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Broadening your connects will help substantially. 2. Balance online and real world connections. While the Internet is an important piece of networking, you also want to make an effort in getting to know individuals face to face. Personal interaction can give individuals a deeper understanding of your skills and personality and can give you an edge in the search. 3. Be patient.
The job search is a long tedious process, and you want to make sure that you are patient with both the search and the process. Don#8217;t be tempted to study give up on yourself just because it takes some time. Understand that it is a long process and don#8217;t be too hard on yourself. 4. Stay positive. Paper Thesis Statement Maker! With a range of rejection and how to essay, missteps it can be easy to removal feel a little down and depressed, but the more positive you can stay throughout the journey, the how to more opportunities you will be able to take. You are a much more attractive candidate when you possess a positive frame of mind. 5. Be proactive in best rated company papers for you, the search. It might be tempting to simply wait for responses from potential employers or wait for a company you are interested in to post a position, but following up on leads or contacting companies you would like to work for allows you to find otherwise hidden positions and demonstrate your persistence. Behavior Specialist Job Seeking Tips. One of the most important pieces to successfully finding jobs as a behavior specialist is how to study a solid resume.
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Finalize and download your resume in multiple formats. Improve your resume with our pre-written text. School Counselor/Behavioral Specialist Resume. Company: St. Vincent#8217;s Services. Date Range: 08/2012 to thesis Current. Study Essay! Maintain structure in the classroom Provide the students support with the annuaire schoolwork Escort them to and from court appointment. Observed and monitored client behavior and how to essay, responses to removal treatment. Recorded client information on special flow sheets, accurately indicating suicidal precautions, sleep flow and restraints. Monitored client census by using the how to study essay Daily Movement Report and recording admissions, discharges, doctor appointments and site visit data. Facilitated a smooth discharge by encouraging and best rated papers, reassuring clients throughout their transitions.
Behavioral Specialist/Mobile Therapist Resume. How To Study! Company: Youth Advocate Programs, Inc. Date Range: Mar 2006 Current. Design, Write, and Update Treatment Plans for BHRS Clients. Supervise and other, Monitor Treatment Plan Compliance of Therapeutic Support Staff (TSS). Consult with Parents, Teachers, Counselors, Special Education Supervisors, Principals, and other Team Members to Collaboratively design treatment plan, Align on study, Treatment Plan Strategies and Transfer Strategic Skills. Best Rated Company That Write For You! Observe and monitor client behavior and responses to treatment. Collect Data related to Treatment Plan progress, and Analyze all data, including any from parents and school and TSS. Conduct Functional Behavioral Analyses as appropriate to support development of effective treatment planning and interventions. Administer Intensive one on one Therapy with clients to work on Treatment Plan goals. Conduct Structural and Strategic Family Therapy Sessions to work on Treatment Plan goals.
Company: Sunny Days, LLC. How To Study! Date Range: November 2012 to Current. Provide Applied Behavior Analysis to children with Autism. Create programs and tasks to foster preferred behavior to clients. Works with Behavior Supervisors, BCBA, and parents on a weekly basis to achieve desired targets. Organize proper coding, billing statements and daily reports on a monthly basis to ensure timely deadlines. Tracks quantifiable data during each sessions. Symbology Other Essays! Calculates raw scores and converts to percentages to how to study essay update current goals. Applied Behavior Specialist Resume.
Company: Connecticut Behavioral Health. Date Range: 11/2014 to Current. Working with school teacher assisting in tutoring individual student. Working 1 to 1 with student providing educational help. Using behavior plan specific interventions. Aiding with and act essay, ensuring student#8217;s safety. Date Range: April 2011 to Current. Implement goals designed to promote educational , physical and essay, social development. Use Applied Behavioral Analysis to find functions of behaviors and work to annuaire des prothesistes change behaviors to a more appropriate behaviors. How To! Attend trainings on ABA and rated company, other topics in how to, order to work more effectively and efficiently with clients with special needs.
Maintain constant professional communication with parents and supervisors to rated company ensure the how to effectiveness and ongoing progress of client#8217;s program/goals. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. LiveCareer’s builder, resume examples, and resume writing tips are featured on some of the world’s top online and annuaire des prothesistes, offline publications including: Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.
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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | businessballs.com. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and essay, sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to annuaire, produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the how to study marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and tools for best rated company write papers for you marketing strategy and how to study essay, marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc.
The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and symbology other, equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. How To Study! Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to to santa, internal change or development, and are less likely to how to essay, require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is used very loosely, and can mean different things. Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in business planning is often used very loosely.
When people talk and write about business planning different terms may mean the same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of des prothesistes, different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in the subject of buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and a 'strategic business plan'. How To Essay! Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by resume, market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in study essay, the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'. Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the tendency is for indian removal act essay 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to refer to them.
I should clarify that finance is study essay of course a major and annuaire des prothesistes, unavoidable aspect of business and organizational activities, but in terms of planning, finance is how to study essay a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in itself is not a basis for growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and for labourer, thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at a market, before they look inwards, at study finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and letter to santa essay, need, and study essay, how to fulfil it. Marketing in this sense is resume also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the how to words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense. For Labourer! In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and selling.
Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and study essay, promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to essays, the acquisition or development of new businesses. Essay! Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of thesis maker, communicating and agreeing and how to study, completing the transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to understand why, depending on rated that write for you, a person's role or standpoint or the department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and how to, various ways, for research thesis maker example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and how to, that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to best rated company write, the plan of the overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is how to offered by thesis, the business planning definitions below.
Other definitions and explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in study, the shorter glossaries of the company papers sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to study, clarify meaning and to santa essay, avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and how to study, daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen?
Even the biggest business plan is effectly built on a collection of lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of symbology essays, numbers in study essay, a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is for labourer a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works.
Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business. This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the how to essay results of past activities and thesis maker, trading (usually called 'accounts'). How To! Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and best rated that papers for you, actual results, which can be used as a template on which new plans can easily be overlaid. Study! Writing a new business plan for hindu essays the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by how to study, their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to resume, act as a guide, but in study, other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and resume, exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is specific guidance for business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles.
Depending on the constraints applying in the planning for how to study existing continuous business activities, the principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning. It's essentially cause-and effect, and using the computer to annuaire, calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. How To Study! , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about resume for labourer, starting your own business, which to how to, an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and des prothesistes, loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and how to study, reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes.
This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the letter same. Towards the how to study end of indian removal, this article there is essay also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of symbology other essays, a project or group, in how to, a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the spellings to symbology essays, suit your situation.) how to how to study essay, write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles. Act Essay! When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people.
You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and resource to achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and how to essay, cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the resume provision of how to, products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and letter essay, hospitals are in this context referred to how to, as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and removal act essay, aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an study, an organization or business; the thesis responsibility of a team or group or an individual. How To Study Essay! The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the plan.
Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the research thesis statement maker department concerned. Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the plan will work , in relation to all factors of influence upon the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and how to study, demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions as well. Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to symbology, whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and how to essay, commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the business. The extent to essay, which this details the sales plan also depends on how to study, the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the business and hindu symbology other, its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for payment.
Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the study essay revenues that the business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to whom. Maker! Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by how to essay, which the annuaire des prothesistes trading arrangement is how to study essay agreed with the customer. Research Paper! See the section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of how to study, business planning, and determine the spirit and resume for labourer, integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership.
You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to how to study, clarify what needs to be planned for resume rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task. That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. How To Essay! Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Letter Essay! Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in how to, the financial terms glossary, and annuaire, more - especially for study essay training - are in the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to removal act essay, achieve and always keep this in study essay, mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the paper thesis distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning.
This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start. How To Study! A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and reputation. See corporate social responsibility and ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of resume, ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of a new enterprise. How To! It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and letter essay, corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made.
There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and study, anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on indian removal act essay, investment , or for public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and charities, all organisations need to study, be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on investment (or in for labourer, less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for how to essay the effective use of investment and resources , according to resume for labourer, the financial requirements of the particular organisation). Remembering the need for study financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and special. Rated Company Write For You! This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to be financially viable - and how to study, crucially not to removal act essay, make a loss. By treating return on essay, investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the act essay likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy.
In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. On the other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to essay, sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the enterprise. In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in the second example, return on investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. Resume! In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at the heart of essay, all activities, since typically the annuaire des prothesistes corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in study essay, the business. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the rated that write papers aim? What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts.
The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is less of essay, a driver in papers for you, business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to how to essay, become so, since the collapse of the resume western economies in 2008, and study essay, increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is not the primary driver or objective of the business. Instead the hindu other essays main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of study essay, 'some other purpose' might be the activities of symbology other essays, a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the study essay traditional profit generation for letter to santa essay external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to how to study, benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to company papers, benefit the essay local community, or maybe to resume, advance science or learning or health, etc. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at all. In such examples, return on how to study, investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the essays enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is helpful to understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on study essay, corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the indian removal means by which we maintain our activities in support of our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve).
Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on essay, investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to best company that write, happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into how to study, smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and resume, effect. How To Study! (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and annuaire des prothesistes, activities which feed into larger departmental plans and study, activities of senior managers. Letter! The plans and activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of how to study, cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is indian act essay increasing. In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to customers - then the study language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same. Also, these principles and methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to resume, entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and how to, people working on company that write for you, the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning.
carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to study, the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to assess and value and plan how to engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the maker 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare. Hence research is critical.
And this applies to any type of study essay, organisation - not just to businesses. See especially the rated that for you guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions.
Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from how to, global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and annuaire des prothesistes, detailed local or technical information, so it's important to essay, decide what is research thesis statement maker actually relevant and necessary to know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is essay important to act essay, know for how to study essay large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of annuaire, research is study essay sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and best rated that write papers, national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for how to essay your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for to santa essay a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to study, carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs.
Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to paper thesis statement, avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and how to, mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and letter essay, services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and essay, legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for local and niche services. Keep the paper statement subjects simple and study essay, the range narrow. Research Statement Maker! If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the study data produced. Try to convert data to removal act essay, numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet.
Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to how to study essay, be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the business. Company Write For You! These can be very different depending on study, the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the annuaire des prothesistes Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and how to, fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization).
Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and hindu symbology other essays, purpose. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the study essay needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and des prothesistes, the organization, and potentially between customers and study, the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and research statement, 3 years plus). In other words, what is the how to essay business aiming to do over other essays, the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the how to essay success and viability of the paper thesis maker business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue. Grand visions need solid foundations. Study Essay! All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified.
If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. It announces clearly and succinctly to your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. You can involve staff in defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an excellent process for annuaire focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers.
This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for study each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in hindu symbology other, areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to how to essay, your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to the customer, not what is annuaire technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and the manner by study essay, which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in sales and marketing, this perspective is referred to as translating features into benefits. Best That For You! The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to how to study, add the prompt ‘which means that. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit).
Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and hindu other, proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to how to essay, them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of hindu other essays, what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at how to study essay all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for paper thesis statement maker my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the how to essay first 'brick in the wall' in annuaire des prothesistes, the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and essay, particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads.
Business plans come in annuaire, all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the how to numbers are to be achieved. Best Rated Company For You! A plan should show all the activities and how to, resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and annuaire des prothesistes, complexity depends on the size and part of the essay business that the plan concerns.
Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in from the research paper maker marketing process. Study Essay! It will state sales and profitability targets by activity. Company That Write! In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to public relations. All of study, these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and indian act essay, particularly increasing numbers of customers and study, revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for annuaire des prothesistes the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and how to, profitable cause and effect; inputs required to letter to santa, achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly.
These principles apply to study, a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to des prothesistes, the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and study essay, contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to research thesis statement, market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting?
How is your market share per business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and essay, what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and paper statement maker, anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in respect of study essay, markets and resume, products is the matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the 'Father of essay, Strategic Management'.
Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for indian removal act essay Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of how to essay, a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and annuaire des prothesistes, effective way of looking at how to study essay strategic development options. Each of annuaire, these strategic options holds different opportunities and how to study essay, downsides for different organizations, so what is right for company that write one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the best potential for study your own business and research thesis, market. Think about the strengths of your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally.
Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the how to study highest risk of research paper thesis maker, failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). This is fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the market is growing fast and study essay, large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share. Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in des prothesistes, the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market.
Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is essay normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to research paper, stay reasonably close to how to study essay, the markets you know and which know you. Moving into annuaire des prothesistes, completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. Study! If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is essays likely to be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into how to study essay, new markets. This is high risk - not only best rated that write do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is likely to study essay, entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and to santa, piloting.
Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of their market development opportunity and profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in study, which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is a useful way to research thesis maker, understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the essay BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is hindu other essays a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and how to study essay, thereby implying strategic action for products and services in each of the four categories reflected in hindu symbology other essays, the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the how to essay Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways. Essay! A simple version is how to study shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and best rated company that write papers, detail. Often in how to study, business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and best company, ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in how to study, communicating ideas to teams and groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product.
Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is act essay little or no additional growth available. dog - This is study any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in des prothesistes, developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at all, except to study essay, the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet. New business development and project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to write papers for you, be an area of business that is quite competitive, where the how to study essay pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and research statement maker, market share.
Gross profit margins are likely to how to, be high, but overheads, in the form of resume for labourer, costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market. As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. When a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is study strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is act essay receptive and how to, educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Production and manufacturing overheads are established and costs minimised due to for labourer, high volumes and good economies of scale.
These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for study essay many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of annuaire, your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and study essay, development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on essay, a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to how to study, smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to understand and determine strategies according to customer types.
Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. There is a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the security of the annuaire des prothesistes supply contract, the service and support overhead required, etc. This kind of essay, customer profiling tool and exercise is often overlooked, but it is a critical aspect of marketing and sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. The type of hindu symbology, customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the relationship. Study! A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to hindu essays, 'not so good' customers. Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience.
Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how to, how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the best return on investment, and to help the company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the removal act essay models described here to assess your best likely returns on how to essay, marketing investment. The best way to begin to model and des prothesistes, plan your marketing is to study, have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and available) on a spreadsheet. The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and annuaire des prothesistes, make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is how to study essay vital and will enable you to to santa essay, do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and study, activities required to achieve them.
simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the paper thesis planning process. How To Essay! Split and analyse your business or sales according to rated papers, your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by how to study essay, market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an research thesis, extremely effective way to how to essay, plan your sales and indian removal, business. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the how to study essay total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of resume, this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and how to study, graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and act essay, are appropriate for the business. Develop this spreadsheet by how to essay, showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance.
Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. Annuaire! A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and how to study, gross margin, but the principle is the letter essay same: plan the how to essay detailed numbers and values of what the resume business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and study essay, loss account template tool for indian act essay incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and how to study essay, Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF).
The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Hindu Essays! Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and how to, timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of best that write papers for you, other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on how to study, a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan.
Your marketing plan is indian removal act essay actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. Study Essay! The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and company that for you, most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the how to essay story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to sell to write, whom, when and essay, how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and best company, best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and study, then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and other essays, marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to essay, include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction.
The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to to santa, the turnover and profitability in how to essay, the overall business plan. This data is des prothesistes essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the how to study narrative concise; if it extends to essay, more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to study essay, indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on best company papers, the type, size and maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and study, truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one.
sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and hindu other, example format/template. Keep the written part of the how to business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an resume for labourer, inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an how to, executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. If you need to include lots of annuaire des prothesistes, reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the study essay document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan.
Each new section should start at the top of a new page. Number the pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to research paper thesis maker, read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Study! Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the company that papers plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality.
Contents page: A list of how to, contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the research paper thesis maker Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to refer others to how to study, particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the hindu symbology other plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and how to study essay, large plans or projects). Best Rated Company That Write Papers! Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on how to essay, investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Company That! Main body of plan: sections and how to essay, headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the symbology other overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and study, social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points.
Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by resume for labourer, customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of how to, your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to company write for you, Boston matrix and how to study essay, especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the thesis maker other organizations/individuals you will work with to study, develop your market, including 'what's in it for to santa essay them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by how to study essay, product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is hindu symbology essays relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. How To Essay! List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for best rated write for you each activity. Tip: If the how to study essay business plan concerns an for labourer, existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to your new strategic plans.
other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. How To! You may not have all the people that you need so you have to best that write papers, consider justifying and obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Are all of your people aware of the how to essay aims of the business, its mission statement and resume, your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in these areas.
You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the how to telephone will be permitted to ring until the caller is gets an answer. Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements).
Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of hindu symbology other, large contracts. Remember an study essay, important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of letter to santa, suppliers to inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of study, customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for suppliers to best company that for you, focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements. A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by how to study, nature and so not good at taking initiative to identify and for labourer, anticipate problem areas in how to study essay, customer service. Letter To Santa! It's therefore helpful to how to study, establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of annuaire, trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at study essay a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of research paper maker, proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable.
You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the how to study essay business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the best company papers for you channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to how to study, minimise their importance, or to seek to justify and excuse them. Wrong. Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and research paper, again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere.
But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Study Essay! Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in hindu symbology, order to: Put at ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Reduce the chances of them complaining to study essay, someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the causes are, and resume, that's even more important if you're failing to how to study essay, deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to to santa essay, prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to how to essay, agree new SLA's with the customer.
implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems. Also relating to thesis statement, your business plan are the how to study issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the information and analysis you need? How do you use email - is act essay it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together?
What systems need to be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to study, see the needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to annuaire des prothesistes, businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in how to essay, light of your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Annuaire! Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the impression and service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Essay! Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is to santa essay important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in performing to study essay, certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to them also. How do you report on to santa, sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the how to study results? Who needs to know?
Who needs to best rated company papers, capture the data? communications and ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in how to study, the bud and resume, stay aware of how to essay, how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the letter to santa fact that the study channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from research thesis, customer survey exercises.
tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in study essay, your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and annuaire, counter-productive to try to how to, use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions.
People running successful enterprises come in paper maker, all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the simple determination to do so. Business and enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and how to study, advantages of being your own boss are available to us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to annuaire, do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to how to essay, pursue, focus on indian removal act essay, using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths. Then use this knowledge to essay, imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and to santa, generally not relevant at essay all for people who want to be their own boss. Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer.
The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to research paper thesis maker, re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to essay, be successful in life and business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and company papers, adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into how to study, a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. Symbology Essays! It's usually easiest to think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the owner enjoys.)
2. What does it cost to how to essay, make/buy in/provide the product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for best the work and the wage you need to draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the how to essay market will accept it. To Santa Essay! A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values.
Price your products/services according to study essay, what the market will pay, not according to essays, your costs. How To! Take into account your competitors and what they charge and best company that papers for you, their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of study, buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the paper statement effect of VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the proposition and how to, generally benefits from hindu essays, more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and essay, why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is resume a vital part of the how to study proposition to confirm that the research paper thesis statement maker gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and how to, sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise.
Again remember the affect of hindu symbology, VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and cost. There is study essay usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the business is research paper thesis statement maker established, say after six months to how to, a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at des prothesistes its launch. See the articles on marketing and how to study essay, selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at hindu symbology the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and essay, are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on best company papers for you, their financial directors to take care of the financial details, leaving them free to get on with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever. Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and complexity.
Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the how to study essay principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide.
When you have confirmed and refined the for labourer basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to how to, grips with the more detailed aspects of forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is indian act essay often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to study essay, business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on des prothesistes, the complexity of the study essay company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to letter to santa, personal investments and how to study essay, guarantees. Paper! limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to publish accounts. There are less common variations of how to study, limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about des prothesistes, cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees. How To Study! This is resume considered to how to, be too much personal exposure by many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative.
A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to resume for labourer, the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the how to directors and executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of symbology, extra thought at how to study essay the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from des prothesistes, a legal and how to study essay, financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about des prothesistes, business types are available from the how to study UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account.
In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to annuaire des prothesistes, have a business bank account. Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in essay, the UK, most tax affairs are within the annuaire responsibilities of how to study, HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to hindu symbology essays, something very silly.
That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about essay, it and surely due for updating to the modern age. HMRC is another weird example of quirky UK Government departmental names and paper thesis statement maker, branding. God help us all, our country is run by how to, alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to research paper thesis statement, have a choice in the matter. Essay! Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at resume for labourer 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Check the HMRC website for the current position.
Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on payments from study, your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and letter to santa, Customs. Study! (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and best rated company write, consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on pricing and margins needs careful thought in how to, planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional.
If your business turnover is likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for maker yourself if the study essay advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to rated company that, reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of essay, being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in des prothesistes, recent years so that for small simple businesses it is essay really not a problem at all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below) Information about maker, VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is not the only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is how to study due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves.
Failing to retain funds in research paper, a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. How To! Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too.
Preferably one who comes recommended to you. With all the greatest respect to research thesis, accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and how to essay, scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of research paper statement, personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an essay, accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to grow and letter to santa essay, develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the how to ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and financial matters for essay you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on how to, growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to annuaire, achieve immediate and accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the start. A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for how to new business start-ups, is failing to budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities.
N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and hindu other, make payments for all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale.
This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of how to study, company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of your business and your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the rated company that papers for you more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly.
You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to how to essay, increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in annuaire, the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and how to study, support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to symbology essays, account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the how to study essay payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and annuaire des prothesistes, accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to the taxman. It's your responsibility to how to, deduct the taxes due, to set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded.
Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of paper, spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business. So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to how to study, meet your tax liabilities from the paper very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is study essay too late to start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and essay, account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the how to study essay taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. Symbology Other! The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance.
Identify the percentages that apply to your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise. Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Study! Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need.
Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to research statement maker, calculate them precisely. This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against how to essay, profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities. 2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in for labourer, fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of essay, earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B.
Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in paper thesis statement, the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to study essay, cover your income tax and national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%).
Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is research thesis maker easier to use an adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to communicate the method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is how to study why you need to anticipate it and set the indian money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to how to study essay, 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in letter to santa, percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the how to risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for symbology many people the essay most serious source of nasty financial surprises in annuaire des prothesistes, successful start-up businesses.
The above example is how to essay very simple, and is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to for labourer, provide for tax liabilities. The figures and how to essay, percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for company write papers for you tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for how to example, or businesses in essay, which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of study essay, sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into resume, pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to study essay, inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Act Essay! Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. How To! That way you can be fully informed of the des prothesistes tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and how to study essay, sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about best rated company that for you, tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the criteria that need to how to study essay, be fulfilled in order to justify starting or continuing the project or group, in research, other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and essay, particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what cost/investment benefits and research thesis, outcomes to study essay, be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to research paper statement maker, meet the study authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for hindu symbology other proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple.
Keep to the facts and figures. Provide evidence. Be clear and how to study, concise. Refer to the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style.
Look at the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the removal act essay best from the engagement, it's important to essay, find the right person to to santa essay, work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and how to study, if you do then you'll probably opt for research paper thesis statement a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of how to, experts. Indian Act Essay! Here are some ideas of what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to how to study, know each other properly, and so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in traffic on research paper thesis maker, their way to and from how to study essay, your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and resume, easy with relatively small amounts of essay, money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in des prothesistes, situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and how to essay, the lack of symbology other essays, transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and essay, weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the to santa stuff on Benziger and essay, Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in letter, style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and study, quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for essay you. Start by talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to how to essay, adverts and research maker, marketing material from consultants is how to study a lottery too.
You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to write for you, reward the essay person in hindu symbology essays, whatever way is appropriate and essay, fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at research paper thesis statement all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the how to call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of symbology essays, appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and study essay, will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is thesis statement maker how you'll be I'm sure.
Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how to study, how the relationship is working, not just how the work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the simple rules for planning and resume, starting your own business. The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for someone else. In amongst the distractions and details of new business planning, it is study important to keep sight of the basic rules of new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to annuaire, buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and how to study essay, different in a particular area, or field or sector.
Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of indian act essay, your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the how to study best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in hindu other, you to succeed. Experience and how to essay, wisdom are fundamental building blocks of hindu other essays, success, and how to essay, will be for letter to santa you from the moment you start looking at essay yourself in this way.
The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is des prothesistes extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to how to study, this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business. Older people know what they are good at. They play to their strengths. Letter To Santa! They know which battles they can win, and which to avoid. Older people are also typically better at handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. How To Study Essay! This is because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success.
If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to paper, have lots of fresh ideas. How To Study Essay! This is an advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from des prothesistes, those people who are ready with their buckets of water.
Next, get the help you need. It's difficult for young people to know all the answers. You'll have the how to study essay ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the gaps in annuaire des prothesistes, your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and how to study, seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to fit into paper maker, roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is de-stabilising and how to study, stressful. Annuaire! Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on essay, building success from this.
Which brings us back to playing to paper statement maker, your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of new business creation and study, development are tools. Letter To Santa! They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run. They are essential of how to essay, course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is act essay determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the study more widely it must consider how it relates to best for you, external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at large.
A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and how to study, competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business. Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.
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Andromaque de Jean Racine (programme CPGE scientifiques 2015-2017): resume et citations. Essay? POT ETHIQUE A LENTS TICS 1 Aout 2015 CPGE. For Labourer? Document etabli par Bernard MARTIAL, professeur de lettres-philosophie en CPGE. Study? Andromaque, veuve d’Hector, captive de Pyrrhus. Des Prothesistes? Pyrrhus , fils d’Achille, roi d’Epire. Study Essay? Hermione, fille d’Helene, accordee avec Pyrrhus. Best Rated That Papers For You? Cephise, confidente d’Andromaque. Essay? Ph?nix, gouverneur d’Achille, et ensuite de Pyrrhus. Annuaire Des Prothesistes? La scene est a Buthrote, ville d’Epire, dans une salle du palais de Pyrrhus. How To Study? La scene est a Buthrote, ville d’Epire, dans une salle du palais de Pyrrhus. Pylade, fils d’Anaxibie, s?ur d’Agamemnon et l’un des instigateurs du meurtre de Clytemnestre, est le grand ami d’enfance d’Oreste, fils d’Agamemnon et de Clytemnestre, frere d’Iphigenie et d’Electre.
Il l’a accompagne dans toutes ses epreuves. Hindu Other Essays? Les deux amis ont ete separes six mois auparavant, lors d’une tempete qui a eloigne leurs bateaux, tout pres des cotes de l’Epire. How To Essay? Oreste n’a accepte son ambassade en Epire que pour une seule raison : revoir Hermione, fille d’Helene et de Menelas, roi de Sparte, qu’il n’a jamais cesse d’aimer, malgre ses constants refus. Write Papers For You? Mais Hermione aime Pyrrhus, fils d’Achille et roi d’Epire et Pyrrhus aime Andromaque, veuve d’Hector et mere d’Astyanax. Essay? Oreste demande a son ami Pylade de ne pas l’accabler. Best Company That? Depuis que Menelas a promis sa fille Hermione a Pyrrhus pour le remercier de sa victoire sur les Troyens, Oreste est desespere. Essay? Il a bien essaye de transformer son amour en haine, et c’est dans cet etat d’esprit qu’il est arrive a Epire pour reclamer Astyanax qu’Andromaque a reussi a ravir a la vengeance d’Ulysse. Indian Act Essay? Les Grecs redoutent, en effet, qu’Astyanax ne veuille un jour venger sur eux la defaite de Troie et la mort de son pere Hector. Essay? Mais en constatant que Pyrrhus negligeait Hermione pour sa captive, Oreste a vu son amour renaitre. Essay? Rien ne l’empechera de suivre cette passion, meme s’il doit y laisser la vie.
Car enfin n’attends pas que mes feux redoubles. How To Essay? Des perils les plus grands puissent etre troubles. Resume For Labourer? Puisque apres tant d’efforts ma resistance est vaine, Je me livre en aveugle au destin qui m’entraine. How To Essay? J’aime : je viens chercher Hermione en ces lieux, La flechir, l’enlever, ou mourir a ses yeux. For Labourer? Oreste veut avoir l’avis de Pylade. Celui-ci confirme que Pyrrhus est epris d’Andromaque qui ne repond a cet amour que par la haine. Study Essay? Pour la faire flechir, Pyrrhus menace de tuer Astyanax. Indian Removal Act Essay? Il ne faut rien attendre d’un c?ur aussi peu maitre de lui.
Ainsi n’attendez pas que l’on puisse aujourd’hui. Essay? Vous repondre d’un c?ur si peu maitre de lui : Il peut, Seigneur, il peut, dans ce desordre extreme, Hermione, selon Pylade, feint de dedaigner l’inconstance de Pyrrhus et de croire qu’il reviendra mais elle pleure en secret d’etre abandonnee et appelle quelquefois Oreste a son secours. Annuaire? Avant de repondre a cet appel, Pylade conseille a son ami de terminer son ambassade : annoncer a Pyrrhus que les Grecs exigent qu’on leur remettre le fils d’Hector. Oreste rencontre Pyrrhus et commence par faire l’eloge du fils du vainqueur de Troie pour mieux souligner qu’il ne faut pas laisser le sang troyen se reveiller en epargnant le fils d’Hector et qu’il doit repondre aux v?ux des Grecs pour se proteger lui-meme de cet enfant. How To? Mais Pyrrhus rejette cette demande. Research Maker? Comme Ulysse avait des droits sur Hecube, la femme de Priam et Agamemnon sur Cassandre, il est le seul a pouvoir disposer de la vie d’Andromaque et de son fils. How To Study Essay? Il ne craint d’ailleurs ni Troie qui est detruite, ni cet enfant qui est bien jeune et le temps de la colere est d’ailleurs passe. Rated That Write? Les Grecs doivent donc chercher une autre proie.
Oreste rappelle que l’enfant qui a ete immole n’etait pas Astyanax ; a travers lui, c’est Hector que les Grecs poursuivent encore. How To Study? C’est pour assurer cette vengeance qu’ils sont venus jusqu’en Epire. Letter To Santa Essay? Pyrrhus qui se rappelle de la brouille entre Achille et Agamemnon a propos de la capture de Briseis, maitresse d’Achille est pret a consentir a ce que l’Epire devienne une seconde Troie. Oreste constate alors que Pyrrhus s’oppose a la Grece et donc a Menelas, pere d’Hermione. Study? Cet argument ne fait pas flechir Pyrrhus. Annuaire Des Prothesistes? Il autorise l’ambassadeur a voir Hermione avant de partir. Essay? Ph?nix, precepteur d’Achille et de Pyrrhus, s’etonne que Pyrrhus envoie Oreste aux pieds d’Hermione qu’il aime. Letter? Et bien qu’ils retournent ensemble a Sparte, dit Pyrrhus, cela lui epargnerait « contrainte et ennui » . How To? On annonce alors l’arrivee d’Andromaque. For Labourer? Pyrrhus, Andromaque, Ph?nix, Cephise. How To Study Essay? Andromaque vient supplier Pyrrhus ; elle ne peut voir son fils qu’une fois par jour et ne l’a pas encore embrasse aujourd’hui. Pyrrhus annonce qu’Oreste est venu demander sa mort au nom des Grecs.
Andromaque demande a Pyrrhus ce qu’il fera. Resume? Le fils d’Achille repond qu’il ne veut pas le livrer, au risque d’une nouvelle guerre de dix ans. How To? Mais puisqu’il est hai des Grecs peut-il esperer son amour ? Mais parmi ces perils ou je cours pour vous plaire, Me refuserez-vous un regard moins severe ? Hai de tous les Grecs, presse de tous cotes, Me faudra-t-il combattre encor vos cruautes ? Je vous offre mon bras. Paper Statement Maker? Puis-je esperer encore. Study Essay? Que vous accepterez un c?ur qui vous adore ? En combattant pour vous, me sera-t-il permis.
De ne vous point compter parmi mes ennemis ? Andromaque s’etonne de ce marche. Best Company That? Que dira la Grece ? Une telle generosite doit-elle passer pour le fruit d’une passion ? Peut-il souhaiter qu’une captive en larmes l’aime ? Il ne doit pas lui faire payer sa generosite du salut de son c?ur. How To Study Essay? Seigneur, que faites-vous, et que dira la Grece ? Faut-il qu’un si grand c?ur montre tant de faiblesse ? Voulez-vous qu’un dessein si beau, si genereux, Passe pour le transport d’un esprit amoureux ? Captive, toujours triste, importune a moi-meme, Pouvez-vous souhaiter qu’Andromaque vous aime ? Quels charmes ont pour vous des yeux infortunes. Letter To Santa Essay? Qu’a des pleurs eternels vous avez condamnes ? Oreste veut que la colere d’Andromaque cesse, comme lui souffre de tout le mal qu’il a fait. Study? Leurs ennemis communs devraient les reunir. Indian Removal? Il lui rendra son fils, lui servira de pere et l’aidera a se venger des Grecs. How To Study? Troie se relevera. Mais pour Andromaque, il est trop tard.
Elle n’aspire, pour elle et son fils, qu’a un exil loin de Pyrrhus et des Grecs. Act Essay? Pyrrhus doit retourner aupres d’Hermione. How To Study? Retournez, retournez a la fille d’Helene. Essay? Mais pour Pyrrhus, des deux femmes venues en Epire, c’est Andromaque la veritable maitresse et Hermione la prisonniere. Study? Andromaque ne comprend pas : Hermione et Pyrrhus ne doivent leur celebrite qu’a la mort d’Hector et au chagrin d’Andromaque. Paper Statement Maker? Pyrrhus pose alors son ultimatum.
Si elle ne veut pas de lui, il tuera Astyanax. How To? Eh bien, Madame, eh bien ! il faut vous obeir : Il faut vous oublier, ou plutot vous hair . Letter Essay? Oui, mes v?ux ont trop loin pousse leur violence. How To Essay? Pour ne plus s’arreter que dans l’indifference ; Songez-y bien : il faut desormais que mon c?ur, Je n’epargnerai rien dans ma juste colere : Le fils me repondra des mepris de la mere ; La Grece le demande, et je ne pretends pas. Paper Thesis? Mettre toujours ma gloire a sauver des ingrats. How To Study Essay? Andromaque mourra donc avec son fils et rejoindra Hector. Resume For Labourer? Pyrrhus espere encore qu’elle changera d’avis en voyant son fils. Hermione consent a recevoir Oreste bien qu’elle n’ait pas envie de le voir. How To? Cleone, la confidente d’Hermione s’etonne qu’elle ne veuille pas voir celui dont elle esperait le retour et dont elle regrettait « la constance et l’amour » . Resume For Labourer? Hermione craint qu’il ne constate sa situation : rejetant Oreste, elle est rejetee par Pyrrhus.
Cleone la rassure : il l’aime trop pour lui en vouloir. How To? Ah ! dissipez ces indignes alarmes : Il a trop bien senti le pouvoir de vos charmes. Hindu Symbology Essays? Vous croyez qu’un amant vienne vous insulter ? Il vous rapporte un c?ur qu’il n’a pu vous oter. Menelas conseille a Hermione de partir avec les Grecs si Pyrrhus tarde a executer Astyanax et a l’epouser. Essay? Cleone lui conseille d’ecouter Oreste puisque, selon elle, elle hait Pyrrhus. Rated Company That Write Papers? Si je le hais , Cleone ! Il y va de ma gloire, Apres tant de bontes dont il perd la memoire ; Lui qui me fut si cher, et qui m’a pu trahir, Mais Hermione ne peut se resoudre a partir. Study? Malgre les evidences, elle garde encore espoir et elle l’aime encore. Resume? Elle restera au moins pour gener leur hymen et espere que les Grecs lui prendront son fils.
Cleone n’est pas sure qu’Andromaque cherche a concurrencer Hermione et elle s’etonne que son amie s’attache autant a Pyrrhus qui la rejette. Study? Hermione se souvient de l’amour de Pyrrhus. Indian Removal? Puis soudain, pour chasser la pensee de l’ingrat elle consent a recevoir Oreste. How To? Mais c’en est trop, Cleone, et quel que soit Pyrrhus, Hermione est sensible, Oreste a des vertus ; Et peut-etre il saura se faire aimer lui-meme.
Il est justement la. Best For You? Hermione lui demandant s’il vient par tendresse ou par devoir, Oreste reaffirme son amour. Essay? Tel est de mon amour l’aveuglement funeste, Vous le savez, Madame, et le destin d’Oreste. Other? Est de venir sans cesse adorer vos attraits, Et de jurer toujours qu’il n’y viendra jamais. Le regard d’Hermione va raviver les blessures d’ Oreste qui a cherche partout la mort chez les peuples barbares ; ils n’ont pas voulu la lui donner. How To Essay? Il la cherche dans ses yeux. Annuaire? Ils n’ont qu’a lui interdire un reste d’esperance et il en mourra. Study? Hermione lui demande d’abandonner ce « funeste langage » et de revenir a son devoir. Annuaire Des Prothesistes? Mais Pyrrhus l’en a degage en prenant la defense d’Astyanax.
Hermione laisse echapper un cri : « L’infidele ! » Avant de partir, Oreste veut connaitre les sentiments d’Hermione. How To? Elle aussi, dit-elle, a accompli son devoir en obeissant a son pere et elle a souffert comme Oreste d’etre rejetee. D’ailleurs, elle a souhaite le revoir. Letter To Santa Essay? Oreste se remet a esperer. How To Study Essay? C’est Oreste qui lui a appris le pouvoir de l’amour. Hindu Symbology Other? A ses depens, constate Oreste. Essay? Oui, c’est vous dont l’amour , naissant avec leurs charmes, Leur apprit le premier le pouvoir de leurs armes ; Vous que mille vertus me forcaient d’estimer ; Vous que j’ai plaint, enfin que je voudrais aimer . Annuaire Des Prothesistes? Je vous entends. How To Study Essay? Tel est mon partage funeste : Le c?ur est pour Pyrrhus, et les v?ux pour Oreste. Best Company That Write? Ah ! ne souhaitez pas le destin de Pyrrhus : Oreste ne doit pas souhaiter le sort de Pyrrhus : il serait trop hai. Essay? Mais pour Oreste, la haine est plus proche de l’amour que de l’indifference. Indian? Ah ! que vous me verriez d’un regard bien contraire ! Vous me voulez aimer , et je ne puis vous plaire ; Et l’amour seul alors se faisant obeir,
Oreste redit que Pyrrhus est eprise d’une autre femme et reaffirme son propre attachement. How To Study? Hermione ne veut pas le croire puis demande a Oreste de lancer la Grece contre lui. Paper Maker? Allez contre un rebelle armer toute la Grece ; Rapportez-lui le prix de sa rebellion ; Qu’on fasse de l’Epire un second Ilion. How To Essay? Madame, faites plus, et venez-y vous-meme. Letter? Voulez-vous demeurer pour otage en ces lieux, Venez dans tous les c?urs faire parler vos yeux.
Faisons de notre haine une commune attaque. How To Study Essay? Oreste veut qu’Hermione rentre en Grece avec lui mais celle-ci s’inquiete qu’il puisse epouser Andromaque. Letter? Oreste voit bien qu’elle ne peut pas quitter Pyrrhus. How To Essay? L’amour n’est pas un feu qu’on renferme en une ame ; Tout nous trahit, la voix, le silence, les yeux, Et les feux mal couverts n’en eclatent que mieux. Elle s’en defend mais veut tenter une derniere chance : qu’il choisisse entre elle et Astyanax.
Seigneur, je le vois bien, votre ame prevenue. Annuaire? Repand sur mes discours le venin qui la tue, Toujours dans mes raisons cherche quelque detour, Oreste se rejouit a l’idee que Pyrrhus choisisse Andromaque et qu’Hermione parte avec lui. Il voit arriver Pyrrhus. Essay? Pyrrhus cherchait justement Oreste. Symbology? Depuis leur derniere entrevue, il a senti combien il devenait contraire a la Grece et reduisait a neant ce qu’avait fait Achille. How To Study Essay? Il va donc livrer Astyanax. To Santa? Oreste est decontenance.
Pour assurer la paix, Pyrrhus va epouser Hermione et il veut qu’Oreste soit son temoin au nom de tous les Grecs. Study? Pyrrhus prend Ph?nix a temoin de sa victoire sur l’amour. Indian? Celui-ci se rejouit de voir le fils d’Achille plutot que le « jouet d’une flamme servile » . How To Study? Pyrrhus reconnait qu’il a vaincu son pire ennemi : l’amour. Des Prothesistes? Et mon c?ur, aussi fier que tu l’as vu soumis, Il a un instant cru qu’Andromaque allait ceder mais il l’a trouvee encore plus farouche. Pyrrhus essaie de se convaincre de sa domination. Study? Je vois ce qui la flatte : Sa beaute la rassure, et malgre mon courroux, L’orgueilleuse m’attend encore a ses genoux. Annuaire Des Prothesistes? Je la verrais aux miens, Ph?nix, d’un oeil tranquille. Study? Elle est veuve d’Hector, et je suis fils d’Achille : Trop de haine separe Andromaque et Pyrrhus. Letter? Ph?nix lui conseille de ne plus en parler et d’aller proposer le mariage a Hermione en se defiant d’Oreste qui est son rival. How To Essay? Mais Pyrrhus revient sans arret a Andromaque ce qui inquiete Ph?nix qui n’est pas dupe de l’amour de Pyrrhus.
Meme si Pyrrhus pretend le contraire et reaffirme son desir de vengeance et sa volonte de tuer Astyanax. Qui me hait d’autant plus que mon amour la flatte ? Sans parents, sans amis, sans espoir que sur moi ; Je puis perdre son fils, peut-etre je le doi ; Etrangere. Letter Essay? que dis-je ? esclave dans l’Epire, Je lui donne son fils, mon ame, mon empire, Et je ne puis gagner dans son perfide c?ur. How To Study? D’autre rang que celui de son persecuteur ! Non, non, je l’ai jure, ma vengeance est certaine : Il faut bien une fois justifier sa haine , J’abandonne son fils. Removal? Que de pleurs vont couler ! De quel nom sa douleur me va-t-elle appeler ! Quel spectacle pour elle aujourd’hui se dispose ! Elle en mourra, Ph?nix, et j’en serai la cause. How To Essay? C’est lui mettre moi-meme un poignard dans le sein. Hindu Other Essays? Pyrrhus, perdu, s’abandonne a l’avis de Ph?nix. Que doit-il faire ? Ph?nix lui conseille de s’engager aupres d’Hermione.
Pyrrhus y consent. How To? Pylade ne reconnait plus Oreste et lui demande de moderer sa colere. Other Essays? Mais celui-ci ne veut plus ecouter la raison. How To Essay? Il enlevera Hermione. Symbology Other? Qu’au moins Oreste soit prudent et dissimule ses projets. How To Study Essay? Pylade lui demande la cause de son emportement. Oreste lui revele alors les projets de Pyrrhus d’epouser Hermione le lendemain. Hindu? « Il est peut-etre a plaindre autant que je vous plains » dit Pylade.
Mais Oreste pense que Pyrrhus n’epouse Hermione que pour la lui arracher car elle n’attendait qu’un refus pour revenir vers Oreste. Essay? « Vous le croyez ! » dit Pylade qui essaie d’ouvrir les yeux a son ami. Resume? Hermione aime encore Pyrrhus et il doit la fuir. How To Study? Pensez-vous, quand Pyrrhus vous l’aurait accordee, Qu’un pretexte tout pret ne l’eut pas retardee ? M’en croirez-vous ? Lasse de ses trompeurs attraits, Au lieu de l’enlever, fuyez-la pour jamais. Hindu Symbology? Quoi ? votre amour se veut charger d’une furie. How To Study Essay? Qui vous detestera, qui toute votre vie, Regrettant un hymen tout pret a s’achever, En l’enlevant, il veut l’associer a ses souffrances. Pylade regrette le tour que prend la situation. Paper? Voila donc le succes qu’aura votre ambassade : Mais Oreste se desinteresse desormais du sort de la Grece. Essay? Il se lasse des injustices dont les dieux sont responsables et conseille a Pylade de se detourner de lui et de livrer Astyanax aux Grecs. Indian Removal? Par amitie, Pylade consent finalement a enlever Hermione. How To Study Essay? Les vaisseaux sont prets et il connait tous les secrets du palais pour l’enlever facilement.
Oreste remercie son ami et lui demande pardon. Hindu Symbology Other Essays? J’abuse, cher ami, de ton trop d’amitie. Study Essay? Mais pardonne a des maux dont toi seul as pitie ; Excuse un malheureux qui perd tout ce qu’ il aime , Pylade lui demande seulement de ne pas se devoiler et de ne plus penser a Hermione pour le moment. Oreste retrouve Hermione. Best Rated Company That Papers For You? Il est au courant des projets de Pyrrhus. Study? Hermione sait qu’il sera son temoin. Best Rated Write? Elle serait donc d’accord avec cette idee ? Hermione veut croire qu’il a change d’avis et qu’il revient vers elle par crainte des Grecs. Study Essay? Mais pour Oreste, il n’y a aucun doute.
Pyrrhus aime Hermione. Resume? Non, Madame : il vous aime , et je n’en doute plus. Study? Vos yeux ne font-ils pas tout ce qu’ils veulent faire ? Et vous ne vouliez pas sans doute lui deplaire. That Write Papers For You? Hermione donne l’argument bien commode de l’obeissance a ses devoirs de princesse. How To Study? « Chacun peut a son choix disposer de son ame » dit Oreste et son devoir a lui … est de se retirer. Hermione s’etonne qu’Oreste ne soit pas plus en colere.
Selon Cleone, sa douleur est d’autant plus forte qu’elle vient de lui. Best Company That Papers? Elle est rassuree : Pyrrhus ne craint personne : « Il veut tout ce qu’il fait, et s’il m’epouse, il m’aime . How To Study? » Peu importe qu’Oreste lui impute ses douleurs. Resume For Labourer? Cleone voit arriver Andromaque et Cleone conseille a sa maitresse de dissimuler ses emotions. Study? Andromaque, Hermione, Cleone, Cephise. Letter? Andromaque dit a Hermione de ne pas fuir. Study? Elle n’est pas la pour lui disputer l’amour de Pyrrhus. Indian Removal Act Essay? Son amour s’est enfoui dans la tombe d’Hector mais elle veut sauver son fils et elle sollicite d’Hermione la possibilite de pouvoir le cacher dans quelque ile deserte. Hermione pretexte l’obeissance a son pere pour ne pas repondre.
Elle suivra l’avis de Pyrrhus et laisse Andromaque essayer de plaider sa cause. Study? Andromaque est en colere contre Hermione mais Cephise lui conseille de voir Pyrrhus. Best Papers For You? Pyrrhus, Andromaque, Ph?nix, Cephise. How To? Apres un temps d’hesitation reciproque, Andromaque et Pyrrhus s’affrontent a nouveau. Resume For Labourer? Andromaque se propose comme victime des Grecs a la place de son fils. How To Study? Pyrrhus lui rappelle qu’elle n’a pas demande sa grace quand elle pouvait encore etre accordee. For Labourer? Andromaque est prete a tomber a genoux devant lui. Study? Pyrrhus est conscient de sa haine et de son mepris. Non, vous me haissez ; et dans le fond de l’ame.
Vous craignez de devoir quelque chose a ma flamme. Best Rated Company For You? Ce fils meme, ce fils, l’objet de tant de soins, Si je l’avais sauve, vous l’en aimeriez moins. Study? La haine , le mepris, contre moi tout s’assemble ; Vous me haissez plus que tous les Grecs ensemble. Annuaire? Jouissez a loisir d’un si noble courroux. How To? Alors que Pyrrhus semble resolu a partir, Andromaque ne sait plus que faire. Act Essay? Sa famille est morte, son fils seul lui reste, elle avait cru que sa prison deviendrait son asile et avait espere un ennemi plus magnanime. How To Study? Mais au moins que la mort ne la separe pas de son fils. Pyrrhus demande a Phoenix d’aller l’attendre. Research Maker? Pyrrhus a change d’avis. How To Study? Il peut lui rendre le fils qu’elle pleure et veut qu’ils cessent de se hair. Rated Company That? C’est lui maintenant qui la convie a sauver son fils.
Il est pret a renvoyer Hermione et a couronner Andromaque a sa place. Study? Andromaque doit maintenant se decider. Annuaire? Mais ce n’est plus, Madame, une offre a dedaigner : Je vous le dis, il faut ou perir ou regner. Mon c?ur, desespere d’un an study d’ingratitude, Ne peut plus de son sort souffrir l’incertitude. Paper Thesis? C’est craindre, menacer et gemir trop longtemps. How To Study? Je meurs si je vous perds, mais je meurs si j’attends. Removal Act Essay? Alors que Cephise se rejouit de cette victoire et conseille a Andromaque d’accepter cette solution qu’Hector ne lui reprocherait pas, Andromaque manifeste beaucoup moins d’enthousiasme a l’idee de ce mariage. How To Essay? Elle n’oublie pas la mort d’Hector, de Priam, la nuit funeste pour Troie, le carnage perpetre par Pyrrhus, sa propre souffrance. Best Rated Company Papers? Elle ne veut pas devenir la complice de ces crimes et prefere mourir.
Cephise s’apprete donc a accompagner Andromaque a son sacrifice. How To Study? Mais le souvenir et les dernieres paroles d’Hector font vaciller la determination d’Andromaque. Best Company That Write Papers? Elle doit sauver son fils. Study? Roi barbare, faut-il que mon crime l’entraine ? Mais elle peine a donner des instructions claires a Cephise qui lui demande quelle reponse elle doit donner a Pyrrhus. Maker? Andromaque veut aller sur le tombeau d’Hector pour le consulter.
Cephise se rejouit d’une decision que lui a dictee Hector et qui sauvera son fils. Essay? Pyrrhus se dresse desormais contre les Grecs en prenant la defense d’Astyanax et les preparatifs ont commence au temple. Company That Papers? Andromaque veut d’abord aller voir son fils… pour la derniere fois. Study Essay? Nouvelle surprise de Cephise. Andromaque reproche a sa confidente de mal la connaitre.
Mais j’ai cru qu’a mon tour tu me connaissais mieux. Best Rated Company Papers? Quoi donc ? as-tu pense qu’Andromaque infidele. How To? Put trahir un epoux qui croit revivre en elle, Et que de tant de morts reveillant la douleur, Le soin de mon repos me fit troubler le leur ? Elle sauvera son fils en epousant Pyrrhus mais aussitot elle se tuera. Resume? J e vais, en recevant sa foi sur les autels, L’engager a mon fils par des n?uds immortels. How To Study Essay? Mais aussitot ma main, a moi seule funeste, D’une infidele vie abregera le reste, Et sauvant ma vertu, rendra ce que je doi. Indian Removal? A Pyrrhus, a mon fils, a mon epoux, a moi. Study Essay? Andromaque defend a Cephise de la suivre dans la mort. Elle lui confie le soin de s’occuper d’Astyanax, de veiller a ce que Pyrrhus tienne sa promesse, de l’eduquer dans le souvenir des heros troyens et de ses parents en renoncant a se venger. Annuaire? Elle demande enfin a Cephise de ne pas la trahir par ses larmes. How To Essay? Cleone s’etonne du silence d’Hermione alors meme que Pyrrhus vient de decider d’epouser Andromaque. Resume For Labourer? Elle redoute meme « un calme si funeste » . Study? Oreste arrive.
Oreste lui demande s’il est vrai qu’Hermione a souhaite sa presence. Hindu Symbology? Elle veut savoir s’il l’aime et s’il est pret a la venger. La reponse ne fait aucun doute. Essay? Je veux savoir, Seigneur, si vous m’aimez . Annuaire? Si je vous aime ? o dieux ! Mes serments, mes parjures, Ma fuite, mon retour, mes respects, mes injures, Mon desespoir, mes yeux de pleurs toujours noyes, Quels temoins croirez-vous, si vous ne les croyez ? Oreste est pret a allumer une nouvelle guerre (ou Hermione serait Helene et lui Agamemnon). Study Essay? Mais ce n’est pas une guerre que veut Hermione. Letter? Elle veut qu’Oreste court au temple et tue Pyrrhus. How To Study? Oreste hesite.
Il veut bien de la vengeance mais pas du crime. Resume For Labourer? Il doit rendre des comptes a la Grece. How To Study? Mais Hermione insiste. Best Company Papers? Si Oreste ne le tue pas maintenant, elle risque de lui pardonner ou de l’aimer a nouveau. Study? Oreste cede alors. Paper Statement Maker? Il agira cette nuit. How To Study? Mais c’est de jour que Pyrrhus va epouser Andromaque. For Labourer? Il doit frapper au plus vite. How To Essay? Oreste hesite encore et Hermione s’impatiente de ses raisonnements.
Il se plaint de ne pas etre aime et ne fait rien pour elle. Rated Write For You? Elle ira donc au temple et elle tuera elle-meme avant de se suicider. Et tout ingrat qu’il est, il me sera plus doux. How To? De mourir avec lui que de vivre avec vous. Research Thesis Maker? Oreste agira donc.
Cleone s’inquiete de la decision d’Hermione. Essay? Celle-ci veut etre sure que Pyrrhus sache qu’il mourra par haine d’Hermione et non par l’Etat. Letter To Santa? Va le trouver : dis-lui qu’il apprenne a l’ingrat. How To Study Essay? Qu’on l’immole a ma haine , et non pas a l’Etat. Chere Cleone, cours : ma vengeance est perdue. Essay? S’il ignore en mourant que c’est moi qui le tue. How To Study Essay? Alors que Cleone voit arriver Pyrrhus, Hermione lui demande de rejoindre Oreste. Annuaire Des Prothesistes? Pyrrhus explique le sens de sa visite. How To? Il ne veut pas essayer d’excuser son acte. Letter Essay? Il va epouser Andromaque.
Menelas et Achille avaient decide de leur union sans amour. Essay? Pyrrhus a d’abord accepte cette decision et essaye de l’assumer. Mais Andromaque lui « arrache un c?ur qu’ elle deteste » et ils vont se marier. Removal Act Essay? Il comprend qu’Hermione puisse laisse eclater sa colere. How To Study? Hermione l’accuse d’etre criminel et perfide, traitre et parjure. Annuaire Des Prothesistes? Elle rappelle qu’il a tue le vieux Priam, pere d’Hector et Polyxene, sa plus jeune s?ur. How To? Pyrrhus reconnait ses exces mais il veut oublier le passe et il ne croit pas qu’ils se soient jamais aimes : « Il faut se croire aime pour se croire infidele. Act Essay? » Hermione proteste. Study Essay? Elle l’a aime et a renonce a tout pour lui, elle a resiste a ses infidelites. For Labourer? Et aujourd’hui encore elle se demande si elle ne l’aime pas encore. How To Essay? Je ne t’ai point aime , cruel ? Qu’ai-je donc fait ? J’ai dedaigne pour toi les v?ux de tous nos princes ; Je t’ai cherche moi-meme au fond de tes provinces ; J’y suis encor, malgre tes infidelites, Et malgre tous mes Grecs honteux de mes bontes.
Je leur ai commande de cacher mon injure ; J’attendais en secret le retour d’un parjure ; J’ai cru que tot ou tard, a ton devoir rendu, Tu me rapporterais un c?ur qui m’etait du. Company Write For You? Je t’aimais inconstant, qu’aurais-je fait fidele ? Et meme en ce moment ou ta bouche cruelle. Study Essay? Vient si tranquillement m’annoncer le trepas. Hindu Essays? ingrat, je doute encor si je ne t'aime pas. How To Study? S’il doit epouser Andromaque, qu’il le fasse mais qu’il differe de mariage d’un jour. Les dieux n’ont pas oublie qu’il etait lie a Hermione.
Phoenix conseille a Pyrrhus de ne pas negliger la colere d’Hermione qui est aimee par Oreste. Resume For Labourer? Mais Pyrrhus pense deja a Andromaque et demande a Cephise de garder Astyanax. How To Study? Hermione est desemparee : « Ah ! ne puis-je savoir si j’aime ou si je hais ? » Elle souffre de la facon dont Pyrrhus l’a congediee. Removal Act Essay? Et pourtant, elle tremble deja du coup qui va le frapper mais elle se ravise aussitot : « Qu’il perisse ! » Sa colere contre « le perfide » redouble. How To Study? Il se moque d’elle et croit qu’elle retiendra sa main. Annuaire? Elle va laisser agir Oreste. How To Essay? « Sa mort sera l’effet de l’amour d’Hermione » . Rated Company That Write Papers? N’a-t-elle donc traverse les mers que pour assassiner ce prince dont elle a d’abord entendu les exploits avant de lui etre destinee. Essay? Cleone commente les evenements. Letter To Santa? Elle a vu Pyrrhus mener au temple, au milieu de mille cris de joie, une Andromaque « incapable toujours d’ aimer et de hair » . Study? Hermione veut savoir comment a reagi Pyrrhus et s’il etait trouble.
Sans penser a autre chose, Pyrrhus a range sa garde autour d’Astyanax que Phoenix a conduit dans un fort eloigne du temple. Research Paper Statement Maker? Oreste est alors entre dans le temple. Hermione est impatiente et veut savoir si Oreste a accompli son geste fatale. How To Study Essay? Non, car s’il aime Hermione, il respecte aussi Pyrrhus. Resume For Labourer? Hermione le traite de lache en evoquant le souvenir d’Helene. How To Essay? Elle agira donc elle-meme. Annuaire? Mais Oreste vient annoncer la mort de Pyrrhus. How To Essay? Il raconte la scene : Pyrrhus l’a vu entrer dans le temple, il a pose le diademe sur la tete d’Andromaque en se posant en protecteur d’Astyanax « roi des Troyens » . Letter Essay? A ces mots, tout le monde s’est rue sur lui. Oreste n’a « pu trouver de place pour l’abattre » ; il est venu en hate chercher Hermione pour fuir avec elle. Study Essay? Mais Hermione le rejette et lui reproche cet assassinat.
Oreste ne comprend pas : c’est bien ce qu’elle lui a demande de faire ? Hermione se contredit : ce n’est pas ce que son c?ur voulait et c’etait a elle d’agir. Letter To Santa Essay? Ah ! fallait-il en croire une amante insensee ? Ne devais-tu pas lire au fond de ma pensee ? Et ne voyais-tu pas, dans mes emportements, Que mon c?ur dementait ma bouche a tous moments ? Quand je l’aurais voulu, fallait-il y souscrire ? N’as-tu pas du cent fois te le faire redire ? Toi-meme avant le coup me venir consulter, Y revenir encore, ou plutot m’eviter ? Que ne me laissais-tu le soin de ma vengeance ? Qui t’amene en des lieux ou l’on fuit ta presence ? Elle le rend responsable de ce qui s’est passe : c’est a cause de son ambassade que Pyrrhus s’est tourne vers Andromaque. How To Study Essay? Elle restera en Epire et traite Oreste de monstre. Removal? Oreste est effondre. How To Study Essay? Il ne comprend pas. Indian Removal? Il a tout fait pour elle : assassiner un roi qu’il revere, violer les droits d’un souverain, des ambassadeurs, des humains. Il est devenu parricide, assassin, sacrilege pour une ingrate. How To? « Elle l’aime ! » et s’eloigne de lui.
Pylade vient lui rappeler qu’ils doivent partir rapidement. Indian? Tout le peuple, desormais soumis a leur reine Andromaque, est desormais a leur poursuite. Study Essay? Andromaque, en epouse fidele, rend tous les devoirs a Pyrrhus et veut qu’on le venge. Resume For Labourer? Mais Oreste veut suivre Hermione qui retient la foule. How To Study? Pylade apprend alors a Oreste qu’Hermione est morte.
En voyant le cadavre de Pyrrhus, elle s’est poignardee. Act Essay? Mais du haut de la porte enfin nous l’avons vue. How To Essay? Un poignard a la main sur Pyrrhus se courber, Lever les yeux au ciel, se frapper et tomber. Annuaire Des Prothesistes? Oreste veut mourir a son tour. Il sombre dans la folie, croyant voir Pyrrhus a la place de Pylade et Hermione qui l’embrasse. Study? Pylade l’emmene. Paper Maker? Yassine 09/12/2015 01:22. How To Essay? J'aimerais bien savoir si ce qui a ete presente au dessus peut etre vu comme un cours complet? POT ETHIQUE A LENTS TICS 09/12/2015 14:17. Rated That Write? Assurement non.
Ces documents ne sont qu'une aide a la lecture et a la revision mais ne remplacent ni la lecture integrale des ?uvres ni l'attention et la participation aux cours que dispensent les professeurs de CPGE et les travaux qu'ils proposent. Bon courage. How To? BM.
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Chapter 33. Data Organization Utilities. IN THIS CHAPTER. The LOAD Utility. The UNLOAD Utility. The REORG Utility. The data organization utilities affect the physical data sets of the DB2 objects for which they are run. Rows of how to data and their sequence are affected by these utilities. The data organization utilities are LOAD , UNLOAD , and REORG . The LOAD utility is run by indicating a table to which new rows will be applied. UNLOAD reads rows from a table and puts them into letter to santa an output data set. REORG is run at the table space or index level, moving data to optimal locations in the data set.
The LOAD utility is used to how to essay, accomplish bulk inserts to annuaire, DB2 tables. It can add rows to how to study, a table, retaining the symbology other, current data, or it can replace existing rows with the new data. There are two distinct philosophies regarding the use of the LOAD utility. The first and generally recommended philosophy takes more time to implement but is easier to support. It requires the reservation of sufficient DASD to catalog the LOAD work data sets in how to, case the annuaire des prothesistes, LOAD job abends. The work data sets for the LOAD job are allocated for the DDNAME s SORTOUT , SYSUT1 , SYSERR , and how to study essay SYSMAP with DISP=(MOD,DELETE,CATLG) . This enables the data sets to rated papers for you, be allocated as new for the initial running of the REORG job.
If the job abends, it catalogs the how to essay, data sets in case they can be used in a restart. After the step completes successfully, the data sets are deleted. The space for these data sets must be planned and available before the LOAD job runs. The data set for des prothesistes SYSDISC should be allocated specifying DISP=(NEW, CATLG, CATLG) . How To Essay? If there are discards, the thesis maker, LOAD utility returns a RC=4 , and it does not abend. An additional step can be added after the LOAD to detect discards and notify the appropriate personnel that discards were encountered . By creating your LOAD job with this philosophy, you can restart an abending LOAD job with little effort after the cause of the abend has been corrected (see Listing 33.1). How To Essay? You simply specify one of the research statement maker, RESTART options in the UTPROC parameter for DSNUTILB . The sort work data sets need to be assigned in the JCL only if sort work data sets are not dynamically allocated.
Additionally, you should consider explicitly defining sort work data sets when loading very large tables. The second philosophy is easier to implement but more difficult to support. No additional disk space is required because all LOAD work data sets are temporary. Study Essay? Therefore, all interim work data sets are lost when the job abends. See Listing 33.2 for sample JCL. Listing 33.2. LOAD JCL (Nonrestartable) To restart this LOAD job, you must determine in which phase the job abended. Research Paper Thesis Maker? If the job abends in how to study essay, any phase of a LOAD REPLACE , you can simply terminate the utility and rerun. This can incur significant overhead for reprocessing data needlessly.
If the first philosophy is used, reprocessing is usually avoided. For a LOAD RESUME(YES) , however, if the job abends in any phase other than UTILINIT , you must restore the other, table space for the table being loaded to a previous point in time. How To Study? This can be accomplished by research thesis maker running the study essay, RECOVER TOCOPY utility or by running a full RECOVER if the LOG NO option of the LOAD utility was specified. To Santa? After restoring the table space (and possibly its associated indexes), you must correct the cause of the abend, terminate the utility, and then rerun the job. As you can see, this method is how to essay, significantly more difficult to restart than the first method.
Try to use the first philosophy rather than the resume, second. This makes recovery from how to essay, error situations as smooth and painless as possible. Estimating LOAD Work Data Set Sizes. The LOAD utility requires work data sets to load data into to santa DB2 tables. The following formulas can help you calculate estimated sizes for these work data sets. More complex and precise calculations are in the DB2 Command and Utility Reference manual, but these formulas should produce comparable results. If any number in the SORTOUT calculation is 0, substitute 1. The multiplier 1.2 is factored into the calculation to provide a fudge factor.
If you are absolutely sure of your numbers , the calculation can be made more precise by eliminating the additional multiplication of study essay 1.2. If any number in the SYSUT1 calculation is 0, substitute 1. Letter Essay? The multiplier 1.2 is factored into the calculation to provide a fudge factor. If you are absolutely sure of your numbers, the calculation can be made more precise by eliminating the additional multiplication of how to essay 1.2. Always allocate the SYSERR data set to be at least 1 cylinder. The SYSMAP data set is required if either of the following is true: Discard processing is requested . The table space is for labourer, segmented or partitioned. The space requirements for SYSDISC may be prohibitive if disk space is at a premium at your shop. Instead of allocating the SYSDISC data set as large as the data being loaded, consider using a small primary quantity and a larger secondary quantity ”for example: Although the SYSDISC data set is study, optional, specifying it is highly recommended to trap records that cannot be loaded. After calculating the estimated size in bytes for each work data set, convert the number into cylinders , rounding up to the next whole cylinder.
Allocating work data sets in cylinder increments enhances the utility's performance. There are nine possible phases of the indian act essay, LOAD utility: Sets up and initializes the LOAD utility. Reads the how to, sequential data set specified as input and loads the annuaire des prothesistes, data to the specified table. Essay? This phase also populates the data set associated with the SYSUT1 DD with index and foreign key data. The compression dictionary is research paper thesis maker, rebuilt in this step for how to study essay COMPRESS YES table spaces. Letter To Santa Essay? The copy pending flag is study, reset at the end of this phase if an inline copy is produced (unless the SORTKEYS parameter is specified).
Sorts the index and foreign key data using the data sets assigned to the SORTOUT and SORTWK xx DD statements. Builds indexes and identifies duplicate keys, placing the hindu symbology essays, error information in SYSERR . The recovery pending flag is reset for all non-unique indexes. The copy pending flag is reset at the end of how to this phase if an inline copy is paper statement, produced unless the SORTKEYS parameter is specified. When parallel index build is specified ( SORTKEYS ), the SORT and BUILD phases are performed in how to study essay, the SORTBLD phase instead. Reads the SYSERR data set to correct unique index violations. Paper Statement? The recovery pending flag is reset for study essay all unique indexes. Checks foreign keys for conformance to referential constraints and stores the error information in SYSERR . Resets check pending flag for table space. Reads the SYSERR information to correct referential constraint violations and hindu other essays places the erroneous records in the SYSDISC data set. Sends reports of unique index violations and referential constraint violations to SYSPRINT . Performs the final utility cleanup. The SORT phase will be skipped if the RELOAD phase analyzes the data and determines that the how to, SORT phase is not needed. Creating an Inline Copy During the LOAD.
It is annuaire, possible to create a full image copy data set during the essay, execution of the LOAD utility. This is referred to as an inline COPY . The image copy will be a SHRLEVEL REFERENCE copy. There are two major benefits of des prothesistes taking an inline copy. The first is that a second pass of the data is how to, not required to create a DB2 image copy. The second benefit is that the thesis maker, table space into which the data is being loaded will not be placed into how to study a copy pending state when inline copy is specified, even if the LOG NO option is specified. To create an inline copy, use the best that write, COPYDDN and RECOVERYDDN keywords. You can specify up to two primary and how to essay two secondary copies.
Gathering Inline Statistics During the LOAD. You also can generate statistics during the execution of the LOAD utility. This is referred to letter to santa, as inline RUNSTATS . Up-to-date statistics will be generated during the LOAD instead of requiring an additional RUNSTATS step. How To Study Essay? To generate inline RUNSTATS , use the STATISTICS keyword. You can gather table space statistics, index statistics, or both. If you specify both the resume, DISCARDDN and STATISTICS options, the inline statistics collected during the LOAD may be inaccurate. When a row is found with check constraint errors or conversion errors, the row is not loaded into the table, so DB2 will not collect statistics for it.
So far, so good. However, the essay, LOAD utility will collect inline statistics before discarding rows that violate unique constraints and referential constraints. Hindu Other? Therefore, when the how to essay, number of rows that violate RI and unique constraints is high, the statistics could be quite imprecise. If a significant number of rows are discarded, you should consider executing the RUNSTATS utility on the table after the discarded data has been verified as wrong or corrected. Loading Delimited Input Data Sets. As of DB2 V8, the research paper thesis maker, IBM LOAD utility can load data from an input data set in delimited format.
In a delimited input data set, each column is separated from the next column by a delimiter character. Additionally, all the fields in the input data file must be character strings or external numeric values. Accepting delimited input data sets allows the LOAD utility to study essay, recognize and load data from a large number of data sources. As long as each field is properly delimited by a specific character, the LOAD utility can be used to load the data into a DB2 table. When loading delimited data, you cannot specify CONTINUEIF , INCURSOR , WHEN , or multiple INTO TABLE statements. The default delimiter character is a comma, but it can be changed using the COLDEL parameter. The delimiter character can be specified as either a regular character or hexadecimal character. When you specify the delimiter character, be sure to verify that the character is specified in for labourer, the code page of the how to essay, source data. Furthermore, if the resume for labourer, utility control parameter is coded in how to study essay, a different character type than the input file, specify the COLDEL in hex or the result can be unpredictable. Research Paper Thesis Statement? For example, specify the delimiter as a hex constant if the utility control statement is coded in EBCDIC and the input data is ASCII or Unicode. When loading a delimited input file, you might also want to essay, specify a character string delimiter and annuaire des prothesistes a decimal point character.
The default character string delimiter is the study essay, double quote character ( ) but can be set to another character using the CHARDEL parameter. You must specify a character string delimiter only if the data to be loaded contains the character string delimiter. Though not required, you can put the best rated company that for you, character string delimiters around other character strings. To load a string containing the character delimiter character, you must double up the study, character. For example, code the following to LOAD a string containing: He told me You look well and I liked it. Finally, you can change the decimal point character, too. This is done using the DECPT parameter. The default is a period, but some countries use a comma. Therefore, you can change the decimal point character to research paper thesis maker, another character of your choice using DECPT . The LOAD utility can be restarted.
The restart or rerun procedure is determined by the abending phase of the LOAD step. There are two ways to determine the phase in which the abend occurred. The first method is to issue the DISPLAY UTILITY command to determine which utilities are currently active, stopped , or terminating in the DB2 system. The format of the command is. The second method to determine the abending phase is to view the SYSPRINT DD statement of the LOAD step.
This method is not as desirable as the first, but it is the only method you can use when the study essay, DB2 system is down. At the completion of each phase, DB2 prints a line stating that the phase has completed. You can assume that the phase immediately following the last phase reported complete in the SYSPRINT DD statement is the phase that was executing when the abend occurred. After determining the phase of the LOAD utility at the time of the abend, follow the steps outlined here to restart or rerun the load. In the following procedures, it is essay, assumed that your LOAD utility processing is generally restartable. If the abend occurred in the UTILINIT phase.
Determine the cause of the abend. An abend in this step is essay, usually caused by another utility executing with the same UID or a utility that is incompatible with another utility currently executing. Resolve the cause of the abend. An abend in this phase is probably due to improper job scheduling. Best Rated Company Write For You? Issue the DISPLAY UTILITY command to determine which utilities are currently in process for the DB2 system. Resolve the scheduling problem by allowing conflicting utilities to complete before proceeding to step 3. Use the SORTDEVT clause to dynamically create the SORTWKxx data sets someplace else. Restart the job at how to study, the LOAD step. If the abend occurred in the RELOAD phase.
Determine the resume for labourer, cause of the abend. An abend in how to, this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSUT1 DD statement. Another cause is that the indian removal, VSAM data set associated with the table space has run out of available DASD space. Resolve the cause of the abend. If the problem is an study essay out-of-space abend (B37) on the SYSUT1 DD statement, the data set associated with that DD statement will have been cataloged. Annuaire Des Prothesistes? Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSUT1 data set to essay, the new data set, delete the original SYSUT1 data set, and rename the new data set to resume for labourer, the same name as the original SYSUT1 data set. If the problem is an how to out-of-space abend on the VSAM data set containing the table space being reloaded, contact the DBA or DASD support unit. This situation can be corrected by adding another volume to the STOGROUP being used; using IDCAMS to redefine the to santa essay, VSAM data set, move the VSAM data set, or both; or altering the primary space allocation quantity for the index, the secondary space allocation quantity for the index, or both. Restart the job at how to study, the LOAD step with a temporary JCL change to resume for labourer, alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART . Although LOAD can be restarted normally within the RELOAD phase if SORTKEYS is not used, it will restart from the beginning of the RELOAD phase if SORTKEYS is used.
If the abend occurred in the SORT phase. Determine the cause of the abend. The predominant causes are insufficient sort work space or insufficient space allocations for the SORTOUT DD statement. Resolve the cause of the abend. Study Essay? If the problem is insufficient space on the sort work or SORTOUT DD statements, simply increase the allocations and write papers for you proceed to how to study, step 3. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART(PHASE) . If the abend occurred in the BUILD phase. Determine the cause for the abend. An abend in that, this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSERR DD statement. Another cause is that the VSAM data set associated with the index space has run out of available DASD space.
Resolve the cause of the abend. If the how to study, problem is an out-of-space abend (B37) on the SYSERR DD statement, the data set associated with the DD statement will have been cataloged. Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSERR data set to the new data set, delete the original SYSERR data set, and hindu essays rename the new data set to the same name as the original SYSERR data set. If the problem is an out-of-space abend on the VSAM data set containing the index space being reloaded, contact the DBA or DASD support unit. This situation can be corrected by how to adding another volume to the STOGROUP being used; using IDCAMS to redefine the VSAM data set, move the VSAM data set, or both; or altering the primary space allocation quantity for the index, the essay, secondary space allocation quantity for the index, or both. If LOAD was run using the REPLACE option, restart the study essay, job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART(PHASE) . If LOAD was run using the RESUME YES option, the LOAD is not restartable.
Terminate the LOAD utility and rebuild the indexes using the RECOVER INDEX utility. When the SORTKEYS parameter is used and the LOAD utility terminates during the RELOAD , SORT , or BUILD phases, both RESTART and for labourer RESTART(PHASE) restart from the beginning of the RELOAD phase. If the how to essay, abend occurred in the INDEXVAL phase. Determine the write papers for you, cause of the abend. Abends in this phase are rare. How To? The INDEXVAL phase is run only when unique indexes exist for the table being loaded. Resolve the cause of the paper, abend. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary JCL change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART(PHASE) . If the abend occurred in the ENFORCE phase. Determine the cause for the abend.
An abend in essay, this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSERR DD statement. The ENFORCE phase is optional and is not always run. Resolve the cause of the abend. Des Prothesistes? If the problem is an out-of-space abend ( B37 ) on the SYSERR DD statement, the how to essay, data set associated with that DD statement will have been cataloged. Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSERR data set to the new data set, delete the original SYSERR data set, and rename the new data set to the same name as the original SYSERR data set. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART . If the abend occurred in the DISCARD phase. Determine the indian act essay, cause for the abend.
An abend in this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSDISC DD statement. The DISCARD phase is optional and is not always run. Resolve the cause of the abend. If the problem is an out-of-space abend ( B37 ) on the SYSDISC DD statement, the data set associated with that DD statement will have been cataloged. Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSDISC data set to the new data set, delete the original SYSDISC data set, and how to essay rename the new data set to the same name as the original SYSDISC data set. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART . If the abend occurred in the REPORT phase. Determine the cause for the abend. Abends in the REPORT phase are rare. The REPORT phase is run only if the INDEXVAL , ENFORCE , or DISCARD phases encounter any errors.
Sometimes the cause for an abend in this phase is insufficient space allocated to the sort work data sets because the report is sorted by error type and input sequence. Resolve the letter to santa essay, cause of the abend. If the problem was caused by insufficient space on the sort work or SORTOUT DD statements, simply increase the allocations and proceed to how to study essay, step 3. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART(PHASE) . If the abend occurred in the UTILTERM phase. An abend in this phase is unlikely because all the research paper maker, work required for the load has been completed. A problem at this phase means that DB2 cannot terminate the utility. Terminate the DB2 utility by issuing the TERM UTILITY command. The format of the command is.
If the how to essay, LOAD utility work data sets associated with this job were cataloged as a result of the abend, uncatalog them and resume for labourer force the job's completion. The LOAD utility can run concurrently with the study, following utilities (each accessing the same object): DIAGNOSE , REPORT , and STOSPACE . The LOAD utility will drain all claim classes for the table space or partition being loaded and any associated indexes, index partitions, and logical index partitions. Furthermore, if the ENFORCE option is specified, LOAD will drain the write claim class for the primary key index. Partitions are treated as separate objects; therefore, utilities can run concurrently on separate partitions of the same object. Prior to rated that for you, DB2 V7, to load a partitioned table space by partition, a separate, dedicated LOAD job needed to be set up for each partition. Even then, the separate jobs, when run at the same time, can run into contention with NPIs. As of DB2 V7, though, partitions can be loaded in parallel within a single LOAD job and NPI contention is reduced. An additional benefit of parallel loading is that the study, input data need not be broken out into separate data sets. And the same goes for the error data set and mapping data set. Of course, you can set up your LOAD utility job to load each partition from for labourer, a separate data set, with a separate discards data set for each partition, too. This is accomplished using the INDDN and how to study the DISCARDDN keywords to set up the appropriate data sets.
Be aware that the resume, INDDN and DISCARDDN options can only be specified if the PART keyword is also specified. They cannot be used with segmented or simple table spaces. The actual number of essay parallel RELOAD tasks to be run is determined by the number of annuaire CPUs, the availability of virtual storage, and the number of study essay available DB2 threads. When the LOAD utility builds indexes in parallel rather than sequentially, overall elapsed time for the LOAD job can be reduced. For LOAD to build indexes in parallel, the first condition, of course, is for labourer, that there be more than one index defined for the table being loaded. If that is the how to study essay, case, the SORTKEYS clause must be specified with an estimate for the number of keys, and sort work data sets must be allocated to the LOAD job (either explicitly or dynamically). As of DB2 V7, you can use the LOAD utility with the SHRLEVEL CHANGE parameter to des prothesistes, load data into a table while users concurrently access the existing data.
This feature is commonly referred to as an online LOAD resume. Previously, running the LOAD utility made the table data unavailable. Of course, you could always code a program to insert the data, but that is not very efficient or simple. Online loading will work using normal SQL INSERT s. The LOAD will perform normal claim processing and no drains. But all normal SQL processing activities will occur. This means that in this case, LOAD will cause INSERT triggers to be fired and referential constraints to be checked. When running the LOAD utility consider applying the following tips, tricks, and techniques. When index keys are not already in sorted order and indexes exist on the table into which data is being loaded, consider using the study essay, SORTKEYS keyword. When SORTKEYS is specified, index keys are sorted in memory, rather than being written to work files. This can improve performance by:
Eliminating the expensive I/O operations to disk. Reducing the space requirements for the SYSUT1 and SORTOUT data sets. Reducing elapsed time from the start of the reload phase to to santa, the end of the build phase. An estimate of the number of keys to be sorted can be supplied. This is optional, but recommended because the how to essay, extracted keys will be written to a work data set, minimizing the annuaire, efficiency gains of essay using the SORTKEYS parameter. To estimate the hindu symbology essays, number of keys to sort, use the following calculation: If more than one table is being loaded, the study essay, preceding calculation must be repeated for each table ”the sum of the results is used. As of DB2 V7, when loading partitions in parallel along with SORTKEYS DB2 supports multiple RELOAD tasks piping their key/RID pairs to the SORT / BUILD subtasks (one per index). The number of tasks that can be supported is roughly equal to the number of partitions. But when SORTKEYS is specified and some tasks are allocated for reloading, other tasks need to be allocated for sorting index keys and for building indexes in parallel. Symbology? Thus the number of how to study RELOAD tasks may be reduced in order to improve the act essay, overall performance of the how to study essay, entire LOAD job.
Avoid the LOAD Utility for Tables with Triggers. You may wish to avoid using the LOAD utility to add data to any table on which you have defined an INSERT trigger. Triggers do not fire during LOAD , so loading a table this way may cause data integrity problems. Instead, code a program to insert the data as needed because INSERT will cause the trigger to fire appropriately. Of course, this caveat does not apply to an online LOAD resume, because the LOAD utility will perform normal SQL INSERT s, thereby firing triggers as desired.
Consider Serializing Loads for Tables in the Same Database. The LOAD utility is sensitive to concurrent processing. If concurrent loading of paper tables in the same databases takes too long, consider serializing the LOAD jobs for those tables. Typical symptoms involve LOAD jobs that timeout or languish in the UTILINIT phase until the RELOAD phase of other concurrent LOAD jobs is finished. Consider assigning tables needing to be loaded concurrently to different databases to avoid this problem. Another approach is to assign only how to one table per annuaire database. Use LOAD to Append or Replace Rows. You can use LOAD to replace data in how to study, a table by specifying the REPLACE option. Maker? LOAD also can append new data to a table, leaving current data intact, by specifying the RESUME(YES) option. Choose the appropriate option based on your data loading needs.
Use the LOAD utility, specifying an empty input data set (or DD DUMMY ), to delete all rows from a non-segmented table space. Essay? This is letter to santa, called a mass delete . LOAD is usually more efficient than DELETE SQL without a WHERE clause. Specifying the LOG NO option to avoid logging data changes will further enhance the performance of the mass delete. Note, however, the following considerations: If multiple tables are assigned to a simple table space, the LOAD utility deletes all rows for study all tables in that table space. Consider loading a DUMMY data set even for segmented table spaces if a large amount of data must be deleted. Symbology Other? Because DB2 logging can be avoided during a LOAD , the LOAD utility can be substantially faster than the improved mass delete algorithms used by segmented table spaces. To enhance the performance of the LOAD utility, use a fixed blocked input data set rather than a variable blocked data set. Buffer the Work Data Sets Appropriately. For large loads, set the BUFNO parameter in study essay, the JCL for the SYSUT1 DD statement to a number greater than 20.
A BUFNO of approximately 20 is recommended for des prothesistes medium- sized indexes, and how to essay a BUFNO between 50 and 100 is recommended for hindu other larger tables. The BUFNO parameter creates read and study write buffers in main storage for the data set, thereby enhancing the performance of the LOAD utility. Indian Removal Act Essay? The default for BUFNO is 8 for DB2 V3 and 20 for DB2 V4. Ensure that sufficient memory (real or expanded) is available, however, before increasing the BUFNO specification for your LOAD utility data sets. Enforce RI During Table Loading When Possible. Favor using the ENFORCE option of the how to, LOAD utility to enforce referential constraints instead of running CHECK DATA after the LOAD completes. It is usually more efficient to process the rated company that for you, loaded data once, as it is loaded, than to process the data twice, once to study, load it and once to indian removal act essay, check it. If LOAD with the RESUME(YES) option was executed, new data has been added to the table. However, if ENFORCE was not specified and a subsequent CHECK DATA is run, CHECK DATA will check the entire table, not just the new data. Ensure That LOAD Input Data Sets Are in Key Sequence.
Favor sorting the LOAD input data set into sequence by the columns designated in the clustering index. Be sure to sort the how to study, data in the appropriate sequence, either ascending or descending, depending on company that for you how the index was defined. Otherwise, the study essay, LOAD utility does not load data in clustering order, and the table space and indexes will be inefficiently organized. When the index key is null, it should be treated as high values for sorting purposes. If you use DFSORT to sort the input data before loading, consider invoking the SORT DEDUPE option. Doing so not only can decrease the size of the file passed to the LOAD step, but it can minimize or eliminate LOAD discard processing. Removing duplicates in company that write papers for you, DFSORT can improve performance because of the different ways that DFSORT and the LOAD utility handle duplicates. Study Essay? When DFSORT encounters duplicates, it sends one of the letter essay, values to the output file then discards the remaining duplicates. When the how to, LOAD utility encounters duplicates in the input file, it sends all of the duplicates to the discard file. Consider the indian act essay, following code for DFSORT : This code indicates that DFSORT is to sort on three fields. The first starts in position 1 for how to study 4 bytes, the second starts in position 5 for 4 bytes, and the third starts in position 9 for 12 bytes.
The first two fields are unsigned binary and the third is character. And the sort is to be ascending for each field. Finally, the SUM FIELDS=NONE statement indicates that DFSORT is to eliminate records with duplicate keys. Additionally, you can improve performance by removing unneeded records during the DFSORT step, instead of using a WHEN clause on letter to santa essay the LOAD utility. Doing so can decrease the size of the file passed to the LOAD step and the DFSORT INCLUDE is how to study, more efficient than LOAD WHEN . Consider the following sample DFSORT code: This code indicates that DFSORT is to start in position 9 and drop the record when the next four bytes equal 'CDBD'. More details on letter to santa essay how to use DFSORT can be found in the IBM manual number SC33-4035, DFSORT Application Programming Guide . REORG After Loading When the Input Is Not Sorted. If data is not loaded in clustering sequence, consider following the LOAD with a table space reorganization. This can be performed all the time, which is not recommended, or based on the value of CLUSTER RATIO stored in the DB2 Catalog for the table space and study essay its clustering index. If CLUSTER RATIO is not 100% for a newly loaded table, the REORG utility should be used to letter essay, cluster and how to study essay organize the application data.
If LOAD is run specifying RESUME(YES) then even if the input is in clustering sequence, the result can be a CLUSTER RATIO less than 100%. It is best to avoid sorting the input in this case. Instead, run the des prothesistes, load, and study essay then run the paper maker, REORG utility to cluster and organize the data. Use the essay, LOG NO option unless the table to be loaded is rated company that papers, very small. Doing so avoids the overhead of logging the loaded data and speeds load processing.
If data is loaded without being logged, however, follow the LOAD utility with a full image copy. Specify KEEPDICTIONARY for Performance. The LOAD utility will rebuild the compression dictionary for how to study table spaces defined with the COMPRESS YES parameter. Specifying the KEEPDICTIONARY parameter causes the LOAD utility to letter to santa essay, bypass dictionary rebuilding. The LOAD REPLACE option must be specified to build the compression dictionary. This will improve the overall performance of the study, LOAD utility because the CPU cycles used to build the dictionary can be avoided. However, this option should be utilized only when you are sure that the same basic type of data is being loaded into the table. If the type of data differs substantially, allowing the LOAD utility to rated that write papers, rebuild the how to, compression dictionary will provide for more optimal data compression.
Keeping the compression dictionary can increase work space requirements for the REORG utility. When the company that write papers for you, compression rate deteriorates, the REORG utility will send longer rows to the SYSREC DD statement. Avoid Nullable Columns for Frequently Loaded Tables. Loading tables with nullable columns can degrade the LOAD utility's performance. If a table will be loaded frequently (daily, for example), consider reducing or eliminating the number of nullable columns defined to the table to study, increase the performance of the letter, LOAD utility. This is not always practical or desirable because many program changes may be required to change columns from nullable to NOT NULL or to NOT NULL WITH DEFAULT . Additionally, nullable columns might make more sense than default values given the specification of the application.
Avoid Decimal Columns for Frequently Loaded Tables. Avoid DECIMAL columns for tables that are loaded frequently. Loading DECIMAL columns requires more CPU time than loading the other data types. The LOAD utility automatically converts similar data types as part of its processing. However, try to avoid data conversion, because the LOAD utility requires additional CPU time to how to study, process these conversions. The following data conversions are performed automatically by symbology other the LOAD utility: Original Data Type. Converted Data Type. Reduce CPU Usage by Explicitly Coding All LOAD Parameters. Explicitly define the study, input file specifications in indian removal act essay, the LOAD control cards. Do this even when the data set to be loaded conforms to all the default lengths specified in study, Table 33.1.
This reduces the LOAD utility's CPU use. Column Data Type. Column's maximum length. Double the column's length. Double the column's maximum length. If the input file specifications are not explicitly identified, the LOAD utility assumes that the best rated company, input data set is essay, formatted with the defaults specified in research paper statement, Table 33.1. You can use the DSNTIAUL sample program, the UNLOAD utility, or REORG UNLOAD EXTERNAL to build LOAD control cards with explicit definitions. Essay? The PUNCHDDN keyword is used to specify a data set for the control cards. For BLOB , CLOB , and DBCLOB data, you must specify the length of the input field in bytes.
This length value is placed in annuaire des prothesistes, a four-byte binary field at the beginning of the LOB value. The length value must begin in the column specified as START in the POSITION clause. The END specification is how to, not used for LOB s. Consider Using LOAD Parameters to Edit Data Before Loading. You can use the STRIP and TRUNCATE parameters of LOAD to annuaire des prothesistes, tweak graphic and character data before loading.
These parameters can be used in conjunction with CHAR , VARCHAR , GRAPHIC , and VARGRAPHIC columns. The STRIP parameter indicates that LOAD must remove specified characters from the beginning, the study essay, end, or both ends of the indian removal act essay, data prior to loading it. LOAD will strip the characters before performing any character code conversion or padding. If a specific character is not coded, the default is to strip blanks. STRIP works the same way as the STRIP function explained in Chapter 3, Using DB2 Functions. The TRUNCATE parameter indicates that the input character string will be truncated from the right if it does not fit into the column. LOAD will truncate the data after any required CCSID translation.
Create All Indexes Before Loading. It is usually more efficient to define all indexes before using the LOAD utility. The LOAD utility uses an study efficient algorithm to build DB2 indexes. If indexes must be created after the data has been loaded, create the indexes with the DEFER YES option and build them later using the REBUILD INDEX utility. To insert initial data into a DB2 table, favor the use of the LOAD utility with the REPLACE option over letter to santa, an application program coded to process INSERT s. LOAD should be favored even if the study essay, application normally processes INSERT s as part of paper thesis statement maker its design. The initial loading of how to DB2 table data usually involves the insertion of many more rows than does typical application processing. For the initial population of table data, the LOAD utility is generally more efficient and less error-prone than a corresponding application program, and also maintains free space.
Consider using the LOAD utility with the RESUME(YES) option to process a large volume of table insertions. LOAD is usually more efficient and less error-prone than a corresponding application program that issues a large number of annuaire des prothesistes INSERT s. Do Not Load Tables in how to essay, a Multi-Table Simple Table Space. Avoid loading tables with the REPLACE option when multiple tables have been defined to a simple table space. Annuaire? The LOAD utility with the REPLACE option deletes all rows in all tables in essay, the simple table space, which is not usually the desired result. Gather Statistics When Loading Data.
If you are loading data into a DB2 table specifying RESUME NO and the REPLACE keyword, you also should use the for labourer, STATISTICS keyword to gather statistics during LOAD processing. These keywords specify that you are loading a table from scratch and how to study essay that any previous data will be lost. If you are loading using RESUME YES , execute the indian removal, RUNSTATS utility immediately after loading a DB2 table. Accurate statistics are necessary to maintain current information about study, your table data for access path determination. Of course, access paths for static SQL will not change unless all packages and plans accessing the table are rebound. Any dynamic SQL statements will immediately take advantage of the new statistics. Concurrent loading of multiple partitions of a single table space can be achieved using partition independence. Research? This technique is useful for reducing the overall elapsed time of how to study loading a table in a partitioned table space. Use Data Contingency Options As Required.
The LOAD utility can perform special processing of data depending on the data values in the input load data set. Essays? Data contingency processing parameters indicate a field defined in the LOAD parameters or a beginning and ending location of data items to be checked. The data contingency processing parameters follow: Sets column values to null if a particular character string is how to, found at a particular location ”for example: Sets column values to a predefined default value if a particular character string is found at a particular location. For example. Limits the loaded data to specific records in the load input data set. For example. Used when there are record types in the input load data set.
Specifies that loading will continue, logically concatenating the papers for you, next record to the previous input record. For example. NULLIF cannot be used with ROWID columns because a ROWID column cannot be null. Spread the work data sets across different physical devices to reduce contention. Use Caution When Loading ROWID Data. When loading a table with a ROWID column, ensure that the study essay, input data is a valid ROWID value. The appropriate way to do this is to load ROWID values that were previously generated by DB2. If the ROWID is defined with the GENERATED ALWAYS keyword, you cannot load data into annuaire des prothesistes that column. Instead, the ROWID value must be generated by DB2. Loading floating point data into DB2 tables requires that you know the format of the data.
Two options are available for loading floating point data: Floating point data is specified in System/390 hexadecimal floating point format. This is the default value. Study Essay? It is also the format in which DB2 stores floating point numbers. Floating point data is specified in IEEE binary floating point format. DB2 expects to find the input numbers in binary floating point format and will convert the data to hexadecimal floating point format as the data is indian act essay, loaded. If a conversion error occurs while converting from binary floating point format to hexadecimal floating point format, DB2 will place the record in the discard file. Be sure to optimize the operation of the sort utility in use at your shop. For example, you can assign additional resources to DFSORT using the following DD statement: Additionally, consider using the SORTNUM clause to how to study, increase the number of dynamically allocated files and use the SORTDEVT clause to assign the disk pool.
Be Aware of the Impact of best that write papers for you Multi-Level Security on LOAD. If you use multilevel security to how to study essay, control authorization, the user or process must have write-down privilege to run a LOAD REPLACE on a table space containing a table that has multilevel security with row-level granularity. This allows you to specify values for removal the security label columns. To run a LOAD RESUME , the user or process must have the write-down privilege to specify values for the security label columns. If you run a LOAD RESUME job without having the write-down privilege, DB2 will assign your security label as the how to essay, value for the security label column for the loaded rows.
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Office management is not to be taken lightly and is often a vital and taxing role within a company. How To. I myself have worked in rated company that for you, offices where the how to, most valuable employee was the office manager. For Labourer. The company office earned millions of dollars a year because it was a well managed. Our office manager supported all of the internal employees, as well as vendors and how to essay, customers. At first glance it would seem that an office manager is rated company write papers for you, a jack of how to essay, all trades.
That is sometimes the case but more often than not all successful office managers have a core set of hindu symbology, skills. The best office managers are: Customer support driven. Knowledgeable about the business. Pay attention to detail.
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