar’ refers to photo essay a very different universe: one that emits manmade sounds. ‘Life on Venus’, released the essay following year, takes this a stage further. Review? “News flash!” an urgent voice announces over looped electronic tones. “Signals have been received from the planet Venus. These resemble sounds similar to those created by a musical instrument such as an essay about truthfulness organ, so perhaps there is life on Venus.” In one simple move, Meek has reduced the occupants of outer space to their machines. In 1963, another machine materializes for essay on story, the first time on the UK’s television screens. Able to shift through different dimensions of time and about truthfulness space, the TARDIS makes an unearthly noise when in operation: the looped recording of project a piano string being rubbed by a house key, courtesy of the about BBC Radiophone Workshop, whose staff now includes the likes of Brian Hodgson and boxer photo Delia Derbyshire, who is also responsible for realizing Ron Grainer’s evocative Dr Who title theme with assistance from Dick Mills.
As it steadily unfolds, the history of electronic music increasingly becomes a series of intersections with other forms of media, thereby rendering all notions of its inherent purity academic in just about every sense of the word. Dr Who is truthfulness yet another example of how popular culture becomes a carrier signal for what is becoming an alien musical invasion. The material produced by the Workshop for the show during its first six years bears all the marks of having been carefully dubbed, processed and assembled on tape using only household junk and primitive oscillators as sound sources. Project Software? Cut together by hand, tracks like ‘Sensorite Speech’ and about truthfulness ‘Dalek Spaceship Lands’ make up with precision of effect what they lack in dynamic range: some might even be mistaken for outtakes from Varese’s Poeme electronique, a work also intersected with architecture and audiovisual design in its creation. Throughout the 1960s, electronic music continues to evolve slowly into a medium for new and unworldly experiences: ones for which the hit parade and television science-fiction serials have only partially prepared them . By 1967 Hodgson and Derbyshire are taking part in ‘The Million Volt Light and photo essay Sound Rave’, a multimedia electronic arts event held at about truthfulness the London Roundhouse on 28 January and 4 February 1967. One lone pioneer not in attendance is Joe Meek.
On February 3, beset by business worries, increasingly paranoid and subject to fits of elements of an action research paper depression, the legendary record producer fatally shoots his landlady in the chest with a shotgun he has hidden under his bed before turning the weapon upon himself. That same month Hammer Film starts principal photography at MGM Studios Borehamwood for its updated movie adaptation of essay truthfulness Quatermass and the Pit. The man responsible for creating the otherworldly sounds of the Martian spacecraft this time is composer Tristram Cary, who is also working on a commission to produce an electronic soundtrack for different sections of the British pavilion at the 1967 World’s Fair in Montreal. Social change takes on a new meaning when seen from the edge of space. Essay? When Nigel Kneale conceived of his characters for the original Quatermass and the Pit back in 1958 it was, he later claims, “to typify human variants, afflicted to different degrees by the alien tampering and driven by the implanted instincts into displays of about superstitious fear and boxer essay racial rigidity when the capsule in essay about truthfulness the pit warmed up.” By the time the alien spacecraft comes to life, it has already become clear that the Martians are our distant ancestors, whose memory has been kept alive through occult practices, scattered reports of poltergeists and instances of demonic possession. This painful revelation, however, has come too late for us . Application? The psychic violence unleashed at the end of Kneale’s story is a form of ritual cleansing: a purging of the Martian species that should have taken place over five million years ago.
Such scenes were written against the ugly background of racially-motivated clashes in Nottingham, Notting Hill and Bayswater. Ten years previously the Empire Windrush had arrived at Tilbury, bringing 490 Jamaicans to live and work in Britain; by truthfulness 1958 a growing labour crisis had been resolved by the arrival of some 180,000 more. Martian intolerance to their presence took the form of iron bars and petrol bombs: black men were assaulted as they left their places of chegg homework work. Kneale’s script plays back the theme of essay about invasion, change and mutation as a series of bleak ironies, the biggest of boxer essay all being that no matter where we find ourselves in about truthfulness space, someone else has always been there before us. This much is essay as true in essay truthfulness 1967 as it was back in 1958.
Tristram Cary recreates the deep throbbing vibrations of the Martian hull and the resultant screeching panic of the churning London streets in the new Electronic Studio he has helped establish at the Royal College of Music. Boxer Photo? These sounds seem deeper, richer and more alien than might have seemed possible even five years before; but they also come shadowed by some of the about more recent changes to take place within the Spaceship UK programme. In 1967 Syd Barrett runs a Zippo lighter along the strings of his guitar on ‘See Emily Play’, recorded during the studio sessions for the Pink Floyd’s first LP, Piper at the Gates of project Dawn. The slide into space started by Joe Meek’s addition of about a steel guitar to the extraterrestrial sounds on ‘I Hear A New World’ has now been given its fullest expression as Barrett’s psychedelic glissando is prolonged and evaluation application expanded through tape echo effects. ‘Interstellar Overdrive’ and ‘Astronomy Domine’, two more Barrett compositions from the same album, represent what happens to pop culture’s space-age thrust once it is set free of the 7” single’s restrictive running time. Accustomed to playing extended sets at underground venues like London’s UFO club, Pink Floyd represent a younger generation of essay about musicians who see the exploration of sound as an end in itself. It becomes an event that makes the loneliness of of an action life in space seem more endurable. About Truthfulness? The creeping awareness that someone has got there before us is flipped over into chegg homework review, the realization that we ourselves are the aliens. The outer cosmos has become internalized. The oscillating feedback introducing each verse of the Rolling Stones’ 1967 single ‘Two Thousand Light Years From Home’ carried echoes of Joe Meek’s isolated descent into paranoia and madness.
Adding a glacial sheen to this frozen hymn to distance and loneliness is the Mellotron MkII. A keyboard instrument originally designed to emulate the lushness of an entire orchestra by essay truthfulness playing back pre-recorded tape loops, its reedy tones sound like nothing on a thesis, Earth. Together with the Clavioline, now heard in 1967 providing fills and runs on the Beatles’ ‘Baby, You’re A Rich Man’ having formerly carried the melody on essay truthfulness, Meek’s ‘Telstar’, the Mellotron has too distinctive a tone to how much a thesis sustain repeated use. Something that combines the versatility of the electronic music studio with the compactness of a musical instrument is required. Having been a radio enthusiast in his teens and trained as a radar operator during the Second World War, Tristram Cary already knows his way around a circuit diagram.
In 1969 he joins Dr Peter Zinovieff and David Cockerell in founding the Electronic Music Studios (EMS), the company responsible for essay truthfulness, developing the VCS3: one of the first commercially available portable synthesizers. A distinctive array of oscillators, patch panel and joystick, tidily arranged with a free-standing wooden box, the EMS VCS3 is the shape of things to come: its introduction at the end of the 1960s marking a radical shift in the exploration of sound in space. One of the first recordings to test the EMS VCS3’s potential is Electric Storm by online essay evaluation application White Noise: a collaborative project featuring ‘Production Coordinator’ David Vorhaus, also in essay truthfulness charge of ‘Special Stereo effects’, with Delia Derbyshire and Brian Hodgson on ‘Electronic Sound Realization’. A Thesis? Although put out by Island Records, a label initially set up to essay about truthfulness release Jamaican reggae and progressive rock albums, Electric Storm exists in an alien iciness of essay on story its own making. Compositions such as ‘Love without Sound’ and ‘Firebird’ have all the breathy charm of psychedelic pop but feel as if they had also been cryogenically frozen for long-haul spaceflight. The same intensity can be found in Derbyshire’s contributions to the BBC Radiophonic Workshop album, released around the same time. Her manipulation of sound on tape, notable in the darkly brooding expanses of ‘The Delian Mode’ and ‘Blue Veils and Golden Sands’, both created for the BBC, fit the times so closely that they almost pass unnoticed. About Truthfulness? Discontent is spreading throughout Spaceship Earth, sparking riots in Paris and London, Washington and Chicago, Watts and New York. Satellite telecommunication systems mean that the whole world can now participate in what is essay on story happening as it happens; meanwhile pictures of our world sent back from the Moon during the summer of 1969 show a Global Village that is at once peaceful, remote and still. With the departure of essay Apollo XVII from the lunar surface in December 1972, the Space Race appears to be over before it has even started, survived only by the Cold War pressures that helped produce it.
In the management software UK, however, it may seem to have gone on longer. The night before Apollo XI touches down in the Sea of Tranquility, Pink Floyd performs ‘Moonhead’ live on essay, BBC television: by 1972 they are experimenting in the studio with the EMS VCS3 and Synthi A, recording their bestselling album The Dark Side of the Moon. Also using EMS synthesizers around the same time are King Crimson, Brian Eno, Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream and the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, who purchases the massive EMS Synthi 100, nicknames it ‘The Delaware’ and puts it into production, supplying soundtracks for the sci-fi series Dr Who, Blake’s Seven and The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. It seems increasingly appropriate that the how much to proofread a thesis term ‘sci-fi’, first coined by enthusiast Forrest J Ackerman, has its origin in the 1950s mania for stereophonic ‘hi-fi’ systems. As synthesizers become cheaper and more compact, electronic music moves slowly out of the studio and into clubs, concert venues and dancehalls . A lot still separates the soundtrack from essay about, what it was intended to accompany, however. The unearthly sounds created throughout the 1950s and 1960s have sketched out personal project software, a future that many listeners are starting to despair of ever catching up with. What often fills the gap between the essay about truthfulness two is the actual business of making the music itself. Chegg? Thanks to the growing supply of new electronic instruments, publishing companies like Music de Wolfe, KPM, Chappell and Studio G are now able to supply the commercial TV and about truthfulness radio industries with vast libraries of pre-recorded material. Following Desmond Leslie’s example, David Vorhaus, Brian Hodgson and to proofread Delia Derbyshire have collaborated on an album of electronic space effects for the Standard Music Library, all of which will feature on essay about truthfulness, the ITV children’s science-fiction serial The Tomorrow People, starting in 1973. Created with a specific outcome but no clear purpose in mind, Library Music is often designed to fit with events that haven’t even happened yet. Quite often it traces the outer edges of a musical effect, the point at which a particular style, instrument or technique has had its broadest influence and is now being stretched to the point where it’s barely recognisable . Its creators do not trade in research moods or emotions; they merely hint at them and leave the essay truthfulness listener to do the rest.
The audio equivalent of chegg help astronaut food, this is music that has been freeze-dried and essay about truthfulness vacuum-packed for future consumption. Two other forms of space music emerging from the UK’s sonic underground during the early 1970s seem much more immediate. Recorded live at the end of 1972 and chegg homework help released the following year, Hawkwind’s Space Ritual double album concerns the dreams and fantasies of seven space explorers in suspended animation far from Earth. Blending stripped-down rock rhythms with pulsating electronic sounds played at very high volume, Hawkwind’s music inhabits an existentially harsh universe. ‘ Space is a remorseless, senseless, impersonal fact ,’ reveals the essay about manual designed to accompany the essay on story performance. ‘ Space is the absence of time and matter .’ Poems by band member Bob Calvert and about science-fantasy novelist Michael Moorcock incorporated into software, the Ritual emphasize the horrors unleashed upon human consciousness confronted with the phenomenological vastness of space. Another perspective on the same experience is offered in the nation’s dancehalls by the operators of sound systems specializing in about Dub Reggae: studio versions of existing songs that have had much of the melody and lyrics removed from the mix, leaving only the drum and bass tracks. The remaining brief stabs of musical content are then fed through sophisticated echo effects that plunge the listener into a deep, hallucinatory experience of space. Seemingly random selections of essay on story sounds and words, extended electronically in time, take on about, a new significance: one that listeners can almost feel. To enhance the chegg homework help effect further still, Dub track producers often cut out the middle range of the mix, leaving only the low-end bass and the high treble sounds, which they then tweak even further until only a skeletal outline of some endless audible distance is essay left.
Early explorers of the sound, such as Lee Perry, King Tubby and Errol Thompson, become recognisable by how much to charge the feel they bring to their dub creations from essay about, behind the controls of the studio mixing desk. As the space exploration programme, along with the essay on story industrial power base that has helped drive it, continues its rapid deceleration, the earthbound economy of mass production starts to go into reverse as well. The UK workforce shrinks rapidly as factories close: unemployment becomes a new form of social purge, dividing communities and limiting expectations. The heavy rhythms of dub and essay the sonic aggression of space rock recombine in the late 1970s to form an angry ‘industrial’ form of electronic music in which tape loops, customized synthesizers and early drum machines parody the mindless repetitions of the assembly line at a time when many are already falling silent. Operating out of Sheffield, Cabaret Voltaire creates the soundtrack for project management, a disappearing populace: early pictures of the group show Richard H Kirk, Chris Watson and essay truthfulness Stephen Mallinder posing amidst what looks like a rundown version of the Radiophonic Workshop. However, their reel-to-reel tapes, wires and boxer EMS patch panels are being used to record tracks with titles like ‘Do the Mussolini (Headkick)’, ‘Baader Meinhoff’ and truthfulness ‘Spread the Virus’. Management? So far, so ugly: the charting of truthfulness social space has always promised alien encounters of the software most disturbing kind. A sliver of dialogue taken from an old sixties sci-fi show and looped at the start of their 1982 track ‘Yashar’ manages to say it all. “There’s seventy billion people on Earth,” a male voice anxiously inquires. “Where are they hiding?” The image of humanity as a hidden or invisible mass seems entirely appropriate to a period of accelerated scale-back and downsizing. Essay? The following year Brian Eno, in photo essay collaboration with his brother Roger and Daniel Lanois, releases Apollo: Atmospheres and Soundtracks to accompany stock NASA footage in a film documentary on essay about truthfulness, the lunar missions.
Adding to the celestial shimmer and dazzle of the electronic sounds are the unmistakably western tones of a steel guitar; last heard on chegg help, Joe Meek’s ‘I Hear A New World’, it still evokes memories of isolation and lost frontiers. It has taken just ten years since the final depopulation of the Moon back in 1972 to recognize that a similar process is also taking place in many of the cities here on our home planet. With little else to essay about do with their time as the century approaches its end, the unseen inhabitants of Earth start dancing instead . Always the future sound of well-ordered productivity, electronic music is consequently transformed into dance music. The opposing activities of work and play converge in clubs and chegg homework dancehalls throughout the UK, where a slow and steady process of discovery takes place over the remaining two decades of the millennium. Playback of this new species of electronic beat in such venues is largely determined by how it is stored and essay about reproduced. Remixed as a club track, Cabaret Voltaire’s ‘Yashar’ becomes a skeletal set of rhythms extended in time over online application, the entire side of 12” vinyl disc mastered to play at 45rpm, the standard rotational speed of a pop single.
Already exploited during the 1970s by Dub producers and sound-system operators to broaden the range and dynamics of their mixes, the essay 12” single offers deeper and longer grooves, allowing beats to have a precisely programmed effect upon the dance-floor. Cutting and looping tracks together, the DJ creates elisions in time and space capable of enveloping dancers across the Western hemisphere . Cuts by UK bands such as Cabaret Voltaire, Depeche Mode and New Order are dropped into DJ sets at underground clubs across the US Eastern Seaboard, helping to essay shape the essay about futuristic sounds of House and Techno in the hollowed-out industrial cores of application Chicago and Detroit respectively. In a reciprocal effect, the after-party takes place in essay truthfulness Manchester, where the elements of an action tight hallucinogenic repetitions of Acid House are rewired using cheap samplers, even cheaper drum machines and the Roland 303 Bass Line: a device previously discarded as not having enough bottom-end but ideal, it turns out, for producing the truthfulness kind of sonic blurring required by space travellers eager to evaluation dance all night. Essay? This is application hard music for hard times. Formerly a member of Manchester industrial band Biting Tongues, Graham Massey becomes partners in 808 State with Gerald Simpson and essay about Martin Price just so they can pool their equipment.
Technical resources for this new project are so limited that cables are cut in half in order to patch more machines together while bare wires are jammed into action research, power sockets with matchsticks to cut down on about, costs. However, chart hits like 808 State’s ‘Pacific State’ and A Guy Called Gerald’s ‘Voodoo Ray’ quickly reinvent electronic music as something the invisible public of the late twentieth century can inhabit: an online essay evaluation artificial environment to be experienced as much as listened to. The sampler becomes a means of digitally reactivating sounds and voices that have been kept in essay about cultural cold storage for decades: drum-breaks, bass-lines and snatches of melody lifted from old records are cut together with dialogue and sound effects supplied by old sci-fi and horror movies. Nurtured within the dark, humid atmosphere of the dance club, weird new musical hybrids come into being: Ambient House, Jungle Techno and Dark House flourish alongside Drum and Bass, Tech Step and Ambient Dub. Finally all of these alien species of technological plant life are grouped together under a single, suitably botanical-sounding classification: electronica. Since the introduction of of an this term, the history of essay truthfulness electronic music has expanded to fill the space provided by it. Perceived as somehow anonymous and removed from to charge, established conventions, never has a body of work been attributed to ‘various artists’ with greater accuracy than that which is regularly regarded as ‘electronica’. Library Music archives, especially those dating from late 1950s to the early 1970s, are continually probed for essay about, fresh recordings to be sampled, studied or stored on compilation CDs. The product of an essay on story industrial process rather than the creative endeavour of individual talents, it is the perfect musical readymade by virtue of which history is constantly being rewritten as context rather than intention.
Taking the whole process a stage further, Jim Jupp and Julian House of Ghost Box Records access the music of the past by the simple expedient of creating it for themselves. Essay About? Recent albums by the likes of Belbury Poly, the personal project management software Focus Group, Roj and the Advisory Circle all seem to have emanated from some obscure catalogue of recordings that exists in a parallel universe. Essay? By giving narrative shape to such spectral emanations, its releases always feel more like transcriptions of essay evaluation past events: mere fragments of essay truthfulness voices and online essay the outlines of faces tracing a few phantom gestures and essay about truthfulness shared memories. Similarly, Graham Massey’s latest project, the Sisters of Transistors, can trace their origins back to the Lillian Meyers Organ Quartet who overwhelmed visitors to photo essay the 1939 New York World’s Fair through their skilful keyboard technique. In a grim echo of the essay mass hysteria generated by the Martian spaceship after its discovery in Knightsbridge, the history of this remarkable all-female ensemble, as detailed in the sleeve notes to project management software their debut album, is filled with incidents of audience members succumbing to feelings of intense anxiety followed by an overwhelming sense of euphoria.
Playing at church halls, airfields and scooter runs, the essay about truthfulness Sisters of Transistors blend themes from hymns and research paper horror movies to alarming effect, using a wide range of essay vintage electric organs and synthesizers. Also picking up the essay on story ancient Martian pulsations first heard in Quatermass and the Pit over essay, fifty years ago is Ghost Box’s reissue of Mount Vernon Arts Lab’s The Seance at Hobs Lane. Brainchild of Glasgow-based composer Drew Mulholland, its title references the precise London location where the how much to charge to proofread a thesis Martian hull is first unearthed, long known as the site of numerous disturbing apparitions. Using the VCS3, ARP2600 and Minimoog, Mulholland conjures up sinister whirring vibrations that seem to come from somewhere deep beneath the ground. Meanwhile, its sensors fixed firmly upon the heart of the solar system, Ruth Jarman and Joseph Gerhardt’s ‘fictional documentary’ Brilliant Noise uses satellite imagery of activity on the Sun’s surface to trigger its own soundtrack. Operating out of Brighton as Semiconductor, the duo have created an arresting stream of sound films, music videos, live cinema events and multimedia installations that explore the essay about truthfulness mysterious terrain between the how much to proofread visual and the auditory, the instantaneous and the preprogrammed. Beyond selecting and editing the untreated footage that makes up this enigmatic and challenging short film, they have added nothing except synthesized sounds associated with radio astronomy and solar radiation, using the wildly flickering image to control their intensity. Images exist that can never be completely resolved take shape quicker than the eye can capture them.
The line between abstraction and essay about truthfulness representation is rapidly erased. ‘ The future has collapsed in on the present ,’ declares the promotional literature for Memories of the Future, a collaborative album released by Kode9 and The Spaceape in 2006, ‘ and spaceship earth is en route to nowhere .’ It is the writer Kodwo Eshun who first proposes that science fiction be read as music theory. How Much To Charge A Thesis? Published in 1998, the same year in essay which the BBC shuts down the Radiophonic Workshop forever, his book Brighter than the Sun: Adventures in Sonic Fiction reconfigures outer space as cybernetic space. Elements Of An Action? Subsequent musical explorations such as Dubstep take place within a collapsing universe of styles and effects, one that has become so dense that it threatens to stop time itself. About Truthfulness? Dub effects, Drum and Bass breaks and Dancehall rhythms crowd in upon other each other exerting planetary extremes of pressure upon the listener.
In tune with this compacted new cosmology, Kode9 is the adopted alias for Steve Goodman, who has a PhD from Warwick University and is the author of the recent MIT volume Sonic Warfare: Sound, Affect, and boxer photo essay the Ecology of Fear. This universe still has a history that is yet to be written : with Tristram Cary’s early electronic work available for about truthfulness, the first time on compact disc, pioneer Daphne Oram’s archives being lovingly catalogued at Goldsmiths College in London, and Delia Derbyshire’s recordings having been taken in by the how much to proofread a thesis University of Manchester, its origins are only just being unearthed . London, March/April 2010. Our Minute of Listening delivery partner. BPM work tirelessly to bring music to the children of Bristol. Leaders in the word of instrument innovation. One of our residency partners for our Talent Development Programme. Our partner on Next wave 2 with Sage Gateshead. A record label committed to the promotion exceptional new music.
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Defining And Discussing Truth Philosophy Essay - UK Essays
latin homework Latin I Syllabus 2017- 2018 We will meet on White days NOT Purp. wk 1 Aug.29- Sept 1 ( 4 days ) NOUN DECLENSIONS-1st Declension nouns, the Differences between English and Latin The Story of Rome. - expectations signed ( 2 pts) -start memorizing vocab. p. 5. - books covered ( 2 pts) - goal sheet filled in ( 2 pts) - Read p. 4, do ex. 1 1-10 , Learn 8 parts of speech ( 2 pts) - Start memorizing the 1st Declension endings p. Essay About. 9.
- notebooks prepared and present ( 2 pts) - continue memorizing the 1st Declension endings p. A Thesis. 9. wk 2 Sept. 5-8 ( 2 days, 9 th grade out Fri. 9/8. Noun declension, vocabulary and essay truthfulness, story.
-do p. 10 ex 4 1-4 and p. 11 ex 5 1-4. ( have hand out help “Parts of Speech Practice” done) - Do QUIZLET on line vocab. quiz and practice PRINT OUT COPY OF YOUR TEST to hand in. - Have Quis quem edit? sheet done. for Thurs. 9/7 ( White- long)
-Read story p. 2, write out translation sent. 1-3 ( to Remum) -answer comprehension questions p. Truthfulness. 3 ( Be ready to tell where the Latin gives you the answer to essay on story these questions.) No class- field trip. wk 3 Sept. About Truthfulness. 11-15 Finish ch. 1 start ch. 2 VERBS and Plautus.
- vocabulary quiz ch. 1 ( p. Boxer Photo Essay. 5) - do p. Essay. 8 ex 3 3-6 and p. 12 ex. 6 3-6. ch.
1 Test - know 1 st declension endings, story p. 2, derivatives for some of the vocabulary, parts of speech and online essay application, grammar we've discussed ( e.g. subjects, direct object, pred. About. nom.) -study vocab ch. 2 p. 19. http://quizlet.com/2541508/lnm-level-1-chapter-2-flash-cards/ and essay on story, practice vocab.) -p. 20 ex 3 1-4 ( study charts on p. 20 and p. 21) wk 4 Sept. About. 18-22 ch. 2 Verbs of the 1 st and 2 nd conjugation, personal endings. Read p. Essay On Story. 16-17 story and intro.
Translate lines 1-4 Answer comprehension questions. -worksheet ch. 2 do ex. Truthfulness. 4 2-5 and essay, ex 6 2-6. - Finish handout practice ch. 2 - Verbs. -Study vocabulary ch. 2 p. 19 ( quizlet- optional but recommended) vocabulary quiz ch. 2.
do test format ch. 2. study for test ch. 2 ( Monday 9/25 ) wk 5 Sept. 25-29 ch. 2 Plautus and ch. 3 Terence. study vocab. ch. 3, p. 33. - p. 33 Do ex. Truthfulness. 1 and online application, learn 2nd declen.
- p. 34 do ex. Essay. 3 1-3. - read intro and story pp. 30-31. - translate lines 1-5 ( to Syrus saying “Bonum animum”) - answer comp. questions 1-5 p. 32. do ch. 3 wksht. Ex 1, ex 2 and to charge to proofread a thesis, ex 3 2-3. Read p. 16-17 story and intro. Translate lines 1-4 Answer comprehension questions.
wk 4 Sept. Essay About. 19-23 ch. Essay On Story. 2 Verbs of the 1 st and essay about, 2 nd conjugation, personal endings. -worksheet ch. 2 do ex. 4 2-5 and ex 6 2-6. - Finish handout practice ch. 2 - Verbs. -Study vocabulary ch. Evaluation Application. 2 p. 19 ( quizlet- optional but recommended)
vocabulary quiz ch. 2. do test format ch. 2. study for test ch. 2 ( Monday 9/26 ) wk 5 Sept. Essay About. 26-30 ch. Essay Evaluation. 2 Plautus and about, ch. 3 Terence. study vocab. ch. 3, p. 33.
- p. 33 Do ex. 1 and learn 2nd declen. - p. 34 do ex. 3 1-3. for pd 7 Thurs. Boxer. 9/29. - read intro and story pp. About. 30-31. - translate lines 1-5 ( to Syrus saying “Bonum animum”) - answer comp. questions 1-5 p. 32.
do ch. 3 wksht. Ex 1, ex 2 and ex 3 2-3. wk.6 Oct. 3-7ch. 3 Terence – About the photo, 2 Brothers and the 2 nd Declension. -Study 2nd declension. wksht 3 ex. 4 and 5. vocab quiz ch. 3.
p. 40 ex 7 1-5 and do content questions on essay about, wksht. and review 2nd declen. For Test ch. Photo. 3 Tues. 10/11. do test format ch.3 ( test Tues.10/11) have Ch. About Truthfulness. 3 practice sheet completed ( we've been working on in class)
wk 7 Oct. 11-12 ( 4 days) ch. 4 2 nd declen. Neut. Nouns Cicero- Fabricius, the just Roman consul. - Read pp. Chegg Help. xxx- xxxi- Overview of about truthfulness Roman History and hand out on the Kings of Rome.
- work on personal project management, your kings projects. - ch. 4 wksht. do ex. 1 and truthfulness, 2. Kings/Heroes notes due ( typed and sent to me) wk 8 Oct. 17-21 Kings projects and ( short week- no classes Tues and how much to proofread, Wed.) Kings/ Heroes storybook due. for Thurs. 10/20 purple. Kings/ Heroes presentations due.
Wk 9 October 24-28 ch. 4- Cicero on the Traitor. Have ch. 4 story completed- translate to line 4 “Romanorum” Do comprehension question and read introduction.
start studying for quiz on Wed. 10/26 ( Kings/ Heroes) do content questions on wksht and review ch. 4 vocab ( quiz Thurs. 10/27) (finish practice ch. 4- handout)
Kings/ Heroes quiz. ch. 4 vocabulary quiz. do T/F, matching and essay truthfulness, m.c. 5-25 on essay on story, ch. 4 Test Packet Practice ( TPP) wk 10 Oct. 31- Nov. 4 ch. 4 – begin ch. 5 end of 1 st qtr.
ch. About Truthfulness. 4 test format. - Read ch. Photo. 5, study vocabulary. -do p. 73 ex. 1 AND TRANSLATE PASSIVE FORM. - read pp.70-71 intro and story ch. 5. - translate sentences 1-3.
- answer comprehension questio ns. Wk 11 Nov.7-10 ch. 5 Cicero writes to his wife and the Passive voice. - wksht ex 2 , ex 3 1-3 and ex 4 1-4. - study vocab. ch. Essay Truthfulness. 5 quiz Thurs. - finish the verb sheet.
- vocabulary quiz ch. 5. Wk 12 Nov.14-18 ch. 5 Cicero and chegg homework help review, the Passive voice -continued. wksht 5 ex 6 and content questions ch. 5. test packet m.c.19-40. test format for ch. 5 and study for tomorrow’s test. - read p. 84 and do ex 1 1-7.
- start learning vocab. ch. About. 6, p. Of An Action. 85. - do p. Essay Truthfulness. 87 ex 3 1-2. WK 13. Nov.21-22 ( 2 days only. ) Ch 6 Caesar on how much to proofread a thesis, the Druids and essay truthfulness, the present tense of the Verb “to be” Read intro and story for to charge a thesis comp and translate lines 1-3 to solent comprehension questions on ch. 6 story pp. Truthfulness. 82-82. - study ch. How Much To Charge A Thesis. 6 vocabulary. -worksheet ex 2 1-5.
- ex. 5 1-2 active to passive. Do p. 90 ex 5 2-4. vocab. Quiz ch. 6. wksht 6 Content Questions. test packet m.c. 1-25.
Test packet practice – Do short answers 11-20 ( Translation practice) Study for test on Mon.12/5. Week 15 Dec.5-9 ch. 6 ch. 7 Catullus on love, indirect statements and the 3 rd dec. for Mon.
12/5 purp long. start learning 3 rd declen.p.114 and vocab. do. p. 116 ex 3 and ex 5 1-4. -Read p. 112 story and intro. -answer the about, comprehension question p. 113. -translate lines 1-3 to amare. -wksht 7 do ex 2 1-6 and ex 3 1-2. wk 16 Dec. 12- 16 ch. 7 3 rd declension, Indirect statements and Catullus on Love and his girlfriend's bird. +++++Monday Dec.
12 was a snow day so assignments have been revised. vocab. quiz ch. 7. (do ex. 6 on worksheet) bring cookies or something to drink for our party and movie class. start reviewing for the midterm using handout study guide.
review esp. verbs and help review, stories. Wk 17 Jan. Essay About Truthfulness. 3-6 ch. 7 and ch. 8 3rd conjugation and Themistocles saving the Greeks from the Persians. Content Questions – Worksheet. m.c. How Much A Thesis. 10-29 on ch.
7 Test packet practice. finish test format ch. 7. -study vocab. Essay About. ch. 8 and evaluation, p. 126 3 rd conjugation verbs. -do wksht 8 ex 1 and 2. Wk 18 Jan.9-13 ch. 8 3 rd conjugation, Nepos on Themistocles-Review for Midterm. story ch. 8- do comprehension questions, translate lines 1-4 to “navigat” wksht 8 do ex.
5 and classify the type of ablative used. vocab. quiz ch. 8. Finish midterm review sheets. OMNIA OPTIMA on the Midterm Friday Jan. 20. Wk 20 Jan. 23-27 NLE prep., ch. 9 and Valentine’s project. SNOW DAY Tues. revised schedule. finish NLE 2016.
do 6-20 on “ 4 tenses” sheet. pick your myth couple and start reading about them ( Card due- 2/8 and project due 2/9 purple) -study ch. 9 vocab, 4 th conjug verbs and 3 rd declen. Neut. Nouns.
-do p. 140 ex 3 1-10 and essay about truthfulness, p. 142 ex 5 2-4. wk 21 Jan 30- Feb. 3 Valentine's Project, ch. 9 and NLE ( step up day Thurs. 2/2. -study ch. Personal Software. 9 vocab and forms,/ - Read story ch.
9, p. 136- 137 for comprehension. -translate lines 1-4 to “parat” -Work on Valentine’s project (rest of the about, period, work on your Valentine's project) Do NLE 2015 10-29. Work on chegg homework review, Valentine’s project. Study ch. 9 vocab. for Thurs. 2/2 quiz. Vocabulary Quiz ch.
9. Wk 22 Feb.6-10 ch 9, NLE work and Valentine’s. -do ex 6 on wksht ch 9. - do Short Answers 11-17 on ch. 9 test practice packet ( or on handout) ( - look and essay truthfulness, start if you are ambitious -ch. 9 format in prep. for Test ch. 8 Wed.2/15. Assignments changed due to SNOW days Wed. 2/8 and Thurs. 2/9 and Mon.
2/13 and Tues. 2/14. Wk 22 Feb. 13-17 ch. 9 and NLE. Mythological lovers Presentation and cards due. -have study sheets for Myth. Lovers quiz completed. - finish Verb Practice for NLE sheet ( handed out evaluation already and stapled into your packet) quiz on Mythological lovers ( study for essay ch.
9 test on Tues.2/28) Wk. 23 Feb. 27- Mar. 3 NLE ch. A Thesis. 9 and Ch. 10 Vergil on the Trojan Horse. (-do 2014 NLE 31-40) Do SA 12-18 on ch. 9 TPP. Study for ch.
9 test on essay truthfulness, Tues. Project. 2/28. Study perfect tense ( see p. 279) Know perfect personal endings! ( pop quiz?) Do NLE 2013 1-20. Finish NLE 2013. Study NLEs we have reviewed to be ready for NLE PRE TEST on Monday and essay, little pre quiz today.
wk 24 March 6-9 ch. 10 Vergil on the Trojan Horse and NLE prep( NLE is week of boxer photo essay March 13 next week) for Mon.3/6 purp. pd 7. keep reviewing material for NLE. especially work on the three new tenses future, imperfect and perfect. ch. Truthfulness. 10- study vocab and 3 rd io verb forms. do p 166 ex 1 1-6.
study p. 170- 171 charts 3rd decl. adjectives. do p. 172 ex 4 2-5. WK 25 March 13-17 NLE and ch. Essay. 10. NLE the real one. Read ch. Essay. 10 story for comprehension.
translate lines 1-5 to dare. answer comprehension questions. for Wed. 3/15 purp. Essay. pd 5 or Thurs. 3/16 white pd 4. do ex. 3 and ex. 4. -do wksht.ch. 10 ex 5. revised due to snow days and late starts this week.
11 –Imperfect tense and Vergil on Dido and Aeneas. Start studying ch. 11 vocabulary. read pp. 180-182 imperfect tense and pp. 184-185 sum and possum. do p. About. 182 ex 1 1-8 and. Read ch. 11 story for of an research comprehension. translate lines lines 1-5 to “conspiciebantur” wksht.
11 do ex 2 1-10 and ex 3 1-5. study for Voc quiz ch. 11 Mon. 4/3. Do ex 6 on wksht 11 and content questions. Wk 28 April 3-7 ch. 11 Dido and Aeneas in Love and the Imperfect tense.
vocabulary quiz ch. 11. do ch. Essay About. 11 short answer translations ( on back of deriv. Sheet) test 11 format/ practice due. Wk. 29 April 10-14 ch. 12- personal pronouns, possessive adjectives the Story of Mucius Scaevola. study voc. ch. Personal Management. 12 and essay about, new forms pp.
194,197. Do wksht ch. 12 ex 1.1 and boxer essay, 1.2 and essay about, ex. 2 1-4. read story ch. 12 for comprehension. translate to line 5 ( debes) do comprehension questions. do ex 6 on ch.
12 wksht. do ex 5 on wksht ch. 12. do “ ch. 12 Pronoun Practice” handout 1-8. HAVE A WONDERFUL SPRING BREAK. Wk 30 April 24- 26 ch. Elements Of An Action Paper. 12- Livy on essay, Mucius Scaevola and personal pronouns.
vocabulary quiz ch. Review. 12. ch. 12 test format complete. start ch. 13- study vocabulary. - do p. 223 ex 1 1-4 and p. 225 ex 3 1-4. do wksht 13 ex 3 1-4.
Wk 31 May 1-5 ch. 13 Horace on the Boor, imperatives. do story ch. 13- read intro and story in Latin for about comprehension. answer comp. questions. translate lines 1- 5 ( possum) do wksht 13 ex 6. vocab. Quiz ch.
13. Study ch. 14 vocab. Do p. How Much A Thesis. 237 ex 1 1-5. Wk 32 May 8-12 Ch. 14 future tense and Ovid on the Story of Pyramus and Thisbe. read the intro to ch. 14 story. Read story for comprehension, answer questions. relative pronoun sheet. do ex 6 on about truthfulness, ch.
14 wksht. ch. 14 vocab. Quiz. Wk. 33 May 15-19 Ch.14 Pyramus and Thisbe and SPRING CONVENTION. quiz relative pronouns. do CH. 14 TPP do short answers 11-13 qnd 16-20. test format ch. 13/14 due.
start learning ch. 15 vocab. p. 250. do p. 250 ex 1 1-8. ch. 15 story – read intro. answer comprehension questions. translate to line 8 “ das” Wk. 34 May 22-26 ch.
15 Seneca on Old Age and future tense for 3 rd , 3 rd io and 4th. on wksht 15 do ex 2 1-6. ch. 15 wksht. do ex 6. do m.c. on TPP ch. 15 1-22 and 29-35. ch. 15 vocabulary quiz. Wk. 35 May 30- June 2 Finishing up and essay on story, reviewing for Final.
for Wed. 5/31 ( long class) qui, quae, quod quiz – declining and a few in sentence translation. Do study guide to section IX. Study vocab to know – ( handout, stapled to last page of guide) finish study guide to about final. Study vocab to know – ( handout, stapled to last page of chegg homework review guide) Finish “review for about final ch.
9-15 stories) Wk. 36 June 5-9 Final review and Final. keep studying for homework review final using your papers and essay about truthfulness, book. ch. Personal Management. 10- study vocab and 3 rd io verb forms.
do p 166 ex 1 1-6. study p. 170- 171 charts 3 rd decl. adjectives. do p. 172 ex 4 2-5. review NLEs done so far. Finish NLE 2007 and 2006. wk. 24 ( 25) March 11-15 NATIONAL LATIN EXAM. to prepare do and review all the NLEs you have been given ( 2012-2006) for Thurs. 3/14 ( white)
Read ch. 10 story for comprehension. translate lines lines 1-5 to essay about “dare” on wksht. ch. 10 do ex 5. wk 25 (26) March 18-22. wksht ex 4 2-8 and boxer photo, ex 6 2-5. vocabulary quiz ch.
10. wksht. 10 content questions. Test packet practice- Do Short answers 13-18. wk 26 ( 27) March 25-29 ( end of 3 rd qtr.) wksht. 10 content questions. Test packet practice- Do Short answers 13-18. do p. 182 ex 1 1-8 and. Read ch.
11 story for essay about truthfulness comprehension. translate lines lines 1-5 to “conspiciebantur” wk 27 ( 28) April 1-5. Wed. 4/3 white long. vocab. Quiz ch. 11. wksht. 11 ex. 6 and content questions.
test packet practice ch. 11 short answers 11-19. wk 28 ( 29) April 8-12. test packet practice ch. 11 m.c. 10-50. study voc. ch. Online Essay Evaluation. 12 and essay about, new forms pp. 194,197. Do wksht ch.
12 ex 1.1 and 1.2 and photo, ex. 2 1-4. story ch. 12 for comprehension. translate to line 5 ( debes) wk 29 ( 30) April 22-26. study ch. Truthfulness. 12 vocabulary. wksht 12 do ex 3 1-4 and ex 4 1-4.
vocabulary quiz ch. 12. review cumulative vocab. List ch. 1-12 test Fri. 5/3. finish ex 5 on wksht. do test guide ( handout) for ch. 12. wk 30 ( 31) April 29-May 3 AP exams start!
Do test packet ch. Homework Review. 12 - matching and m.c. 1-35. for Wed. 5/1 ( white) Library for project. study for test on Thurs. Truthfulness. ch. 12. work on project with your partner. -study ch. 13 vocab., - do p. 223 ex 1 1-6,
-start reading the of an, story ch. 13 p. 220. - translate to line 4 ( cupis) Wk 31 ( 32) May 6-10. Tues 5/7 Notes due for Roman Culture project Tues. 5/7 visual due. Wed . 5/8 visuals due. Friday 5/10 (White day) presentations. wk 32 ( 33) May 13-17. Read p. 228 do Wksht 13 ex 3 1-4 and ex 4 1- 2. do wksht 13 ex 5.
Wksht 13 ex. Essay About. 6 - Questions about the story Horace and the boor. vocab. Quiz ch. 13. for Fri. 5/17 ( special sched) study vocab. How Much To Proofread A Thesis. ch. About. 14. p. 237 do ex 1 1-4 and.
wk 33 ( 34) May 20-24 JCL Spring Convention at to charge to proofread a thesis Camp Mechuwana May 22- 23.