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BizTalk Server and WCF Integration. Atul Gupta (Infosys Technologies Ltd) Amit Praful Shah (Infosys Technologies Ltd) Jitendra Pal Thethi (Infosys Technologies Limited) September 17, 2007. This article describes the different approaches available to expose and consume Windows Communication Framework (WCF) services from BizTalk Server 2004 (BTS04) and BizTalk Server 2006 (BTS06). Code samples for eit resume, integration of a WCF service with BizTalk Server 2004 are available here and for integration with BizTalk Server 2006 here. With the November 2006 release of powerpoint on writing an essay, .NET Framework 3.0, the wait is finally over for software professionals. The core components of this managed code programming model – Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF), Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) and Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) – has revolutionized the way software is eit resume programmed. This article focuses on the different options available for communication between WCF and BTS06. While much of the discussion will also be applicable to macbeth act ii BTS04, any discrepancies in implementation for BTS04 will be highlighted. There is a WCF Adapter for BTS06 is available on the CodePlex Web site. Eit Resume? An out-of-the-box adapter will be shipped with BizTalk Server 2006 R2 which may be released by the end of in photosythesis, September 2007. An overview of the R2 WCF Adapter's capabilities is available at eit resume the following blog post.
To try out the R2 WCF Adapter, download the BizTalk Server 2006 R2 Beta from the an essay Microsoft Connect site. However, you may need to integrate existing BizTalk-based applications with WCF to eit resume do the same. In this article we present various options to achieve interoperability in cases where upgrading to BizTalk Server 2006 R2 is not possible. The article merely outlines the approaches and does not deal with them in an exhaustive manner. Nor does it provide a benchmark to compare the approaches. You need to powerpoint evaluate and eit resume choose one among the suggested techniques after taking into essay, account the eit resume needs of an essay, your application. Eit Resume? Note: If you are upgrading to BizTalk 2006 R2, then working with WCF Adapter will be ideal due to sojourner truth the ease of use, deployment and eit resume management it offers.
Overview of WCF and BTS06 Technologies. Before getting into the specifics, it may be useful to get an overview of WCF and BTS06. If you are already familiar with these technologies, you may skip the introductions and proceed to opbygning the section on 'WCF Service Used as Reference'. WCF is Microsoft's unified platform used for eit resume, rapidly building secure, reliable and interoperable distributed applications. WCF combines the earlier disparate programming models into a single service-oriented programming model. In the world before WCF, software developers had to pick from trip numerous technology choices in eit resume order to create and in photosythesis expose services that could be consumed in a distributed environment.
While developers chose web services for interoperability and eit resume Microsoft Message Queuing (MSMQ) for reliable messaging, they used Enterprise Services for transaction management, .NET Remoting for high performance systems and Web Service Enhancements (WSE) for on writing an essay, secure messaging, resulting in the same logic being duplicated when the component had to be exposed over multiple channels. At a high level, every WCF service consists of the eit resume following three parts: The Service Contract that defines 'what' the service does and essays a service class that contains the implementation for the service. Configuration files consisting of bindings (the 'how' part) and endpoints (the 'where' part) that define the way clients access the eit resume WCF service. These configuration files are independent of implementation. The binding specifies how a client communicates with the service in terms of transport and other attributes. The endpoint specifies the address at trip to goa essay which this service is eit resume exposed to clients. In Photosythesis? A process that hosts the eit resume service implementation so that it can be invoked from client applications.
The following diagram depicts a WCF service being invoked by a client: Figure 1: WCF Communication. Given below, are a sequence of steps that need to to goa essay be followed for implementing and making a WCF service available for consumption. As with all service-oriented development, we follow a contract-first development model for WCF services. Two types of contracts need to be specified: Service contract: This contract defines the interface of the service, which is the set of operations that are implemented and exposed by the service.
The service contract uses a specific attribute viz [OperationContract] to define the eit resume operations. The code snippet given below shows how the class and method definitions are decorated with attributes to indicate the an essay service contract. In the following example, the service contract (interface ICalculator) exposes two operations Add and Subtract, each of eit resume, which expects 2 ComplexNumber input parameters and return a ComplexNumber as response. Macbeth Act Ii? Data contract: Every service call will typically have a set of data elements that will be passed as input parameters and a output that is returned from the call. Eit Resume? The data contract helps in formalizing this data exchange. The data is typically modeled as a class or struct and is given attributes that define the contract. The data contract controls the way the request object, which is passed as a parameter to the service call, is serialized and hence controls the SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) message format that flows on the wire. An example of words and phrases, a data contract is given below.
Note that the DataContract and DataMember attributes are used to decorate the eit resume class ComplexNumber, which is the data entity passed as input and in photosythesis output to eit resume the Add and about Subtract operations in the service contract defined above. Once the service and data contracts are defined, you need to create an implementation for the service. Eit Resume? This is done by first defining the class that will implement the macbeth questions interface in the service contract. Eit Resume? The actual business logic for the operations is then included in the method implementations. As mentioned earlier, the engelsk service is implemented independent of the transport or address over which the service is eventually exposed.
This is possible because in WCF, the transport and address details are specified as attributes in external configuration files. To configure end points exposed by WCF services, it is mandatory to define the eit resume following details for each endpoint: Contract: The contract is the interface or the service contract that the opbygning service implements. In the eit resume sample shown below, the endpoint is configured to essays sojourner truth expose the ICalculator service contract. Binding: The binding specifies the protocol over which the service can be accessed along with attributes that define security, reliability and other requirements. Address: The address is the physical URL where the service can be located. The key advantage of eit resume, this configurability is that though the service is implemented just once, it can be accessed over multiple endpoints, each defining a unique combination of address and binding. Trip To Goa? A sample configuration for end points is as follows: The final step is to eit resume host the service in a process.
For this, there are multiple options – Internet Information Services (IIS), Windows Activation Services (WAS) and managed Windows service. A service may also be hosted in a managed Windows application such as Windows Forms applications, console applications, etc. The following links provide more details about.NET Framework 3.0 and WCF: BizTalk Server is an integration product from Microsoft that enables enterprises to automate, deploy and monitor business processes. In Photosythesis? It offers Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), Business Process Management (BPM) and B2B integration capabilities. The BizTalk Server features can be categorized into two main areas—messaging and orchestration, which are described below. The messaging engine deals with parsing, sending/receiving, translating, and routing of messages to and from applications. It enables users to receive messages and route them into a business process or send out a message from the process. The orchestration engine deals with modeling and executing processes, and provides a tool to design and eit resume implement business processes.
BizTalk orchestration thus helps manage overall application business logic. Messaging and orchestration are used together; with messaging providing the in photosythesis receipt and delivery capabilities that orchestration rely on. The diagram below shows the important components of BizTalk server: Figure 2: BizTalk Server Architecture. Other important BizTalk server components include: Business Rules Engine (BRE): The BRE allows one to create a set of business rules as policies and evaluate data based on these rules. With this, business rules are maintained outside of the business process, but can be invoked from within the process. This makes the systems easier to configure and eit resume maintain. Business Activity Monitoring (BAM): The BAM component makes it possible for the extraction of relevant information from business processes as they are executing and hence to monitor the processes in real time. Business Activity Services (BAS): The BAS portal, along with some of the components in BizTalk, enables the management of interactions with trading partners. It also helps integrate an an essay, enterprise's business processes with those of the partners. BizTalk allows you to create 'send' and 'receive' port gateways through which external applications can exchange messages with BizTalk. The ports can be configured to use a set of transport protocols and application adapters that are shipped with BizTalk Server.
With these adapters, BizTalk can exchange messages over multiple channels such as files, MSMQ, HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), SOAP, IBM MQ, etc. Application adapters, which can directly interact with packaged applications like PeopleSoft, SAP, Oracle Apps, etc, are also available. Eit Resume? Additionally, BizTalk can understand both positional/delimited and opbygning essay XML message formats. It has a mapping engine that can help transform messages from eit resume one format to opbygning another. The flow of a message through BizTalk is shown in the diagram below: Figure 3: Message flow in BizTalk Server. Since BizTalk has HTTP and SOAP Adapters, it can interact with web-based applications, especially web services. The BizTalk Server interacts with services in the following two ways: BizTalk process orchestrations can be exposed as Web services.
In such a case, external clients can invoke the orchestration by making SOAP/HTTP calls. BizTalk can consume Web services by using the SOAP Adapter. More information on BizTalk Server 2006 is available at the following URLs: BizTalk Server 2006 Home. The WCF Service Used as Reference. Eit Resume? This article uses the following WCF service to explain BizTalk-WCF integration options: In the above service, a Product ID is the input parameter expected by the GetStockInfo() method. The logic will query the Product Table to retrieve current stock details for the Product ID. The return value is an and phrases, integer indicating the current stock available. Eit Resume? Both BizTalk Server and essays about WCF are technologies that provide significant value by themselves. However, a combination of the two provides the broadest possible spectrum of eit resume, connected system scenarios – both brokered and un-brokered – using open standard protocols.
BizTalk provides business process orchestration, message transformation and business activity monitoring through designers and visual tools. WCF provides a unified framework for powerpoint on writing an essay, building secure, reliable and transacted web services. The following sections will describe options for integrating BizTalk with WCF services. Consuming a WCF Services from BizTalk: Use the WCF Adapter. Currently in CTP, it will be released with BizTalk 2006 R2. Eit Resume? WCF service exposed over opbygning, basicHttpBinding and consumed from orchestration.
WCF service exposed on wsHttpBinding endpoint. BizTalk communicates with the service using a WSE Adapter in a secure and reliable mode. WCF Service endpoint on msmqIntegrationBinding. BizTalk consumes the service using an MSMQ Adapter. BizTalk consumes service using a wrapper around the WCF proxy and invokes through BizTalk orchestration. This mechanism is used when a transport adapter corresponding to a particular type of WCF binding in BizTalk, e.g. netTCPBinding , is not available in eit resume BizTalk. Exposing BizTalk orchestration as a WCF service having a basicHttpBinding binding.
The following table shows the options for communication between BizTalk Server and a WCF service for various system-provided WCF bindings. These options are mapped to the features of each binding and indicate whether they are retained or are no longer available on selecting a given option. Use the following table to select the macbeth act ii option that satisfies all features required in your scenario: Options for Communication. Correlation and eit resume Duplex Channel. Orchestration using Send shapes bound to essays sojourner truth endpoint on eit resume, HTTP Adapter.
Wrap WCF Proxy as a .NET assembly. Orchestration using Send Shapes bound to in photosythesis endpoint on eit resume, WSE Adapter. Wrap WCF Proxy as a .NET assembly. Orchestration using Send shapes bound to endpoint on WSE Adapter. Wrap WCF proxy as a .NET assembly. Wrap service in in photosythesis a .NET proxy assembly. Wrap Service in a .NET proxy assembly. As MSMQ endpoint. Eit Resume? Requires additional transformation.
Wrap service in a .NET proxy assembly. As MSMQ endpoint. Requires additional transformation. Wrap service in a .NET proxy assembly. Wrap service in a .NET proxy assembly. Table 1: Options for BizTalk – WCF integration. The following business case sample may help you understand the working of BizTalk and WCF: A user receives an invoice from a file receive location using the File Adapter.
BizTalk forwards this invoice to the WCF service to enquire about the stock availability based on the Prod ID mentioned in the invoice. WCF returns the stock status to trip essay BizTalk and writes to an output file location using the File Adapter. Accessing WCF Services from BizTalk Server. WCF Service with BasicHttpBinding binding, consumed from BizTalk. In this technique, the SOAP adapter is eit resume used to to goa essay facilitate the communication. BizTalk consumes the WCF service by eit resume making a web reference to trip to goa essay the WCF service exposed over basicHttpBinding . Eit Resume? The basicProfileBinding conforms to WS-I Basic Profile 1.0 standards. Essay Engelsk? The SOAP Send Adapter can be used to interface with such an endpoint. In order to eit resume consume a service that uses BasicHttpBinding : Add a web reference to the WSDL at endpoint address.
This creates the necessary web port and the multipart messages that need to be exchanged between BizTalk and WCF. Transform source messages to request schema messages. Such messages can be sent from orchestrations. The following is the detailed sequence of steps to be followed for consuming a WCF service exposed over the BasicHttpBinding : Create a new web site using the WCF service template as shown below: Figure 4: Creating a new WCF Service project. An important snippet of the in photosythesis web.config file for basicHttpBinding is as follows: It defines the service contract of the WCF service and the binding information for basicHttpBinding . Eit Resume? Refer to the MSDN site for words, more information on basicHttpBinding . Eit Resume? Figure 5: Adding a web reference to the WCF service. The web port type and multipart messages are automatically created after addition of the web reference as seen in in photosythesis the orchestration view.
Logical ports can now be added to the orchestration design surface. The WCF service can be invoked from the orchestration by passing the eit resume request message type to the port and subsequently receiving the opbygning response. Note: The steps remain the same when consuming the WCF service from BizTalk Server 2004 or BizTalk Server 2006. WCF Service Exposed on eit resume, WsHttpBinding Endpoint. WCF services exposed using a wsHttpBinding are secure, reliable and interoperable. Truth? These services implement WS-Reliable messaging for reliability and WS-Security for eit resume, message-level security. A WSE-enabled adapter is trip to goa required to call services exposed using wsHttpBinding . Microsoft has released a BTS04-compatible WSE 2.0 Adapter which can be used for communication.
However, currently, there is no BTS06-compatible adapter for WSE 3.0 available from Microsoft. One can either write a custom adapter or use a third-party adapter like the one provided by TwoConnect. Eit Resume? The WSE 2.0 Adapter, available for BTS04, can be used for interfacing. The supported standards are WS-Security (user / password token, Kerberos and X509) and WS-Reliability. More details are available on essay questions, the MSDN web site. The WSE 2.0 adapter can be downloaded from here and the SP1 is available here. A detailed walk through on using the eit resume WSE 2.0 adapter is opbygning essay available in this TechNet article. TwoConnect has published a WSE 3.0 Adapter to interface with WCF services exposed using wsHttpBinding endpoint. You can find more details on the adapter at http://adapterworx.com/cs/products/wse3.0.aspx. For connecting to WCF using the WSE 3.0 Adapter from TwoConnect, follow the steps given below: Create and publish a WCF service according to the steps listed in the basicHttpBinding section.
An important snippet from the web.config file is as follows: Figure 6: Referencing WSDL URL information in the Schema Generation Wizard. Figure 7: Specifying the web methods in the Schema Generation Wizard. WCF Service Endpoint on MsmqIntegrationBinding. MSMQ bindings cover asynchronous message-based, inter-process communications using the MSMQ infrastructure. MSMQ provides the infrastructure to send messages across machines in a secure and reliable environment and in a transactional scope. This messaging pattern helps build scalable applications as the eit resume number of blocked and wait threads is minimal. The sample described in this section, works as follows: BizTalk receives an in photosythesis, invoice.
It submits the message using an eit resume, MSMQ Adapter to the private MSMQ queue present on a remote system where the WCF service is hosted. The WCF service picks up the message from the MSMQ queue, finds out the stock status, updates the message, and posts it back to the same queue. BizTalk picks up the message from the queue and posts it to a send location using the File Adapter. The WCF service is hosted inside a console application. Define the service contract as shown below: Note the use of the ServiceKnownType attribute. This helps expose .NET Types to the service so that they can be serialized and de-serialized when required. InvoiceType is a class with fields having one-to-one mapping.
The source schema elements are present in the BizTalk message. Also note that since the message is opbygning essay engelsk passed to the WCF service over MSMQ, the parameter type of SubmitInvoice OperationContract will be of type MsmqMessage. This class is marked with the Serializable attribute so that the objects of this type can be serialized and de-serialized when required. Biztalk has send and receive ports that send and receive a message from eit resume MSMQ using the MSMQ Adapter. The port binding is set to essays about the specify later option. After deployment, set the eit resume properties of the send and receive ports for engelsk, MSMQ bindings from the BizTalk Explorer as follows: Figure 8: Configuring the MSMQ Send Adapter.
The above figure shows the property window for the send port using MSMQ Adapter. Note that we have specified the name of the destination queue and set the eit resume transactional property of the queue to true . Figure 9: Configuring the in photosythesis MSMQ Receive Adapter. The above figure shows the property window for the receive port using the eit resume MSMQ Adapter. The queue name has been specified and the transactional property is set to true . In case of BizTalk Server 2004, the to goa essay MSMQ Adapter needs to be downloaded. The adapter can be downloaded from here.
The steps specified above can be used when working with BizTalk 2004 and to interact with a WCF service using MSMQ. WCF Service Endpoint on NetTCPBinding. NetTCPBinding uses the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) channel to interact with the client and service. There is no BizTalk adapter for TCP, hence the only option available while using the netTCP-bound endpoint is to employ the proxy pattern discussed below. NetTCPBinding supports a duplex channel of communication – the service calls on eit resume, the client interface to return the response without the client needing to listen explicitly. In order to execute a sequence of process steps as a transaction, the to goa expression shapes should be in atomic transaction scope.
Any exceptions occurring on the service call would show up as scope exception, which will also abort the eit resume ambient transaction. NetTCPBinding supports transport-level and message-level security as defined by the binding configuration. NetTCPBinding can work in to goa scenarios where both client and service are on eit resume, .NET. In Photosythesis? The working of this sample for consuming WCF service exposed over eit resume, a NetTCPBinding is as follows: Define and trip essay implement the service contract as shown earlier. Create a console application to host the eit resume WCF service. Generate a proxy class using svcutil.exe against the service contract defined earlier by running the svcutil.exe tool as shown below. The assumption here is that the service is exposed at the URL http://localhost:8000/Service.svc. The URL should be replaced with the actual address of the service. svcutil.exe *.wsdl *.xsd. A proxy class and configuration file will generated. Essay? Note: We have tested the sample in eit resume this article using BizTalk 2006, not BizTalk 2004. While the steps for to goa, both are the eit resume same, working with WCF on a BizTalk Server 2004 machine will require installation of the .NET framework 3.0.
This is in photosythesis because a reference has to eit resume be added to a project that contains code generated using WCF. Note: We are hosting the service at port number 8000 and exposing the service endpoint at port 9000. Note: In the following code snippet, we are specifying the transport-level security and the credential type: The app.config is as follows: In this approach explained above, we have a reference to the WCF proxy inside BizTalk. To Goa? We are invoking the WCF-exposed service using the Expression shape. The recommended approach is to send the message from eit resume BizTalk in in photosythesis plain XML format to a .NET wrapper class. This class will create a .NET object from within its implementation and then call the WCF proxy. The transformations will be done in BizTalk but the deserialization will be handled in the .NET assembly. Message translation is best handled in BizTalk via the mapper and eit resume the rich set of functoids.
Hence, we recommend translating messages required by the WCF service within BizTalk using the essay engelsk Mapper. However, the WCF service may expect and return a .NET Type and not an eit resume, XML. In such a case, converting the XML message is best done in act ii questions the .NET assembly, helped by the rich serialization and deserialization support available in the .NET Framework. The following table summarizes the same: Recommended (use BizTalk Mapper) Not recommended. Is an implementation overhead.
Exposing BizTalk Orchestrations as WCF Services. The following sample describes how a BizTalk orchestration can be exposed as a WCF service. Eit Resume? The steps are: Convert the orchestration to a web service using the macbeth essay questions orchestration Web Services Publishing Wizard. Modify the web service to a WCF service by manually editing the code contents of the web services as described in the 'Configuration' section below.
Create a BizTalk project containing the orchestration which is to be first exposed as a ASMX web service. The orchestration process is as shown below and the actual code is present in the attached sample code: Figure 10: BizTalk Orchestration to be exposed as WCF service. Note that the orchestration has a public request response port through which it will interact with the web service. Figure 11: BizTalk Web Services Publishing Wizard. Figure 12: Selecting the BizTalk assembly to be exposed as service. Figure 13: Selecting Orchestration Port that is to be exported. Figure 14: Specifying properties for ASP.NET web service project. Note that the service name inside the services tag should be the fully qualified name, i.e. with namespace, and should match the service in the WCF service (.svc) file. http://localhost/Invoice_Proxy/Invoice_InventoryProcessWS_Port_2.asmx BTS as WCF service. These services can now be consumed from a client. The sample code has been tested with the WCF binding set as basicHttpBinding. To add a web reference to a WCF service in a BizTalk project, we need to create the eit resume service using the File New Web Site option and select the WCF service template.
WCF service cannot be created using New Project option. If Visual Studio is unable to create code files when adding web reference to the WCF service created, it could be a proxy authentication issue. Check the proxy settings for the browser under Tools Internet options Connections LAN Settings. To view the application errors and to fully trust the target assembly, add the following sections under the web.config file for all scenarios: When sending messages from BizTalk to MSMQ we need to set the target namespace property of the schema to blank . If an act ii essay, instance of the schema is generated with the target namespace property specified, the WCF service is unable to process the message it picks up from MSMQ. For e.g., we can have a schema as follows: And not as follows: Refer to this blog entry for eit resume, more details. When consuming a WCF service with wsHttpBinding from BizTalk 2004, the WSE 2.0 Adapter is unable to understand the WSDL generated by the WCF service.
The WSE 3.0 Adapter depends on act ii essay, .NET Framework 3.0 which has to be installed on the BizTalk 2004 system. It should solve the issue of consuming a WCF service with wsHttpBinding from a BizTalk 2004 application. Creating services using Service-Oriented principles is key in many software projects and WCF is a very good framework for eit resume, such a task. It enables developers to write the in photosythesis service logic once and expose the service over various endpoints which can use different bindings like web services, MSMQ, TCP, etc. Microsoft BizTalk Server can then be used to orchestrate the services and implement business processes. This article presented options for enterprises that use BizTalk Server 2004 or BizTalk Server 2006 and wish to expose or consume WCF services from BizTalk. However, enterprises should look to upgrading to BizTalk Server 2006 R2 that will have native support and out-of-the-box adapters for communicating with WCF services.
The options given in this paper are meant for scenarios where an upgrade to BizTalk Server 2006 R2 is not possible. Atul Gupta is Principal Architect with Microsoft Technology Center, Infosys. He works on eit resume, BizTalk Server 2006, BizTalk Server 2006 R2 and Windows Presentation Foundation from .NET Framework 3.0 stack. Amit Shah is an Architect with Microsoft Technology Center (Infosys Technologies Ltd). He is currently working on macbeth essay questions, the creation of integration solutions on the Microsoft platform using technologies like BizTalk Server, .NET Framework 3.0, Office SharePoint Server 2007 and SQL Server 2005. Jitendra Pal Thethi is Principal Architect with Microsoft Technology Center, Infosys. He is based out of Redmond and part of the Catalytic IT Solution Sales team and also the Infosys-MS Alliance team. Sarathy Sakshi is eit resume a test lead in the Connected System Division of Microsoft and is based in Redmond, WA.
He has worked in various areas of BizTalk server and in photosythesis has most recently been working on the WCF Adapter. Yumay Chang is a Technology Development Manager in the Enterprise Partner Group at Microsoft. She leads the partner strategy on SOA and Business Process Management and eit resume supports partner in in photosythesis their adoption of Microsoft technologies.
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mormon essay Containing 5,717 Articles Spanning 332 Topics. Ex-Mormon News, Stories And Recovery. Online Since January 1, 2005. Total Articles: 22.
Starting late 2013 the Mormon Church began posting a series of essays on their website concerning controversial gospel topics. First vision, DNA, Polygamy, Blacks and The priesthood were among the essays. This was an attempt made by eit resume the Mormon Church at apologetics. Thursday, Nov 7, 2013, at 07:41 AM. Original Author(s): Mormon Think.
Friday, Nov 8, 2013, at 07:30 AM. Original Author(s): Curious_mormon. 9) 1838 account is in the PGP (more or less) Joseph did present several accounts which changed over macbeth, time. Yes, the new testament has contradictions in it's stories. What they lied about:  - Fair's site (did this move somewhere or was it taken down?  . Eit Resume! On this, compare the language.
I can guess who had a heavy hand in writing this.  - Here's another  first vision account that disappeared from FAIR.  - They meant the 1839 version as that's when it was published. Tuesday, Nov 12, 2013, at 09:16 AM. Original Author(s): Steve Benson. Tuesday, Dec 10, 2013, at 07:31 AM. Original Author(s): Cdnxmo. On June 1, 1830, less than two months after Joseph Smith (JS) officially launched his religious movement, he wrote Old Testament Revision 1 , which said: Adam knew [had sex with] Eve his wife andamp; she conceived andamp; bear Cain andamp; said I have gotten [sired] a man from the Lord wherefore he may not rejectandnbsp;his words but behold also cain hearkened not saying Who is the powerpoint on writing an essay Lordandnbsp;that I should know him andamp; she again conceived andamp; bear his brother Abelandnbsp;andamp; Abel hearkened unto the voice of the eit resume Lord andamp; Abel was a keeper of shee[p].andnbsp; (Click here to see the digital scan of JS' written materialandnbsp;on the macbeth essay questions LDS Church's JosephSmithPapers.org website.)
The next page of JS' OT Rev. 1 stated: (B)ut Cain was a tiller of the ground andamp; he loved Satan more than God . And it came to pass that Cain took one of his brothers daughters to eit resume wife andamp; they loved Satan more than God andamp; satan saith unto Cain swear unto me by thy throat andamp; if thou tell it thou shalt die andamp; swear thy brethren by opbygning essay engelsk their heads andamp; by eit resume the living Godandnbsp; that they tell it not for if they tell it they shall surely die andamp; this thatandnbsp; thy father may not know it andamp; this day I will deliver thy brother Abel into macbeth act ii questions, thine hands andamp; Satan swore unto Cain that he would do according to his commands andamp; all these things were done in secret andamp; Cain saith truly I am Mahon the master of this great secret that I may murder andamp; get gain(.) Wherefore Cain was called master Mahon andamp; he gloried in his wickedness andamp; Cain went into the field andamp; Cain talked with Abel his brother andamp; it cameandnbsp; to pass that while they were in the field that cain rose up against eit resume Abel hisandnbsp;brother andamp; slew him andamp; cain gloried in that which he had done saying I am free surely the flocks of my brother falleth into in photosythesis, my hands. andnbsp; And the Lord said unto Cain where is Abel thy brother andamp; he said I know not am I thy my brothers keeper andamp; he said what hast thou done the voice of thy brothers blood cries unto me from the ground andamp; now thou shalt be cursed from the Earth which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brothers blood from thy hand when thou tillest the ground it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength a fugitive andamp; a vagabond shalt thou be in eit resume the Earth . Cain said unto the Lord Satan tempted me because of my brothers flock andamp;andnbsp;I was wroth also for his offering thou didst except andamp; not mine my punishment is greater than I can bear Behold thou hast driven me out essay and phrases, thisandnbsp; day from the face of the Earth andamp; from thy face shall I be hid andamp; I shall be a fugitive andamp; a vagabond in the Earth andamp; it shall come to pass that every oneandnbsp; that findeth me shall slay me because of mine oath for eit resume, these things are not hid from the Lord andamp; the Lord said unto him Therefore whosoeverandnbsp; slayeth Cain vengeance shall be taken on him seven fold andamp; the Lord set a mark upon in photosythesis Cain lest any finding him should kill him andamp; Cain went out from the presence of the Lord andamp; his wife andamp; many of his brethren andamp; dwelt in eit resume the land of Nod on the east of Eden andamp; Cain knew his wife andamp; she conceived andamp; bearandnbsp;Enoch andamp; he also begat many Sons andamp; daughters . So, what was the mark that the Lord (Mormonism's Jehovah/premortal Jesus) set. upon Cain?andnbsp; JS provided the 'answer' in An extract from the translation of the Bible as revealed to Joseph Smith the Prophet, June 1830-February 1831, quoting the LDS Church's webpage for the Book of Moses (in the Pearl of Great Price ) .andnbsp; Specifically, verses 21 and 22 of sojourner truth Moses 7 say: 21 And it came to pass that the eit resume Lord showed unto Enoch all the inhabitants of the earth; and he beheld, and lo, Zion, in powerpoint process of time, was taken up into heaven. And the Lord said unto Enoch: Behold mine abode forever. 22 And Enoch [Mormonism's ancient prophet Enoch, who was - apparently - not Cain's cursed son, Enoch] also beheld the residue of the eit resume people which were the about sojourner sons of Adam ; and they were a mixture of all the seed of eit resume Adam save it was the seed of trip to goa essay Cain, for eit resume, the seed of Cain were black , and had not place among them .andnbsp;
According to the LDS Church, JSandnbsp;translated chapter 7 of the Book of Moses in December 1830.andnbsp; How did Negroes survive theandnbsp;Biblical Flood that JSandnbsp;andandnbsp;many other people in the early 19th century believed happened, the worldwide catastropheandnbsp;that wiped out nearly all of ancient humanity, according to the Old Testament?andnbsp;The answerandnbsp;is related toandnbsp;Ham, one of Noah's sons,andnbsp;all of opbygning essay whom were aboardandnbsp;the life-saving ark (boat) built byandnbsp;their father, according to the Bible. What otherandnbsp;'truths' about Hamandnbsp;have been taught by the Mormon Church? Its online dictionaryandnbsp;says thatandnbsp; Ham was a Son of Noah, cursed, and eit resume, his descendants. were the southern nations: from Cush came the dark-skinned race of eastern Africa and on writing an essay, southern Arabia; from Mizraim the Egyptians; from Phut the Libyans; from eit resume, Canaan the inhabitants of Palestine before the essay engelsk arrival of the Semitic races. But there is a potentially 'inconvenient' problem concerning Ham's father, Noah, who was, according to the LDS Church, a patriarch. andnbsp; ordained to the priesthood by Methuselah (Dandamp;C 107:52). He became a preacher of righteousness and declared the gospel of eit resume Jesus Christ . His life was sought by unbelievers, but he was preserved by the power of God (Moses 8:18, 26). He and his sons Japheth, Shem, and Ham, and their wives, making eight in all, were saved from the Flood by the ark he had built at the command of in photosythesis God (Gen. 6-8; Heb. 11:7; 1 Pet.
3:20). We learn from latter-day revelation that Noah is also the angel Gabriel (HC 3:386). Noah, a righteous man, holds the keys of a dispensation and stands next to Adam in [priesthood] authority (HC 3:386). andnbsp; What's the problem?andnbsp;For his son, Ham, to be cursed and his progeny to eit resume be the dark-skinned race of eastern Africa and southern Arabia, either Noah and/or his wife had to have had Negro genes. In other words,andnbsp;either one or both of them was/were the seed of Cain. I'll return to this point in trip to goa essay a moment. Next, when JS translated the Egyptian papyri that he obtained in 1835 (his 'translation' became the Book of eit resume Abraham), he wrote in the first chapter, verses 21 to 24: 21 Now this king of Egypt was a descendant from the loins of Ham , and was a partaker of the blood of the Canaanites by birth. 22 From this descent sprang all the Egyptians, and thus the blood of the Canaanites was preserved in the land . 23 The land of Egypt being first discovered by in photosythesis a woman, who was the daughter of Ham , and the daughter of eit resume Egyptus, which in the Chaldean signifies Egypt, which signifies that which is forbidden; 24 When this woman discovered the in photosythesis land it was under water, who afterward settled her sons in it; and thus, from Ham, sprang that race which preserved the curse [dark skin] in eit resume the land .andnbsp; I'll get back to the Canaanites and the curse supposedly preserved in the land near the end of this post.
For now, there's a crucial point to make: Noah could NOT have been cursed (i.e., been partly or fully Negro) because according to Mormonism, as one of the seed of opbygning Cain he could not have received the priesthood and used its 'spiritual' power to preach righteousness and declare the gospel of Jesus Christ. Bear in mind that generations of Mormonandnbsp;'prophets' and other LDS priesthood leadersandnbsp;taught that Negroes were cursed as to the priesthood, an idea that stemmed fromandnbsp;JS' 'translation' in the 1830s of theandnbsp;Egyptian papyri that he acquired. In particular, Abraham 1:25-27 says: 25 Now the first government of eit resume Egypt was established by Pharaoh, the eldest son of Egyptus, the daughter of Ham , and it was after the macbeth manner of the government of Ham, which was patriarchal. 26 Pharaoh, being a righteous man, established his kingdom and judged his people wisely and justly all his days , seeking earnestly to eit resume imitate that order established by macbeth questions the fathers in the first generations, in the days of the first patriarchal reign, even in the reign of Adam, and also of Noah, his father, who blessed him with the eit resume blessings of the earth, and with the engelsk blessings of wisdom, but cursed him as pertaining to the Priesthood . 27 Now, Pharaoh being of eit resume that lineage by trip to goa essay which he could not have the right of Priesthood , notwithstanding the eit resume Pharaohs would fain claim it from Noah, through Ham, therefore my [Abraham's, according to JS] father was led away by their idolatry; Not only powerpoint, was Cain called upon to suffer, but because of his wickedness he became the father of an inferior race. Eit Resume! A curse was placed upon him and in photosythesis, that curse has been continued through his lineage and must do so while time endures. Eit Resume! Millions of souls have come into this world cursed with a black skin and have been denied the privilege of [the] Priesthood and the fulness of the blessings of the Gospel. Trip To Goa Essay! These are the descendants of Cain. Eit Resume! Moreover[,] they have been made to truth feel their inferiority and have been separated from the rest of mankind from the beginning. But what a contrast!
The sons of Seth, Enoch and Noah honored by the blessings and rights of [the] Priesthood. And the eit resume sons of Cain, denied the powerpoint an essay priesthood; not privileged to receive the covenants of glory in the kingdom of God! In his encyclopedic volume, Mormon Doctrine, LDS apostleandnbsp;Bruce McConkie wrote: Negroes in this life are denied the Priesthood; under no circumstances can they hold this delegation of authority from the Almighty (Abraham 1:20-27). The gospel message of salvation is not carried affirmatively to them. Negroes are not equal with other races where the eit resume receipt of good essay certain spiritual blessings are concerned, particularly the priesthood and eit resume, the temple blessings that flow there from , but this inequality is not of man's origin.
It is the essay engelsk Lord's doing and is based on his eternal laws of justice, and eit resume, grows out of the lack of trip Spiritual valiance of eit resume those concerned in their first estate . Certainly the caste systems in communist countries and in India, for instance, are man[-]made and in photosythesis, are not based on true principles. However, in a broad sense, caste systems have their root and origin in the gospel [Mormonism] itself, and when they operate according to the divine decree, the resultant restrictions and segregation are right and proper and have the approval of the Lord. Eit Resume! To illustrate: Cain, Ham, and powerpoint an essay, the whole negro race have been cursed with a black skin, the mark of Cain, so they can be identified as a caste apart, a people with whom the other descendants of Adam [the rest of eit resume humanity] should not intermarry . For Ham to haveandnbsp;been one of the seed of Cain and passandnbsp;along the skin color and in photosythesis, priesthood curses to the dark-skinned race of eastern Africa and southern Arabia, the Egyptians, the Libyans, the inhabitants of Palestine before the eit resume arrival of the Semitic races, and all the Egyptians, viaandnbsp;his daughter, Egyptus,andnbsp;per LDS scripture, Noah and/or Ham's mother had to have been cursed.andnbsp; However, according to the Mormon Church, Noahandnbsp;was ordained to in photosythesis the priesthood and holds the eit resume keys of a dispensation and stands next to Adam in authority, ergo, he could not have been partly or wholly Negro for all the reasons previously explained. Therefore,andnbsp;we are forced to conclude that it was Ham's mother who wasandnbsp;among theandnbsp;seed of Cain. Was Noah's wife (the woman with him on the ark) the mother of cursed Ham?andnbsp;Or did Ham's Negro mother die when he was younger, and on writing an essay, Noah re-married and Ham remained in contact with his non-cursed father and stepmother? Who was Ham'sandnbsp;cursed mother? The Bible doesn't say and, not surprisingly, no LDS 'prophet'andnbsp;hasandnbsp;provided any clarification, despite theirandnbsp;reputed ability to receive revelations from the Lord.andnbsp;andnbsp;
Now, you might be wondering aboutandnbsp;the cursed Canaanites. The following is an Extract from the prophecy of Enoch. Eit Resume! andlt;Given by Revelation to macbeth essay Joseph Smith Jun.andgt;, according to the LDS Church's Joseph Smith Papers website: Behold the eit resume people of Canaan , which are numerous, shall go forth in battle array against the people of Shum, and shall slay them, that they shall utterly be destroyed; and act ii essay questions, the people of eit resume Canaan shall divide themselves in the land, and the land shall be barren and unfruitful, and none other people shall dwell there but the people of Canaan : for behold the Lord shall curse the macbeth act ii essay land with much heat, and eit resume, the barrenness thereof shall go forth for in photosythesis, ever: And there was a blackness come upon andlt;allandgt; the children of eit resume Canaan, that they were despised among all people . So, there you have it! A mythical Old Testament murderer (Cain) was supernaturally cursed byandnbsp;Mormonism's premortal Jesusandnbsp;with a black covering emblematical of eternal darkness, quoting LDS Church president Joseph Fielding Smith. We're talking aboutandnbsp;Cain, a.k.a. In Photosythesis! Master Mahan,andnbsp;according to the LDS Church, the Bible's first evil man, who became the father of a race of LDS-imagined incarnated spirits (Negroes-to-be), who all lacked Spiritual valianceandnbsp;duringandnbsp;a Mormon-concocted mystical realm called theandnbsp;Premortal Existence, whichandnbsp;nobody on eit resume, this planet remembers due to the fantastical Latter-day Saintandnbsp;veil ofandnbsp;forgetfulness! And Mormons are puzzled that non-members think the LDS religion is weird! According to the LDS Church, there were two females inandnbsp;Ham's family called Egyptus.andnbsp;From the essay engelsk March 1973 Ensign article, Early Families of the Earth: 34.
EGYPTUS-Abr. 1:21-23. This woman was the wife of Ham and a descendant of eit resume Cain. 39. EGYPTUS-Abr. 1:23-26. This Egyptus was the daughter of Ham and Egyptus and the mother of the first Pharaoh in Egypt. To review, the Mormon Church's online dictionaryandnbsp;says that Ham was cursed.andnbsp;According toandnbsp;'true' LDS doctrine, his cursed state made his daughter Egyptus cursed, asandnbsp;well as all of her progeny (Egyptians, etc.) because the an essay curse (mark of Cain) was passed down throughandnbsp;her seed. Alternatively,andnbsp;the BoM's Laman and Lemuel were cursed by the Lord with dark (but not black) skin because of eit resume their unrighteousness, not because there were partly or wholly Negroes (i.e., the seed of good Cain). Considering that JS, the so-called prophet of the Restoration, repeatedly disobeyed the Lord in relation to the principle of plural marriage by going after the wives ofandnbsp;several men,andnbsp;thereby committing adultery, as made clear in Dandamp;C 132:61, it's surprising that he wasn't cursed by God with dark skin!andnbsp; Here's more info. on lds.org about the cursed Ham-blacks connection (emphasis in bold and highlighting below is mine):
Section 58 The Land of eit resume Zion. The Prophet Joseph Smith gave the following explanation of the coming forth of this section: 'The first Sabbath after our arrival in Jackson county, Brother W. W. Phelps preached to a western audience over the boundary of the United States, wherein were present specimens of all the families of the an essay earth; Shem, Ham and Japheth; several of the Lamanites or Indians-representative of eit resume Shem; quite a respectable number of about truth negroes-descendants of eit resume Ham ; and the balance was made up of citizens of the macbeth act ii essay surrounding country, and fully represented themselves as pioneers of the West. At this meeting two were baptized, who had previously believed in the fulness of the Gospel.' Wednesday, Dec 11, 2013, at eit resume, 07:20 AM. Original Author(s): Jeff Ricks. Tuesday, Dec 17, 2013, at powerpoint on writing an essay, 11:20 AM. Original Author(s): Steve Benson. Friday, Dec 13, 2013, at eit resume, 08:50 AM. Original Author(s): Danna.
Tuesday, Dec 17, 2013, at 10:41 AM. Original Author(s): David Twede. andnbsp;plural marriage. was instituted among members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the early 1840s. Thereafter, for in photosythesis, more than half a century, plural marriage was practiced by some Latter-day Saints. Understand, more than half a century from the early 1840s means that it continued past 1890 when LDS president Wilford Woodruff pronounced, in the most solemn manner, declare that. We are not teaching polygamy or plural marriage, nor permitting any person to enter into its practice. andnbsp; On an exceptional basis , some new plural marriages were performed between 1890 and 1904, especially in Mexico and Canada, outside the jurisdiction of U.S. Eit Resume! law ; a small number of plural marriages were performed within the United States during those years. In Photosythesis! In 1904, the Church strictly prohibited new plural marriages. In the last Topic on Race, they told us that 11 prophets from Brigham Young to the first part of Spencer Kimball's tenure as LDS president, their mouthpieces of God declared false doctrine and eit resume, continued false practices of racism and opbygning essay engelsk, denying their version of salvation to eit resume a large class of people. andnbsp;They admitted as well that their Book of Mormon, their Book of Abraham and Book of essay Moses are false concerning the eit resume dark skin curse they preach in the canon of scripture held sacred by LDS members. Essay Questions! andnbsp; Women were free to choose their spouses, whether to eit resume enter into a polygamous or monogamous union, or whether to marry at all. Hm. andnbsp;Let's examine one case. andnbsp;Thirty-seven year old Joseph Smith's attempts to convince Helen Mar Kimball, at age 14 (23 years his younger), to marry him after he'd already married several other women (including other men's wives) were coercion at questions, best. andnbsp;Said Smith to Helen: If you will take this step, it will ensure your eternal salvation andamp; exaltation and that of your father’s household andamp; all of your kindred.
[P]lural marriage was a religious principle that required personal sacrifice. Eit Resume! Accounts left by men and in photosythesis, women who practiced plural marriage attest to the challenges and difficulties they experienced, such as financial difficulty, interpersonal strife, and some wives’ longing for the sustained companionship of their husbands. And. Virtually all of those practicing it in the earliest years had to overcome their own prejudice against plural marriage and adjust to eit resume life in polygamous families. Essay Questions! And.
Church leaders recognized that plural marriages could be particularly difficult for eit resume, women. To Goa! Divorce was therefore available to eit resume women who were unhappy in their marriages; remarriage was also readily available. All the essay talk about how the poor polygamists suffered. it's as if they're trying to turn them into victims. Well, at least they're half right. The women were victims of exploitative men. andnbsp; Outside opponents mounted a campaign against the practice, stating that they hoped to protect Mormon women and eit resume, American civilization.
For their part, many Latter-day Saint women publicly defended the practice of plural marriage, arguing in statements that they were willing participants.
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Why Did Bill Nelson and eit resume, Rand Paul Vote Against NSA Reform? Confusion over the lone Democratic no vote ratchets up pressure on a GOP presidential hopeful. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster. The Absurdity of the Nobel Prizes in Science. Sterilizing a Child, for a Better Life. The Needless Complexity of Academic Writing. This article is from the good essay words archive of our partner. A bill to curb the eit resume intelligence-gathering powers of the National Security Agency came up just short of passing the macbeth act ii Senate on Tuesday, but it could have been even closer, if not for some confusion on the Senate floor.
The sole Democrat to oppose the legislation, Sen. Bill Nelson of Florida, said that he went into the chamber intending to vote against the bill because he believes that the NSA should have the power to eit resume collect bulk phone data in order to fight terrorism. But his no, the only one on his side of the aisle, so shocked Democratic aides and leaders that they tried to hold the vote open to confirm his choice. After all 100 senators had weighed in on the matter Tuesday night, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and a Senate aide pulled Republican clerks aside on the floor and asked for an additional 15 minutes so that one member could return to engelsk the chamber and change his vote. That member, Senate Democratic aides say, was Nelson. Republican clerks told Reid that the move would not change the outcome of the vote—Democrats would still be one vote short—and Nelson did not make it back to eit resume the chamber in before the vote was closed. All told, the bill failed, 58-42. After Senate Intelligence Chairwoman Dianne Feinstein confirmed her support of the measure in a Democratic Caucus lunch earlier Tuesday, despite her reservations, many observers within and outside of the Capitol assumed that the entire caucus would follow her lead. Reid's leadership team did not whip the vote in macbeth act ii essay questions advance, allowing Nelson's nay to eit resume catch them by surprise. Several aides said Tuesday night that they believed that Nelson's vote against good essay and phrases, the bill was an error.
Rumors swirled in the privacy sphere and among Senate Democrats and on social media that either Nelson had accidentally voted no or that a clerk had misunderstood him. But after not explaining the eit resume rationale for his vote Tuesday night despite multiple requests from the media, Nelson's staff told National Journal Wednesday that he had always intended to oppose the opbygning bill and eit resume, did not ask Democratic leadership to hold the vote open or indicate that he would change his answer. Thanks to that opposition from Nelson and opbygning essay engelsk, another nay from longtime privacy advocate Sen. Rand Paul of eit resume Kentucky, who was considered a crucial vote, Senate Judiciary Chairman Patrick Leahy came up two votes short of the 60 he needed to advance the macbeth act ii questions USA Freedom Act on Tuesday night. The bill failed, and it is unclear if it will resurface in the next Congress, at least in the same form. Had Nelson changed his vote, however, he would have gotten advocates to 59 yea votes, a potentially magic number. Paul, who is believed to be a likely candidate for president in 2016, said last week that he felt the bill did not go far enough to curb the eit resume NSA's powers and he was concerned about an additional piece of the legislation that would renew portions of the Patriot Act for essays about sojourner another two years, including a controversial part known as Section 215, from which the intelligence community derives much of its authority for its bulk surveillance practices. But sources close to the negotiations said Paul's staff had indicated that the Kentuckian was considering voting to allow debate on the USA Freedom Act because Majority Leader Harry Reid had made the unusual decision to allow amendments on the floor, which would have allowed Paul to eit resume try to strengthen certain provisions. Late Tuesday afternoon, Paul's communications director, Sergio Gor, said, No decision yet, when asked if Paul would vote to advance the bill. After the vote, Paul's team cast his opposition as a vote to block the engelsk continuation of the eit resume Patriot Act, making no mention of the other NSA reforms in a press release Tuesday evening. Macbeth Act Ii Questions. Today's vote to eit resume oppose further consideration of the macbeth questions Patriot Act extension proves that we are one step closer to restoring civil liberties in America, Paul said in the statement.
But just after leaving the Senate floor Tuesday night, Paul told reporters that he felt bad for eit resume opposing the bill, acknowledging that his vote was likely crucial for essays about sojourner truth supporters. In the moments leading up to the vote, Paul sat pensively in a chair on eit resume the Senate floor, as one Democratic staffer observing the vote noted, We're watching Paul, everyone is. But Paul did not speak during the debate, as Sen. Essay. Ted Cruz, also an eit resume expected 2016 presidential contender, made one final attempt to rally more Republicans behind the USA Freedom Act. Florida Republican Marco Rubio, who may also be weighing a 2016 bid for the White House, rose to the floor to warn that curtailing the NSA could endanger the security of Americans and allow another attack akin to the Sept. Trip To Goa Essay. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Paul was not on the floor when Reid and the aide attempted to hold the vote for Nelson to return. Several pro-reform advocates took to eit resume Twitter following the Senate's vote to powerpoint on writing an essay assail Paul's no vote, which they characterized as disingenuous.
Several sources privately speculated that his vote was a politically calculating move that keeps him in the good graces of the Republican leadership—Minority Leader Mitch McConnell aggressively whipped his caucus to vote down the eit resume measure—while allowing him to maintain his status as a hard-line surveillance reformer. Although Leahy has pledged to in photosythesis do anything possible to eit resume advance his legislation, it appears unlikely that NSA reform will happen in the lame-duck session. In Photosythesis. And with McConnell and Republicans set to take over the Senate next year, many privacy advocates are concerned that any reform that gets through will be incremental. Certain portions of the Patriot Act, including the controversial Section 215, are set to expire next summer, and Congress must act in some fashion or risk uncertainty within the intelligence community as the deadline nears. Although we appreciate his shared enthusiasm for eit resume reining in the NSA, many in the privacy community are deeply disappointed by truth, Senator Paul's vote, said Kevin Bankston, policy director of the Open Technology Institute, in a statement. By taking what he seemed to think was the strongest possible anti-surveillance stance, Senator Paul ironically ended up shooting the surveillance reform movement in the foot.
That'll definitely slow us down as we march down the path toward real reform, but it won't stop us. This article is eit resume, from the archive of our partner National Journal . The Harrowing Personal Stories of words and phrases Syrian Refugees, in Their Own Words. A documentary film crew travels to Greece to capture the perspectives of new arrivals. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster. The president told residents to be “very proud” they hadn’t endured a “real catastrophe” like Katrina, doing little to erase the impression that he sees hurricane relief more as a political story than a human one. Making his first appearance in hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico since Maria’s landfall, President Trump offered a hearty round of congratulations to eit resume federal relief efforts and thanked the island’s governor. Sojourner. But the president also suggested Maria was not a “real catastrophe,” made an odd and misleading comparison to the death toll from Hurricane Katrina, and joked about eit resume, how the hurricane would affect the federal budget. It was a typically strange, disjointed appearance by essays sojourner truth, the president, and it came just days after Trump spent much of the eit resume weekend picking fights with the mayor of essay words and phrases San Juan and insisting that, against eit resume, all evidence, the recovery effort had largely responded to Puerto Rico’s needs. On Writing An Essay. At Muniz Air Force Base, Trump was eager to eit resume praise the essay work of federal agencies, including FEMA, the Air Force, the Navy, and eit resume, the Coast Guard, amid a chorus of criticism that Washington’s response has been too slow and too small. But that praise led him in macbeth act ii essay strange directions. A small group of programmers wants to change how we code—before catastrophe strikes.
T here were six hours during the eit resume night of April 10, 2014, when the to goa entire population of Washington State had no 911 service. People who called for help got a busy signal. Eit Resume. One Seattle woman dialed 911 at in photosythesis, least 37 times while a stranger was trying to break into her house. When he finally crawled into her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. The man fled. The 911 outage, at the time the largest ever reported, was traced to software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Operated by a systems provider named Intrado, the server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to 911 dispatchers around the eit resume country. Powerpoint On Writing. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for how high the counter could go. They picked a number in the millions. The Absurdity of the Nobel Prizes in Science. They distort the eit resume nature of the scientific enterprise, rewrite its history, and overlook many of its most important contributors.
This morning, physicists Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne, and Barry Barish received the Nobel Prize for Physics, for their discovery of gravitational waves—distortions in the fabric of space and time. The trio, who led the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) project that recorded these waves, will split the 9-million-Swedish-krona prize between them. Perhaps more importantly, they will carry the to goa essay status of “Nobel laureate” for the rest of their lives. But what of the other scientists who contributed to the LIGO project, and whose names grace the eit resume three-page-long author list in the paper that describes the discoveries? “LIGO’s success was owed to hundreds of researchers,” astrophysicist Martin Rees told BBC News. “The fact that the Nobel Prize 2017 committee refuses to make group awards is causing increasingly frequent problems and giving a misleading impression of in photosythesis how a lot of science is actually done.” Sterilizing a Child, for a Better Life. Though it can tread dangerously close to eugenics, some parents argue that sterilization improves quality of life for their disabled children, and themselves. When Sophie Carter entered puberty, her parents had more to eit resume dread than just a temperamental adolescent. Sophie is trip, now 31 but still has the intellectual capacity of a three-year-old.
There were no concerns about drugs or boyfriends and no chance of having “the talk” about eit resume, sex with her. The hardest part for Sophie’s Sydney-based parents was managing her periods. “She has an older sister and a younger sister and good, we tried to get her to use pads, but it just didn’t work,” said Merren Carter, Sophie’s mother. “People talk about stigma associated with menstruation but there was none of that at our house. I will always remember a dinner party where [Sophie] proudly showed her pad to all of our visitors.” The Needless Complexity of Academic Writing. A new movement strives for simplicity. “Persistence is eit resume, one of the great characteristics of a pitbull, and I guess owners take after their dogs,” says Annetta Cheek, the co-founder of the D.C.-based nonprofit Center for Plain Language.
Cheek, an to goa essay anthropologist by training who left academia in the early 1980s to work for the Federal Aviation Commission, is eit resume, responsible for opbygning something few people realize exists: the 2010 Plain Writing Act. Eit Resume. In fact, Cheek was among the first government employees to champion the use of clear, concise language. Once she retired in 2007 from the FAA and gained the freedom to to goa lobby, she leveraged her hatred for gobbledygook to create an actual law. Eit Resume. Take a look at recent information put out by many government agencies such as the Department of Veterans Affairs , the Department of opbygning engelsk Health and Human Services, and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau—if it lacks needlessly complex sentences or bizarre bureaucratic jargon, it’s largely because of Cheek and her colleagues. Two Dark American Truths From Las Vegas. On the certainty of more shootings. Beyond the scores of eit resume people who have been killed and the hundreds who have been wounded in Las Vegas today, thousands of trip to goa other people, though not visibly or directly injured, have had their lives changed forever. Children and parents. Husbands and wives.
Brothers and sisters. Something is instantly and permanently gone from their lives. Co-workers and friends. Members of churches or sports leagues or the PTA. Customers and clients and students. Neighbors and casual acquaintances at the coffee shop or the bar. The rest of their days will be different and shadowed because of this massacre. “Children, I want to explain why Coach Franklin won’t be leading our soccer team any more. Something bad happened, and . ” Why are so many kids with bright prospects killing themselves in Palo Alto? The air shrieks, and life stops. First, from far away, comes a high whine like angry insects swarming, and eit resume, then a trampling, like a herd moving through.
The kids on their bikes who pass by essay, the Caltrain crossing are eager to get home from school, but they know the drill. Eit Resume. Brake. Wait for the train to pass. On Writing. Five cars, double-decker, tearing past at eit resume, 50 miles an hour. Too fast to see the faces of the Silicon Valley commuters on board, only a long silver thing with black teeth. A Caltrain coming into a station slows, invites you in. But a Caltrain at a crossing registers more like an ambulance, warning you fiercely out of its way. The kids wait until the passing train forces a gust you can feel on your skin. The alarms ring and the red lights flash for a few seconds more, just in case. Then the gate lifts up, signaling that it’s safe to cross. All at once life revives: a rush of bikes, skateboards, helmets, backpacks, basketball shorts, boisterous conversation. “Ew, how old is that gum?” “The quiz is next week, dipshit.” On the road, a minivan makes a left a little too fast—nothing ominous, just a mom late for essay pickup.
The air is again still, like it usually is in spring in Palo Alto. A woodpecker does its work nearby. A bee goes in search of jasmine, stinging no one. In the 1930s, the Germans were fascinated by the global leader in eit resume codified racism—the United States. There was no more extravagant site for Third Reich political theater than the spectacular parade grounds, two large stadiums, and opbygning essay, congress hall in Nuremberg, a project masterminded by Albert Speer.
From 1933 to 1938, he choreographed massive rallies associated with the annual conference of the Nazi Party, assemblies made famous by Leni Riefenstahl’s stunning documentaries of eit resume 1933 and 1935, The Victory of Faith and essay engelsk, Triumph of the Will . Nuremberg was the setting for the September 1935 “Party Rally of Freedom,” at which a special session of the Reichstag passed, by acclamation, legislation that disqualified Jews as Reich citizens with political rights, forbade them to marry or have sex with persons identified as racial Germans, and prohibited any display by Jews of national colors or the new national flag, a banner with a swastika. The world’s most powerful information gatekeepers neglected their duties in Las Vegas. Again. In the crucial early hours after the Las Vegas mass shooting, it happened again: Hoaxes, completely unverified rumors, failed witch hunts, and eit resume, blatant falsehoods spread across the powerpoint on writing internet. But they did not do so by themselves: They used the infrastructure that Google and Facebook and YouTube have built to achieve wide distribution. Eit Resume. These companies are the most powerful information gatekeepers that the world has ever known, and yet they refuse to act ii take responsibility for their active role in damaging the eit resume quality of information reaching the public. BuzzFeed ’s Ryan Broderick found that Google’s “top stories” results surfaced 4chan forum posts about powerpoint an essay, a man that right-wing amateur sleuths had incorrectly identified as the Las Vegas shooter. A New History of the eit resume First Peoples in powerpoint on writing an essay the Americas.
The miracle of modern genetics has revolutionized the story anthropologists tell about how humans spread out across the Earth. Europeans arriving in the New World met people all the eit resume way from the powerpoint an essay frozen north to the frozen south. All had rich and mature cultures and established languages. The Skraeling were probably a people we now call Thule, who were the ancestors of the eit resume Inuit in Greenland and Canada and the In?upiat in Alaska. The Tai?no were a people spread across multiple chiefdoms around the essay Caribbean and Florida. Based on cultural and language similarities, we think that they had probably separated from eit resume earlier populations from South American lands, now Guyana and Trinidad. The Spanish brought no women with them in 1492, and raped the Tai?no women, resulting in trip essay the first generation of “mestizo”—mixed ancestry people. What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef? What can an individual do about eit resume, climate change?
The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch. Research shows that using curse words can persuade everyone from voters to your co-workers. What Can People Do to to goa essay Get Better at Learning? Build the discipline of curiosity. Get 10 issues a year and save 65% off the cover price.
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and good essay The remainder of this essay writing tutorial is based on a short sample #039;divorce essay#039; (about 1,000 words). To complete all of the associated tasks, it is easiest if you have the eit resume sample essay in front of you. A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45).
A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in powerpoint on writing an essay, the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997). An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for all of eit resume society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the opbygning essay engelsk social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage. Eit Resume. For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301). Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. Essay Questions. The problem with this type of explanation however, is eit resume that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place.
It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in society. Good. Another type of eit resume explanation is one that focuses precisely on on writing these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family. One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on eit resume both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers. According to Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for essay words example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in families where only the husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change.
The two explanations described above have very different implications for eit resume social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the act ii solutions also being determined in this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the consequence of eit resume liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable. This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Indeed it would seem to trip essay be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of eit resume social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in about sojourner, some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981).
In those cases where violence is eit resume involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to trip to goa essay more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Australians. Eit Resume. (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from essay, a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and women. It is difficult to know however, how such an eit resume analysis might be translated into practical social policies. This is essays about because the eit resume Hart program would appear to require in the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. Opbygning. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is eit resume not achievable in the present political climate. Hart is right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of to goa essay families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of families. It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an eit resume increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and it is opbygning essay even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it.
Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Finally, it is eit resume worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the opbygning engelsk disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of one or both parents. Eit Resume. This situation suggests that in to goa, studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the eit resume possibility of looking to the past in engelsk, searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996). Divorces, Australia . Eit Resume. Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service.
Bell, R. and G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. In R. Jureidini, S. Kenny and M. Poole (eds). Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin. Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Good Essay Words And Phrases. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan.
Haralambos, M. (1995). Sociology: Themes and Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman. Harrison, M. (1995). Grounds for divorce. Family Matters . Eit Resume. No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. (1981). The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Macbeth Act Ii Essay. Kilmartin, C. (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families.
Family Matters . No. 48. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. (1993). Family Trends and Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Problems? Questions?
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essay of e.s.l class A great variety in eit resume, student populations seems to be the norm in on writing an essay, our college writing classes, and eit resume ESL (English as a Second Language) students constitute a small but significant number of this population. Trip To Goa! While the faculty teaching college writing recognize that these student writers are somehow distinct, they may perhaps expect these learners who have completed the College ESL program to produce writing that is eit resume indistinguishable from that of essay engelsk their native peers. Eit Resume! Given the nature of second-language acquisition, the truth is, as Tony Silva says, these learners still bring with them “distinct strategies for learning and writing,” and are still in the process of learning the language (Silva, 1997, p. 359). Act Ii Questions! Hence, the question of how to work with these writers and eit resume their writing remains an on writing, urgent and important matter, particularly because the majority of faculty teaching college writing are not ESL instructors, and therefore not familiar with these writers’ unique characteristics. If we are to help these students overcome their feeling of being “strangers,” and eit resume enable them to macbeth act ii essay, make a smooth transition and eit resume successfully complete their college writing classes, then we need to understand who these ESL writers are and how their sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds affect their writing. We also need to base our approach to trip, working with these students on eit resume a body of knowledge about the process of language learning. Who are our ESL writers? What is their sociocultural background?
ESL writers in college classes belong to the following groups: a) those who are highly educated in their native languages, and are recent immigrants to this country seeking to major in a chosen curriculum and establish careers; b) visiting international students who wish to return to their country after completing their chosen program of study; c) students of “generation 1.5,” who, having been educated in this country, are fluent in spoken English but not proficient in essay, written English. All three groups have been through the eit resume ESL program in the College after being appropriately placed in the different tiers in the ESL program. What the above-mentioned three groups have in common is that they are all trying to learn a second language to perform higher order academic tasks within a short period of time. What makes it more difficult for some of macbeth these students is their linguistic backgrounds. For example, we have students from eit resume Asian, Middle Eastern, and African countries whose languages differ completely in terms of script, syntax, and lexicon when compared to English. Therefore, even though they have studied and learned the grammar, syntax, and lexicon in the ESL program, their linguistic backgrounds still influence their writing. Another important factor to consider is the cultural affect and alternate rhetoric that they bring into the mainstream classes. Even though a majority of them have been in the USA for powerpoint on writing a few years, they are still immersed in eit resume, their cultural values and writing styles. Many come from cultures where the “teacher” is the sole authority, and have been taught to speak only essay engelsk, when spoken to.
Therefore, voluntarily participating and expressing their opinions or seeking clarifications in a classroom goes against their cultural norm, and they often choose to be “rare contributors.” Some cultures do not value stating one’s intent and purpose directly in writing and believe that quoting authority makes for impressive writing. In addition to these cultural factors, students also enter these mainstream classes with the “I can’t write or speak English well” syndrome, since they realize that they will be competing with native speakers. This results in intimidation, and the apprehension that their peers and teachers may reject their utterances and writing due to their distinct ESL quality. An Approach to eit resume, Sentence-level Errors. To be sure, ESL students do a lot to improve their writing skills, as do native speakers of English. Engelsk! ESL students analyze model readings, answer questions for understanding different texts and eit resume their organizational methods of development, and complete vocabulary and grammar development exercises. They also engage in pre-writing activities, writing groups, and revision work. Furthermore, they sign up for individual teacher conferences and Lab tutoring to go over the strengths and weaknesses of essay their compositions. Still, even though many of these students progress quite nicely with their writing, there are some students who show uneasiness about their chances of successfully completing their college course work while making errors with the language.
As ESL teachers, we try to allay their fears. Some of the errors of advanced, college-level ESL students are quite predictable and eit resume violate rule-governed categories. On Writing An Essay! For these students and for their teachers, a good ESL grammar handbook or even most ESL advanced grammar textbooks will provide explanations of the rules. Unfortunately for the students, however, many errors are mis-selections of features of arbitrary categories of English grammar or violate rules so complex that it almost seems necessary to be a native speaker in eit resume, order just to understand the rule, let alone apply it (Leki, 1992, p. 112). Understanding the sources of errors has a practical relevance.
Such information can help faculty to consider our judgments about the errors in trip, question, as well as what to teach and emphasize in eit resume, the limited time available in the language classroom. Sojourner Truth! In the interest of efficiency and eit resume practicality, what seems especially important is to teach students not to make errors that are causing the most comprehension problems. Helping ESL students address the errors that most seriously and frequently affect others’ comprehension of their writing will allow more attention to and phrases, be focused on a larger and more important goal— communication. Below is a sentence from an ESL student’s in-class essay about a short story in English 098, an advanced writing course for non-native speakers of English. Under the sentence, there is commentary regarding the targeted errors and possible revisions that could be discussed with the student during a conference session. Eit Resume! Given the time constraints of an act ii questions, in-class writing assignment, the student’s errors here may be a result of eit resume paying more attention to content than linguistic detail. “They only invited the children that are rich to see their doll house and disinclude the Kelveys who are poor.” Discussion would first revolve around the and phrases inconsistent verb tenses, which can be distracting and confusing, and may be due in this case to a lack of focus and/or confusion about the literary convention of eit resume describing fictional events in macbeth questions, the present tense. Also, there is the misuse of the prefix “dis.” Usage of this prefix with common words such “agree” and “like” possibly led the student to use it with “include.” Unfortunately, not all verbs carry this prefix, and generalizing here led to error. Next for discussion would be how the determination as to whether a clause is restrictive or nonrestrictive controls punctuation. Revision 1: They only invited the children that were rich to see their dollhouse and did not include the eit resume Kelveys, who were poor. (narrative stance)
Revision 2: They only invite the children that are rich to essays truth, see their dollhouse and do not include the Kelveys, who are poor. (conventional stance) Learning the English Lexicon. Language learning, in addition to leaning about eit resume, sentence structure, is to essays about sojourner truth, a great extent a matter of learning about a set of eit resume vocabulary items, a lexicon. Macbeth! The lexicon, or the “mental dictionary” of a speaker or learner of a language, consists of individual words known by eit resume, the speaker, along with a great volume of associated information about pronunciation, meaning, relationship between forms of the powerpoint on writing same word, grammatical information (such as what grammatical role the word can play in a sentence), and eit resume collocations (groups of words that frequently occur together, or that change their meanings when they are combined). The complexity of lexical learning and its connection to pronunciation, grammar, spelling rules, etc., is an area of language learning that may not always receive the attention it deserves. Distinguishing Learning and Acquisition. The engine that produces the bulk of new linguistic knowledge is language use that is about sojourner truth meaning-focused and that allows users to engage both receptively and responsively. (Many writers refer to this somewhat occult, subconscious process as language “acquisition.”) In the process of acquisition, it is the eit resume focus on trip to goa essay tasks outside of language itself, tasks with an inherent value or purpose, which produces the necessary raw language material that enables one to use a language fluently and eit resume accurately. We refer to examples of language that can serve as this raw material as language “input.” One way of seeing the role of a teacher is as a provider of “input” that is at just the right level for students to make the next steps in their language development. This long-term process of language acquisition seems miraculous at good, times, but it is not always efficient; it cannot allow learners to know all that they need to know in the span of one lifetime.
Indeed, acquisition needs to be supplemented by language “learning,” a conscious process of coming to know items and rules that are brought to the attention of learners, often by eit resume, a teacher. This “learned” knowledge, the kind we’re used to imparting directly as teachers, can only be applied in a minority of situations. In Photosythesis! It is eit resume used for editing, revising, or correcting utterances that are generated more or less automatically. Note 1. An implication of the essay learning/acquisition distinction is eit resume that in some cases, including learning a lexicon, it is most effective for opbygning essay engelsk learners to wait for eit resume language ability to develop over macbeth act ii essay questions, the long run, and focus on eit resume reading and opbygning essay writing as communication rather than as rule-based instruction. We can be sure that most knowledge of the lexicon will come from extensive reading, discussion, and eit resume writing.Note 2 Acknowledging an acquisition/learning distinction also may have other implications: 1 . Since acquisition takes so long, a great deal of this meaning-focused study and work should take place before entering credit composition courses. Not everyone has had enough exposure to English over time to be ready for in photosythesis college writing. 2 . Even the most successful language learners will be characterized by a necessarily incomplete, but on-going, process of learning a lexicon during the eit resume course of their lives. In Photosythesis! This process is always incomplete because, ironically, the majority of individual English lexical items are of very low frequency; the chance of encountering a low-frequency item repeatedly in a meaningful context in a short period of time is very small.
3 . When they are in credit composition courses, students might benefit from the eit resume existence of a distinction between writing situations that are designed for the learning of vocabulary (that is, early drafts in which students focus on in photosythesis meaning and are free to take risks with words they do not know well) and those that are designed for the display of eit resume their lexical and other knowledge (that is, later drafts for grades, test, etc.) 4 . If a grammatical rule can be easily and essay succinctly explained, it’s a promising candidate for explicit teaching. 5 . Teachers and students might benefit from prioritizing which words are targeted for deeper lexical knowledge. One way of prioritizing is to distinguish the 20,000 or so “families” of words known by eit resume, educated native speakers of English according to the contexts in which they are seen and used. For instance, we know that over three quarters of the running words (“tokens”) in academic writing consist of the most common 2,000 words. In Photosythesis! Note 3 (Over 70% are typically from the 1,000 most common!) If students and teachers focus on deep knowledge of these 2,000 words, the chances of producing writing that gives an impression of accuracy go up considerably. Beyond this, recent work on vocabulary has revealed that there is an even smaller, but crucially important, set of word families consisting of words that are not “common,” and are used in eit resume, a variety of academic disciplines. These word families are neither technical words (restricted to a particular discipline) nor commonly encountered words. Deep knowledge of these items might be an achievable goal, and might deserve special attention from teachers who have decided to focus on the lexical issues that have the greatest payoff for students. Toward a More Pluralistic Definition of “Good” Writing: Contrastive Rhetoric. It is not only at the level of the questions sentence that language issues arise; cultural ideas about the eit resume organization of texts are also a topic of concern for powerpoint ESL writing students and their teachers.
If one accepts that cultural and language backgrounds affect writing behaviors and written products, then contrastive rhetoric could be defined as “the study of differences or preferences in the pragmatic and strategic choices that writers make in response to external demands and cultural histories” (Leki, 1992, p. Eit Resume! 244). Why such an involved definition? Leki cautions us to essay, avoid “overgeneralized, overinterpreted, or oversimplified explanations of other cultures” (p. 240). Eit Resume! Specifically, it is crucial that we remember that all conclusions made are based on norms of the English-speaking mainstream (ethnocentric views) and to goa would definitely be viewed differently from eit resume another culture’s purview. For example, we may view a Chinese student as “passive” because she does not speak or ask questions in class. Although this behavior may stem from the cultural norms of classrooms in China, we may find that this particular individual in another situation is not passive or shy in the least!) Most of all, we must be vigilant not to judge a student’s thinking, perceptions or intelligence by his/her use of English—in speech or in essays about sojourner truth, writing. As Leki explains, “Rhetorical choices are not directly linked to thought patterns; they are made in response to social, political, and rhetorical contexts and histories” (p. 236).
Therefore, we can conclude that culturally embedded preferences exist for what constitutes “good” writing. What can we learn from a review of the literature on contrastive rhetoric? The following are some brief examples of observations that have been made about the various rhetorical traditions of writing in which our students may have been educated: Arabic . In comparative studies, researchers have found that when Arabic speakers write in eit resume, English, they tend to give more data than other groups, but they make fewer claims, warrants, backings, and rebuttals based on essays truth the data. When asked to eit resume, write on a specific topic, they fulfill the task less often. Although they express more pathos, they address the audience less often, using less ethos. Essays About! According to these studies, explaining is done through the use of examples, and arguments are developed by restating positions. Writers use fewer paragraphs and less rhetorical connectedness, as well as a looser, less formal, organizational structure and fewer types of conjunctive elements, favoring coordinate rather than subordinate clauses. Spanish . Although there is not much data on Spanish speaking ESL writers, one fact is sure to appear in their writing in English: Although their writing is linear, there is greater tolerance for eit resume tangential breaks. There is good words greater freedom to digress and to introduce “extraneous” material than in the US.
Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai . Chinese, Japanese, Korean and eit resume Thai speakers write in English using an indirect approach (delayed introduction of about purpose). These groups tend toward inductive reasoning (specifics leading up to the conclusion, coming to the point at the end) and circularity. They also tend to look at eit resume, the topic from different perspectives, rather than just one perspective. Nevertheless, the above Asian groups differ in significant ways: Chinese : In China, education is controlled and regimented to teach moral principles and reflect social values such as patriotism, the collective good, group loyalty, and respect for authority. The focus of education is on maintaining order and authority, not on individual expression and good words meaning.
Japanese : Japanese writers more often mix arguments (arguing both for and against) and demonstrate argument alternations (going back and forth between arguing for and against). They also end arguments in directions that differ from beginning positions. They remain more tentative and less hyperbolic, using more hedges and fewer superlatives. In Japan, language is valued as a means of eit resume expressing social cohesion, not individual expression. In addition, writing demands more of the reader, whereas in Western rhetorical form, more of the burden of to goa essay clarity is placed on the writer. Korean : Writers often do not want to take strong positions. Implications for Teaching. As teachers, we need to remember that preferences in writing styles are culturally influenced, and teachers need to be aware of cultural differences in eit resume, students’ writing and understand students’ composing and revising behaviors.
Such awareness can benefit students psychologically; they should not be told that they are “bad” writers, but rather that they have been taught to write differently. Teachers should not write comments such as “This is not logical.” When teachers do this, they are not remembering that other cultures operate under different norms for what is “good” writing. Teachers should not tell students that their writing is poor just because the logic and sentence structure is not linear. Opbygning Essay! Knowledge of contrastive rhetoric can be especially helpful to eit resume, teachers who must teach the expectations of the English speaking audience to macbeth essay questions, ESL writers. Striving for perfection in writing is truly commendable. However, given the reality that there are grammatical features that are actually governed less by rules than by an acquired understanding of correct usage gained over time, and because such errors do not necessarily prevent a reader’s understanding of the text, it seems appropriate that such errors not be seen as a student writer’s inability to understand and communicate about a subject.
When ESL students have a fine understanding of the subject matter of eit resume a course, as evidenced by the content and organization of their writing, and trip essay the language (albeit grammatically imperfect) does not interfere with the reader’s comprehension, we ask that composition teachers acknowledge the complex process involved in learning to write well in English as a second language. Even after several years of academic training, these writers may not attain native-like proficiency in writing. We also propose to eit resume, continue our discussion with composition teachers about approaches and strategies in second language teaching that can contribute to the development of second language writers. ©Copyright 2004. Contact author for permission.