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Essays on a humorous incident

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Essays on a humorous incident

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Gute Arbeit. Essays On A? Ich bin sehr zufrieden mit meinem Papier! Vielen Dank fur fantastische Hilfe !! Der Aufsatz prasentiert wurde, der beste Weg abgeschlossen. A Doll's House? Exzellentes Timing und niedrigen Preis sind starke Vorteile! Ich hatte nicht erwartet, mein Papier zu bekommen, so bald.

Sie sind die besten akademischen Service! Thank you! Dieser Schriftsteller ist auf Feuer! Ein weiteres gro?artiges Papier geliefert wurde, und ich bin sehr zufrieden mit der Qualitat des Papiers. Nie eine Sorge mit der zusatzlichen Hilfe bei der naturlich Uberlastung.

Ich mochte das Timing, den Preis und die Schreibarbeit auf diesem Papier getan. Humorous? Froh, dass meine Assistenten sind so zuverlassig #128578;

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resume Manajemen sumber daya alam. MANAJEMEN SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA. Drs. Essays Humorous Incident. H. Tate Thesis. Malayu S.P. On A Humorous. Hasibuan. FAKULTAS ILMU PENDIDIKAN. UNIVERSITAS NEGERI PADANG. Dalam makalah ini di bahas mengenai konsep dasar manajemen sumber daya manusia, pengertian dan arti penting. System Analysis. Disini juga dibahas mengenai pemilihan dan pembinaan yang baik dalam suatu perusahaan.

Bagaimana membina hubungan yang baik antar karyawan. Dalam penulisan makalah ini, penulis sangat menyadari banyaknya kekurangan-kekurangan yang terdapat dalam makalah ini. Essays On A Humorous Incident. Manusia tidak sempurna tidak luput dari kesalahan, maka apabila ada kesalahan dalam penulisan makalah ini, penulis mengharapkan kritik dan saran yang membangun untuk kesempurnaan makalah ini. 1. Essay Elementary Education. Pentingnya manajemen sumber daya manusia …..……….2. 2. Humorous Incident. Perkembangan manajemen tenaga kependidikan …………3.

BAB II Fungsi Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia. A. College Elementary Education. Fungsi manajemen SDM. BAB IV Pengangkatan Dan Penempatan Personil. BAB V Orientasi, Pelatihan, Dan Pengembangan Pegawai. BAB VI Kompensasi Dan Penggajian.

BAB VII Mutasi dan Promosi. BAB VIII Pengembangan Karyawan. BAB IX Pemberhentian. BAB X Kompensasi. KONSEP DASAR MANAJEMEN. SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA. Manajemen yaitu prosess mengkoordinasikan semua sumber daya melalui proses perencanaan, pengorganisasian, penetapan tenaga kerja, pengarahan dan pengawasan untuk mencapai tujuan yang telah ditetapkan.

b. Essays On A Incident. Pegawai, Pegawai Negeri, Personalia, Sumber Daya Manusia dan Tenaga Kependidikan. #61692; Pegawai adalah setiap orang yang menyumbangkan jasanya kepada suatu badan usaha, baik swasta maupun pemerintah. #61692; Pegawai negeri adalah mereka yang memenuhi syarat yang ditentukan oleh undang-undang yang berlaku, diangkat oleh pejabat yang berwenang, yang diserahi tugas dalam suatu jabatan negara, atau diserahi tugas negara lainnya yang ditetapkan berdasarkan suatu peraturan perundang-undangan dan digaji menurut perundang-undangan yang berlaku. #61692; Personalia adalah orang-orang yang ditugaskan untuk bekerja dalam suatu badan atau lembaga tertentu baik di lingkungan dunia usaha maupun di lingkungan lembaga-lembaga pemerintah. #61692; Tenaga kependidikan adalah merupakan anggota masyarakat yang mengabdi diri dan diangkat untuk menunjang penyelenggaraan pendidikan. Sumber daya manusia adalah potensi yang terkandung dalam diri manusia untuk mewujudkan perannya sebagai makhluk sosial yang mampu mengelola dirinya sendiri serta seluruh potensi yang ada di alam menuju tercapainya kesejahteraan kehidupan dalam tatanan yang seimbang dan berkelanjutan. Manajemen sumber daya manusia adalah suatu ilmu atau cara bagaimana mengatur hubungan dan peranan sumber daya (tenaga kerja) yang dimiliki oleh setiap individu agar mampu menggunakan potensi diri semaksimal mungkin sehingga tujuan yang telah ditetapkan bersama dapat dicapai dengan efektif dan efisien. Sumber daya manusia sangat dibutuhkan pada lembaga pendidikan maupun lembaga non kependidikan. About Working Children. Karena untuk melakukan suatu kegiatan mencapai tujuan bersama, baik tenaga kependidikan ataupun tidak membutuhkan sumber daya manusia yang terampil dan kreatif. Essays Humorous. Bagaimana mungkin tujuan yang besar bisa dicapai sesuai dengan yang diharapkan apabila suatu lembaga atau instansi tidak mampu mengatur sumber daya manusianya.

Keberhasilan suatu perencanaan bukan hanya dipengaruhi oleh jumlah dana yang dikeluarkan akan tetapi bagaimana usaha yang dilakukan untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut. Tate Thesis. Salah satunya yaitu tingkat kreativitas tenaga kerja dalam melaksanakan tugas dan pertanggung jawaban hasil kinerjanya. Dalam sebuah organisasi, hubungan kemanusiaan itu sangat penting. Essays On A Humorous Incident. Sebab, jika setiap anggota bisa menciptakan hubungan yang baik antar sesamanya serta lingkungan sekitar, maka perselisihan (konflik) dapat diminimalisir. Monitoring System Analysis. Hubungan kemanusiaan ini tujuannya adalah menghasilkan integrasi yang cukup kokoh sehingga mendorong kerjasama produktif dan kreatif dalam mencapai sasaran bersama.

Oleh sebab itu dibutuhkan seperangkat aturan yang mengikat setiap anggota agar sama-sama mengutamakan solidaritas kerja tanpa mengesampingkan aktifitas utama. Selain itu, jika seorang pemimpin mengelola, mengatur, dan membimbing karyawan atau bawahan (sumber daya manusianya) dengan seni kepemimpinan yang dia miliki, sehingga bawahan termotivasi untuk berpartisipasi penuh dalam mewujudkan tujuan bersama, maka akan memberikan kepuasan tersendiri terhadap hasil kinerja. Essays Humorous. Dimana tujuan tercapai sesuai dengan yang diharapkan, kegiatan berkembang dengan baik, dan setidaknya membeikan dampak pada penghasilan. Pada dasarnya perkembangan manajemen pendidikan sejalan dengan perkembangan manusia. A Doll's House. Pendidikan adalah proses pengembangan potensi manusia secara totalitas atau menyeluruh.

Dalam upaya pembangunan pendidikan nasional, diperlukan guru dengan jumlah yang memadai dan standar mutu kompetensi serta professionalisme yang terjamin. Essays On A. Proses menuju guru yang professional ini perlu didukung oleh semua unsur yang terkait dengan guru. Tate Thesis. Dipadukan agar menghasilkan suatu sistem yang dapat dengan sendirinya bekerja menuju pembentukan tenaga-tenaga pendidik yang professional dalam mutu dan kuantitas yang memadai. Dalam masyarakat pramodern, pendidikan sepenuhnya menadi tanggung jawab keluarga, namun dengan semakin kompleksnya masyarakat, keluarga tidak mungkin lagi menunaikan fungsi pendidikan secara tuntas. On A Humorous Incident. Dalam masyarakat modern muncullah sistem pendidikan yang diyakini mampu melaksanakan fungsipendidikan denganbaik, fungsi pendidikan ini cendrung lebuh banyak dikelola atau diwarnai oleh kepentingan negara. House Thesis. Memang tidak dapat diingkari bahwa pendidikan menjadi kepentingan negara, namun pada dasarnya pendidikan merupakan kepentingan masyarakat dan keluarga terutama individu itu sendiri. Essays On A Humorous. Oleh sebab itu, pendidikan pada masyarakatmodern bukan hanya pendidikan keluarga dan masyarakat akan tetapi dikembangkan lagi dalam bentuk sistem pendidikan berbasis sekolah yang dibimbing oleh guru dan tenaga pendidik lainnya. SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA.

A. Tate Thesis. Fungsi manajemen sumber daya manusia. 1. Essays Humorous Incident. Tugas dan fungsi manajerial. a. Essays With. Planning (perenncanaan), menetapkan terlebih dahulu apa yang akan dilakukan dan merupakan fungsi terpenting diantara fungsi manajemen. b. Essays. Organizing, proses menciptakan hubungan antara berbagai fungsi personalia, faktor-faktor fisik agar pekerjaan yang dilakukan dapat bermanfaat serta terarah pada satu tujuan. Essays Children. Mengorganisasi berarti membagi pekkerjaan diantara para individu dan aktifitas kelompok serta mengkoordinasikan aktifitas mereka. c. Essays On A Incident. Directing (pengarahan), dalam bentuk tindakan yang menngusahakan agar semua anggota organisasi melakukan kegiatan sesuai dengan yang sudah ditentukan sehingga tujuan perusahaan tercapai. d. Tate Thesis. Controlling (pengendalian), aktifitas untuk mengkoreksi adanya penyimpangan dan hasil yang telah dicapai, dibandingkan dengan rencana kerja yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya. 2. On A Humorous Incident. Tugas dan fungsi operasional. a. House Thesis. Pengadaan (procyrement), proses penarikan, seleksi, penempatan, orientasi, dan induksi untuk mendapatkan pegawai yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan perusahaan.

b. On A Humorous. Pengembangan (development), proses peningkatan keterampilan teknis, teoritis konseptual dan moral pegawai melalui pendidikan dan pelatihan. c. Archimedes Research Essay. Kompensasi, pemberian jasa langsung (direct) dan tidak langsung (irdirect), uang atau barang kepada pegawai sebagai imbalan balas jasa yang diberikan kepada perusahaan. Incident. Prinsip kompensasi (adil dan layak). d. Tate Thesis. Pengintegrasian, kegiatan unntuk mempersatukan kepentingan perusahaan dan kebutuhan pegawai agar terciptanya kerjasama yang baik dan saling menguntungkan. e. Essays On A. Pemeliharaan (maintenance),kegiatan untuk memelihara atau meningkatkan kondisi fisik, mental, loyalitas pegawai, agar mereka tetap mau bekerja sama sampai pensiun. f. College Elementary. Kedisiplinan, fungsi manajemen sumber daya manusia atau keinginan dan kesadaran untuk menaati peraturan perusahaan dan norma-norma sosial. g. Incident. Pemberhentian (sparation), putusnya hubungan kerja seseorang dari suatu perusahaan yang disebabkan oleh keinginan pegawai, keinginan perusahaan, kontrak kerja telah berakhir, pensiun, dan lain-lain. B. Professional Book. perencanaan sumber daya manusia. 1. On A Humorous Incident. Pengertian perencanaan, menurut para ahli : Andrew E. House. Sikula, proses menentukan kebutuhan tenaga kerja dan berarti mempertemukan kebutuhan tersebut agar pelaksanaannya berinteraksi dengan rencana organisasi.

George Milkovich dan Paul C Nystrom, proses peramalan, pengembangan, pengimplementasian dan pengontrolan yang menjamin perusahaan mempunyai kesesuaian jumlah pegawai, penempatan pegawai secara benar, waktu yang tepat, yang secara otomatis lebih bermanfaat. a. On A. Analisis jabatan, jabatan suatu kelompok pekerjaan yang mempunyai jenis kerja yang sama dan ditemukan data seluruh industri atau seluruh negeri. Archimedes Essay. Analisis jabatan adalah suatu proses penentuan tentang hakikat suatu jabatan atau pekerjaan tertentu dalam suatu organisasi. 1. Essays On A Humorous. Pemberian bimbingan kepada karyawan. 2. Research Essay. Pengembangan karyawan melalui pendidikan dan pelatihan Penggunaan sanksi (tindakan disiplin terhadap karyawan secara objektif) 3. Humorous Incident. Penentuan tingkat upah dan gaji. 4. Attendance System Thesis Analysis. Pemindahan atau mutasi karyawan. 5. Essays On A Humorous. Penentu formasi. Organisasi piramidal dengan 7 sampai 10 lapis kini mulai di”datar”kan menjadi 3 sampai 4 lapis. Professional Review Services. Perampingan personalia dan kecenderungan bekerja dalam team lebih mendasarkan kerjanya kepada proses. On A. Istilah pemberdayaan tenaga kerja dilaksanakan terutama bagi front line employes untuk memberikan kepuasan yang maksimal kepada elanggan.

#61558; Faktor jangka panjang. 1. Tate Thesis. Rencana kegiatan perusahaan dalam jangka panjang (jumlah sumber daya manusia yang dibutuhkan) 2. On A Humorous. Kependudukan, mempengaruhi persediaan tenaga kerja. 3. Services. Perekonomian, berhubungan dengan lapangan pekerjaan. 4. Incident. Kecenderungan teknologis, mempunyai akibat tertentu (hakekat dan bauran pekerjaan yang tersedia) 5. A Doll's House Thesis. Kecendrungan sosial.

6. On A Humorous. Jadwal dan anggaran produksi. 1. College Essay Elementary Education. Jadwal dan anggaran produksi. 2. Essays On A Humorous. Tindakan pencegahan diskriminasi. 3. Tate Thesis. Pemindahan atau penutupan pabrik. PENGADAAN SUMBERDAYA MANUSIA KANTOR ATAU LEMBAGA. A. On A. Pengertian Pengadaan. Segala kegiatan dan usaha untuk menambah dan memenuhi kebutuhan barang dan jasa berdasarkan peraturan yang berlaku untuk menciptakan sesuatu yang tadinya belum ada menjadi ada. Professional Book Review Services. Pengadaan tidak selalu harus dilaksanakan dengan pembelian tetapi atas pemilihan berbagai alternatif dengan berpedoman pada prinsip-prinsip mana yang lebih praktis, hemat, sesuai dengan pembelian pinjaman, pembuatan, dan perbaikan.

Sertifikat ahli pengadaan adalah bukti memiliki keahlian dalam pengadaan barang dan jasa. Essays Incident. Sertifikat pengadaan barang atau jasa pemerintah adalah bukti memiliki kompetensi dan kemampuan profesi dibidang pengadaan barang atau jasa. Pengadaan ini harus didasarkan pada : 1. Attendance Analysis. Analisis pekerjaan. 2. Essays On A Humorous. Uraian pekerjaan. 3. Archimedes Essay. Spesifikasi pekerjaan. 4. On A Humorous. Persyaratan pekerjaan. 5. Archimedes Essay. Evaluasi pekerjaan.

6. Essays Incident. Pengayaan pekerjaan. 7. Essay. Perluasan pekerjaan. 8. Essays. Penyederhanaan pekerjaan. Serangkaian aktifitas mencari dan memikat pelamar kerja dengan motivasi, kemampuan, keahlian, pengetahuan yang diperlukan guna menutupi kekurangan yang diidentifikasi dalam perencanaan kkepegawaian. 1. A Doll's. Pencari kerja perlu mengaitkan manager identifikasi lowongan dengan informasi tentang analisis pekerjaan. 2. Essays Incident. Komentar para harus diperhatikan dan dipertimbangkan dengan matang.

1. Professional Book Review Services. Menyediakan sekumpulan calon tenaga kerja yang memenuhi syarat. 2. On A. Agar konsistensi dengan strategi, wawasan dan nilai perusahaan. 3. Professional Book Services. Untuk memmbantu mengurangi kemungkinan keluarnya kkaryawan yang belum lama bekerja. 4. Essays Incident. Untuk mengkoordinasikan upaya perkrutan dengan program seleksi dan pelatihan. 5. Tate Thesis. Untuk memenuhi tanggung jawab perusahaan dalam upaya menciptakan kesempatann kerja yang ada.

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi perekrutan. 1. Essays Incident. Faktor organisasi yaitu : a. Essays About With Children. Kesan yang dimiliki perusahaan. b. Essays Humorous. Perencanaan sumber daya manusia. c. Essay Education. Persyaratan pekerjaan. d. Incident. Proses perekrutan masa lampau. a. Archimedes Research Essay. Kondisi pasar kerja. b. Essays. Kecenderungan perekonomian, kecenderungan perusahaan atau organisasi dalam pemenuhan kebutuhan spesifikasi tenaga kerja. c. Essays About With. Perilaku masyarakat. d. On A Humorous. Peraturan pemerintah. Ada 2 metode dalam perekrutan yaitu : a. House Thesis. Metode tertutup.

Adalah dimana perekrutan ini hanya diinformasikan kepada para karyawan atau orang-orang tertentu saja. Essays On A Humorous. Akibatnya lamaran yang masuk menjadi relatif lebih sedikit, sehingga kesempatan untuk mendapatkan karyawan yang baik akan semakin sulit. Adalah dimana perekrutan itu diinformasikan secara luas dengan memasang iklan pada media massa baik cetak maupun elektronik, agar tersebar luas ke masyarakat. Attendance System. Dengan metode terbuka ini diharapkan banyak lamaran yang akan masuk, sehingga kesempatan untuk mendapatkan karyawan yang qualified menjadi lebih besar. 3. Essays On A Humorous. Penarikan pegawai.

Fungsi penarikan sumber daya manusia adalah kegiatan dari penyusunan program penarikan tenaga kerja, seleksi dan penempatan. Essay Elementary. Program ini meneliti dan memperoleh tenaga kerja yang dibutuhkan (kualitatif atau kuantitatif). Penarikan sumber daya manusia dapat dibedakan menjadi beberapa langkah : 1. Essays Humorous. Untuk menjamin kuantitas tenaga kerja digunakan analisis beban kerja dan analisis angkatan kerja. 2. College Essay Elementary. Untuk menjamin kualitas tenaga kerja digunakan analisis jabatan dan spesifikasi jabatan. 3. Incident. Langkah-langkah operasional. 1. With Children. Seleksi administrasi. Yaitu berupa surat-surat yang dimiliki oleh calon karyawan yang sesuai dengan persyaratan yang ditentukan. Yaitu pertemuan antara dua orang atau lebih secara langsung dalam rangka. mencapai tujuan tertentu.

Tujuan wawancara adalah untuk mengetahui apakah calon. pegawai memenuhi persyaratan kualifikasi yang telah ditentukan oleh perusahaan. Kelemahan utama dari wawancara adalah reliabilitas dan validitas. 3. Essays On A Humorous. Akademik (knowledge test) Bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat penguasaan materi akademik calon pegawai. College. Disamping tes pengetahuan diberikan juga tes yang berhubungan dengan bidang pekerjaan yang dibutuhkan. Untuk mengukur kemampuan potensial pelamar yang dapat dikembangkan seperti ketangkasan mekanik, juru tulis, berhitung, daya analisis dan lain-lain. b. Essays. Tes kecenderungan berprestasi. Mengukur keterampilan dan pengetahuan calon pegawai.

c. Research. Tes minat bidang pekerjaan. Mengukur antusiasme calon pegawai terhadap pekerjaan. d. Essays On A Incident. Tes kepribadian. Pengangkatan dan Penempatan Personil. Pengangkatan untuk membina karir seorang pengawai dalam jabatan stukturalnya dengan persyaratan yang ditetapkan Dalam peraturan perundang-undangan. Sedangkan penerimaan adalah serangkaian langkah kegitan yang dilaksanakan untuk memutuskan seorang pelamar diterima atau ditolak, tetap atau tidak tetapnya seorang pekerja ditempatkan pada posisi tertentu yang ada di dalam suatu organisasi. 1. Tate Thesis. Pengangkatan dan penempatan pertama sebagai calon pengawai. Tahap awal dalam pengangkatan dan penempatan calon pengawai adalah melakukan seleksi terhadap calon pengawai tersebut. On A Humorous. Meenetapkan syarat – syarat yang harus dipenuhi calon pengawai untuk mendapatkan suatu jabatan yang diinginkan, serta menentukan program / kegiatan yang akan dijalankan setelah calon pengawai lulus seleksi. Di dalam melakukan kegiatan seleksi, ada syarat yang harus dipenuhi calon pengawai, mempunyai keahlian di bidang, memiliki pendidikan yang setara dengan pekerjaan, mengikuti tes program yang akan dilakukan pengawai baru : a. Attendance Monitoring System Analysis. Program pengenalan / orientasi , sangat tergantung pada sikap pengawai lama dalam interaksinya dengan pengawai baru selama masa pengenalan berlangsung.

b. On A. Pengawai baru cepat melakukan penyesuaian yang diperlukan. c. About. Hilang keraguan dalam diri pengawai baru tentang cocok tidaknya organisasi tempat berkarya. d. On A Humorous. Penempatan, mencakup promosi, transparan, dan demosi. 2. Attendance Monitoring Thesis Analysis. Kedudukan, kewajiban, hak PNS. a. On A Humorous Incident. Sebagai unsur aparatur negara tugas memberikan pelayanan kepada masyarakat secara professional, jujur, adil merata dalam penyelenggaraan tugas Negara, pemerintah, pembangunan. b. Essays With. Dalam kedudukan tugas PNS harus netral dari pengaruh semua golongan dan partai politik serta diskriminatif dalam memberikan pelayanan kepada masyarakat. Untuk menjamin netralitas, PNS dilarang menjadi anggota atau pengurus partai politik. 1. Humorous. Berhubungan dengan tugas didalam jabatan, berkaitan dengan tugas pokok dan fungsi unit kerja masing-masing PNS. 2. Tate Thesis. Berhubungan dengan kedudukan PNS pada umumnya, PNS sebagai aparatur Negara, abdi Negara dan abdi masyarakat dengan rinciannya: 1. On A Humorous. Kewajiban yang ditetapkan dalam undang-undang No.8 tahun 1974. 2. House Thesis. Kewajiban menurut peraturan disiplin pegawai.

3. Essays On A Incident. Kewajiban menurut peraturan tentang izin perkawinan dan perceraian PNS. 4. Thesis. Kewajiban menaati jam kerja dan pemberitahuan jika tidak masuk kerja. 5. Essays On A Incident. Kewajiban menaati peraturan tentang keanggotaan partai politik. 6. Book Review. Kewajiban menaati peraturan tentang larangan mengerjakan judi. 7. Essays On A. Kewajiban menaati peraturan tentang larangan korupsi. 8. Professional Book. Kewajiban menaati larangan menurut kitab undang-undang hukum pidana. #61607; Perhitungan masa kerja.

#61607; Kenaikan gaji pokok. 2. Essays On A Humorous Incident. Kenaikan pangkat. 3. A Doll's Thesis. Daftar penilaian pelaksanaan pekerjaan. 5. On A Humorous. Tunjangan cacat dan uang duka. Orientasi, Pelatihan, dan Pengembangan Pegawai. 1. Children. Orientasi pegawai baru.

Adalah proses pengenalan dan penyesuaian pegawai baru terhadap pekerjaan yang dilakukan dan kondisi lingkungan pekerjaan yang akan dihadapi. Adalah usaha untuk memperbaiki prestasi kerja pada suatu pekerjaan tertentu yang sedang menjadi tanggung jawabnya. Essays Humorous. untuk meningkatkan kemampuan teknis, teoritis, konseptual dan moral karyawan sesuai kebutuhan pekerjaan atau jabatan melalui pendidikan. 1) Metode, teknik metode yang biasa digunakan dalam metode ini adalah : #61607; Rotasi jabatan, latihan dengan memberikan kepada karyawan pengetahuan tentang bagian organisasi yang berbeda dan praktek berbagai macam keterampilan manajerial. #61607; Latihan instruksi pekerjaan, latihan yang memberikan petunjuk-petunjuk pekerjaan diberikan secara langsung pada pekerjaan dan digunakan terutama untuk melatih para karyawan tentang cara pelaksanaan pekerjaan sekarang. #61607; Magang, latihan dengan memberikan proses belajar dari seseorang atau beberapa orang yang telah berpengalaman. #61607; Pengarahan, latihan dengan atasan memberikan bimbingan dan pengarahan kepada karyawan dalam pelaksanaan kerja rutin mereka.

#61607; Penugasan sementara, latihan dengan memberikan penempatan karyawan pada posisi manajerial atau sebagai anggota panitia tertentu untuk jangka waktu yang telah ditetapkan. 2) Metode simulasi adalah karyawan berlatih representasi tiruan, metode yang digunakan : #61607; Metode studi kasus, harus mengidentifikasi masalah-masalah menganalisa situasi dan merumuskan penyelesaian alternatif. #61607; Permainan rotasi jabatan, suatu peralatan yang memungkinkan para karyawan untuk memainkan berbagai peranan yang berbeda. #61607; Permainan bisnis, simulasi pengambilan keputusan skala kecil yang dibbuat sesuai dengan kehidupan bisnis nyata. #61607; Latihan laboratorium, bentuk latihan kelompok yang digunakan untuk mengembangkan keterampilan antar pribadi. #61607; Program-program pengembangan eksekutif, dilakukan di universitas atau lembaga-lembaga lainnya. C. Education. Manfaat pengembangan pegawai, dapat dilihat dari 2 sisi : 1) Sisi individu pegawai yang member manfaat : C.Menambah dan memperbaiki keahlian dalam bidang tertentu. D.Memperbaiki cara-cara pelaksanaan yang lama. E.Memperbaiki atau menambah imbalan atau balas jasa yang diperoleh organisasi tempat bekerja. 2) Sisi organisasi.

A. Essays. Menaikkan produktifitas pegawai. B. Archimedes Research Essay. Menurunkan biaya. C. On A Incident. Mengurangi turnover pegawai. Kompensasi dan Penggajian. Kompensasi adalah segala sesuatu yang diterima karyawan sebagai pengganti kontribusi jasa mereka pada suatu perusahaan. #61692; Memperoleh SDM yang berkualitas. #61692; Mempertahankan karyawan yang ada. #61692; Penghargaan terhadap perilaku yang diinginkan. #61692; Mengikuti aturan hukum meningkatkan efesiensi administrasi. C. Education. Komponen dalam kompensasi. #61558; Insentif, kelebihan jam dinas, maka gaji di tambah.

D. Incident. Penggolongan sistem penggajian. 1. Archimedes. Sistem skala tunggal, gaji yang sama diberikan kepada pengawai yang berpangkat sama denghan kurang memperhatikan sifat pekerjaan yang dilakukan dan beratnya tangggung jawab yang dipikul dalam melaksanakan pekerjaaan. Essays Humorous Incident. Dalam hal ini tidak ada perbedaan penghargaan dalam pengangkatan bagi pemegang ijazah sekolah umum atau kejuruan. 2. House. Sistem skala ganda, pengajian dengan menentukan besarnya gaji bukan hanya didasarkan pada pangkatnya , tetapi juga sifat pekerjaan yang dilakukan, prestasi, beratnya tanggung jawab. 3. Essays Incident. Sistem skala gabungan, sistem ini merupakan perpaduan antara system skala tunggal dengan skala ganda.

Besarnya gaji pokok PNS yang berpangkat sama ditentukan sama pula. College Essay. Disamping itu diberikan yang jangan kepada PNS yang memikul tanggung jawab yang besar mencapai prestasi yang tinggi atau melakukan perkerjaan secara terus–menerus. E. Humorous. Prinsip penggajian. 1. A Doll's. Seimbang, penggajian hendaknya berdasarkan berat ringannya pekerjaan. 2. Incident. Layak, gaji harus bersaing dipasar tenaga kerja.

3.Wajar, struktur gaji yang disusun, disesuaikan dengan kemampuan perusahaan. 4. Book. Memotivasi, penggajian harus dapat memotivasi untuk lebih produktif disiplin, semangat, dan kinerja yang maksimal. 5. On A Humorous. Adil secara procedural, penggajian harus dilengkapi dengan implementasi prosedur secara konsisten dan dengan komitmen yang tinggi. 6. Essays Working With. Adanya keadilan individual, dalam penggajian mempertimbangkan kinerja individu. Adalah suatu bentuk balas jasa atau penghargaan yang diberikan secara teratur kepada seorang pegawai atas jasa dan hasil kinerjanya, yang diberikan secara terus setiap bulan dan besarnya gaji tergantung latar belakang yang dimiliki, kemampuan maupun pengalaman kerjanya. G. Essays. Kenaikan gaji berkala dan istimewa. Adalah kenaikan gaji bagi setiap PNS sesuai dengan waktu yang telah ditetapkan secara berkala pada daftar gaji bagi PNS berdasarjkan golongan dan masa kerja yang sudah dicapai. 1) Pegawai yang bersangkutan telah mencapai masa kerja golongan yang telah ditentukan untuk kenaikan gaji berkala. 2) Nilai rata-rata DP3 (daftar penilaian pelaksanaan pekerja) sekurang-kurangnya cukup. Kenaikan gaji istimewa, diperuntukan kepada PNS yang dalam DP3 mendapat nilai “amat baik” dan diberikan kepada PNS yang menjadi teladan agar mendorong PNS lain bekerja lebih baik. Adalah unsur-unsur bals jasa yang diberikan dalam nilai rupiah secara langsung diberikan kepada karyawan individual dan dapat diketahui secara pasti.

1) Tunjangan keluarga, meliputi : #61558; Tunjangan suami atau istri 5% dari gaji pokok. Essay Elementary. Apabila suami istri sama-sama PNS, maka tunjangan yang lebih besar diberikan apakan kepada suami atau istri. #61558; Tunjangan anak 2%, dengan ketentuan: #61607; Maksimal 2 orang anak, termasuk anak angkat. #61607; Anak berusia kurang dari 18 tahun. #61607; Anak belum pernah kawin. #61607; Anak tidak mempunyai penghasilan sendiri. #61607; Anak tersebut nyata menjadi tanggungan pegawai tersebut.

• Dalam bentuk beras. • Dalam bentuk uang. • Tunjangan khusus pajak pegawai dalam rangka pengenalan pajak penghasilan (PPK) kepada PNS. • Tunjangan sandang seperti untuk pegawai DLLAJ, Bea Cukai, Imigrasi, dan lain-lain. • Tunjangan jabatan terbagi dua yaitu. Mutasi dan Promosi. 1. Essays Humorous Incident. Pengertian mutasi. Mutasi adalah suatu kegiatan rutin dari perusahaan untuk memindahkan karyawannya dari suatu pekerjaan ke pekerjaan lainnya yang di anggap setingkat atau sejajar agar pekerjaan dapat dilakukan secara efektif dan efisien. 2. Essays Working With Children. Pentingnya mutasi. Mutasi sangat penting artinya bagi perusahaan karna tanpa adanya mutasi perusahaan akan sulit untuk meningkatkan efektivitas dan efisiensinya mungkin bahkan dapat merugikan perusahaan tersebut.

Karena dalam melakukan mutasi butuh pertimbangan yang matang supaya tidak terjadi hal yang tidak di inginkan, untuk melaksanakan mutasi bisa didasarkan pada kemampuan kerja serta tanggung jawab dan kesenangan. 3. Humorous. Tujuan promosi. a. Essay Elementary. Meletakkan sesuatu pada tempatnya. b. Essays On A. Untuk meningkatkan keefektifan dan efisiensi tugas sutu perusahaan. c. Elementary Education. Untuk meningkatkan kerjasama antar kelompok.

d. Essays On A Humorous Incident. Untuk meningkatkan semangat dan gairah kerja. e. Education. Untuk menciptakan persaingan yang sehat. f. Essays On A. Untuk dapat saling menggantikan. 4. College Education. Hal-hal yang perlu di hindari dalam mutasi. a. On A Incident. Mutasi tidak dirasakan sebagai hukuman. Bahwa sebenarnya perpindahan yang sederajat jadi harus di senangi tidak boleh di jadikan hukuman karena perasaan tidak senang karena tujuan utamanya adalah untuk meningkatkan efektifitas suatu pekerjaan. b. Tate Thesis. Mutasi dilakukan karena kebijakan dan peraturan. Melakukan mutasi karena kebijakandan peraturan pimpinan, maka akan menyebabkan timbulnya rasa kurang senang dan ketidaknyamanan sehingga tujuannya tidak tercapai. c. Essays On A. Mutasi yang bertujuan terselubung. Yaitu penempatan suatu karyawan karena suatu hal, sebab akan menghambat peningkatan efektifitas dan efisiensi pekerjaan.

1. Education. Pengertian promosi. Promosi adalah proses kegiatan pemindahan karyawan dari suatu jabatan kepada jabatan lainnya yang lebih tinggi yang disertai dengan wewenang dan tanggung jawab yang tinggi. 2. Essays Incident. Arti penting promosi. Sangat berarti bagi perusahaan karena dengan adanya promosi dapat meningkatkan kestabilan perusahaan dan moral karyawan dapat terjamin. Attendance Monitoring System. Apakah karena pensiun atau meninggal. On A Humorous. Maka jabatan yang kosong itu harus diisi dengan cara mempromosikan karyawan yang mempunyai sikap yang jujur dan kemampuan yang lebih tinggi sebagai suatu prestise baginya. 3. Tate Thesis. Syarat-syarat promosi. a. Essays On A Humorous. Pengalaman kerja. b. House. Tingkat pendidikan.

c. Essays Humorous Incident. Loyalitas dan kejujuran. d. Book. Tanggung jawab dan prestasi kerja. e. On A Humorous Incident. Inisiatif dan kreatif. Tujuan utama dari promosi adalah menginformasikan, mempengaruhi dan membujuk , serta mengingatkan pelanggan sasaran tentang perusahan dan pemasaran. Untuk memberikan pengakuan, jabatan dan imbalan jasa yang semakin besar kepada karyawan yang berprestasi kerja tinggi.

5. Essays. Promosi dari dalam dan luar. Promosi dari dalam adalah pengisian jabatan yang di laksanakan oleh karyawannya sendiri. Promosi dari luar adalah pengisian jabatan atau tempat dari orang di luar perusahaan yang sebelumnya tidak menjadi karyawan dari perusahaan tersebut. Kelemahan promosi Dari dalam dan luar yaitu : a. On A Humorous Incident. Cendeung sulit untuk mendapatkan ide-ide yang gemilang. b. Elementary. Kemingkinan promosi yang dilakukan lebih ditekankan pada like and essays, dislike daripada bakat dan kemampuan. c. Research. Kemungkinan promosi yang dilakukan adalah paksaan. a. Essays On A Humorous Incident. Mempunyai kecendrungan akan dapat menurnkan moral daripada karyawannya. b. Tate Thesis. Loyalitas dari pejabat yang bersangkutan cendrung sulit untuk di harapkan. c. On A Humorous Incident. Kurangnya pengetahuan tentang lingkungan tugas yang baru. Kelebihan dari luar dan dalam yaitu : a. Essay. Moral daripada pegawai cendrung dapat lebih di tingkatkan. b. Essays On A Incident. Pengetahuan tentang lingkungan cendrng lebih baik.

c. Attendance Analysis. Data-data akan identitas akan lebih dapat diketahui kebenarannya. a. Incident. Ide-ide baru lebih dapat diharapkan. b. Essays. Kewibawaan diharapkan dapat lebih baik. c. Essays. Kecendrungan untuk dapat memperoleh orang yang paling tepat. Kita harus tahu apa definisi dari pengembangan terlebih dahulu. Tate Thesis. Pengembangan adalah suatu usaha meningkatkan kemampuan teknis, teoritis, konseptual, dan moral karyawan sesuai dengan kebutuhan pekerjaan atau jabatan melalui pendidikan dan pelatihan. Humorous. Pengembangan adalah fungsi operasional kedua dari manjemen personalia. Tate Thesis. Pengembangan karyawan perlu dilaksanakan secara terencana dan berkesinambungan.

Agar pengembangan dapat dilaksanakan dengan baik, harus lebih dahulu ditetapkan suatu program pengembangan karyawan. Pengembangan ini harus bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan teknis, teoritis, konseptual, dan moral karyawan supaya potensi kerja karyawan tersebut baik dan mencapai hasil yang optimal. Essays On A Humorous. Pengembangan karyawan dirasa semakin penting manfaatnya karena tuntutan pekerjaan atau jabatan, sebagai akibat kemajuan teknologi dan semakin ketatnya persaingan diantara perusahaan yang sejenis. Pengembangan karyawan bertujuan dan bermanfaat bagi perusahaan, karyawan, konsumen, atau masyarakat yang mengkonsumsi barang atau jasa yang dihasilkan perusahaan. About Working With. Tujuan pengembangan ini diantaranya adalah : a. Essays Humorous Incident. Produktivitas kerja.

Dengan pengembangan, produktivitas kerja karyawan akan meningkat, kualitas dan kuantitas produksi semakin baik, karena technical skill, human skill, dan managerial skill karyawan yang membaik. Pengembangan karyawan bertujuan untuk meningkatkan efisisensi tenaga, waktu, bahan baku, dan mengurangi ausnya mesin-mesin. Archimedes Research. Pemborosan berkurang, biaya produksi relatif kecil sehingga daya saing perusahaan semakin besar. Pengembangan karyawan bertujuan untuk mengurangi kerusakan barang produksi, dan mesin-mesin karena karyawan semakin ahli dan terampil dalam melaksanakan pekerjaannya. Pengembangan bertujuan untuk mengurangi tingkat kecelakaan karyawan, hingga jumlah biaya pengobatan yang dikeluarkan perusahaan berkurang. Pengembangan bertujuan untuk meningkatan pelayanan yang lebih baik dari karyawan kepada nasabah perusahaan, karena pemberian pelayanan yang baik merupakan daya penarik yang sangat penting bagi rekanan-rekanan perusahaan bersangkutan. Dengan pengembangan, moral karyawan akan lebih baik karena keahlian dan keterampilan sesuai dengan pekerjaannya sehingga mereka antusias untuk menyelesaikan pekerjaannya dengan baik.

Dengan pengembangan, kesempatan untuk meningkatkan karier karyawan semakin besar, karena keahlian, keterampilan, dan prestasi kerjanya lebih baik. Dengan pengembangan, manajer semakin cakap dan cepat dalam mengambil keputusan yang lebih baik, karena technical skill, human skill, dan managerial skill-nya lebih baik. Dengan pengembangan, kepemimpinan seorang manajer akan lebih baik, human relations-nya lebih luwes, motivasi lebih terarah sehingga pembinaan kerjasama vertical dan horizontal semakin harmonis. Dengan pengembangan, balas jasa (gaji, upah intensif dan benefits) karyawan akan meningkat karena prestasi kerja mereka semakin besar. Pengembangan karyawan akan memberikan manfaat yang baik bagi masyarakat konsumen karena mereka akan memperoleh barang atau pelayanan yang lebih bermutu. Prinsip pengembangan adalah peningkatan kualitas dan kemampuan bekerja karyawan. Program adalah suatu jenis rencana yang konkret karena di dalamnya sudah tercantum sasaran, kebijaksanaan, prosedur, anggaran, dan waktu pelaksanaannya. D. Essays Humorous. Jenis-jenis pengembangan. Jenis-jenis pengembangan yaitu : a. Archimedes. Pengembangan secara informal yaitu karyawan atas keinginan dan usaha sendiri melatih dan mengembangkan dirinya dengan mempelajari buku-buku literature yang ada hubungannya dengan pekerjaan atau jabatannya. Humorous Incident. Pengembangan ini menunjukan bahwa karyawan tersebut berkeinginan keras untuk maju dengan cara meningkatkan kemampuan kerjanya. b. Tate Thesis. Pengembangan secara formal yaitu karyawan ditugaskan perusahaan untuk mengikuti pendidikan atau latihan, baik yang dilakukan perusahaan maupun yang dilaksanakan oleh lembaga-lembaga pendidikan atau pelatihan.

1. Incident. Metode latihan atau training. Metode latihan harus berdasarkan kepada kebutuhan pekerjaan tergantung pada berbagai factor, yaitu waktu, biaya, jumlah peserta, tingkat pendidikan dasar peserta, latar belakang peserta dan lain-lain. 2. About. Metode pendidikan. Metode pendidikan yaitu untuk meningkatkan keahlian dan kecakapan manajer memimpin para bawahannya secara efektif. A. Humorous Incident. Pengertian pemberhentian. Pemberhentian adalah fungsi operatif terakhir manajemen sumber daya manusia. Essay Elementary Education. Istilah pemberhentian sama dengan pemisahan, atau pemutusan hubngan kerja (PHK) . Fungsi pemberhentian harus mendapat perhatian yang serius dari manajer perusahaan, karena telah di atur dalam UU no 12 tahun 1964 KUHP pasal 1603 ayat 1 KUHP yaitu mengenai ‘’ tenggang waktu saat dan izin pemberhentian’’ Jadi dapat kita simpulkan pemberhentian merupakan pemutusan hubungan kerja seseorang karyawan dengan suatu organisaisi perusahaan . Essays Humorous Incident. dengaan pemberhentian , berakhirnya kerikatan kerja karyawan dengan perusahaan. Professional Book Services. Pemberhentian ini berdasarkan keinginan perusahaan karena karyawan itu menurut perusahaan tidak akan memberikan keuntungan lagi. Incident. Misalnya: karyawan kurang cakap, usia lanjut , dan melakukan tindakan yang merugikan . B. Education. Alasan- alasan pemberhentian.

1. On A Humorous. Undang- undang. 2. Tate Thesis. Keinginan perusahaan. 3. Essays Humorous. Keinginan karyawan. 5. Monitoring Analysis. Kontrak kerja berakhir. 6. Humorous Incident. Kesehatan karyawan. 7. Tate Thesis. Meninggal dunia. 8. Humorous. Perusahaan dilikuidasi. C. Tate Thesis. Proses pemberhentian. Proses pemecatan karyawan harus menurut peosedur sebagai berikut:

1. Humorous. Musyawarah karyawan dengan pimpinan perusahaan. 2. Archimedes Essay. Musyawarah pimpinan serikat buruh dengan pimpinan perusahaaan. 3. Humorous. Musyawarah pimpinan serikat buruh, pimpinan perusahaan , dan P4D. 4. A Doll's House. Musyawarah pimpinan serikat buruh , pimpinjan peusahaan dan P4P. 5. On A Incident. Pemutusan berdasarkan keputusan pengadilan negeri.

A. Essay Elementary Education. Pentingnya kompensasi. Kompensasi adalah semua pendapatan yang berbentuk uang, barang langsung atau tidak langsung yang diterima karyawan sebagai imbalan atas jasa yang diberikan kepada perusahaan. Besarnya balas jasa telah ditentukan dan diketahui sebelumnya, sehingga karyawan secara pasti mengetahui besarnya balas jasa atau kompensasi yang akan diterimanya. Essays. Kompensasi inilah yang akan dipergunakan karyawan itu beserta keluarganya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan-kebutuhannya. Tujuan dari kompensasi ini adalah sebagai ikatan kerjasama, kepuasan kerja, pengadaan efektif, motivasi, stabilitas karyawan, disiplin, serta pengaruh serikat buruh dan pemerintah. Besarnya kompensasi yang dibayar kepada setiap karyawan harus disesuaikan dengan prestasi kerja, jenis pekerjaan, resiko pekerjaan, tanggung jawab, jabatan pekerja, dan memenuhi persyaratan internal konsistensi. b. College Elementary Education. Asas layak dan wajar. Kompensasi yang diterima karyawan dapat memenuhi kebutuhannya pada tingkat mormatif yang ideal.

a. Essays On A. Metode tunggal. Yaitu suatu metode yang dalam penetapan gaji pokok hanya didasarkan atas ijazah terakhir dari pendidikan formal yang dimiliki karyawan. Yaitu suatu metode yang dalam gaji pokok didasarkan atas beberapa pertimbangan seperti ijazah, sifat pekerjaan, pendidikan informal, bahkan hubungan keluarga ikut menentukan besarnya gaji pokok seseorang. salah judul ga tuh? kok resume sumber daya alam? Klo boleh tahu, ini mengambil sumber dari buku apa y?

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Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the images to expand the resumes to a larger size. We have three resumes, and detailed explanations for how to write your own below. If you are an essays entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here. Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and other food service workers — Don’t see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here. Click here to download. This MS Word Food Service Resume. Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts)

Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and presents hard numerical evidence to college essay elementary, prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of wine and entree knowledge to play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465. Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in essays food preparation and service, and a certificate in Food Handling and attendance monitoring system thesis Safety. Possesses a keen knowledge of wines, entrees, and the responsibilities of a successful restaurateur. Humorous! Faithfully adhere to book review, the highest standards of hygiene, quality and customer service. Aiming to leverage my knowledge to effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 – Present.

Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into essays, computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and silverware and ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to state law. Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 – July 2011. Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by house, greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in essays designated containers and storage areas to book review services, prevent spoilage and increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to taste and essays incident opened the bottles for them upon tate thesis, their approval Served food and beverages to patrons, and prepared or served specialty dishes at incident tables as required.

Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is able to about working with children, adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Excellent problem solving and humorous incident communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in tate thesis the Professional Profile section, and essays on a humorous incident lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to “upsell” customers on attendance thesis analysis, alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills:

1. Humorous! Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to college essay, return to the establishment. 2. Communication: Ability to on a, host, entertain, small talk, and speak fluidly in front of strangers at length. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in system thesis pairs for essays on a bigger tables. Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Management: Ability to teach new hosts and waiters how to present menu items, how to elementary, use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for memorization of food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by incident, 10% on average Management: Assisted in tate thesis the training of on a humorous incident, 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and review services practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of incident, wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in college education English and Spanish – Excellent verbal and written skills. Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and on a appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on slips, memorized orders, and managed food resources in book services a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to essays on a humorous, input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for essay elementary education proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes.

Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012. Awarded “Employee of the essays incident, Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Tate Thesis! Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is essays humorous transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to about with children, speak in front of other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable.

534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish. Awarded “Employee of the Month” for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and on a incident coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and tate thesis knowledge of essays on a humorous, equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to calculate and monitoring thesis split bills in the event of humorous incident, POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over professional review services 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in essays Spanish (able to take orders from book services, Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the incident, Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and book services servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and essays on a humorous hostesses, and busboys.

A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the “front end” (customer service) and the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is archimedes research essay relevant to those of you with “front end” server experience. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to:

Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to essays on a humorous incident, understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the essays about working, key aspects you need to include on on a, a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for thesis these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate.

Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at the top of your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is called the incident, Career Objective.

This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for with an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of on a humorous, experience in food preparation and service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and Safety.

3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and college essay the responsibilities of essays humorous, a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to fill: “Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. “ In the house thesis, eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. It is essays also well written, and services targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill.

Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by 11% through 2022. It’s very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to incident, what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an book review services asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about essays on a humorous incident how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the archimedes, hiring manager grasp the size and scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has.

The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on incident, slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and working answer questions about on a incident menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by system thesis, making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of your competition. If you really want to blow away the hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an essays on a humorous average of monitoring system thesis analysis, $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for the purposes of budgeting (and, of on a, course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on tate thesis, your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the on a incident, applicant), simply including this information in research your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and humorous incident hard working.

This is called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and these tend to attendance system thesis, land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Humorous! Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to about working children, the job. Being bilingual in on a incident Spanish and English is a valuable asset to attendance system thesis analysis, have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in on a your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills.

If you also happen to archimedes research essay, be bilingual in Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant — especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in humorous incident Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from essay, community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in humorous Food Science). Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to college elementary, write a very convincing cover letter that the essays on a incident, employer should take a chance on you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about:

Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – Newjobs.com (Note: One of the archimedes essay, few decent resume samples in humorous incident this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Archimedes Essay! Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – CC.edu (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the essays on a humorous incident, Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples

Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to professional review, MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of essays humorous, a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Attendance! Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of essays on a, a touchdown. Archimedes Research! There are tons of errors throughout.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and humorous incident skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of tate thesis your experience).

Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. Essays? But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of book review cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of on a humorous this as your brag file . College? 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on essays on a incident the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is house, what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for humorous incident someone to research keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out on a incident, these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is essays about children, when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to.

In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the on a humorous incident, information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the tate thesis, skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of on a humorous your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to thesis tell your whole story on one page, or want to essays on a humorous be able to include some visual examples of attendance monitoring your work?

Instead of trying to essays have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and attendance monitoring system thesis analysis then include a link to essays on a humorous incident your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the system analysis, ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to essays on a incident stand out in a minute. Essay? But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and on a design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Thesis Analysis? Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and essays leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. Review? You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and essays keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman?

Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. Services? If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to humorous incident the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in house thesis, the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. Humorous Incident? (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for review services prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in essays on a incident, getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.

This is arguably the professional book services, most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Essays On A? As a rule, you should only show the monitoring analysis, most recent 10-15 years of your career history and humorous only include the archimedes research essay, experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on essays humorous incident your resume according to essay importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14.

No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and on a humorous then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for attendance system thesis the job. No matter how long you’ve been in essays, a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section.

No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to a doll's thesis get through them. On A Humorous? Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to elementary education be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of essays work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . Archimedes Research Essay? People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at humorous incident, your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in essays about working with, what the benefit was to humorous your boss or your company.

By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the tate thesis, direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for incident turning your duties into research essay, accomplishments . Humorous? Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to a doll's house thesis sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the on a, result you’re going for! 20. Professional? Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in humorous, a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly.

Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and professional make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is essays humorous incident, this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on about with children which words to include? Dump the essays, job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and essay hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. On A Humorous? 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience.

Chances are, your last couple of essay elementary jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the essays on a humorous, job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in research, reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates.

The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to essays humorous list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in professional book review, the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and essays humorous your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the house thesis, skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to essays on a humorous incident have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Tate Thesis? If you have lots of humorous incident skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and archimedes leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. On A Incident? Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there.

Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to a doll's thesis the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at incident, a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.

Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the a doll's, cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Essays Humorous Incident? Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards.

Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to review services include them. Essays On A Incident? Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of essays working with months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in essays on a humorous incident, an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the attendance monitoring system thesis, usual start and end dates for essays on a incident each position.

Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at attendance thesis analysis, your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and essays on a humorous make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the house thesis, perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Incident? Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume.

For example, if you took time out essay elementary education, of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of essays humorous laundry” (we’ve seen it). Tate Thesis? While parenting is as demanding and essays on a humorous incident intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to attendance analysis take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. Essays Incident? There’s no need to college address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is humorous, free and clear of review typos. And don’t rely on humorous spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for a doll's thesis you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the incident, hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at tate thesis, it in essays humorous, both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of a doll's house thesis “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates.

Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. Essays On A Incident? When your resume is about, updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. On A Incident? Photo courtesy of monitoring system thesis analysis Hero Images / Getty Images . On A? Erin Greenawald is professional, a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web.

Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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film theory essay Common Sense + Film Theory = Common-Sense Film Theory? Start with this question, which I think is one of the most fascinating we can ask: What enables us to understand films? All films? Well, set aside some hard cases, like Brakhage abstractions and transmissions of the Crab Nebula from the Hubble telescope (above). Let’s start with a prototype: a film whose moving images present more or less recognizable persons, places, and things caught up in on a humorous, what we intuitively call stories. In other words, an archimedes essay ordinary movie shown in theatres and on video. At one time, film theorists were considerably interested in the issue of comprehension. The heyday of film semiology, roughly from the mid-1960s to the end of the 1970s, brought forth vigorous conjectures about how we grasp images and comprehend stories. One of the boldest proposals was the idea that understanding rests upon on a humorous, codesrule-governed relations between the signifier (a material thing, like an image) and a signified (a concept). In other words, a shot of a cat not only picked out a particular cat but signified the concept cat.

Likewise, we understand a chase scene because we know the cinematic code for this concept. Tate Thesis? In Naked City , we see alternating shots of two men running, and on a humorous incident, we decode the whole scene as showing a man pursued and his pursuer. Semiology was a promising attempt to professional, study comprehension in a systematic way. This school of thought called our attention to the ways in which mainstream films are highly structured for audience pickup. Essays? Everything we understand in a movie could be taken as the result of our deciphering codes, governed by rules and presenting a coherent menu of alternatives. 1. For some thinkers, the concept of codes promised to give substance to the age-old “film grammar” metaphor. Despite some crucial differences, maybe film was really a sort of audiovisual language, with its own syntax. And since verbal languages vary dramatically across societies, so might the codes of picturing or of storytelling. Just as language must be learned, so too perhaps the codes of cinema require learning. Semiological research reminded us that what seems natural is often very artificial, and about working with, relative to one society rather than another.

In another culture, the essays on a incident code of traffic signals might employ not red, yellow, and green lights, but any other colors. The notion of codes also suited an emerging view of what one influential book of the time called the “social construction of reality.” 2 Would people from cultures without cinema or television be able to recognize the blobs on the screen as people and settings? Do codes go all the way down to the very core of our perception? At some point someone was sure to bring up the monitoring system thesis analysis idea that Eskimos had six or ten or thirty different words for what Americans just called “snow.” 3. Today, classic semiologists are rare in film studies. You will seldom find a researcher talking of codes, or raising questions of comprehension. Nevertheless the idea that filmic expression is humorous quite arbitrary, socially constructed, and learned remains in essays about with, the ether. Film academics assume, along with most humanists, that once you set aside some uninteresting aspects of the human creature, usually summed up as “physiology,” culture goes all the way down. Beyond cell division and digestion, let’s say, everything is cultural, and to essays on a incident, invoke any other explanations risks rejection.

In Narration in the Fiction Film (1985), I asked how we could best explain our grasp of one aspect of cinema, the flow of story information I called narration. I argued that since most narrative films were made in order to college essay, be experienced by viewers, we ought to study the essays humorous strategies filmmakers used to elicit understanding. Most of those strategies, it seemed to me, exploited rather general human perceptual and a doll's house thesis, cognitive capacities. Perceptual research of the 1970s was dominated by a school of thought derived ultimately from the great psychophysicist Helmholtz. “New Look” perceptual psychologists like Jerome Bruner and Richard Gregory held that the stimuli hitting our sense organs were noisy, incomplete, and ambiguous; we needed higher-level faculties to sort them out. Essays On A Humorous? Illusions like the famous duck/ rabbit showed that when we could not decide between one visual configuration and another, endless ambiguity was the result. Professional Review Services? The eye, as was commonly said, was part of the mind. Seeing in on a humorous, the full sense was a kind of inference to professional book services, the best explanation: What could be out essays on a incident, there that would produce this pattern on the retina? At first, this research tradition meshed neatly with the emerging discipline of cognitive science. In the early 1980s, cognitive scientists were largely focused on tate thesis matters of language, reasoning, applying categories, and making decisions about action. 4 As with New Look thinking, cognitive science saw mental activity as a quasi-Kantian interplay of input stimuli and conceptual structures, sometimes called schemas, that made sense of the data.

Those structures might be all-purpose or specialized, diffuse (like, say, the ability to solve problems) or single-purpose (the ability to recognize faces). Again, inference was the model, although some mental inferences, like those involved in vision, were held to be fast, automatic, and essays incident, “informationally encapsulated” (i.e., ignorant of anything outside their dedicated domain). 5 Eventually, the monitoring system inferential approach would become the basis of a computational approach to both perception and humorous incident, cognition, and it probably remains the dominant view in psychological research. How adequate were New Look perceptual theory and tate thesis, Cog Sci mental mechanics to explaining everyday thinking? NiFF tried to be somewhat agnostic on humorous certain points, but it did argue that these psychological frames of reference were helpful in studying films. Perceptually, films are illusions, not reality; cognitively, they are not the blooming, buzzing confusion of life but rather simplified ensembles of elements, designed to be understood. They are made to thesis, engage thought, particularly thought that goes “beyond the essays information given.” 6 Film narratives, like narratives in all media, abstract and streamline their real-world components for research essay smooth pickup and essays humorous, invite us to fill in tate thesis, what is left unshown and unsaid. What outline drawings are to the eye, narratives are to the mind. So NiFF claimed that we could study films as ensembles of cues that prompt inferential extrapolation at many levelsof perception, of comprehension, and essays humorous, of interpretation. In other words, films prompt us to services, apply schemas, or knowledge structures, to what we see moment by moment on the screen.

Those schemas can be based in real-world knowledge or filmic conventions. Each type posed problems for the concept of codes. Real-world knowledge may not be as strictly structured as the concept of code suggests. A schema is less rigid than the on a traditional concept of attendance monitoring system thesis analysis code; it may not exist as binary alternatives or rule-governed choices. Some schemas are fuzzy, with their members conceived as prototypes or core/periphery structures. So for us a robin is essays a prototypical bird, a penguin or ostrich is not. The latter might be prototypes for archimedes essay people in other cultures, but that doesn’t invalidate the point that some categories are organized by “best-instance” criteria rather than hard and fast boundaries. Some cinematic conventions more crisply structured: You can end a scene with a cut or a fade or a dissolve or a wipe or a swish-pan.and that’s about it.

So sometimes we encounter, particularly within certain cinematic traditions, a sort of menu of options we might call a code. Essays On A Humorous Incident? But a lot of conventions, like those indicating the overall space of professional services a scene’s action, are looser. There is essays no rule that requires a long-shot to be followed by about with children a close-up, the way a preposition in language requires an essays humorous object. Review Services? There is no code that dictates that a sexy scene must be red-tinted or accompanied by hazy saxophone music, but when such cues emerge, we make a probabilistic inference that seduction isn’t far off. Humorous Incident? Not all conventions, it seems, are coded. NiFF studied several of these conventions under the rubrics of causality, time, and space. A Doll's House? Those three categories, NiFF claimed, are basic to on a, narrative and to human cognition, and so they ought to play roles in the process by which we understand stories.

Further, NiFF argued that the professional review services conventions that guide our inferential extrapolation don’t simply float free in space. There were recurring clusters of favored choices for presenting causality, time, and space. These modes included “classical” narration, “art-cinema” narration, and others. The historical layout still seems valid to me, and humorous, they seem to have proven useful to other researchers. Theoretically, however, NiFF ran into problems in the role it assigned to services, inference. At the time of writing NiFF , I was aware of the writings of J. J. Gibson and his insistence that perception evolved in environments very different from the impoverished information that New Look theorists assumed triggered perception. In the three-dimensional world in which creatures like us live, the stimuli are not typically partial or degraded; they are in fact quite rich, even redundant.

Moving through space, we register an optic flow that specifies the layout of essays humorous surfaces quite precisely. 7. NiFF finessed this problem by essays working saying that even if Gibson’s account of on a humorous incident ordinary perception were right, films don’t present the informational array afforded by the real world. Film imagesflat, often in black-and-whiteare in principle as ambiguous as the duck/rabbit. Tate Thesis? I invoked the on a incident splendid Ames Room as evidence that, being monocular, cinema images were inherently ambiguous. 8. This now seems to me misguided. Films, as Gibson himself pointed out, disambiguate their images to a huge extent by the sheer fact of movement. It would take a mental effort no one could summon up to see alternative ways to construe a normal shot of attendance monitoring thesis analysis three men in a room. My mistake was the same as the New Look theorists: I picked the wrong prototype. Just as illusions aren’t fair samples of on a humorous perception in the wild, so the Ames Room is an extraordinary piece of archimedes filmmaking artifice, not a typical one.

My old friends Barb and Joe Anderson were right: Gibson has the best of humorous incident this argument. 9 (That still won’t settle whether the inferential/computational approach or the ecological approach is the better explanation of tate thesis natural vision. On that I retreat to the amateur’s agnosticism.) I was on surer ground, I think, in treating narrative comprehension as a version of inference-making. Humorous? But NiFF pushed it in a problematic direction. Considering narrative comprehension as inferential led me to bring in the Russian Formalist distinction between fabula and syuzhet . These two terms have been used in several ways, but the a doll's thesis most plausible way, it seemed to me then and on a humorous, seems still, is to see fabula as the chronological-causal string of tate thesis events that may be presented by the syuzhet , the configuration of events in the narrative text as we have it.

Clearly the on a humorous incident distinction is useful as an analytical tool, to study how a narrative can “deform” its underlying story for aesthetic purposes. But NiFF went beyond treating the distinction as purely a tool for analysis. It argued that it was psychologically real; that as we encountered events in the syuzhet , we were tacitly building up the fabula too. The process is a bit like double-entry bookkeeping, with the viewer keeping track not only of what is happening each moment on the screen but also slotting that into the chronological pattern of thesis fabula events. Essays On A Incident? This seemed to be a clear case that melded bottom-up input with top-down cognition. Unfortunately, some people argued, it’s psychologically implausible. Eventually I had to college education, agree. For one thing, we aren’t aware of building up a fabula in our heads, the way we can be at least partially aware of, say, solving a crossword puzzle.

For another, we can’t access it easily; try stopping a film on essays incident video and reciting the entire chain of events leading up to the moment of pause. Tate Thesis? Worse, try at the end of the movie to grasp mentally the entire fabula you’ve purportedly worked out. Chances are you can’t do it. Given that our memories are reconstructive rather than photographic, creating an accurate fabula is extremely difficult. Essays? More theoretically, Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks proposed some reasons that the viewer’s mental representation for the most part cannot reflect the tate thesis underlying structure of the film. Humorous Incident? 10. I think that NiFF made the valid point that our understanding of narrative is often inferential, and we do flesh out what we’re given. But I now think that the inference-making takes place in a very narrow window of time, and it leaves few tangible traces.

What is built up in our memory as we move through a film is something more approximate, more idiosyncratic, more distorted by strong moments, and more subject to error than the fabula that the analyst can draw up. Attendance Monitoring System? Indeed, the real constraints on what we can recall make deceptive narration like that in Mildred Pierce and other films possible. 11. Still, I think the error was a productive one. Essays Incident? In assigning to the spectator the task of ongoing fabula construction, NiFF harmonized with one premise I consider central: a holistic sense of with form. Even if we scan the entire narrative through a narrow slit, it’s important for the analyst and theorist to consider the overall design of the work, the essays on a humorous incident more or less coherent principles that govern the house thesis unfolding tale.

I’m thinking of such matters as smoothly cascading character goals, psychological motives and personality change, gradual development of knowledge, shifts in viewpoint, repeated and varied motifs, and humorous, finer-grained patterns of visual and sonic presentation. In an analysis of Jerry Maguire , for instance, I tried to show how such features were operating at many scales, creating a considerable formal richness. College Essay Elementary? 12. Such design features need to be accounted for, especially when they crop up in an otherwise innocuous popular movie. Why are many movies more tightly organized than they need to be, given the drastic limits on viewer attention and memory? Clearly, goals, motifs, and the rest aim to shape the spectator’s experience in some respect, and essays on a humorous incident, we may well register many of them at some level of working awareness.

NiFF posited a too-sapient viewer, but methodologically at least, it’s better to point up many things that a spectator could respond to, even if no real spectator grasps or recalls all of them. Indeed, some narrative traditions seem to essays on a humorous, try to pack things tightly, so that readers or viewers can return to a doll's house, the book or film and notice things that escaped them on essays on a humorous incident a first pass. Here, as elsewhere, NiFF ’s desire to mix formal analysis with an account of spectator response created some gaps in the theory, but in some respects it’s better to have more to explain (about the attendance system thesis analysis architecture and detail of the film) than less. Essays On A Incident? It’s a dynamic I’m still trying to college essay elementary education, refine many years later. For the most part, NiFF explicitly left aside the emotional dimensions of narration. That was done on the assumption that comprehension as such was relatively insulated from affective response. You can follow a story, I claimed, without being moved by it. This emphasis was again consistent with mainstream 1970s and 1980s cognitive science; the index of Martin Gardner’s 1985 survey, The Mind’s New Science , contains no entry for “emotion.” And I did consider what we might call some “cognitive emotions”: curiosity, suspense, and surprise, all called up by the process of narration. In the decades since the book was written, however, the relation of emotion to cognition has become central to cognitive science, and it has been explored by essays several film scholars working in the cognitivist paradigm. 13 It’s still not something I focus on, but it’s obviously of great importance.

Finally, someone might ask: Why contrast NiFF ’s cognitive approach with semiology, which was passing out of favor when the book was written? Surely the dominant approaches emerging in the 80’s were neo-Marxism, psychoanalysis, cultural studies, and the study of modernity and postmodernity. Here’s my answer. These perspectives don’t play a role in book services, NiFF , or in essays humorous incident, this essay, because their proponents weren’t asking about how films are understood. These writers focused on questions of a doll's thesis how social, cultural, and psychodynamic processes were represented in films. On A Humorous Incident? Typically those questions were answered by tate thesis interpreting individual films, reading them for traces of the larger processes made salient by the given theory. 14 My concern was explaining, not explicating; I wanted functional and causal-historical accounts of essays on a why films in various traditions displayed certain regularities in their narrational strategies. That was, I thought, most pertinent to the semiological line of professional book review inquiry. In the period since NiFF was published, cognitive film studies has moved in parallel with cognitive science generally.

We have had neurological studies of film viewing; we have seen appeals to on a humorous incident, evolutionary psychology; we have seen studies of suprapersonal patterns of emergence. 15 These all seem to me fruitful. In what follows, I want to essays working with children, sketch out some ideas that I’d develop in a new and improved version of NiFF . Essays? These bear on our perception of images, on folk psychology, and on social intelligence. Book Review? All of these have been developed, at least a little, in work I’ve done in more recent years. We speak of “reading” an image, but do certain kinds of imagesthose that common sense declares “realistic”demand anything like the deciphering that printed language does? How much does grasping an humorous incident image depend on learned conventions of representation?

In NiFF I waffled on essays about with the question too much. Although I accepting that some aspects of image perception rode on skills acquired in commerce with the world, I granted some role to learning and familiarity with a “carpentered world.” More subtle is Paul Messaris’s admirable Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and Reality (1994). Messaris reviews the anthropological and psychological literature in essays on a incident, a very clear fashion. He points out that some conventions for representing depth in still images may not be widely understandable; the classic example is the drawing above, which was interpreted by viewers in some African cultures as a hunter pointing his spear at a very tiny elephant. 16 This suggested that some pictorial depth cues require repeated exposure or training.

But when it comes to recognizing objects that viewers know from everyday experience, there is no problem. The African viewers recognized the tiny elephant as an elephant. When it comes to essays about working children, moving pictures, the issue is even clearer. On A? Messaris finds no evidence that people previously unacquainted with movies fail to grasp the persons, places, and things shown on the screen. This is congruent with more recent research by Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, who studied adult viewers’ first experience of watching films. 17 Indeed, all three researchers offer evidence that even some editing techniques are immediately understood by first-time viewers.

On the “film as language” question Messaris’s conclusions are clear: What distinguishes images (including motion pictures) from language and from other modes of monitoring thesis analysis communication is the fact that images reproduce many of the informational cues that people make us of in their perception of physical and social reality. Our ability to infer what is represented in an image is on a incident based largely on this property, rather than on a doll's familiarity with arbitrary conventions (whereas the latter play a primary role in essays humorous, the interpretation of attendance monitoring system thesis analysis language, mathematics, and so on) . 18. Messaris’s review suggests that grasping pictures rides on our abilities to identify objects and spatial layouts in the real world. Some intriguing research on infants reinforces the point. In a famous experiment, Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks kept their son away from pictures during his first eighteen months.

He did occasionally see billboards and a few picture books and labels, but when a picture was encountered, the parents never pointed out its contents or tried to name them. Humorous Incident? At nineteen months, when the archimedes essay boy was starting to spontaneously call out names of things he spotted in accidental images, “It was evident that some form of essays on a humorous parental response to such identification would soon become unavoidable.” In a series of tests the boy was shown line drawings and pictures of essays working children dolls, shoes, toy trucks, keys, and other familiar objects. He named them to essays humorous incident, a high degree of accuracy. Hochberg and attendance monitoring system thesis, Brooks concluded: It seems clear from the results that at least one human child is capable of recognizing pictorial representations of on a humorous incident solid objects (including bare outline drawings) without specific training or instruction. Attendance System Thesis? This ability necessarily includes a certain amount of what we normally expect to occur in the way of figure-ground separation and contour formation.

At the very least, we must infer that there is an unlearned propensity to respond to certain formal features of lines-on-paper in the same way as one has learned to respond to essays on a, the same features when displayed by college essay elementary the edges of surfaces. Hochberg and Brooks used only still pictures, although their son did once glimpse a horse on TV. (He cried, “Dog!”) What about humorous, moving images? For several years psychologists tested babies’ abilities to recognize facial expressions in still pictures and movies, with mixed results. 20 Babies’ attention can be captured by external stimuli at an early age, and tate thesis, they start to control their focus and attention in the second month. By the seventh month, they are responding accurately to pictures and moving-image displays. Yet it’s possible that recognition starts much earlier. In ingenious experiments, Lynne Murray and Colwyn Trevarthen set up TV cameras so that nine-week-old babies and their mothers, stationed in different rooms, could see each other on monitors. The experimenters wanted to record the interactions between them, as well as to vary the timing of essays responses through pauses and replays. 21. Murray and tate thesis, Trevarthen’s conclusions about the babies’ ability to synchronize their responses with the mothers’ expressions has touched off considerable debate and further experimentation.

22 That’s not what matters for us as students of cinema. Essays Humorous Incident? What’s relevant for us is that the babies evidently did, in both real time and in tape delay, recognize the moving images of their mothers. What was methodology for working with Murray and Trevarthen is substantive evidence for us. Very young babies could grasp the video image, at least to some extent, as a representation of the most familiar person in their lives. If babies do need to learn to recognize images, that learning seems to incident, take place very fast.

In fact, we might better speak of elicitation rather than learning: Given normal circumstances of human development, all that’s needed is exposure to real-world persons, places, and tate thesis, things. Recognizing such things in a moving-image display seems to come along for free. This account makes sense in the light of evolution, as others and incident, I have argued elsewhere. Thesis? 23. Folk psychology: Success stories. There is a lot more to be said and studied about grasping moving images as representations of real-world items, most saliently people, but let me turn now to some matters of narrative that I’ve rethought since NiFF was published. Recognizing the contents of realistic images, I’ve suggested, depends heavily upon our everyday perceptual abilities. Similarly, filmic storytelling relies upon cognitive dispositions and habits we’ve developed in a real-world context.

That’s not to say that films capture reality straightforwardly; as we’ll see, there are plenty of dodges and feints. It’s simply to say that ordinary perception and cognition ground what narrative filmmakers do. On that foundation quite various, even fantastic, edifices can be built. Central to essays on a incident, narrative psychology, I’ve come to services, suspect, is that elusive thing called folk psychology. Folk psychology calls on “common sense”our everyday habits of essays humorous incident attributing qualities, beliefs, desires, intentions, and the like to ourselves and to essay elementary education, people around us.

There is considerable evidence that many core procedures of common-sense reasoning are cross-cultural universals. 24. Consider “person perception.” We tend to arrive at essays on a humorous quick impressions about those around us. At a glance we judge a person’s age, gender, race, and personal attributes (Birkenstocks tell us one thing, bling another). From their facial expressions, gestures, and voice, we judge their emotional states. Our habits obviously transfer to stories, which present persons, or at least person-like creatures like Daffy Duck. To follow the story we have to assign the characters certain qualities. When introducing a character to us, a film narrative simply hijacks our everyday capacities to build up a quick impression, even (or especially) if that relies on professional book review services stereotypes. That impression may be confirmed, tested, or repudiated as the story develops, but our quick and dirty habits of essays on a humorous person perception provide a point of thesis departure. We also indulge in mind-reading. We attribute beliefs, desires, and intentions to ourselves and to others.

You want a burger; you stop at a burger joint to get one. You act on your desire based on essays beliefs about the world, most notably the belief that you can get a burger at that joint. Maybe you did it all without explicit thinking, but in retrospect you create a little story of coherent causes. We interpret others’ actions the same way. Professional? If my friend says he wants a burger, and then I see him head for a burger joint, I infer that he’s acting on essays on a humorous incident his beliefs and desires.

Of course that inference can be overridden; later I might find that he went to get a milkshake or to flirt with a waitress. But even revising the inference requires the same schema. ( Aha, he really wanted a shake, or a date for tonight .) From first to last, stories ask us to apply what Daniel Dennett calls “the intentional stance,” or what many would just call common sense. Professional Services? 25 At the start of essays The Big Clock (1947), we see George Stroud slinking along a corridor and avoiding a guard. He dodges behind a pillar and lets the monitoring thesis analysis guard pass before we hear his voice-over: “Whew! That was close.” George proceeds along a corridor, looking back nervously, as the voice-over continues: “What if I get inside the essays on a clock and the watchman’s there?” From George’s disheveled appearance and furtive movements, as well as the stream-of-consciousness commentary, we have no trouble inferring his beliefs (he’s being hunted) and tate thesis, his desire (to take refuge). We’ll accordingly judge his future actions as advancing his intentions to escape detection, even as his plans and essays incident, his backstory will get specified further. The centrality of characters’ goals in classical filmmaking, of which Kristin and I have made much on this site and in our research, fits our folk-psychological tendency to pick out actions that fulfill desires in the light of characters’ beliefs.

The web of intentions can get very complicatedthink of all the monitoring thesis beliefs and desires at play in The Godfather but we’re very good at tracking them because we expect that social situations exhibit what people are planning to on a incident, achieve. College Education? To bring babies back in, it seems that they too can do mind-reading. One-year-olds attribute goals to robotic blobs that chirp and move as if they had intentions. 26. There are enormous philosophical debates around the belief-desire component of folk psychology. 27 Is it truly explanatory, or just vacuous? But we don’t have to worry about whether it’s true; what matters is that filmmakers invoke it and film viewers follow their lead. Storytellers are practical psychologists, preying (usually in humorous incident, a good sense) on our habits of mind in order to produce experiences. Still, there are important ways in children, which folk psychology leads us astray. Film exploits those too.

Folk psychology: The downside. In Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer) , Duncan J. Watts points out that one problem with classic belief-desire psychology is that it is designed to explain individual behavior in concrete circumstances. Incident? It doesn’t scale up well to explain large-scale trends. A big event like the recent recession/ depression or the quieting down of violence in Iraq is easy to attribute to essay, decisions taken by Bush or Obama or Petraeus. In fact, the actual causes of such macro-events are likely to be multiple, complex, and not visible to us. Essays Incident? We tend to apply person-perception habits to events that occur on essays about working with a scale beyond that of individual action. Watts’ book is a contribution to “Wrongology,” the study of our tendencies to essays on a, overestimate our abilities, make simple logical errors, and book, act inconsistently. Essays On A Humorous Incident? The research area has its roots in the studies of heuristics and biases conducted by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. 28 Rationality, as postulated by philosophers and economists, seems to be a rare gift. Essay? To take a now-classic example:

Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and essays, very bright. Attendance? She majored in essays on a humorous, philosophy. Professional Book? As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in humorous, anti-nuclear demonstrations. Now, which is more likely? Linda is a bank clerk and a feminist. Most people say the professional services latter is more probable, although it can’t be. By adding a second condition to the first, we make the second statement less likely.

If people reasoned according to formal logic, they would recognize this as a fallacy of conjunction. Clearly social beliefs about fairness are involved, along with some mind-reading on Veronica’s part ( If I offer her too little, she could get vindictive and humorous, I could lose it all ). Such factors have made the players’ behaviors depart from strict economic rationality. Economists and psychologists who recognize such “predictably irrational” pressures have created a discipline called behavioral economics. So folk psychology has its own biases. Tate Thesis? Linda is said to on a humorous, be a bank teller and professional book review services, a feminist because her profile fits a stereotype of feminists. This is essays on a humorous incident sometimes called the availability heuristic , the tendency to apply the handiest schema to a situation. There is as well confirmation bias , the habit of looking only for review evidence that supports the idea you’re leaning toward. Once you’ve decided you’d really like an iPad, you’re likely to overlook all the critical comments on the gadget in reviews. If you believe in astrology, you’ll tend to essays incident, remember the times that your horoscope seemed to predict what happened to you and research, forget the more numerous times when it failed to do so. Watts points out the on a reconstructive nature of memory as another biasing effect. We tend to recast our recollection of what happened in light of present circumstances.

One of my favorite biases is the primacy effect , already discussed in a blog entry. Logically, the order in thesis, which items on a list are presented should not affect how we think of them, but it does. On A Humorous Incident? Take Hong Kong supermogul Leonard Ho’s three daughters. A Doll's? Which of their names doesn’t belong with the humorous other two? Obviously, it’s Pansy that’s out of step, since she doesn’t rhyme with her sisters. But present them in reverse order: and the outlier is Maisy, who isn’t named after a flower.

The first item in a series tends to system thesis, serve as a benchmark against which we measure the ones that follow. I’ve always felt sorry that a brilliant writer like Donald Westlake inevitably sits low and distant on paperback racks while hacks like Jeffrey Archer benefit from the primacy effect. Again and essays incident, again, narratives manipulate our psychological biases. For instance, once you’ve decided that George Stroud in The Big Clock is fleeing someone, everything he does tends to confirm that. The filmmakers exploit confirmation bias. Tate Thesis? Likewise, the on a humorous incident syuzhet layout relies on the primacy effect. Essay? The film starts at a point of essays crisis, with George fleeing his boss’s goons. Children? The narration then flashes back to the beginning of the on a action, when George tried to working, escape from Janoth’s overweening control by taking a long-promised vacation with his family.

The prologue warns us to watch for anything that will push Stroud into danger, and we quickly expect that he will not go on on a the vacation. Had the film begun with the more prosaic events that come earliest in the fabula , we would not have been on the alert for Stroud’s plunge into a critical situation. The prologue also signals the house importance of the clock as a sinister force and incident, time as a motif through the film. Alternatively, narratives can upset our biases, as when we’re forced to reevaluate a character about whom we formed firm initial impressions. Tate Thesis? We’re obliged to do this with Danny Ciello in the closing moments of Prince of the City . Here the film lures us with the primacy effect and the availability heuristic (Catholic cop plagued by guilt decides to go straight).

Confirmation bias keeps our sympathy with him across the on a humorous film; everything supports him as righteous victim. But at essay the end a question emerges: might Danny be more corrupt than we had thought? Meier Sternberg describes this as the “rise and fall of first impressions,” and it often depends on the power of the on a humorous primacy effect. Essay? 29 At the limit, a narrative film can try to avoid setting up any clear-cut first impressions, as happens in “art films” like In the essays incident City of Sylvia . 30. Sometimes one aspect of folk psychology can rescue another. For instance, Watts points out professional review, that the Ultimatum Game doesn’t work the same way in all societies. Essays Humorous Incident? In experiments with the Machiguenga tribe of Peru, the moneyed partner tended to offer only about a quarter of the total, and working, nearly all offers were accepted. Both parties were being more “rational” by the economists’ standards. But now belief-desire psychology kicks in. Humorous Incident? In Machiguenga society, the college elementary education primary bonds are with the immediate family, and strangers are of lower status.

So the moneyed partner felt little obligation to essays incident, make a fair split, and the recipient was happy with whatever was offered. Once we know this, the tate thesis Machiguenga strategy makes sense. 31 A similar sort of thing happens in fantasy and science-fiction films. Humorous? Once we learn the attendance system analysis unique laws and etiquette of Hogwarts or the on a humorous incident Matrix, then familiar belief-desire-intention patterns can lock in. Folk psychology takes us beyond the purely perceptual level I started with; it carries us into the realm of social intelligence. Mind-reading requires us to detect, sometimes on a doll's very faint cues, what people are expressing or signaling through their behavior.

Elsewhere I’ve talked about this in cases involving eye behaviorblinking and eyebrows, in particular. But there’s much more to on a, be done with the ways in which cinema mobilizes our social intelligence in order to tate thesis, track a narrative. Sometimes the narrative eases our task by making things redundant and clear; sometimes the film throws up problems, making it hard to understand characters’ intentions or reactions, as in the enigmatic veteran played by Henry Fonda in Daisy Kenyon . I found the concept of social intelligence especially useful in explaining a form of cinematic storytelling that has become prominent since the 1990s, what I called the network narrative. These “degrees of separation” tales rely on our socially cultivated ability to track how people are connected to others by proximity, kinship, or acquaintance, and how their different states of knowledge create dramatic tension. 32 We might as well call it the soap-opera effect. Incident? Again, however, such films are likely to streamline the vast complexity of real-world social networks: the networks in movies like Love, Actually and Sunshine State tend to be simple and redundantly stated.

More elliptically narrated films like Edward Yang Dechan’s Terrorizers and Benedek Fliegauf’s Forest may require more careful sorting and later rethinking of character connections. Another aspect of folk psychology, crucial to narrative but neglected in NiFF , merits more study: emotional response. In particular, some psychologists point to the infectiousness of emotion. Babies share smiles with us, perhaps partly as an evolutionary strategy to make us want to nurture them. (Even blind newborns smile, so it can’t be something learned from watching others.) Some researchers argue that our capacities for empathy depend on “mirror” cells tuned to respond to others’ movements and emotion and allow us to register some degree of mimicry. 33 Macaque monkeys’ mirror neurons fire not only when they watch a mate grasping a cup but also when they watch a film of a mate doing it. (More evidence that film images require no special code-learning.) V. S. Ramachandran suggests that mirror neurons could explain the fact that a mother sticking out attendance monitoring thesis, her tongue provokes her newborn baby to essays on a, do the same, a presumably innate response. 34 If assumptions about a doll's house, mirror neurons in humans turn out to be well-founded, we may find that cinema, with its ability to capture gesture and on a, the flickers of facial expressions, is an ideal medium for triggering involuntary reactions (kinesthetic, emotional), which can in a doll's thesis, turn can be recruited for narrative purposes. Uncommon sources of humorous incident common sense. Someone might suggest that this general line of thinking leads to observations that are quite superficial. Essay Elementary? What viewer doesn’t see that George Stroud in The Big Clock is trying to essays on a, avoid the tate thesis guards? I’d reply that once we move beyond the moment to look at strategies of patterning at different scales, we find things aren’t so obvious; that was the primary task of NiFF . Essays? But I grant that our point of departure will seem very commonsensical. In fact, NiFF and other things I’ve written have been charged with committing “common-sense film theory.”

In one way that’s true. The humanities have in general suffered from straining for the most far-fetched accounts of professional book how art, literature, and music work. In the literary humanities in on a humorous incident, particular, ingenious interpretations often relying on free-association, wordplay, and talking points lifted from favored penseurs get more notice than plausible explanations do. In various places I’ve argued for naturalistic and empirical explanations as the about working best option we have in answering middle-range questions, and even bigger ones like “How do we comprehend movies?” Sometimes our answers will not be counterintuitive. To say that looking at images recruits our skills of looking at the world will not surprise many people; but it is likely to on a, be true. What’s likely to be counterintuitive are the professional review services discoveries of mechanisms that undergird perception. Would common sense predict that an essays incident object’s form, color, movement, and attendance monitoring, spatial location are analyzed along distinct pathways in essays, the visual system? Personally I find this idea more exciting than postmodernist puns and term-juggling. 35.

More important, we can embrace common sense at a meta-level. Recognizing that it is in play in elementary education, narrative comprehension makes it something we need to analyze. We can understand filmic understanding better if we recognize what’s intuitively obvious, and essays humorous, then go on to ask what in tate thesis, the film, and in humorous, our psychological and social make-up, makes something obvious. College? And those factors may not be obvious in themselves. In other words, we may need a better understanding of how common sense works, and how films play off it and play with it. That understanding may in turn oblige us to on a incident, accept empirical experiment, evolutionary thinking, and neurological researchall of essay which most literary humanists find worrisome. So worrisome, in fact, that many don’t recognize naturalistic explanations as being theoretical at all. For them, the only theories that exist are Big Theories, and so efforts like the one I just mentioned are condemned as expressing a disdain for or suspicion of essays on a humorous incident theorizing tout court . But that objection, feeble to start with, was blocked back in 1996 by the opening sentences Noël Carroll and I wrote in our Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies : Our title risks misleading you.

Is this book about the end of film theory? No. It’s about the end of Theory, and what can and should come after. Attendance System Thesis Analysis? 36. That introduction and many of the pieces included in the volume float arguments for theorizing as an activity that asks researchable questions and comes up with more or less plausible answerssome commonsensical, some not, and some probing what counts as common sense. Ironically, just as filmic interpretation is amenable to task analysis from a cognitive standpoint, a surprising amount of Grand Theory seems to me to rely on the sort of folk-psychological schemas and essays incident, shortcuts that we find in ordinary life.

But that’s a whole other essay. 1 : The most influential, and still informative, account of professional book one such code was Christian Metz’s Grand Syntagmatique of narrative cinema. See Metz, “Problems of Denotation in the Fiction Film,” in Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema , trans. Michael Taylor (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), 108146. Metz’s more general consideration of essays on a cinematic codes is to be found in his Language and Cinema , trans. Donna Jean Umiker-Sebeok (The Hague: Mouton, 1974).

2 : Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (New York: Anchor, 1967). 3 : On this Golden Oldie of tate thesis humanities lore, see Geoffrey Pullum, The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax and essays incident, Other Irreverent Essays on monitoring system thesis analysis the Study of Language (Chicago: University of incident Chicago Press, 1991), 159175. 4 : See Howard Gardner, The Mind’s New Science: A History of the archimedes research Cognitive Revolution (New York: Basic Books, 1985). 5 : The phrase appears in Jerry Fodor’s milestone 1983 book The Modularity of Mind (Cambridge: MIT Press), 6486. 6 : The phrase became something of a slogan for on a humorous incident the New Look school.

See Jerome S. Essays With? Bruner, Beyond the Information Given: Studies in the Psychology of humorous Knowing , ed. Jeremy M. Anglin (New York: Norton, 1973). 7 : J. J. Gibson, Perception of the Visual World (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1974 [orig. 1950]; J. J. Gibson, The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966). 8 : On the Ames Room, see William H. Ittelson, The Ames Demonstrations in Perception, together with An Interpretive Manual by Adelbert Ames, Jr. House? (NewYork: Hafner, 1968). Go here for many videos employing the principles of the Ames Room. Essays On A? Interestingly, many of the voice-over commentators on these videos assume that prior knowledge, expectations, and other cognitive factors influence perception, indicating that New Look psychology remains a dominant paradigm for perceptual researchers. 9 : Gibson made his arguments about attendance thesis analysis, movies in The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979), 292302.

See Joseph D. Anderson, The Reality of Illusion: An Ecological Approach to Cognitive Film Theory (Carbondale: University of Southern Illinois Press, 1996) and essays on a incident, the articles collected in Moving Image Theory: Ecological Coniderations , ed. Professional Book? Joseph D. Anderson and Barbara Fisher Anderson (Carbondale: University of humorous incident Southern Illinois Press, 2005). Attendance Monitoring System Thesis Analysis? Had I been more alert, I would also have had to consider arguments in John M. Essays On A Humorous Incident? Kennedy’s A Psychology of Picture Perception (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1974). 10 : Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks, “Movies in the Mind’s Eye,” in In the research Mind’s Eye: Julian Hochberg on the Perception of essays on a incident Pictures, Films, and a doll's thesis, the World , ed. Mary A. Peterson, Barbara Gillam, and humorous, H. A. Sedgwick, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 387395. 11 : See my “Cognition and Comprehension: Viewing and college elementary, Forgetting in Mildred Pierce ,” Poetics of on a incident Cinema (New York: Routledge, 2008), 135150. The chart in the essay was printed inaccurately; an research essay accurate one is at http://www.davidbordwell.net/books/poetics.php.

12 : See The Way Hollywood Tells It: Story and Style in Modern Movies (Berkeley: University of essays humorous incident California Press, 2006), 6371. 13 : Major examples include Ed Tan, Emotion and professional book, the Structure of Narrative Film: Film as an Emotion Machine (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1996); Torben Grodal, Moving Pictures: A New Theory of Genres, Feelings, and essays on a humorous incident, Cognition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), Carl Plantinga and Greg M. House Thesis? Smith, eds., Passionate Views: Film, Cognition, and Emotion (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), Greg M. On A Incident? Smith, Film Structure and the Emotion System (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), and Carl Plantinga, Moving Viewers: American Film and the Spectator’s Experience (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009). 14 : In another book, I tried to show how theory-driven interpretations, like interpretations that weren’t theory-driven, were amenable to cognitive and rhetorical analysis. See Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in the Interpretation of Cinema (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989). 15 : See my blog entry, “Now you see it, now you can’t” for more discussion of these trends. 16 : See William Hudson, “Pictorial Depth perception in Subcultural Groups in Africa,” Journal of Social Psychology 52 (1960), 183208, and “The Study of the Problem of Pictorial Perception among Unacculturated Groups,” International Journal of house thesis Psychology 2 (1967), 89107. 17 : See Stephan Schwan and Sermin Ildirar, “Watching Film for the First Time: How Adult Viewers Interpret Perceptual Discontinuities,” Psychological Science 21 (2010): 970976.

Online access is at essays humorous incident http://pss.sagepub.com/content/21/7/970.abstract. 18 : Paul Messaris, Visual Literacy: Image, Mind, and Reality (Boulder: Westview, 1994), 165. 19 : Julian Hochberg and Virginia Brooks, “Pictorial Recognition as an about children Unlearned Activity: A Study of One Child’s Performance,” in In the Mind’s Eye , 64. 20 : For a review of incident early experiments, see Charles A. Nelson, “The Perception and Recognition of thesis Facial Expressions in essays, Infancy,” in professional book review, Social Perception in Infants , ed. Tiffany M. Field and Nathan A. Fox (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1985), 101125. Later experiments in infant cognition are considered in the light of on a “folk” theories of mind, physics, and essays about children, the like, in Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (New York: Norton, 1997), Chapter 5. 21 : Lynne Murray and on a humorous, Colwyn Trevarthen, “Emotional Regulation of Interactions between Two-month-olds and Their Mothers,” in Social Perception in thesis, Infants , ed. Field and Fox, 177197. Ellen Dissayanake has proposed a fascinating theory of the origins of art based in mother-child interactions; see Art and Intimacy: How the Arts Began (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000). 22 : See, for humorous incident example, Phillipe Rochat, Ulric Neisser, and Viorica Marlan, “Are Young Infants Sensitive to Interpersonal Contingency?” Infant Behavior and essays, Development 21, 2 (1998): 355366. 23 : See Anderson, Reality of Illusion , Chapters 35; see my “Convention, Construction, and Cinematic Vision,” in Poetics of Cinema , 5782.

24 : See for a summary Donald E. Brown, Human Universals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991), 130140. 25 : Daniel C. Dennett, The Intentional Stance (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1987). 26 : Alison Gopnik, The Philosophical Baby: What Children’s Minds Tell Us about Truth, Love, and the Meaning of Life (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009), 98. 27 : To get the flavor of some of the debates, see Barry Loewer and Georges Rey, ed., Meaning in Mind: Fodor and His Critics (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1991), especially Daniel C. Dennett, “Granny’s Campaign for Safe Science,” 8794 and on a humorous incident, Fodor’s reply: “The enormous practical success of belief/desire psychology makes a prima facie case for a doll's house thesis its approximate truth” (277). By the way, I should make it clear that I use “intentions” in this paper in a nontechnical sense, not in the philosophical sense, as in Fodor’s references to “intentional states.” 28 : See Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic, and Amos Tversky, eds., Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982). 29 Meir Sternberg, Expositional Modes and Temporal Ordering in essays humorous, Fiction (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978), 99102.

More generally, a great deal of house thesis Narration in the Fiction Film , including its focus on curiosity, suspense, and on a incident, surprise, is indebted to Sternberg’s book, a trailblazing work of modern narratology. 30 : I discuss Prince of the archimedes research City ’s narrational tactics a little bit here and a crucial sequence of on a In the City of essay elementary Sylvia , at greater length, here. 31 : Duncan J. Essays On A? Watts, Everything Is Obvious* (*Once You Know the Answer): How Common Sense Fails Us (New York: Crown, 2011), 1213. 32 : “Mutual Friends and Chronologies of house Chance,” in Poetics of Cinema , 189250. 33 : See Giacomo Rizzolatti and Corrado Sinigaglia, Mirrors in the BrainHow Our Minds Share Actions and Emotions , trans. Frances Anderson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008) and on a, Marco Iacoboni, Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008) 34 : V. S. Essay Elementary? Ramachandran, The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Quest for What Makes Us Human (New York: Norton, 2011), 121128. 35 : See Margaret Livingston and David Hubel, “Segregation of Form, Color, Movement, and Depth: Anatomy, Physiology, and Perception,” Science 240 no 4853 (6 May 1988): 740749. Available at http://www.sciencemag.org/content/240/4853/740.abstract. 36 : “Introduction,” Post-Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies , ed.

David Bordwell and Noël Carroll (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996), xiii. More generally, much of on a incident what I’ve said in this online essay was said more pointedly in Carroll’s pioneering 1985 article, “The Power of Movies.” See Carroll, Theorizing the Moving Image (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 7893. have comments about the state of this website? go here.