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asthma case study Department of Pediatrics, University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine. Chapter VIII.2. Cover Letters For Sales! Asthma. Return to Table of Contents. Worksheet A Thesis Statement! A three year old comes in with a complaint of coughing for 2 weeks. Coughing is present every night. He has also had a mild fever, but his temperature has not been measured at home.

His parents have been using a decongestant/antihistamine syrup and albuterol syrup which were left over from a sibling. Initially the cough improved but it worsened over the next 2 days. He is noted to have morning sneezing and nasal congestion. There are colds going around the cover for sales associates pre-school. He has had similar episodes in the past, but this episode is worse. He has no known allergies to foods or medications. His past history is john brown essays on the characteristics, notable for for sales associates eczema and dry skin since infancy. He is otherwise healthy and he is fully immunized. His family history is notable for a brother who has asthma. In his home environment, there are no smokers or pets.

Exam: VS T 38.1, P 100, RR 24, BP 85/65, oxygen saturation 99% in room air. He is alert and cooperative in minimal distress if any. Essay For Global Warming! His eyes are clear, nasal mucosa is boggy with clear discharge, and his pharynx has moderate lymphoid hypertrophy. He has multiple small lymph nodes palpable in his upper neck. His chest has an letters for sales associates increased AP diameter and it is tympanitic (hyperresonant) to percussion. Essays Games! Rhonchi and occasional wheezes are heard on auscultation, but there are no retractions.

Heart is in a regular rhythm and no murmurs are heard. His skin is for sales, dry, but not flaky, inflamed or thickened. He is initially felt to have moderately persistent asthma and possible asthmatic bronchitis. He is initially treated with nebulized albuterol and nebulized corticosteroids for bronchospasm and bronchial inflammation. He is also treated with an antihistamine at night to reduce his morning allergy symptoms. In follow-up, his cough does not improve and he is still having fever (T 38.2C, 101.0F). A chest X-ray is obtained, but no radiographic evidence of pneumonia is present. His cough persists, but only with exercise and drinking cold juice. His chest now sounds clear in the office.

After one week of no night cough, his nebulized albuterol+corticosteroid is reduced to 2 times a day. His exercise induced cough gradually resolves. His nebulized corticosteroid is replaced with nebulized cromolyn twice a day and oral montelukast (a leukotriene inhibitor) is added. He enrolls in a soccer league and plays with minimal coughing. His routine nebulized albuterol+cromolyn is stopped and is used only pre-exercise to john brown on the characteristics, prevent exercise induced bronchospasm. No cough is observed at night or with exercise. He is continued on nightly antihistamines, pre-exercise albuterol+cromolyn nebs, and once daily montelukast. He is given an asthma treatment plan which gives his parents clear instructions on cover letters for sales which medications to start based on his symptoms and severity.

Asthma is by far, the most frequent respiratory diagnosis for children admitted to hospitals. It causes 5000 deaths annually in the United States despite the availability of excellent medications. Historically, asthma was characterized as a psychological illness, a surgical illness treated by removal of the carotid body, an environmental illness aggravated by air pollution, and an allergic illness or infectious illness. An allergy role in asthma, was legitimized by the discovery of IgE in 1965. Since then, inflammation has been identified as the primary pathologic process in chronic asthma. Because of the variety of asthma triggers, such as exercise, exposure to smoke, weather changes, and allergies, asthma is now considered to be a syndrome consisting of bronchospasm, airway hyperirritability, and cover consultant, inflammation. The popular term ROAD (reversible obstructed airways disease) or RAD (reversible airway disease) is cover letters for sales, not entirely accurate since this is only part of the disease process and reversibility may not always be evident.

This is because obstruction of the airways may be secondary to mucous plugging or inflammatory changes decreasing the caliber of the airways, in which case, beta-2 bronchodilators are ineffective. Currently the NIH Guidelines (1) have served as a standard for diagnosing and treating asthma. John Essays! NIH guidelines provide: 1) An objective means of measuring asthma via the peak flow meter. 2) A way of objectively categorizing severity classes of patients based on letters for sales associates symptoms and/or peak flow measurements. 3) A comprehensive pharmacologic plan primarily designed to treat inflammation, inclusive of provisions for dissertation acute and maintenance care, for cover letters associates each severity level. 4) For the identification and removal of (or control of exposure to) known triggers.

5) The direction for forming a partnership with the physician who uses education as a primary basis of this relationship. The realization that IgE existed and could be found in allergic individuals propelled the essays games field of allergy and understanding of asthma into a renaissance of elucidating the actual pathophysiology of allergic diseases. Asthma is now understood to be a chronic inflammatory disease condition with periodic exacerbations. Cover For Sales! This is in contrast to a thesis, viewing asthma as a purely bronchospastic condition. An acute asthma exacerbation is a biphasic process. Cover For Sales Associates! Understanding the for global warming inflammatory process of asthma came about when it was observed that 4 to 8 hours following allergen exposure, wheezing would occur that was not responsive (or less responsive) to beta agonists but it was ablated by cromolyn and corticosteroids. However, beta agonists could easily neutralize the for sales immediate reaction, occurring within minutes of the allergen exposure.

This created a picture of a biphasic reaction to typing games, allergen (or infection) induced wheezing. The first phase was described as the immediate (bronchospastic) phase and the second phase as the late phase inflammatory response. In the early phase of cover for sales associates, allergic inflammation, preformed mediators such as histamine and rapidly formed mediators such as leukotrienes are released and cause bronchospasm. Other mediators signal the late phase inflammatory cells. These cells (e.g., eosinophils) recruit other cells such as epithelial cells to participate in the resultant inflammatory damage of the airways and subepithelial structures. These events eventually result in extensive restructuring of the normal histology of the airways. This damage is on writing, not restored by beta-2 bronchodilators. For Sales! An important immunologic occurrence is the activation of the Th2 helper cell, which is pivotal in design, the progression of the allergic immunologic process.

The other helper designated Th1 cell does not enhance the allergic inflammatory process. Asthma, whatever the severity, is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. The characteristic features of asthmatic inflammation are: mast cell activation, inflammatory cell infiltration, eosinophils, macrophages, neutrophils (particularly in sudden-onset, fatal exacerbations), lymphocytes (TH2-like cells), edema, denudation and disruption of the bronchiolar epithelium, collagen deposition beneath the basement membrane (this is an for sales irreversible process), goblet cell hyperplasia, mucous hypersecretion, and smooth muscle thickening. The primary clinical components of asthma include: bronchospasm, inflammation, airway hyper-reactivity, increased mucous production, and typing essays, end expiratory hyperinflation (air trapping). There are many presentations of asthma. Asthma is present 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

It may not be in an easily identified form (i.e., there may be no obvious symptoms present). The most recognizable form is the acute episode in which the patient presents with acute shortness of breath. Depending on the underlying degree of inflammatory damage of the letters associates airways, the episode may have been festering with persistent cough and occasional bouts of shortness of breath for weeks. A Thesis! Failure to attend to these soft signs of asthma in cover letters for sales, transition may lead to an acute case of status asthmaticus. Hence, paying attention to signs of silent asthma (asthma not in an acute phase), can prevent costly and life threatening consequences. Asthma may appear solely as an event associated with work or exercise. Most asthma in childhood occurs as a result of encounters with respiratory viruses.

If the asthmatic is already unstable because of a poor maintenance regimen of the prompts pinterest existing chronic asthma, the acute phase will begin simultaneously with the first signs of a cold. If the asthma is managed well, then the cover letters associates cough and wheezing may occur several days after cold symptoms. Hence, early recognition of asthma in short essay warming, transition is a major point of cooperation involving the physician and patient. An asthma management plan should include a maintenance plan and provisions for acute onset wheezing. Asthma in its most manageable state, is cover for sales, outpatient asthma, as opposed to hospital status asthmaticus. For most medical professionals, the first and everlasting impression of asthma is in hospital status asthmaticus. John On The Characteristics! By far, the more common situation is asthma outside the hospital, in its non-acute form. Therefore, it is highly desirable that medical professionals familiarize themselves with the other faces of asthma to facilitate diagnosis and treatment. The type of cover associates, medication used to treat asthma reflects the mechanism of airway obstruction: bronchospasm versus inflammation. This is an worksheet a thesis extremely simplified version of what really goes on and new pieces of the letters associates intricate mechanism are being uncovered.

However from a pragmatic standpoint, the logic for appropriate use of individual medications for asthma can be understood by recalling the creative writing prompts pinterest biphasic reaction. Based on for sales this brief description of the mechanism of asthma, it is now possible to create an asthma treatment program. Genetics aside, elimination of triggers and aggravators of asthma such as allergens, cigarette smoke, and environmental and typing games, industrial pollutants, can prevent acute exacerbations of asthma and serve as the first line of defense. Conditions such as weather changes and respiratory infections fall outside of the readily controllable factors. Approach to Asthma. . . . . Cover Letters! . 1. Diagnose asthma and characteristics, classify severity. Cover Letters For Sales! Identify aggravating and triggering conditions. . . . . . 2. Prepare an games initial treatment plan to stabilize the acute condition. Instruct patient and parents on signs and cover letters, symptoms which help to monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

If practical, treat other aggravating and co-morbid conditions concurrently. . . . . . 3. Dissertation! When asthma is stable, proceed to a maintenance plan to allow healing of the damaged airways. This may take weeks to months. Prepare an asthma action plan for up-regulation of medications for cover letters unexpected exacerbations. . . . . . 4. When there are no signs of worksheet on writing a thesis statement, breakthrough cough or wheezing, indicating that the airway hyper-reactivity has subsided and is controlled, switch to a long term maintenance plan. This might be PRN use of bronchodilators, or pre-exercise use of letters associates, preventive medications, or pulsing of medications for cold symptoms in essays on the characteristics, short bursts. . Cover For Sales! . . . . 5. Monitor asthma with periodic evaluations and reminder messages of avoidance and check on patients' inhalation technique of medication administration. Inflammation in creative writing pinterest, asthma contributes to: airway hyperresponsiveness, airflow limitation, respiratory symptoms, coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, chest tightness, persistent symptoms, and pathologic damage, even when symptoms are not present. It is cover associates, often thought that periodic control of acute symptoms is sufficient, but this is suboptimal. Utilization of chronic anti-inflammatory agents result in better long term outcomes for all but the mildest asthmatics. Co-morbid conditions such as allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, eczema, and gastroesophageal reflux have profound influence on picture asthma. Their presence makes asthma extremely difficult to control. The main goal is to keep the patient functional and free of side effects from medications.

With this approach, asthmatics have been able to cover for sales, participate in cover letter, a normal life style. Asthma is more than an acute process. A large part of treating asthma successfully is to be able to recognize asthma in its early stages and to formulate an appropriate treatment plan before the asthma advances to a critical stage. Associates! It is simple to diagnose asthma when the patient is wheezing, displaying intercostal retractions and turning pale or blue. Great clinical skill is required to make a diagnosis of asthma when sub-clinical and/or non-acute asthma is present.

A careful detailed history and physical exam are crucial to this end. Asthma is not the acute episode of wheezing as popularly described in lay journals and magazines, but a chronic condition of the airways of the lungs which exhibits recurrent bronchospasm. These chronic symptoms may present itself as cough with exercise, cough with colds, cough with laughter, or cough at night. A peak flow meter can consistently record airflow readings compared against typing essays games, normal values for sex and age. For Sales Associates! Signs of on the characteristics, silent asthma (when no wheezing is letters associates, heard) include: persistent cough at night, cough with exercise, cough with laughter, cough when consuming cold foods or drinks, prolonged cough following or accompanying a cold, feeling of tight chest or difficulty breathing. The peak flow measurement and FEV1 (forced expiratory volume over one second) are effort dependent measures. Full pulmonary function testing is desirable; however, the equipment is expensive compared to an inexpensive peak flow meter. Short For Global! The ultimate objective measurement for asthma is by body plethysmography (body box), which can measure the end expiratory residual lung volume as well as resistance to airflow. For those patients unable to perform peak flow measurements, clinical history is all you may have to base your conclusions. Cover Letters For Sales! This includes a major group of younger asthmatics from infancy to 4 or 5 years old. Many children in this age group are unable to reliably perform peak flow measurements.

Often, patients will have no symptoms when brought to your examining room. The identification of the role of allergic diseases in asthma relies heavily on patient history. Physicians trained to respond to typing essays, record what they feel, see, and hear may have a problem forming conclusions based on history alone. Soft signs indicating that asthma is out of control include: frequent overt wheezing episodes, increasing frequency of using rescue medications (i.e., acute use of albuterol), a previously stable asthmatic now having signs of silent asthma, reduction or termination of activities, patient who had exposure to known trigger, persistent cough following bronchitis or pneumonia. Letters! The National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines, list as one of cover letter design consultant, several key objectives, forming a partnership with the patient to facilitate treatment of asthma. Good communication and availability to answer questions and concerns are basic to the partnership. Part of your efforts as the treating physician should be focused on getting the patient to respond in a logical manner to cope with changes in his/her clinical state. This is based on the patient understanding the letters for sales associates principles of: triggers and aggravators, bronchodilation, inflammation, airway hyper-reactivity and healing. Patients must also understand mucous mobilization and signs and symptoms of asthma out of control which may lead to an acute asthma attack. John Essays On The! For example, should the peak flow fall or cough increase, the cover letters for sales associates patient is instructed to upgrade their medications according to a prearranged plan.

As the acuteness of the situation resolves, the patient is advised to downgrade their medications back to their maintenance program. Should there be an unanticipated episode of wheezing, immediate activation of the action plan and consultation with the physician for additional treatment schemes is the next step. This up and down regulation of medications can be done without a physician visit. Phone calls, informing the short physician's office of these maneuvers, are all that is cover for sales associates, normally required. Obviously, recurrent wheezing episodes, even if reversed easily might indicate the presence of an unstable condition requiring an john brown on the characteristics adjustment in the basic asthma management plan. Hence, the physician should be apprised of these changing conditions regularly. All asthma management plans should have common goals.

Asthma management plans depend on the severity of the letters associates asthmatic. Higher severity levels warrant greater use of corticosteroids and prophylactic medications such as leukotriene inhibitors and inhaled corticosteroids. Dissertation Uk! The NIH guidelines categorizes severity levels into steps as follows: Step 1 (mild intermittent): Day symptoms two days per cover letters for sales week or less and night symptoms two nights per month or less. Chronic peak flow is 80% of expected or higher. Step 2 (mild persistent): Day symptoms greater than two times per week, but less than once per day or night symptoms greater than nights per month.

Chronic peak flow is still 80% of expected or higher. Step 3 (moderate persistent): Day symptoms occur daily or night symptoms occur more than once per week. Chronic peak flow is 60% to 80% of expected value. Step 4 (severe persistent): Continual day symptoms or frequent night symptoms. Chronic peak flow is less than or equal to 60% of expected value. John On The! The use of cover, peak flow in the above classification is not required in brown characteristics, children 5 years and cover, under. Peak flow data is useful but not required for classification in older age groups, but most children in this age range are capable of performing peak flows. The major goal is to allow the child to express and achieve his or her maximum natural potential by not allowing the asthma to control him or her. This is a good way to view the end point in asthma management. Along the way, it is crucial to essay for global, cradle the impressionable self image so that the child does not have a negative view of cover for sales associates, himself or herself. The very impressionable years are from help writing dissertation uk, about 3 to 10 years of age, when children form their life-long mental image of themselves.

Discussions involving asthma management should, therefore, be handled cautiously with this in mind. Asthma should be viewed as a chronic illness which may continue to adulthood. Cover! In 1896 Solis-Cohen published, The use of adrenal substances in letter, the treatment of asthma (adrenalin or epinephrine is a fast and potent bronchodilator). Epinephrine (most commonly administered subcutaneously, but it could be inhaled as well) was the first line of treatment for acute asthma from the 1950s through the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1924 ephedrine was isolated from Ma Huang (a Chinese root extract). For the next forty years, ephedrine would be the associates mainstay for asthma treatment in the USA. Ephedrine in combination with theophylline, as products called Marax and Tedral, were used extensively in the same period. Interestingly, the ancient Chinese boiled the ephedra root in strong tea for their concoction to cover consultant, treat asthma. Cover Associates! The tea contained theobromine, a methylxanthine. Although methylxanthines such as theophylline are effective bronchodilators, they have been largely replaced by beta-2 agents (e.g., albuterol) which have a faster onset and less toxicity. Adding theophylline does not appear to acutely benefit most patients who are receiving high therapeutic doses of albuterol.

Theophylline's main use is in long term chronic administration for more severe asthmatics. This change in therapeutic approach from methylxanthines to beta-2 agents did not further our understanding of the true pathophysiology of asthma, as bronchodilation was the only target of treatment. Writing Uk! Bronchodilators can be administered via several inhaled routes: metered dose inhaler (MDI), dry powder inhaler (DPI), nebulizer (Neb, also known as aerosol, updraft and wet nebulizer), parenteral IV, parenteral subcutaneous injection (SC), and orally (PO). In general, inhaled medications have a faster onset, greater potency and less side effects. Cover Letters! Bronchodilators Used in Asthma.

A. Beta-2 Agonists: . . . albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil, also called salbutamol outside the USA) - MDI, Neb, PO. . . . L-albuterol (Xopenex - active isomer only) - Neb. Writing Picture Prompts! . . . terbutaline - MDI, Neb, PO, SC. . . . formoterol (Foradil - very long acting) - DPI. . . . salmeterol (Serevent - used for maintenance therapy) - DPI, MDI. . . . epinephrine (alpha and cover for sales, beta) - MDI, Neb, SC. . . . ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) -MDI, Neb. . . . Characteristics! oxitropium bromide (Oxivent) - MDI. . Cover Letters For Sales! . . aminophylline - PO, IV. . . . theophylline - PO, IV. Other drugs with bronchodilator effects include ketamine, calcium channel blockers (e.g., nifedipine), and diuretics, however these drugs are not used routinely in acute asthma. Based on the biphasic mechanism, an anti-inflammatory drug (i.e., corticosteroids) is warming, necessary for the complete treatment of asthma. Corticosteroids (steroids for short) can be administered systemically (PO, IM, IV) or inhaled (MDI, nebulizer, etc.). For asthma of a chronic nature, such as allergic asthma to house dust, a daily regimen of a long acting bronchodilator coupled with a steroid by inhalation would be effective.

Steroids take hours to become engaged in its active phase. Their action does not take place directly on the inflammatory tissue but by cover associates modulating DNA production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Their effects are very broad and nonspecific. Steroids affect virtually every phase of the inflammatory process. They have an array of brown essays on the characteristics, impressive and undesirable side-effects, which cause hesitation in their use by physicians as well as patients. Cover! As in the use of any medication or therapeutic agent, the employment of steroids is subject to weighing the desired effects against the undesirable effects (benefit vs. risk). If the positive effects of using steroids have an writing uk overwhelming advantage over not using the drug, then it is associates, justified to be used on a regular basis.

This especially applies to children where growth suppression (in the brown order of 0.5 to 1.0 cm per year) is the major side effect of chronic inhaled corticosteroids. Catch-up growth occurs in letters, most instances, if the child's condition improves to the point at letter design which inhaled corticosteroids are no longer needed. Many patients require more medications during the fall/winter/spring, and fewer medications during the summer. Occasional bursts of systemic corticosteroids have no significant long term side effects, but chronic or long term use of systemic steroids have major side effects (refer to cover letters for sales, the chapter on corticosteroids). Corticosteroids used in Asthma. . Help Writing Uk! . . Letters For Sales! beclomethasone (Beclovent, Vanceril) - inhaled. . . . Letter Consultant! triamcinolone (Azmacort) - inhaled, IM. For Sales! . . . budesonide (Pulmicort) - inhaled. . . . fluticasone (Flovent) - inhaled. Help Dissertation! . . Letters Associates! . flunisolide (AeroBid) - inhaled. . . . mometasone (Asmanex) - inhaled. . . . prednisolone (Pediapred, Prelone, Orapred) - PO. . . . methylprednisolone (Medrol, Solumedrol) - PO, IV. . . . A Thesis! dexamethasone (Decadron) - PO, IV. In addition, one might consider adding a leukotriene inhibitor, also called leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA).

These leukotriene inhibitors were developed to counteract the all important late phase inflammatory reaction caused by SRS-A (slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis), a compound which was eventually identified as leukotrienes. For Sales! Their side effects are minimal. These are all given orally. Essays Games! Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) *(Some sources spell the suffix as leukast instead of letters for sales, lukast. Roche and Astra Zeneca spell it as lukast.) Cromolyn type drugs stabilize mast cells (inhibit mast cell degranulation).

They have less potent anti-inflammatory properties, but they have minimal side effects. Short Essay Warming! Cromolyn (Intal) is available via nebulizer and MDI. Nedocromil (Tilade) is available via MDI. Goals of Asthma Treatment. Cover For Sales Associates! . . . Short For Global Warming! 1. Prevent chronic and troublesome symptoms (e.g., cough or breathlessness in the night, in the early morning, or after exertion). . . . 2. Maintain (near) normal pulmonary function. . . Cover! . 3. Maintain normal activity levels (including exercise and essay warming, other physical activity). . . . 4. Prevent recurrent exacerbations of asthma and minimize the for sales associates need for emergency department visits or hospitalizations. . . Cover! . 5. Provide optimal pharmacotherapy with minimal or no adverse effects. . . . 6. Meet patients' and families' expectations of and satisfaction with asthma care. Cover Letters For Sales Associates! Specific asthma therapy measures to short, achieve these goals are based on the NIH severity categories. Step 1 (mild intermittent) requires no daily medications.

ALL of the cover other categories (i.e., any category with the word persistent), requires a chronic controller anti-inflammatory medication. Step 2 (mild persistent) recommends a low dose inhaled corticosteroid. Alternatively, a cromolyn medication or a leukotriene receptor antagonist may be used. John Brown Essays! Theophylline is another option, but only in children older than 5 years. Letters! Step 3 (moderate persistent) recommends a low dose inhaled corticosteroid plus a long acting beta-2 agonist (salmeterol or formoterol). Three other alternatives exist: 1) A medium dose inhaled corticosteroid. 2) A low dose inhaled corticosteroid plus an LTRA. 3) A low dose inhaled corticosteroid plus theophylline. Step 4 (severe persistent) recommends a high dose inhaled corticosteroid, plus a long acting beta-2 agonist. In addition to essays games, the above chronic (long-term) recommendations, acute exacerbations are treated with quick relief (or rescue) medications, which is most commonly prn albuterol and optional short bursts of systemic corticosteroids.

Albuterol can be given: 1) Orally at 0.1 mg/kg per dose every 6 to 8 hours. 2) Via nebulizer 2.5 mg unit dose every 4-6 hours. 3) Via metered dose inhaler (MDI) 2-4 puffs every 4-6 hours (however, most studies suggest that 5 to cover, 10 puffs is more equivalent to the 2.5 mg nebulizer treatment). Systemic corticosteroids are commonly administered as: 1) Oral prednisolone at cover design 2 mg/kg/day given once daily or divided BID. 2) IV methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg, then 1 mg/kg every 6 hours. Systemic corticosteroids are usually given for 4 to 5 days and then discontinued if the cover letters for sales associates patient improves. Systemic corticosteroids administered for longer than 7 days require a gradual taper of the medication. If the statement patient is on inhaled corticosteroids, these should be resumed once systemic corticosteroids are stopped or tapered. Some physicians continue inhaled corticosteroids during systemic corticosteroid bursts to avoid the for sales confusion caused by modifying their chronic medications. All patients should have a written asthma management plan that describes their chronic medications and a plan for the initiation of a rescue plan based on their symptoms and peak flow (if age 5 years). More detailed plans can include recommendations to step up or step down their chronic medications as their chronic symptoms worsen or improve.

If dyspnea still persists, despite rescue medications, then the asthma management plan should refer the patient to a source of immediate medical care (doctor's office during office hours, or emergency room after hours). Serial treatments with beta-2 agonists (usually albuterol or L-albuterol) with or without ipratropium are most commonly given. Inhaled beta-2 agonists can be given continuously for severely ill patients, or serially based on severity. Systemic corticosteroids can be started. Brown On The! Parenteral corticosteroids do not have an associates onset time advantage over oral corticosteroids; however, very ill children have a higher likelihood of vomiting oral prednisolone. Mild intermittent asthmatics can often be treated without corticosteroids.

The decision to start systemic corticosteroids is john brown characteristics, based on their response to beta-2 agonists and their previous history which indicates their severity level. Those who do not respond well to beta-2 agonists should be started on associates systemic corticosteroids because, poor response indicates the presence of significant bronchial inflammation Those who have required systemic corticosteroids in the past or who have other markers of help writing dissertation, more severe asthma should also be started on systemic corticosteroids. Characteristics of letters, good asthma control in children include: no coughing, no shortness of breath or rapid breathing, no wheezing or chest tightness, no waking up at worksheet on writing night because of asthma symptoms, normal activities including play, sports, and exercise, no episodes of asthma that require a doctor visit, emergency room visit, or urgent care, no absences from school or activities, no missed time from work for the parent or caregiver, normal or near normal lung function, and a healthy self image (i.e., nothing can stop me attitude). Unfortunately, the cover associates death rate from asthma is not yielding to the introduction of many excellent and powerful treatments. For Global Warming! This condition remains a challenge to the medical care team at all levels from physicians, nurses, emergency technicians, and cover letters, respiratory therapists to psychiatrists and brown on the characteristics, social workers. Family, school personnel, coaches, club leaders, and after hours activity supervisors, are all involved in delivering care to the asthmatic. Risk factors for cover letters for sales death from asthma include: . . Help Uk! . Past history of sudden severe exacerbations. . Letters For Sales Associates! . . Prior intubation for asthma. . . . Prior admission to intensive care unit for asthma. . Short Essay Warming! . . Greater than 2 hospitalizations for asthma in the past 12 months. . . . Greater than 3 emergency room visits for asthma in cover associates, past 12 months. . Creative Pinterest! . . Hospitalization or emergency care visit for asthma in the past month. . . . Letters For Sales! Use of more than 1 canister per month of help uk, inhaled short-acting beta 2 agonist. . . . Current chronic use of oral corticosteroids. . . . Difficulty perceiving airflow obstruction or its severity. . . . Low socioeconomic status and urban residence. . . . Cover For Sales! Illicit (illegal) drug use.

. . . Serious psychosocial problems. Brown On The Characteristics! Acute signs of severe asthma and potential impending respiratory failure, warranting admission to an intensive care unit include: 1) Oxygen saturation less than 100% despite the administration of supplemental oxygen. Cover Letters For Sales Associates! 2) Persistent respiratory distress and poor aeration despite aggressive beta-2 agonists. 3) A pCO2 of 40 or greater on a blood gas. The treatment of severe status asthmaticus bordering on respiratory failure is controversial. Essay! It is reasonable to begin with high dose beta-2 agonists; such as a nebulizer treatment with concentrated albuterol, or continuous albuterol. In severe patients, aeration is poor, so inhaling albuterol by itself is usually insufficient. Subcutaneous epinephrine or terbutaline can deliver additional beta-2 receptor stimulation systemically. Other therapeutic options include: inhaled isoproterenol, IV or inhaled magnesium, IV ketamine, inhaled heliox or anesthetic agents.

Such patients should be treated aggressively from the cover for sales associates onset to prevent respiratory failure. If the patient fails to improve and respiratory failure ensues, positive pressure ventilation should be directed at maintaining oxygenation above 90% saturation if possible. Severe status asthmaticus results in air trapping, therefore ventilation (air exchange) is difficult (almost impossible). Although such patients have very high pCO2s because of air trapping and help writing uk, poor ventilation, the priority should focus on maintaining oxygenation. Attempting to normalize the cover letters for sales associates pCO2 with aggressive positive pressure ventilation will increase the likelihood of a pneumothorax which will worsen the hypoxia. This strategy is short for global, known as permissive hypercapnia because hypercapnia is not as deadly as hypoxemia. Permissive hypercapnia is more likely to avoid a pneumothorax and thus, oxygenation is preserved, improving the overall outcome.

While the NIH asthma treatment guidelines do not recommend chest X-rays (CXR), it should be noted that these are treatment guidelines for asthma. These are not guidelines for pneumonia, tracheal anomalies, bronchial foreign bodies, etc. Thus, the CXR may be necessary in the process of cover for sales associates, evaluating some patients to be certain that the patient has asthma and NOT some other condition which can only be identified on writing pinterest CXR (i.e., to rule out cover letters for sales, other conditions). Environmental measures to reduce asthma severity focuses on elimination of household smoking and help dissertation, the reduction of exposure to cover for sales associates, dust mite and cockroach microantigens in the environment. Wrapping mattresses with plastic casings, conversion of carpeted floors to tile floors, replacing drapes with blinds, and worksheet on writing a thesis statement, selecting home furnishings which avoid antigen accumulation, may result in improvement. Allergy testing and subsequent immunotherapy to desensitize a patient may be beneficial in some asthmatics. In summary, asthma is a condition of multiple factors. Cover Letters! It can be looked upon as a syndrome of multiple but related elements. It is basically a chronic condition with biphasic components which both result in writing prompts pinterest, airflow obstruction by different means. The treatment should take into account the letters various triggering factors, occupation, age, psychosocial, and economic factors.

1. How can you best describe asthma? 2. Can you describe the various medications to on writing a thesis statement, treat asthma? 3. Can you describe the parameters that are used to classify severity of asthma? 4. Describe clinical findings signifying the severity of an acute asthma exacerbation. 5. Discuss the cover letters for sales approach to an asthmatic in relationship to formulating an john acute asthma treatment plan. Cover For Sales Associates! What questions do you ask, what physical findings do you look for, and what laboratory parameters are measured? 6. Essays! Formulate an letters associates asthma maintenance plan. 7. Describe various triggering factors and mechanisms by which they might exert their action. 8. Describe the immunologic chain of events that ultimately leads to bronchospasm and inflammation. 9. Writing Prompts! Discuss the pros and cons of corticosteroid use in children and compare them with use in adults. 10.

How would you convince parents of asthmatics to use medications when their children are not openly symptomatic? 1. National Institutes of Health. NAEPP Expert Panel Report: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma-Update on Selected Topics 2002. 2. Busse WW, Lemamske RF. Advances in Immunology Asthma. New Engl J Med 2001;344(5):350-363. 3. Kay AB. Advances in associates, Immunology Allergy and brown essays on the characteristics, Allergic Diseases Part 1. New Engl J Med 2001;344(1): 30-37. 4. Letters For Sales! Kay AB. Advances in Immunology Allergy and Allergic Diseases Part 2. New Engl J Med 2001;344(2):109-114. 5. Marone G, Austen KF, Holgate ST, Kay BA, Lichtenstein LM (eds).

Asthma and Allergic Diseases: Physiology, Immunopharmacology, and Treatment. 1998, San Diego: Academic Press. 6. Barnes PJ, Grunstein MM, Leff AR, Woolcock AJ (eds). Asthma. 1997, Philadelphia: Lippincott Raven. 7. Pearce N, Beasley R, Burgess C, Crane J. Asthma Epidemiology, Principles and Methods.

1998, New York: Oxford University Press. On Writing Statement! 8. Brenner, BE (ed). Letters Associates! Emergency Asthma. 1999, New York: Marcel Dekker. Writing Prompts Pinterest! 9. Murphy S, Kelly HW (eds). Pediatric Asthma. 1999, New York: Marcel Dekker. 10. Kotses H, Harver A (eds). Self Management of Asthma.

1998, New York: Marcel Dekker. 11. Szefler SL, Leung DYM (eds). Severe Asthma: Pathogenesis and for sales, Clinical Management. 2001, New York: Marcel Dekker. 12. Sheffer A (ed). Fatal Asthma.

1998, New York: Marcel Dekker. Answers to questions. 1. Asthma is best thought of cover letter design consultant, as a chronic inflammatory condition consisting of obstruction of the airways of the lung caused by spasms of the smooth muscle surrounding the cover for sales airways which, in warming, some cases, can be easily reversed by beta adrenergic bronchodilators. In other cases, corticosteroids may be necessary to reverse the airway obstruction by reducing the inflammatory changes responsible for the airway narrowing. For Sales! These changes may be caused by a variety of different stimuli. 2. Medications are divided into groups directed towards relaxing bronchial smooth muscles (relievers) and reversing the inflammation (controllers). 3. This answer can be divided into essays, two parts. The first is used to describe the cover for sales degree of severity of the short essay acute asthmatic episode. These would include rate and effort of respirations, ability to cover letters, move air through a peak flow meter or spirometer, and essays, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration in letters for sales, the arterial blood.

The second parameter involves the sensitivity of the airways (i.e., the chronic severity classification described in the chapter). Day symptoms, night coughing episodes, peak flow, coughing with exercise, prolonged coughing after upper respiratory infections, and coughing with drinking ice-cold beverages help to categorize the severity of asthma. 4. Wheezing may be heard but if the essays attack is very severe there may be no wheezing at all (due to poor air exchange). Aeration is a good indicator of acute severity. For Sales Associates! Evidence of respiratory distress (retractions, tachypnea) indicates increasing severity until respiratory failure occurs (at which point, the patient may tire and exhibit seemingly less respiratory distress). Hypoxemia is also indicative of worksheet a thesis, severity. Peak flow is typically low for acute exacerbations. For mild cases, cough may be present at any phase of an asthmatic episode and may be the only sign that bronchospasm is occurring.

A peak flow meter reading before and after a challenge of inhaled bronchodilator may reveal an increase in the airflow indicating the presence of for sales, bronchospasm. 5. Always consider the triggering event in formulating the treatment plan. Avoidance of the trigger can be very cost effective. Preventive use of medications can be very useful such as preemptive use of medication with first sign of a cold. Analysis of the symptom's response to initial treatment can guide you in up regulating or down regulating medications. Use of the peak flow meter can serve as an objective means of adjusting medications. If cough and wheezing occur often and there are signs/symptoms of for global warming, chronic asthma, a maintenance plan of daily medication should be initiated. Efforts should be made to approximate the degree of inflammation in the airways.

This estimation can serve to letters associates, guide you in the type and dosage of anti-inflammatory medications to use. A contingency plan of what medications to use during an john brown essays acute episode can be helpful and may help to avoid an cover letters for sales associates unnecessary emergency visit to the hospital. 6. The asthma maintenance plans are dependent on the patient's severity class (step 1, 2, 3, or 4). For all persistent levels, a daily plan will usually involve a long-acting bronchodilator and corticosteroid, LTRA, cromolyn and/or theophylline two to essays games, three times a day. Letters For Sales Associates! Regular monitoring with peak flow meter readings can help to determine if the treatment is essays games, helping to return the lungs to normal function. A rescue plan using short acting bronchodilators with optional systemic corticosteroids may be needed for breakthrough wheezing. 7. Allergen exposure is mediated through IgE with resultant immediate and late phase reactions. Letters! A variety of mediators are released and cause a cascade of immunologic events culminating in tissue edema, increased mucous production, and sloughing of the epithelial layer of the inner lining of the writing airways. This affects the cover associates free and easy movement of air to short essay, the alveoli, which affects air exchange and causes atelectasis as the smaller air ways are completely plugged by the thickened mucous.

8. Triggering mast cells cause release of for sales, mediators, which can cause immediate effects on the lung tissue and smooth muscles. Help Writing! Other mediators are formed and cover letters associates, released later and serve primarily to attract inflammatory cells. Some of these late mediators help to capture the incoming cells. Other mediators recruit epithelial cells and transform then into participants of the worksheet on writing a thesis reaction causing them to release more mediators (biologic amplification). 9. The critical issue of cover associates, steroids in children is that of linear growth.

It is now well established that the use of inhaled steroids has significantly less effect on short essay warming growth than systemic corticosteroids. The length of steroid use (inhaled or systemic), may have some effect on growth but its effect is temporary and in many studies final growth of asthmatics is generally no different than in non asthmatics (i.e., catch up growth occurs if the corticosteroids can be stopped for a period of time long enough for this to occur). Chronic inflammatory suppression (long term use of inhaled corticosteroids) improves the long term outcome of asthma (i.e., less severity in the future). 10. This is where your ability to practice medicine is tested. You need to educate and letters for sales, persuade the parents that your recommendations are in the best interest of the child and that it is based on considering the risks against the benefits. This is ideally done without making the parents feel guilty or intimidated by the potential for fatal outcomes. Letter Design! While our goal may be to maintain the patient's lifestyle and lung function, patients may see their goal as getting off medications as soon as possible. For persistent asthmatics, they should be convinced that this is a chronic disease and cover letters associates, long term medications will be required.

Long term use of medications is generally very safe and not addictive.

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Oracle Applications Dba Resume Sample. A· Twenty plus years of extensive and diversified technical experience in Information Technology industry of which, over 14 years of consulting experience in a variety of Oracle software and customer environments. A· With wide, varied and deep experience of Oracle's internals, architecture and cover letters for sales, features, on various versions of essay, Oracle products, Performance Tuning, implementing and maintaining Real Application Cluster (RAC) and GRID, Oracle Application Server as Oracle Applications DBA/ Technical Architect, for many mission critical, high volume, VLDB Oracle projects for over 100 different clients throughout North America. A· Experience includes I/O design for performance and troubleshooting on various UNIX / Linux Operating Systems and clustering tools. A· Best practices and cover for sales, long term plan being followed makes me a unique and writing prompts, a capable candidate for lead and key roles in Installations, Upgrade, and Performance Tuning.

A· Technical skills include database management and administration, relational database design and implementation, capacity planning, benchmarking and cover for sales, mentoring. Worksheet A Thesis Statement! Have been an implementer and also played lead roles on associates, numerous projects, and involved in post implementation support and technical workarounds. A· With in-depth knowledge of result-oriented troubleshooting in Oracle Database, E-Business Suite and john essays on the characteristics, Oracle Application Server. A· Expertise in various Operating Systems (Sun Solaris, HP-UX, AIX, Linux) on a variety of hardware and cover letters for sales, infrastructure. A· Being part of the team in building successful proposals for fresh installs and upgrades, defining the hardware and other system requirements based on the implementation needs and along with manpower planning for various projects both for Private and for global, Public sector. In short, been a Solution Provider for various projects. A· Consistently produced high quality work results under time and cost constraints by leading heterogeneous teams of varying sizes. Quickly assume a productive lead role on any project and also provided Technical / Team Leadership to associates, various clients. Efficient problem solving and reasoning skills on issues with innovative technical know-how is a specialty.

A· Team / Project Management with Leadership Capability to manage resources and to achieve the help writing dissertation goals on time, Conflict Resolution capability, with excellent communication, interpersonal and organizations skills. Managed teams of cover letters for sales, size between 12 and 30 members on various projects and as Consulting Manager. Education and Certifications. Masters in Statistics - Loyola Autonomous College, University of Madras, India. Diploma in Computer and Applications Software - University of essay for global, Karaikudi, India. Databases: Application Servers: Oracle RDBMS (5.x - 11g) Oracle 9iAS, 10g AS, Web Logic Server. e-Business Suite Operating Systems: Oracle Applications 10.7 SC, 10.7 NCA, Solaris, HP-UX, AIX, Linux.

11.0, 11i, R12, R12.1. PL/SQL, SQL Loader, Unix Shells SSADM, AIM, EMM. SamrtDog Services Sep '12 - Dec '12. At SmartDog Services, I was in cover letters for sales associates, the OnDemand DBA team taking care of various clients. Writing! More particularly, A· trouble shooting, issue resolution, performance tuning of cover associates, Oracle Databases (RAC and non-RAC), Oracle Applications. A· Configuring Oracle Grid Control for backup and recovery. Aleris Nov '11 - Aug '12. At Aleris, I was.

A· Instrumental in implementing the help dissertation uk best practices for Oracle Applications re-implementation of R12.1.3. A· Implemented 11g Grid Control and deployed configured agents on various VM servers, A· Configured RMAN thru Grid Control for backup and recovery. A· Trouble shoot and cover for sales associates, resolved many day to day issues. A· Documented for further future reference. Federal Reserve Board Aug '11 - Nov '11. At FRB, I was called in to.

A· Perform an upgrade from R11i to R12.1.3 along with OATM migration. A· Documented the OATM migration and the upgrade process with comments on issue resolution for a thesis further upgrade iterations. Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission Oct '10 - May '11. At this assignment, I was involved in. A· Upgrading the Oracle e-Business Suite from letters for sales, to R12 (12.0.6) on Linux RAC with Oracle 10g DB.

A· implemented Oracle Time and letter consultant, Labor. A· Test 11g R1 RAC install for learning and training purpose of their DBA's on a Linux server. A· Provided recommendations on Single Sign-On and Identity Management processes and implemented it. Geokinetics Sep '09 - Oct '10. Initially I went into this client for. A· Stabilize and maintain the Oracle R12 (12.0.4) e-Business Suite application on Linux VM Ware (both the DB and the Apps Server) with the DB version being 11g R1. A· Upgrade 12.0.4 to cover letters for sales, 12.1.1 with 2 other languages.

A· Implement OEM 10g and 11g for writing picture prompts pinterest performance monitoring. A· Implemented Data Guard too. Jacksonville Electric Authority Multiple assignments. Here at for sales associates this client, it was a upgrade reimplementation of Oracle Applications from 11.5.9 to 12.0.6 on a single node RAC. Initially the cluster software installed on writing prompts pinterest, a two nodes, and then due to the implementation of OBIEE, this was converted to a single node RAC, with RAC cluster software left running, with the easiness of cover letters for sales associates, adding servers at a later date. I was also the john brown essays characteristics architect for OBIEE implementation. This was an letters associates, Oracle implemented project. Provided recommendations on writing picture, Single Sign-On and associates, Identity Management processes and implemented it. US Concrete Multiple assignments.

At this client it was a fresh implementation of Oracle e-Business Suite (R12.0.4) on a 2 node Sun Cluster with ASM. Initially the help software installed on cover for sales, a single node server then migrated the DB to ASM and the converted it to RAC. Brown On The Characteristics! I was also involved in performance tuning the cover for sales server and the software. Provided recommendations on Single Sign-On and essays on the, Identity Management processes and letters for sales, implemented it. Sun Systems Apr '08 - Jul '08. I was called in to stabilize the instances on RAC. This was an Oracle e-Business suite implementation with huge customizations. PayPal Sep '07 - Feb '08. At this client site my responsibility was of essay, a DBA maintaining the instances on 8i and then had the opportunity to cover letters for sales associates, upgrade them to dissertation, 10g and also to convert them to cover letters for sales, RAC with ASM. Sherwin Williams Jan '07 - Aug aˆ?07. In this assignment I was responsible to lead a team of 8 Apps DBA's in implementing Oracle Financials and Enterprise Asset Management apart from maintaining the writing prompts Benefits and related modules that were live.

This was three projects running concurrently and I was the point person for Technical Architecture with modernizing the backup and recovery, implementing Disaster Recovery and cover for sales associates, also instance / server management. USDA (Part-Time) Sep '06 - Jan aˆ?07. In this assignment where I was responsible for cover letter consultant the technical architecture and maintenance of the instances for Proof of concept for Oracle Financials, Supply Chain and also Order Management product families. Cover Letters For Sales! I was leading a team of 3 Apps DBA's. Provided recommendations on Single Sign-On and Identity Management processes and implemented it. ECSS (Part-Time) Sep '06 - Jan aˆ?07. In this assignment where I was responsible for short for global warming the technical architecture and maintenance of the associates instances for Proof of typing games, concept for Oracle Financials, Supply Chain and for sales associates, also Order Management product families. I was leading a team of 5 Apps DBA's.

HAVA Project Jul '06 - Sep aˆ?06. This project is for creative prompts Florida State Government. Here, I was involved in for sales associates, installing 10g CRS, RAC Database on HP Hardware with HP Service Guard as the cluster software. Creative Picture Prompts Pinterest! I job role also involved applying HP-UX, HP Service Guard patches. After the installation, I performed various testing scenarios involving hardware and software components. HIGLAS: DBA Team Lead Jun '05 - May aˆ?06. Leading a team of 4 DBA's in maintaining the live customer with more contractors being added on cover letters, a quarterly basis. The job involves allocation of tasks and also performing the technical activities to upkeep 16 instances of which 3 instances are on RAC. Caterpillar financial Services Apr '05 - May aˆ?05. In this assignment, I was assisting the DBA team to build and worksheet on writing a thesis, implement best practices for their Global single Instance (GSI) implementation of Oracle Financials and Lease Management.

The team consisted of offshore developers in India, near shore developers in Memphis and users in UK and Nashville, US. The Apps DBA team was involved in day-to-day upkeep of the letters for sales e-Business Suite applications and also involved in patching, cloning and tuning these applications. Provided recommendations on Single Sign-On and Identity Management processes and implemented it. U S Navy, N10 Assignment Jan' 05 - Mar aˆ?05. In this project, I was responsible for installing Linux Operating System on 3 Dell machines, prepare them for network connectivity, enable security and install Oracle Applications 11i and migrate the similar database from Sun Solaris Operating system into these Linux servers. Short Warming! I was also responsible for cloning, patching and performance tuning this instance apart from migrating tables from the cover for sales data warehouse database into the 11i e-Business suite. Centre for Medicare and Medicaid Services Jun '04 - Jan aˆ?05. This is creative picture prompts, a project to cover letters for sales, combine Medicare's many outdated accounting systems into a single, unified system.

This is to help dissertation uk, replace the associates 54 current different systems in use by private contractors that process and pay 4.5 million Medicare claims every day with an short essay warming, Oracle 11i System. Cover Letters! As a lead for the Oracle Performance Architecture team. Assisted ASP DBA team with maintenance, upgrades, patching, cloning and backup / recovery. A? Responsible for capacity planning and for setting up and enforcing performance budgets through a combination of developer training, code reviews, tuning and architectural recommendations. A? Architected solution for data warehouse using Streams technology and for Disaster Recovery using Data Guard and Veritas Volume Replicator. A? Worked on migrating a single instance 1.2TB database from Sun Solaris to a two node Real Application Cluster instance with OATM on IBM AIX. A Thesis! PCP was configured for handling concurrent processing. A? Designed and cover letters associates, monitored stress tests to identify and resolve performance bottlenecks.

A? Assisted in the migration effort from one ASP to another. This involved O/S, storage and data center migration. A? Assisted prime vendor on implementing efficient application setups for users, responsibilities and job scheduling and to evaluate various third party tools to assist application and database administration. A? Led effort to Benchmark system at full load at the IBM-Oracle competency center. Stuller Settings Multiple assignments. At Stuller Settings, I was involved in.

A? Technical Architect. A? Upgrading Oracle Applications form 11.5.3 to 11.5.6 and then to 11.5.8 (Financials, HRMS, Order Management and CRM) A? End-to-End Performance tuning and load testing using Mercury's Load Runner. A? RMAN implementation. A? Import and export of Oracle Applications for uniform segment size and automatic segment space management. A? Migrating middle tier from HP-UX to Linux (30 machines).

A? Implement SSL for on writing statement Apache based connectivity. A? Configuring the cover letters associates hardware load balancer (Net Director). Unocal November aˆ?03. PBGC December aˆ?03. At the above to clients, Involved in performance health check of the cover consultant Oracle Applications along with various components encompassing it. Identifying and resolving. A? Hardware and Operating system bottlenecks. A? Network bottlenecks. A? Database tuning.

A? Oracle Applications tuning. A? Suggesting steps and also laying down a template for cover for sales associates future performance tuning and monitoring of the various subsystems. St. Writing! Paul Re., Multiple assignments. A? Involved in upgrading the Oracle Applications 11.5.4 to 11.5.8 - Financials. A? Transfer of knowledge in best practices, cloning and maintenance. Belkin Multiple assignments.

Initially involved in performance tuning the associates Oracle Applications ATP process. Later, called in to lead and perform the following: A? Upgrade and short for global, migrate the Oracle Applications 11i from Sun Solaris to HP-UX. A? Performance tune the various product families used (Financials, HRMS, Supply Chain and cover letters associates, CRM). A? Design the disk subsystem for optimal performance. A? Transfer of knowledge in creative, best practices and cloning. A? Laid down the procedure for backup and recovery process. Kinetic Concepts Inc., Sep aˆ?03. At Kinetic Concepts Inc., A? Lead a team of letters associates, 3 Oracle Applications DBA's. A? Upgraded the Oracle Applications 10.7 to 11.5.8 on a IBM AIX operating system. The size of the 10.7 database was 280 GB.

A? Performance tuned the upgrade process and john essays characteristics, brought it under 40 hours. A? Knowledge transfer of cloning and best practices in maintaining the Oracle Applications. A? Assisted in associates, tuning the AIX operating system. At Essilor, one of the huge transactions involving Oracle Applications Order Management product family: A? Performance tuning of Oracle Applications and the HP-UX operating System. A? Coordinated with Oracle development to fix the performance issues of the product. A? Knowledge transfer of best practices and cloning process. Michaels Inc Jun' 04 - Jul aˆ?04. At Michaels, the chain Arts and worksheet, Crafts store, A? Technical Architect - unique requirement to bypass the network limitation. A? Installed Oracle Applications 11.5.5 and upgraded it to 11.5.7 for Oracle HRMS product family.

A? Performance tuned and also assisted in cloning of Oracle Applications. A? Knowledge transfer to the in-house DBA. A? Implement SSL for cover both Apache and picture pinterest, Forms. H B Zachary Apr' 04 - May aˆ?04. At H B Zachary, a Construction company, A? Upgrade Oracle Applications 11.5.1 to 11.5.6.

A? Configuring the cover letters associates hardware load balancer (Load Director). A? End-to-End Performance Tuning. A? Cloning of Oracle Applications. A? Knowledge Transfer to worksheet on writing a thesis, the client Apps DBA's and remote support. A? Technical Architect. A? Migrate Oracle Applications 11.5.2 from HP-UX to IBM AIX. A? Upgrade Oracle Applications 11.5.2 to 11.5.8.

Technicolor Nov '02 - Apr aˆ?03. A? Technical Architect for implementing Oracle Applications on an active - passive cluster for DB server. A? Infrastructure team lead. A? Lead a group of 2 other Oracle Applications DBA's. A? Performance tuning of Oracle Applications 11i - Financials and letters, Order Management. A? Upgrading Oracle Applications 11.5.5 to 11.5.7. A? Configuring the prompts software load balancer for round robin connectivity. Hallmark Cards Multiple assignments. A? Installing Oracle Applications 11i - HRMS and letters, performance tuning and also upgraded Oracle Applications 11.5.5 to typing essays games, 11.5.9. A? Oracle Consulting was brought in to perform a health check and assist on the upgrade of an E-Business suite implementation on AIX. A? Assisted the DBA team to develop a patching strategy to reduce downtime and make it more efficient.

A? Identified and resolved a variety of cover for sales associates, issues related to performance and cover design consultant, availability on cover for sales associates, the Concurrent Processing, Forms and Database tiers. A? Worked with the functional and development teams to architect a high performance data warehouse solution. A? Helped design backup and cloning procedures. Hertz Multiple assignments. A? Installing Oracle Applications 11i - HRMS and performance tuning.

A? Oracle Consulting was bought in to diagnose the health and suggest fixes for an E-Business suite implementation on typing games, HP-UX and EMC Symmetrix. A? Developed standards and processes for the DBA staff for better control of the performance and manageability for the implementation. A? Implemented processes and scripts to monitor and measure performance in the middle tier and the database. This was one of the implementation of a very large CRM installation for letters associates this client on Sun Solaris and Hitachi Freedom storage. A? Worked with the ASP DBA's to install and clone 11i instances.

A? Monitored database and Middle Tier performance and suggest and implemented fixes to improve performance. A? Led a SQL tuning exercise and worked with Oracle Development and Support to obtain fixes. A? Patching and picture prompts, cloning of cover for sales, Oracle Applications 11i (Financials, CRM). A? Led a team to design and creative picture, conduct Stress tests and for sales associates, related system tuning for a CRM implementation. A? Configuring the uk hardware load balancer.

Shaw Group Apr aˆ?02. A? At Shaw Group, I was involved in installing Oracle Applications Server 9i (9iAS) on IBM AIX operating system and configuring Web Cache. A? Knowledge transfer for performance tuning Oracle Applications and Oracle applications Server 9iAS. Diamond Offshore Drilling Inc., Mar aˆ?02. A? Upgraded Oracle Applications 10.7 to 11i (11.5.2) along with same hardware migration. A? Troubleshooting Forms server. Value Vision Nov' 01 - Dec aˆ?01.

At Value Vision, A? Installing and patching of Oracle Applications 11i (CRM). A? Trained on-site client DBA and cover, knowledge transfer. CMGi/uBid Multiple assignments. Lead a team of writing prompts, 5 other very experienced Oracle Applications DBA's in cover for sales associates, performing the following tasks: A? HRMS performance tuning. A? Sun Solaris operating system tuning along with relaying of the disk subsystem for better throughput. A? Patching and typing, cloning of cover letters, Oracle Applications 11i (Financials, CRM, HRMS and Supply Chain). A? Configuring the cover letter design consultant hardware load balancer. Ingresoll Rand Mar' 01 - Apr '01. Lead a team of cover letters associates, 3 Apps DBA's in proof of concept assignment: A? Installing and cloning of Oracle Applications 11i (Financials and CRM) and patch maintenance.

A? Knowledge transfer to on writing a thesis, client Apps DBA. A? End-to-End Performance tuning of Oracle applications. A? Configuring the cover associates hardware load balancer. ALCOA Multiple assignments. At ALCOA, in San Antonio, A? Upgraded Oracle Applications 11.0.3 to 11i on HP-UX operating system. A? Assisted the design DBA team to develop a patching strategy to reduce downtime and make it more efficient. A? Identified and resolved a variety of issues related to cover for sales associates, performance and availability on john essays, the Concurrent Processing, Forms and cover, Database tiers. A? Worked with the functional and development teams to architect a high performance data warehouse solution.

A? Configuring the typing games hardware load balancer. A? Helped design backup and cloning procedures. Sulzer CarboMedics Jul aˆ?00. A? At Sulzer CarboMedics, Oracle Applications 10.7 was upgraded to 11i from cover, Data General Systems to Sun Solaris operating system. A? Designed the technical hardware requirements for this upgrade and migration. A? Trained on-site client DBA and knowledge transfer. Purina Global Jun aˆ?00. A? At Purina Global, I was involved in Installing Oracle Applications 11i - Financials, Supply Chain.

A? Assisted the client in writing uk, configuring Oracle Enterprise Manager with Management Server to monitor Oracle Applications. A? Configuring the hardware load balancer for 3 middle tiers based on HP-UX. American Air Tran May aˆ?00. A? American Air Tran was one of the first customers to go-live with HRMS product family of for sales associates, Oracle Applications 11i. A? Installation of Oracle Applications 11i and initial on-site support and then remote support. MOTB May 99 - Jun aˆ?99.

At Marketing-Out-Of-the-Box client: A? Migrating Oracle Applications 11.0.3 from Sun Solaris to HP-UX. A? Performance tuning the short warming Financials and letters for sales associates, Supply Chain product families thus migrated. JDS Uniphase Multiple Assignments. Initially, I was called in to performance tune Oracle Applications 11.0.3 with the creative following product families: Financials, CRM, Supply Chain. A? Tuning and cover letters, distribution of I/O, tuning kernel parameters, tuning application queries for efficiency.

A? Oracle Managed Services implemented and managed the E-Business suite installation for this client at Oracle's Data Center. A? Performed System Administration tasks on Red Hat Linux and Netapp filers. A? Monitored key database performance indicators and statistics. A? Coordinated support activities on the System and database Administration tickets. A? Configuring the hardware load balancer for 12 middle tiers on Linux. A? Assisted a team of creative picture prompts, DBA's in upgrading Oracle Applications 11.0.3 to 11i along with CRM 3i. Raytheon Nov' 98 - Dec aˆ?98. At Raytheon, I was involved in: A? Installing and tuning Oracle 8.0 for letters associates custom application for Kraft Foods on a HP-UX machine. A? Distributing tablespaces regarding data based on partitioning, indexes, rollback segments temporary tablespace for optimal performance. A? Designing and implementing backup strategies involving hot and cold backups.

Used SQL Backtrack for backups. Michigan Family Insurance Agency Jul - Oct aˆ?98. Texas Mills Supply Jan - Dec aˆ?99. Enterprise Products Oct '98 - Mar aˆ?99. At the above-mentioned clients, the following tasks were performed: A? Implemented Oracle Applications 11.0.3 - Role Oracle Applications DBA - Installing Oracle Applications (Financials), patching and maintenance. A? Defining Architecture needs.

A? Tuning and distribution of I/O, tuning kernel parameters, tuning application queries for efficiency. A? Detecting and creative, resolving application bottlenecks. A? Performing performance tuning and audit of cover letters associates, Oracle Applications on the whole and the individual product families, products, and essays, also analyzing and implementing End-to-End Performance Tuning. A? Defining procedures for developing, testing and performance tuning customizations / extensions before implementing. A? Applications Troubleshooting End User Support. A? Analyzing current performance and implementing recommendations on letters, expensive SQL operations.

A? AIM, EMM and CDM. A? Infrastructure Lead for various clients. A? Applications Implementation Lead. A? Technical Architecture Lead. A? Technical and essays games, Infrastructure Team Lead.

A? DBA and Apps DBA Team Lead. A? System Performance Management and Tuning Lead. A? 9i Application Server, Apache HTTP Server, 9iAS Discoverer, Database Cache, Web Cache, 9iAS Forms Reports Server, Data Guard, SQL*Loader, SQL*Plus, SQL*Net, Export / Import, PL/SQL, PRO*C, Unix Shell Scripts. A? Oracle RDBMS 5.x, 6.x, 7.x, 8.x, 8i, 9i, 10g DB 10g AS and 10g EM. A? Disaster Recovery, Performance Tuning, Benchmarking, Backup and Recovery, Oracle Parallel Server and Oracle Distributed Databases. A? UNIX various flavors such Sun Solaris, HP-Unix, Compaq-Tru64, AIX, SCO Unix, Linux (SuSe Redhat) and MS Windows NT, MS Windows 2000. A? Architectural Thinking for Experienced Professionals. A? Architectural Thinking workshop.

A? Six Sigma - Green Belt with nearly 100 hours of training covering every topic. A? IBM Global Services Method for Technology Integration Professionals. A? Project Management Orientation (PMTO) A? Performance Engineering: Delivering Successful Projects. A? The IT Architect: An Introduction. A? Problem Solving and Decision Making for IT Professionals. A? Load Runner Express - Mercury Interactive. A? Solution Architect Master - Oracle Corporation. A? Oracle 9iDB: New features for Administrators - Oracle Corporation. A? Oracle 9iAS: Installation and Administration - Oracle Corporation.

A? Oracle 8i: New features for Administrators - Oracle Corporation. A? Oracle 8i: Distributed Systems - Part I: Distributed Databases Implementation - Oracle Corporation. A? Oracle 8i: Oracle Parallel Server Implementation - Oracle Corporation. A? Oracle 8: New features for Administrators - Oracle Corporation. A? Oracle Enterprise Manager - Oracle Corporation. A? Oracle Applications Installation and Administration (10.7 SC) - Oracle Corporation. A? AIM Advantage 3.0 for Practitioners - Oracle Corporation. A? DB General: A DBA monitoring tool - Bradmark Technologies. A? Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology - National Informatics Center.

A? BasisPlus - Text based RDBMS - National Informatics Center. A? Client / Server Application Development - National Informatics Center. A? Introduction to Data Communications - Digital Equipment's India Ltd., A? Network Standards and cover for sales, Protocols - Digital Equipment's India Ltd.,

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The Qualities of a Good Leader ! Essay. Leadership is a quality which cannot be acquired by any person from the other but it can be acquired by self-determination of a person. Leadership can best be called the personality of the very highest ability-whether in ruling, thinking, imagining, innovation, warring, or religious influencing. Image Source: Leadership is a quality hidden in the personality of a human being. Human personality is very complex and letters, it is very difficult to grade individuals according to one’s personality. Leadership, on the other hand, depends on the organic structure of the personality which includes experience, skill, responsibility, intelligence, power of organizing people and brown essays on the, social interaction. Leadership is an indispensable activity, which every leader has tap perform for directing the people, working under him. It is the ability of the letters associates, Leader to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal. In other words “Leadership is the process by which an leader imaginatively directs, guides and influence the writing prompts, work of others in choosing and letters associates, attaining specified goals by mediating between the letter consultant, individuals and the organisation in such as manner, that both will obtain maximum satisfaction.

Some people have a misconception that only those people who are physically strong can become good leaders, but this is not the fact. A leader may not be physically strong but he needs to be mentally strong and firm in decisions. For example, Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of the Nation was the greatest leader but he was active and had a firm desire to serve the Nation. He had the for sales associates, power of organizing and uniting people and attracting people towards him by his speeches. This is the best quality of a leader which he had in him. John Brown Essays On The? We can also say that, a person who can satisfy the basic psychological needs of his followers can also be an effective leader. Leadership is a quality which cannot be acquired by cover letters associates any person from the other but it can be acquired by self-determination of a person.

Leadership can best be called the personality of the very highest ability-whether in ruling, thinking, imagining, innovation, warring, or religious influencing. Leader can be classified according to their work. For example, those who are related to politics are the political leader, those officers who are related to the profession of Army or Police are the leaders of prompts pinterest, their respective fields. In fact leadership is the most important quality required in cover associates, a political leader and equally in Army and worksheet on writing, Police Officers because the future and security of the county lies in their hands, so they should properly use their power and be always attentive so that any enemies whether within or from for sales outside country can not cause any harm or damage to the Nation. Intelligence and Alertness. The most important quality which a leader should possess is a thesis intelligence and alertness. A leader has to cover use his/her brain every time and also has to remain alert with eyes and ears open otherwise he/she could easily be carried by any fraud or enemy. Many a times we see such situations around us, where a person in trouble or problem doesn’t hesitate in brown essays on the, blaming and embarrassing even his closest friend to cover letters save himself, and short essay for global, also does not bother about letters associates, his friends at all because the person has to get rid of his problems anyhow. So, he just thinks about himself and his life, the life of other does not matter to him much.

Almost all of us are having one or more such close friends, so a leader should always keep in mind that he should not trust even his closest friends more than required as it can create problems for him. At the time of war, an Army Officer who leads his soldiers as to apply his brain every second and has to short for global warming be attentive while marching ahead. A Police Officer has to be attentive always while he is at work as his duty is to cover letters associates control crime and provide safety to the people. The political leader of typing, a county should be most intelligent as the security of not only few people but of the whole nation depends in him in one way or the other. Therefore, we can say intelligence and alertness are the indispensable qualities of a leader. As for example, one of the greatest leader of his time, Winston Churchill could win the Second World War just by applying his brain and his alertness.

Action Oriented approach. The other qualities of a leader include impartiality,action-oriented approach and cover letters, positive attitude. Worksheet On Writing A Thesis? A good leader should always be impartial towards all his followers, because the moment he becomes partial, he no longer remains a leader as he loses the confidence of others. The duty of a leader is to letters associates encourage and raise the standard of all his followers and not just a few of them, and he should always remember his duty. Further, a leader should be action-oriented. Writing Picture Prompts? A single leader cannot do every work by letters for sales himself, so he needs help of others for doing all his constructive works. A leader should be effective enough towards himself and help writing, encourages everyone through his words to do constructive work while walking on a right path so that everyone in this country can become aware of his/her rights as well as duties and can provide his/her help in the development of the country. In our country, the constitution has given us the cover letters for sales associates, right of democracy through which everyone whether a beggar or the on writing a thesis, President has been given the right to letters choose a leader. Everyone wants his leader to be effective, intelligent, active, and action-oriented who can encourages the masses and do the needful for his people and worksheet on writing, his area. Some of the great action-oriented leaders were Winston Churchill, Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subash Chandra Bose, Indira Gandhi,Abraham Lincoln who succeeded in letters associates, attracting the masses towards themselves through their speeches and encouraging people to work for their county and thus they succeeded in registering their name in history forever.

Of course, they are now dead but are present in the hearts and minds of the people of their countries and even now they are remembered with respect. A leader should also be an optimist having a positive attitude. Short For Global? he should not think negatively or plan something showing negative attitude. A person who thinks or plans something’s showing his negative attitude never be a Leader. Cover For Sales Associates? A leader should always be courageous. He should have courage to face the troubles or problems and solving the a thesis statement, problems by himself in place of cover, blaming and embarrassing others. Cowards, who at the time of john on the characteristics, facing problems or troubles in their life try to letters associates blame and embarrass others can never succeed in their life. Short Essay For Global Warming? Such person remain at cover associates, the same place where they stood in the beginning. John Essays On The Characteristics? To gain height and achieve something, one should come out of cowardness, jealousy and cover letters associates, should become innovative, courageous, action-oriented and optimist. A good leader has all these qualities in him. To elaborate further the qualities of picture prompts, a good leader there are three theories of leadership and these are (a) trait theory (b) behavioral theory and (c) situation theory.

The first approach (trait theory) views leadership as a conglomeration of a set of personality traits. Letters? The older tradition in these studies of creative writing picture pinterest, leadership has been the search for a cluster of traits, attributes or other types of cover letters for sales associates, individual difference, which see leaders apart from their followers or which distinguish effective leaders from ineffective ones. A good leader, as it found more often, is a good teacher. Instead of bossing his followers or group members – a good leader always helps them through experience that brings a changed mind and motive. Finally, a good leader must be faithful to his group members and activities. This in turn, will result in an atmosphere of writing dissertation uk, assurance among the followers. Having faith in for sales, self abilities and the world around him/her the leader gains inspiration and also inspires others in the process.

Elaborate and Edited by Users. In this world, there are two types of people. Help Uk? One type is known as the leaders, and the other as followers. One needs to decide whether he wants to be a followers or a leader, well, the compensation for the both differs, the follower cannot reasonably expect the compensation to which a leader is entitled, although many followers make the mistake of expecting such pay. Broadly speaking, on one hand it is no disgrace to be a follower and on the other hand, it is nor credit to remain a follower for very long.

Not all followers can become leaders. For becoming a good leader one needs to poses leadership qualities. The Major Attributes of Leadership. The following are the major attributes of leadership: Infinite Courage : In fact, no follower will like to cover letters be dominated by a leader who lacks self-confidence, courage and help uk, wisdom. No intelligent follower will be dominated by letters for sales associates such a leader for very long. Self Control : The person who controls self rules others ! The man who can’t control himself can never control others. In fact, self-control sets a mighty example for one’s followers, which the more intelligent will emulate. Sense of Justice : Without a sense off fairness and justice, no leader can command and retain the respect of his followers. Decision Making : The man who wavers in his decision, shows that he is not sure of himself, cannot lead others successfully. Planning : The successful leader must plan his work and work his plan.

A leader who moves by guesswork, without practical, definite plans, is comparable to a ship without a rudder. Sooner of later he will land on the rocks. Doing More : One of the penalties of leadership is the necessity of willingness, upon the part of the leader, to do more than he requires of john essays on the characteristics, his followers. Pleasing Personality : Leaderships calls for respect. A person without a good and pleasing personality will not be respected by his followers for very long. Associates? Well, personality can be defined as the complex of all the attributes–behavioral, temperamental, emotional and mental–that characterize a unique individual and without it, a person can neither become a intelligent followers nor a good leader.

Sympathy : The word sympathy can be best defined as sharing the feelings of others (especially feelings of sorrow or anguish). The successful leader must be in sympathy with his followers. Moreover, he must understand them and their problems. Responsibility : The person who wants to be a leader must develop the quality of taking responsibility. With responsibility comes power.

A leader is assumed to be responsible for the mistakes and the shortcomings of letter design, his followers. If he tries to shift the responsibility, he will not remain the leader. Cooperation : Without good co-operation and coordination no organized plan could be executed. Thus a successful leader must understand and letters, apply the principles of cooperative efforts and be able to induce his followers to consultant do the same. Leadership calls for power, and power calls for cooperation. Classification of Leadership.

Broadly, leadership can be classified into two categories (a) Leadership by Consent (b) Leadership by force. The former, and by far the most effective, is leadership by consent of, and with the sympathy of the followers. The later is leadership by force without the consent and sympathy of the followers. History is filled with evidence that leadership by associates force cannot endure. On Writing A Thesis Statement? The downfall and associates, disappearance of dictators and typing games, kings is significant. It concludes that people will not follow forced leadership indefinitely.

The Ten Major Causes of Failure in Leadership. Inability to Organize details: A good leader is supposed to be a person with immerse power of organizing things in much better way than his followers. The successful lead must be the master of all details connected with his position. That means, of course, that he must acquire the habit of relegating details to cover letters for sales associates capable lieutenants. Unwillingness to render humble services: The greatest among ye all shall be the servant of all’ is a truth which all able leaders observe and respect. A leader should always be ready to do the act, upon on writing a thesis, demand, which he intends to be done by cover his followers. Expectation of pay for what they ‘know’ instead of essay for global warming, what they do with that which they know: A person is not paid for what he knows but for what he does. Letters For Sales Associates? A leader must understand and implement this theory in his day to help day activities.

Fear of for sales associates, competition from followers: A leader should never fear that one day his followers may take his position. An efficient leader may through his know knowledge of his job and the magnetism of his personality, greatly increase the efficiency of others, and induce them to render more service and better service than they could render without his aid. Imagination can be defined as the formation of a mental image of something that is not perceived as real and on writing a thesis, is not present to the senses. Without imagination, the leader is incapable of meeting emergencies, and for sales, of creating plans by short warming which to guide his followers effectively. Selfishness is evil. A leader should not claim all the cover associates, honor for the works of on writing, his followers. He is contented to see the letters for sales associates, honors, when there are any, go to his followers, because he knows that most men will work harder for commendation and recognition than they will for money alone. What is Intemperance ? Well, it is the quality of being intemperate. Followers don’t respect an intemperate leader. Moreover, intemperance in any of its various forms, destroys the endurance and the vitality of all who indulge in it.

The leader who is john brown essays on the not loyal to his trust, and to his associates, those above him, and those below him, cannot long maintain his leadership. Disloyalty marks one as being less than the dust of earth, and brings down on one’ head the contempt he deserves. A good leader should poses the power of authority by for sales consent and not by force. The leader who tires to impress his followers with his “authority” comes within the creative, category of letters, leadership, through force. In fact, the competent leader requires no ‘title’ to give him the respect of his followers. The man who makes too much over his title generally has little else to john brown essays emphasize. Things a leader needs to do. A leader gets things done through other people. Although people differ from one another physically and psychologically, they are all governed by certain basic needs. Letters? The most important need in all individuals is the need to gain recognition. A leader who can satisfy this need will have no difficulty in influencing people, and getting done the job in hand.

While attempting to satisfy this great urge, the leader should scrupulously avoid criticizing people since no one likes to be others. On the positive side, the has to give hearty, generous and sincere appreciation. If one takes the trouble, one can always discover something or the other in an individual for which real appreciation can be expressed. Next, the leader, in order to get willing cooperation, has to look at things from the other person’s point of view. He has to see what the other person wants rather than what he himself is cover letter design consultant interested in. People, as a rule and by nature, are interested in themselves. Unconsciously, you first think about yourself before you think of letters for sales associates, others. In a self first.

The word most used during any conversation is the single lettered ‘I’. When you open a magazine to typing essays which you have contributed, you first start reading your own article, although you might already be knowing every word of it by heart. A leader must, therefore, assiduously cultivate the habit of playing down the ‘I’ and cover letters, playing up the ‘YOU’. Prove to the them. You don’t have to spend money, much time or effort on this. You can do it with your smile, with your words, enthusiasm, and your warm, firm and friendly hand clasp. Be considerate, courteous and helpful to others.

Be sympathetic and treat others as you would like to be treated by them. Concentrate on what you can do for others and you will find this approach working wonders. People will vie with one another to games do things for you, without your ever asking for it. Talk about letters associates, others and especially their good points. Short Essay? If you keep talking about cover letters for sales associates, yourself, you will soon tire others and soon they will start avoiding you as a bore. Cover Design Consultant? If you speak well of yourself, others will think you are boasting, and if you speak ill of yourself they will believe it, so first don’t talk about yourself.

Instead, try talking about the other individual and his interests. Letters Associates? Encourage him to typing games speak about himself. “Appreciation makes people feel more important than anything else you can give them.” You have to search and see what is there in him. It will compel you to recognize this importance. We don’t have to wait till someone does something for us to cover associates show our appreciation. We can begin it at any time and place. All we have to do is to start looking for things in people to appreciate them.

You want that people should admire you and recognize your merits. If you pause and reflect, you will find that the other individual also has identical wants and aspirations. Therefore, if you are selfish and try to project only your own requirements, you will soon find others avoiding you. Dissertation? They would be reluctant to listen to letters for sales you or meet your requirements. You must, therefore, go all the way and meet their requirements. Very soon, you will notice the other individuals paying attention to your needs and doing things automatically the way you would like them to be done. If you want to lead and on the, influence others, you have to put yourself out to do things for letters for sales associates, them.

You have to spend time, energy and worksheet on writing a thesis statement, effort to satisfy the needs of others. For instance, you have to remember faces and names. The aspiring leader has, therefore, to make it a point to remember names and faces. While addressing letters, you must spell the cover letters, name and initials correctly and include the full decoration, if any. Picture? If an individual has earned a doctorate or a professional chair, make it a point to address that person as Doctor so and so or Professor so and so instead of plain Mr. or Mrs. or Miss.

People also appreciate if you remember their birthdays, wedding anniversaries, etc. The efforts you make to remember such seemingly trivial points and cover, act on them will yield rich dividends. Encourage people to talk about themselves. Be an enthusiastic and worksheet on writing a thesis, encouraging listener and pay rapt attention to what other say. Ask them for more details in areas where they display great interest. Question them abut the reasons for their success, for their mastery, for letters, their special skills and for their prosperity. Learn about essays games, their hobbies, preferences, likes and dislikes. The more you know about an letters for sales individual, the easier it will be for typing essays games, you to satisfy his requirements and letters for sales, motivate him in the direction in which you want him to essays go.

Next to taking interest in the other person’s activities and looking at things from his angle, motivation can be brought about by the first impression you make on him. In creating this first favorable impression, nothing proves so effective as a warm and letters for sales associates, cheerful smile. A warm smile states to a stranger that you like him, you are glad to see him and creative pinterest, that you would welcome his company. For Sales Associates? You would have noticed among your circle of friends that the individual who has a natural smile on his face is the one who is dissertation uk most sought after. You notice a particular charm in a lady, who has a pleasant and cheerful smile all the time on her face. Associates? Your smile has to be sincere. If it is artificial, if it is only put on for the occasion, very soon it will fade away from your face. On the other hand, a sincere smile creates a ready trust in the other person. If you do not have a natural smile, you can cultivate it by short careful training and also developing the right mental attitude. View things optimistically. Whenever the chips are down and things are not going the way you have planned, think of some funny incident and repeat it to yourself.

The sunshine will come up soon. Also do not reserve your smiles only for strangers. Smile naturally and cover letters associates, freely with every individual whom you come across. Let this part of smiling sincerely become a regular habit with you. You will be surprised to see the impact that a warm and genuine smile can create. People will suddenly sit up and take notice of you. All doors will be open and you will be welcome everywhere. People will go out of essay for global warming, their way to seek your company because you bring joy to them. On the cover for sales, other hand, a grim face makes you look too serious. What is more, the smile has a way of influencing your mental attitude.

You feel a happier man by wearing a smile on your face. According to a Chinese proverb, a man without a smiling face should not open a shop. In other words, his business or enterprise will be a total failure if he does not know how to keep himself cheerful and friendly. Not only should he feel friendly and pinterest, cheerful, he should also readily demonstrate it and show it to theirs by his disarming, charming and welcome smile. Frank Irvin Fletcher has described the value of a smile at Christmas in the following words: It costs nothing, but creates much. It enriches those who receive, without impoverishing those who give. It happens in a flash and the memory of it sometimes lasts forever.

None are so rich they can get along without it, and cover letters for sales associates, none so poor but are richer for its benefits. It creates happiness in the home, fosters goodwill in a business and short essay for global, is the letters, countersign of friends. It is rest to the weary, daylight to short warming the discouraged, sunshine to the sad and nature’s best antidote for cover, trouble. Yet it cannot be bought, begged, borrowed or stolen, for it is something that is no earthly good to anybody till it is design consultant given away. And if in the last-minute rush of Christmas buying some of letters associates, our sales people should be too tired to give you a smile, may we ask you to for global warming leave one of yours.

Thus, the first step in the technique of motivating others is to letters associates begin with yourself taking a keen interest in them and winning their hearts through a genuine, warm and charming smile. is home of thousands of articles published by picture pinterest users like YOU. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies and allied information with a single vision to letters liberate knowledge. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the short essay warming, following pages:

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920 Words Essay on the Choice of a Career. The selection of a career or profession is one of the most important things of cover letters for sales, life. But it is equally difficult. Typing Essays. The lack of guiding services, proper counseling and ever increasing unemployment has further complicated the matter. There is cover letters associates, cut-throat competition. Therefore, most of the young men and women in search of suitable jobs are a confused, indecisive and for global warming, frustrated lot. It has generated a deep sense of frustration and cover letters for sales associates, indiscipline among the young people. A right choice of a career is fundamental importance. Consultant. On it does depend one#8217;s success or failure in cover associates, life.

A correct choice may lead to letter design consultant happy, prosperous and satisfying career and life. On the other hand, a wrong selection may result in cover letters for sales, failure, disappointment and sadness in life. The result of prolonged indecision rimy still proves worse. Image Source : Therefore, the problem should be faced and resolved as early as possible. It is better if one decides at the school stage itself what career one is going to adopt in future. But the school-going students are quite young, inexperienced and raw to take a right decision. They cannot be the best judge in the matter. What are needed are proper guidance, counseling, advice, vocational training, encouragement and short essay warming, orientation. And parents, teachers, professional guides and counselors should help them.

They can help the students choose right professions and careers, keeping in mind the aptitude, talent, skills, resources etc., of each and every student, a prospective professional. This will also go a long way in solving the cover problem of letter design consultant, unemployment and proper development of our human resources. Life has become all the more complex and competitive. There is letters for sales, a keen struggle and letter design, competition in the world of careers and professions. And only the fittest will survive.

After finishing their school and college education or training, the young students are baffled as to which profession to choose. They find themselves groping in the dark. The tough competition and corruption further increase their difficulties. A young man or woman may possess sufficient training, education, orientation and cover for sales associates, aptitude for a particular job or position and yet he or she may not get it because of typing essays games, various problems. Gone are the associates days when life was easy, simple, smooth and harmonious, and in the majority of the cases the son followed his ancestral profession or trade, and was trained in the same at home. With the rapid change in attitudes, situations and progress in science and technology, things have radically changed. Letter Design Consultant. The entry of women in professions and services has further increased the complications. And so, the selection of a right career at a right time has become a very tough job. It needs proper, full and comprehensive consideration. There are professions, careers, trades and jobs in plenty. There are a number of professional and training institutions like It#8217;s., polytechnics, engineering colleges etc., which give training in various trades, skills, professions and jobs, such as medicine, engineering, teaching, business, commerce, banking, computer science, advertising, journalism, government services, positions in armed forces, and scores others.

Then one can begin his own workshop, factory or shop, or choose a career in police, films, commercial art etc. The whole world of careers is yours, but each and for sales associates, every profession requires a special aptitude, training, guidance, education and preparation. One may wish to become a doctor or an engineer, but mere wish is not enough. Wishes, without proper and cover letter design, matching qualifications and deeds, result in for sales associates, frustration and failure. There are many factors that go in making a successful and happy career. Besides mental make-up, education, training and help uk, skills, the financial resources have also to be taken into consideration.

For example a young man may possess all the training, skills and aptitude for running an industry. But he cannot venture to for sales be an entrepreneur unless he has sufficient financial backing and muscle. In these circumstances, he will have to settle for a less ambitious career. But if he has a strong will power, nothing can prevent him from achieving the goal in the long run. One may start from scratch and end up as a business tycoon. A career should be chosen at the earliest possible stage but with proper and full deliberation. The help and guidance of teachers, parents, experienced people and professionals should be sought in the matter. I am a XII class student and I am- not required to enter into any profession just now. On Writing A Thesis Statement. And yet I have decided about my career and profession. I have thought long and well over the matter with the letters for sales help and guidance of my parents, teachers, physical training instructor and others well qualified to advise me.

I have decided to become a soldier in our army. I have robust health, strong determination and sense of strict discipline. I like adventures, bold and daring acts. Characteristics. I have an letters associates aptitude for a military career. I have almost made it the mission of my life to serve the country in the military uniform. Soon I hope to find myself in Defense Academy, Khadakvasla after completion of my education in the Sank school at Belgium and in Quad. My career in armed forces will provide me with a proper opportunity to serve my motherland in the best possible way I can. For me the profession of a soldier is the noblest because it is devoted to the defense of the country#8217;s honour and on the characteristics, unity. The call to the duty is super most in my mind and I personally feel that this feeling of mine can find best possible expression in defense service only.

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essay of ethnography WRITING AN ETHNOGRAPHY. 1. To understand the nature of ethnographic writing as part of the translation process. 2. For Sales? To identify different levels of ethnographic writing. 4. To write an worksheet on writing a thesis ethnography. Every ethnographer probably begins the task of for sales associates writing a cultural description with the feeling it is too early to start. On The Characteristics? Doing ethnography always leads to a profound awareness that a particular cultural meaning system is almost in­exhaustibly rich. You know a great deal about a cultural scene but you now realize how much more there is to cover letters know. It is well to recognize that what you write is essays true of every ethnographic description: it is partial, incomplete, and will always stand in need of revision. Cover Letters? Most ethnographers would do well to set aside the feelings that writing is premature and begin the task sooner rather than later. In the process of writing one discovers a hidden store of knowledge gained during the research process.

As most professional writers will affirm, the essays only way to learn to write is to write. In the same way that learning to swim cannot occur during classroom lectures on swimming, discussion of principles and strategies to follow in writing do not take one very far in learning to write. Cover For Sales Associates? It is best to essay warming observe other swimmers, get in letters for sales associates, the water yourself and pad­dle around, and then have an experienced swimmer point out ways to improve your breathing and stroke. One of the best ways to learn to write an ethnography is to read other ethnographies. John Brown Characteristics? Select those that communicate to you the letters meaning of for global warming another culture. Those written in a way that brings that culture to life, making you feel you under­stand the letters for sales people and john brown essays on the, their way of life. If you read well-written ethnographies during the process of writing, your own writing will improve spontaneously. Every ethnographer can identify books and articles that are well-written cultural descriptions.

In the past eight years, my colleague David McCurdy and I have scoured the professional literature in search of brief examples of ethno­graphic writing of the highest caliber. Our standard has been to identify writing that translates the meanings of an alien culture so well that someone unfamiliar with ethnography grasps those meanings. Cover For Sales? These selections of ethnographic writing have been collected in three successive editions of Conformity and Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology (1971, 1974. 1977). For sheer readability, two of the best longer ethnographies are Elliot Liehow’s urban ethnography, Tally’s Corner (1967), and Colin Turnbull’s study of the Pygmies, The Forest People (1962). In this step I want to examine briefly the nature of ethnographic writing as part of the translation process.

Then I want to discuss the principles of the D.R.S. Writing Prompts? Method as applied to writing an ethnography. In the process I will give some specific suggestions on writing, but always keep in mind that the way to learn to write an associates ethnography is to write an ethnography. THE TRANSLATION PROCESS. A translation discovers the meanings in one culture and communicates them in such a way that people with another cultural tradition can under­stand them. The ethnographer as translator has a dual task. For one, you must make sense out of the cultural patterns you observe, decoding the messages in cultural behavior, artifacts, and knowledge. The more fully you apprehend and digest the cultural meaning system operating in the social situation you study, the more effective your final translation. Your second task is to communicate the cultural meanings you have discovered to readers who are unfamiliar with that culture or cultural scene.

This means that every ethnographer must develop the skills of communicat­ing in written form. It requires that you take into consideration our audience as well as our informants. In a real sense, a truly effective translation requires an intimate knowledge of two cultures: the one described and the one tacitly held by the audience who will read the description. Many highly skilled ethnographers fail to worksheet finish the cover for sales associates work of ethnographic translation. They give months of time to the intensive study of another culture, analyzing in great detail the meanings encoded in that culture. Warming? Then, without taking time to learn the letters for sales skills of typing essays written communication, without understanding their audience, without even feeling the importance of com­municating in a way that brings the culture to life, they write an ethnog­raphy. Their audience becomes a very small group of cover associates other ethnographers, who, by brown on the virtue of their interest in the culture, are willing to wade through the vague and general discussions, examine the cover letters for sales associates taxonomies, paradigms, and other tables or charts, and typing, glean an understanding of the people and letters for sales, their way of letter design life. Cover Associates? The ethnographic literature is plagued by half-translations that cannot be used as guides to another way of life. In discussing the writing dissertation uk steps in writing an ethnographic description I will make numerous suggestions for letters for sales, creating a full translation, one that communicates the creative picture prompts cultural meanings you have discovered.

However, one fundamental cause of inadequate cultural translations lies in the failure to understand and use different levels of writing. During the writing of any ethnographic description, the ethnographer must keep these various levels in mind and cover, consciously use them to increase the communicative power of the transla­tion. Levels of cover design Ethnographic Writing. Every ethnographer deals with the letters associates most specific, concrete, human events as well as the most general. In our fieldnotes we identify an infant with a specific name, held by a specific mother, nursing at short essay warming, that mother’s breast, at a specific time and in a specific place. In those same fieldnotes we will make observations about human love, nurturance, and the universal relationship of mothers and children. In the final written ethnography, the range of levels is enormous.

More than anything else, the way these levels are used will determine the communicative value of an ethnographic translation. Kenneth Read, in his beautifully written ethnography of the Gahuku peoples of Highland New Guinea, The High Valley (1965), suggests the underlying cause of partial translations in ethnography: Why, then, is so much anthropological writing so antiseptic, so devoid of anything that brings a people to for sales associates life? There they are, pinned like butterflies in a glass case, with the writing picture pinterest difference, however, that we often cannot tell what color these specimens are, and we are never shown them in cover letters associates, flight, never see them soar or die except in generalities. The reason for this lies in the aims of anthropology, whose concern with the particular is incidental to john brown an understanding of the general (1965:ix). In anthropology, as in all social sciences, the concern with the cover letters associates particular is incidental to an understanding of the general.

But when this principle is transported wholesale into doing ethnography, it creates a travesty of the translation process. When an ethnographer studies another culture, the only place to begin is with the particular, the concrete, specific events of every­day life. Then, through the research process described in this book, the ethnographer moves to more and more general statements about the culture. With the discovery of more general categories and cultural themes, the ethnographer begins to make comparisons with other cultures and make even more general statements about the brown essays culture studied. And all too fre­quently, it is primarily this kind of analysis and understanding that finds its way into the ethnographic description.

In writing an ethnography, as a translation in the full sense, the concern with the general is incidental to an understanding of the particular. In order for a reader to see the lives of the cover letters associates people we study, we must show them through particulars, not merely talk about writing dissertation, them in generalities. There are at least six different levels that can be identified in ethnographic writing as we move from the general to the particular. Let’s examine each of these different kinds of cover associates translation statements. Level One: Universal Statements. These include all statements about human beings, their behavior, culture. or environmental situation. They are all-encompassing statements. Al­though the writing pinterest beginning ethnographer may often feel incompetent to make any universal statements, all of us know things that occur universally and can include them in our ethnographies. Most cultural descriptions include uni­versal statements.

A study of cover letters air traffic controllers, for example. might assert, ‘In all societies, people manage the cover design consultant movement of their bodies through space in such a way that they do not constantly collide with other human beings.” Such a statement is relevant to cover for sales associates controlling the worksheet movement of vehicles in which humans move about as well. A study of clerks who record burglaries in the police department might assert the following universal statement: “in all human societies, some people keep records of associates one sort or another about design, their affairs.” For each of the six levels of abstraction that appear in ethnographic writing, I want to for sales give an example from The Cocktail Waitress: Woman’s Work in a Man’s World (Spradley and Mann 1975). This will clarify the nature of the various levels by showing their expression in a single work. Creative Writing Prompts? The following universal statement is one among several: “Every society takes the biological differences between female and male to create a special kind of reality: feminine and masculine identities” (1975:145). In the context of a specific bar in a specific city, we made an assertion about a universal feature of human experience. Level Two: Cross-Cultural Descriptive Statements. The second level of abstraction includes statements about two or more societies, assertions that are true for some societies but not necessarily for all societies. Consider the following statement from letters for sales The Cocktail Waitress: “When anthropologists began studying small, non-Western societies they found that people participated in a single web of life. . . . [W]hen we turn to complex societies such as our own, the number of cultural perspectives for any situation increases radically” (1975: 8, 9). This statement says some­thing about worksheet on writing, two very large classes of human societies—the small, non-Western ones and the complex ones.

Such a descriptive statement helps to convey an understanding of even the most specific place such as Brady’s Bar. Cross-cultural descriptive statements help place a cultural scene in the broader picture of human cultures, something every ethnographer is con­cerned about cover letters associates, doing. These kinds of statements say to the reader, “This cultural scene is not merely one little interesting group of people; it is worksheet on writing a thesis a part of the human species in a particular way. It is like many other cultural scenes, but it is also different from many others.” By means of contrast you have conveyed an important dimension of the for sales associates culture. Level Three: General Statements about a Society or Cultural Group. This kind of statement appears to be specific, but in fact remains quite general. ‘The Kwakiutl live in villages along coastal bays” is a general statement about a cultural group. ‘The Pygmies live in help, the forest and play musical instruments” is another general statement. We can make such statements about cover, complex societies also: “American culture is based on the value of materialism.” Or we can make such statements about recurrent cultural scenes, or groups of on writing people who have learned similar cultural scenes: “Air traffic controllers work under great stress”; “Police departments must gather, classify, and record a great deal of cover important informa­tion.”

In our study of Brady’s Bar, we included statements at typing essays, this level; they did not refer exclusively to cover for sales Brady’s Bar, but to all the institutions of writing dissertation which Brady’s was one example: “Bars, in general, are places of cover for sales employment for hundreds of thousands of women, almost always as cocktail waitresses. Their role in bars tends to be an extension of their role at home—serving the needs of men. . . . Like most institutions of American society, men hold sway at help uk, the center of social importance” (1975: 145). Level Four: General Statements about a Specific Cultural Scene. When we move down one level of abstraction, we can note many state­ments about a particular culture or cultural scene, Most ethnographies are filled with statements at this level. “The Fort Rupert Kwakiutl engage in cover letters associates, seine fishing.” “The air traffic controllers at john brown essays characteristics, the Minneapolis International Airport work one of three shifts.” Participant observation provides many statements at this level. We can say things like, “The waitresses at for sales associates, Brady’s get hassled by customers” or “Tramps aren’t really tramps unless they make the bucket,” These are descriptive statements about a particular scene or group, but even so, they are still general in nature. Moreover, even when expressed by an informant and used in an ethnography as a quotation from an informant, they represent an abstraction. Every culture is filled with these low-level abstractions that must find their way into help writing dissertation uk any ethnographic description. Here is an example from cover for sales Brady’s Bar: “At one level, Brady’s Bar is primarily a place of business.

At another level, Brady’s Bar is a place where men can come to play out exaggerated masculine roles, acting out help dissertation their fantasies of sexual prowess, and associates, reaffirming their own male identities, Brady’s Bar is a men’s ceremonial center” (1975: 130-31). This level of ethnographic writing contains many of the themes the ethnographer wants to present to the reader. Thus, the theme of males expressing their identities in many different ways—in the way space is organized, the way drinks are ordered, and the like—is described in statements at this level. Sometimes one can encapsulate general statements at Level Four in a quotation from an informant: they still remain statements of a very general nature. Making use of an informant quotation helps provide a sense of immediacy and gives the reader a closer acquaintance with the culture, but we must move to even more specific levels. Level Five: Specific Statements about a Cultural Domain. At this level, the ethnographer begins to make use of all the different terms in one or more cultural domains. We are now dealing with a class of events, objects, or activities as you have discovered them in the cultural scene.

For example, here is an ethnographic statement at this level from my research on the factory that makes tannery equipment: “One of the most important jobs that men do is to on writing statement make drums. A drum can be small, such as a barrel, or more than thirty feet across. There are many stages in making a drum, including making heads, making pins, making cross pieces, making staves, making doors, and making door frames. The entire process of making a drum can take as long as a week and involve the work of cover for sales associates several men.” Descriptive statements at this level can make reference to taxonomies and paradigms that encapsulate a great deal of information. However, these representations in themselves seldom communicate more than a skeleton of cover design relationships to the reader. In order to translate these into letters associates a description that will be understood, a great deal of narrative description at this level and picture, the next more specific level is required.

Here is a brief example of cover letters associates a specific statement about the domain, “asking for writing uk, a drink,” which makes up part of the for sales culture of cocktail waitresses. ‘One frequent way that men ask for a drink is not to ask for a drink at all. Help Dissertation? In the situation where it is appropriate to ask for a drink, they ask instead for the waitress. This may be done in cover letters for sales associates, the form of teasing, hustling, hassling, or some other speech act” (1975:132). Level Six: Specific Incident Statements. In one sense, Levels One through Five all contrast sharply with Level Six, which takes the reader immediately to picture prompts the actual level of behavior and objects, to the level of perceiving these things. Consider an example from Brady’s Bar at this level, closely related to all the examples given at the other five levels of abstraction: “Sandy is working the upper section on letters for sales Friday night. She walks up to the corner table where there is a group of john essays on the characteristics five she has never seen before: four guys and a girl who are loud and boisterous.

She steps up to letters for sales the table and asks, “Are you ready to order now’?” One of the males grabs her by worksheet on writing statement the waist and cover letters for sales, jerks her towards him. ‘I already know what I want! I’ll take you,” he says as he smiles innocently up at her” (1975:132). Design Consultant? As a reader, you immediately begin to see things happening, perhaps feel things the actors in this situation feel. Letters For Sales? Instead of merely being told what people know, how they generate behavior from this knowledge, and how they interpret things, you have been shown this cultural knowledge in action. A good ethnographic translation shows; a poor one only tells. Perhaps another example of the six levels in ethnographic writing will clarify the help effect on the reader. Drawing from my research among tramps, the following statements all describe a single aspect of cover for sales associates their experience: begging, borrowing, panhandling, lending, and otherwise exchanging things. LEVEL ONE: Reciprocity among human beings is typing essays games balanced where two people give to each other over time, each giving and each receiving. Such reci­procity occurs in all societies.

LEVEL TWO: Tramps, like those who live in cover letters for sales, tribal villages, depend on john on the characteristics one another in time of for sales need. They expect others to reciprocate. A Kwakiutl Indian will give in games, a potlatch and later receive gifts at someone else’s potlatch. A tramp will give to another tramp and also beg from another tramp. LEVEL THREE: Tramps engage in much more reciprocal exchange than do other members of the letters for sales associates larger society. This kind of cover letter design consultant exchange takes many forms. LEVEL FOUR: A tramp in cover associates, the Seattle City Jail will exchange goods and services with other tramps. Games? If he is letters for sales associates a trusty in creative writing picture prompts pinterest, the jail, he might exchange a service for money with someone in lockup. LEVEL FIVE: (Informant’s statement) “Yes, a tramp will beg from other tramps. If you’re panhandling you can expect another tramp to give you money or a cigarette if he has it.

You realize that sometime he will need something and then it will be your turn.” LEVEL SIX: It was a dull Tuesday afternoon and for sales associates, a slight mist of rain was blowing gently in from the Puget Sound. Joe had become a kickout an hour earlier; several minutes ago he walked off the elevator on the first floor of the Public Safety Building and found his way to the street. Pulling the collar of his worn tweed jacket up around his neck, he hunched his shoulders slightly and headed downtown, wondering where he would find money for a drink or even a cigarette. For Global? He might have to make a flop under the bridge on Washington Street tonight to stay out of the rain. He saw a man approaching him as he headed slowly down James Street, obviously another tramp. Looked like a home guard tramp, but he couldn’t tell for sure. “Can you spare a quarter for a jug?” he asked. “I just got a kickout.” “No, I’m flat on my ass myself,” the other man said, “but how about a smoke, all I got are Bull Durhams.” After taking a light too, Joe started on down James Street looking for a tourist or businessman to panhandle. Ethnographic writing includes statements at all six levels on letters for sales the continuum from the general to the particular. Effective writing, that which serves to communicate the meanings of a culture to writing dissertation the reader, is letters associates achieved by making all these statements, but doing so in a certain proportion. Creative? Profes­sional journals, in which the letters for sales author writes primarily for help uk, colleagues, tend to consist of statements at Levels One and Two; that is, the for sales associates description is made in general terms, the author avoiding specific incidents. Writing Prompts Pinterest? Those outside a narrow professional group often find these articles dense, dull, antiseptic, and inadequate translations.

Some ethnographic writings, whether articles, papers, or books, adopt a formal style using Levels Three and Four. Most dissertations and theses are written at these middle levels of cover letters associates abstraction, although they may contain a great deal of information also at Level Five. They tend to present the bare bones, the skeleton of knowledge, without the flesh of examples and specific incident statements of Level Six. At the other extreme, some ethnographic novels and personal accounts consist entirely of statements at Level Six, with, perhaps, a few statements from Level Five thrown in now and then. This kind of writing holds the reader’s attention hut may fail to communicate the overall structure of a culture or the nature of ethnography. It should be clear that mixing the various levels in the desirable proportion depends on on writing the goals of the cover letters associates ethnographer. In You Owe Yourself a Drunk: An Ethnography of Urban Nomads (1970), 1 made a great deal of writing pinterest use of Levels Three through Six, ranging back and forth among statements about tramps generally, to specific incidents.

Many of the incidents were contained in cover letters associates, quotations from informants. In The Cocktail Waitress (Spradley and Mann 1975), we sought to cover letter communicate to a wider audience and included many more statements at Level Six, the most specific level. We also tried to relate the letters associates culture of Brady’s Bar to the universal level of writing more frequently. In retrospect, we tended to typing games scale down the middle level of cover for sales associates generalizations. In Deaf Like Me (Spradley and Spradley 1978), an in-depth study of a family coping with a deaf child, we moved almost entirely to the most concrete level in order to communicate with the widest possible audience. Although much of the data were gathered by ethnographic interviewing and other ethnographic techniques, we recounted specific incidents in order to com­municate more effectively to the reader. We sought to show what the culture of families was like, how they coped with a deaf child, what strategies they used, and the consequences for communication.

Although statements ap­pear in worksheet a thesis statement, this study at all the other levels of letters associates generalization, they are woven into the particular so thoroughly that they do not stand out. We attempted to communicate more general statements through the use of particular state­ments. Each ethnographer will have to determine his or her intended audience. John Essays? I believe that ethnographic research holds important values for all people and that ethnographers should write for those outside the academic world. I urge students and others to for sales use the middle levels of generalizations sparingly. Emphasize the most general and the most specific. In ethnographic writing, the concern with the general is writing incidental to an understanding of the letters particu­lar for an important reason. Uk? It is because generalities are best communicated through particulars. And the second half of cover associates all translation involves communicating to outsiders the meanings of a culture.

STEPS IN WRITING AN ETHNOGRAPHY. Like doing ethnographic research, writing an ethnography can appear to john essays be a formidable task if seen as a single task. All too often, the beginning ethnographer conceives the writing as simply writing. You sit down with blank paper and all your fieldnotes and begin writing the ethnography. When it is for sales associates completed it will require some revision and editing, hut the work is essay largely one long, arduous task. Underlying the D.R.S. Method of cover letters associates research is the assumption that break­ing a large task into smaller ones and placing these in sequence will simplify the work and improve one’s performance. This assumption applies equally to writing.

However, because each of us has developed patterns of writing from years of experience, it is far more difficult to create a series of steps that have wide applicability. The following steps must be considered as suggestions only. Readers will want to create their own series of steps to organize writing in a manner that best fits patterns developed through past experience. However, the underlying premise, that it is worksheet on writing valuable to divide up the writing of an letters for sales associates ethnography into tasks, does have wide applicability. Step One: Select an audience. Because the audience will influence every aspect of your ethnography, selecting an audience is one of the first things to be done. All writing is an act of communication between human beings and in that sense it is similar to picture prompts pinterest talking. When speaking to someone, there are innumerable cues that remind us that our audience is present. The writer needs to select an audience, identify it clearly, and then keep in for sales associates, mind throughout the writing who that audience is.

When writing for a specific journal or magazine, the ethnographer must carefully scrutinize past issues of the journal to essays games discover the style of writing. You are, in fact, discovering the audience that such a journal is written for. Cover Letters For Sales? If one intends to write a book-length ethnography, then the audience may be scholars in the field, students, the general public, or some other group. The best advice I have ever received for selecting an audience came from Marshall Townsend, the editor at the University of essay warming Arizona Press: A basic concept we stress at the University of Arizona Press is that of the “target reader.” What we urge YOU as an author to do is to pick out letters for sales associates a “target reader” and write in book form for only one reader. Dissertation? Pick out some real person whom you know, then set down your materials so this person wilt understand what you are saying. When you have a “target reader,” you effect a single level of presentation. rather than trying to provide information to everyone from those who have their doctorates to students in high school who want to delve into the subject just a bit. Choose your level of communication and stay with it—by addressing yourself in cover for sales, your writing to only this one person.

We believe you will find this concept a highly workable one. When you as an author write successfully for one, we as a publisher may he able to take your book and sell thousands of picture prompts pinterest copies because each person feels “this was meant for me.” On the other hand, if you try to write for thousands, and embrace all of cover letters their varied interests and viewpoints, we may not he able to sell a single copy. Stick to your one-level approach, and we as publishers will take care of informing readers at all levels of interest and essays games, of understanding how the hook will fit Into their realm. Step Two: Select a thesis. In order to communicate with your audience, you need to have something to say.

All too often, ethnographic descriptions appear to cover letters for sales be like meandering conversations without a destination. Although of interest to the ethnographer and a few colleagues, such writing will not hold the attention of many more. A thesis is the central message, the point you want to make. There are several sources for finding a thesis. First, the major themes you have discovered in ethnographic research represent possible theses. For example, a major theme in the culture of tramps was that being in jail affected one’s identity, even made a man want to worksheet on writing a thesis go out and get drunk. In jail a man learned to “hustle,” and this reinforced his identity as a tramp trying to letters “make it” on the street. Cover Design? This theme became the thesis of the ethnography: that jailing drunks, rather than being thera­peutic, actually played an important role in creating the identity of tramp. This thesis was summed up in the title of the ethnography, which came from an informant who said, “After thirty days in jail, you owe yourself a drunk!”

Second, a thesis for your ethnography may come from the overall goals of ethnography. You may, for cover for sales, example, state your thesis in the following way: “To most people, a bar is a place to drink. But to the cocktail waitress, it is much more complex. It is a world of varied cultural meaning that she learns in picture prompts, order to carry out her work and cope with difficulties. In this paper I want to show just how complex the letters for sales associates cultural knowledge of the cocktail waitress is, in contrast to the casual impressions of the outsider.” Your thesis can simply be to john brown characteristics show that cultural meaning systems are much more complex than we usually think. Another way to formulate this type of thesis is in terms of a set of recipes for behavior. Culture can be viewed as a set of for sales associates instructions for help writing dissertation, carrying out life’s ordinary activities.

Your thesis would be to show the reader the recipe for being a tramp, a cocktail waitress, or some other kind of cover letters person. Frake in help writing dissertation, a series of articles, has made effective use of this kind of thesis. For example, he has written on “How to ask for a drink” (1964c) and “How to enter a house” among the Yakan in the Philippines (1975). Still another way to formulate this type of thesis is to show the tacit rules for behavior. Associates? This thesis argues that much goes on in social life that we do not see, that there are tacit rules of behavior that people have learned but seldom discuss. Essays Games? The point of your paper is to make those tacit rules explicit.

Third, a thesis may come from the literature of the social sciences. In one paper on tramps I reviewed the literature on the concept of “reciprocity.” Then, I formulated a thesis that linked the patterns of reciprocity among tramps to these more general concepts (Spradley 1968). When a thesis has been selected, it is useful to state it briefly, perhaps in a single sentence, and place it before you as a constant reminder as you write. This will help organize your paper and cover for sales associates, integrate it around a single major idea. It will also help the reader to uk grasp the meanings of the letters culture ma way that a simple listing of domains and their meanings will not. Step Three: Make a list of’ topics and create an outline.

Any ethnography will necessarily deal with only selected aspects of a culture. Characteristics? Furthermore, you will use only cover letters for sales, part of the material you have collected. This step involves reviewing your fieldnotes and the cultural inventory you made and listing topics you think should be included in design, the final description. Some of these topics will be things like “introduction” and “conclusion.” Once listed, you can then make an outline based around your thesis. Cover Letters? This will divide up your actual writing into sections, each of which can be done as a separate unit. If you have been writing short descriptive pieces throughout the project (See Appendix B), many or all of letter these may fit into the outline. Step Four: Write a rough draft of each section. . A rough draft is intended to be rough, unfinished, unpolished.

One of the great roadblocks for many writers is the desire to revise each sentence as it goes down on paper. Constant revision not only slows the entire writing process but also takes away from the free flow of communication. Constant revision seldom occurs in speaking; we may now and then restate something, but usually we talk without revising. Letters? Write as you talk is an writing picture excellent rule to follow in composing a rough draft of each section. Step Five: Revise the letters associates outline and create sub/heads.

Almost always the outline from which one writes becomes changed in the process of writing. Once a rough draft is completed for each section, it is a good idea to make a new outline, rearranging sections as appropriate. Worksheet On Writing A Thesis Statement? You may want to use subheads to give your reader a clue to the structure of the paper and also to act as transitions from one part to another. Native folk terms can often be used as subheads in an ethnography, helping to create a view that reflects the cultural knowledge of cover letters your informants. Step Six: Edit the rough draft.

At this point in the writing you will have a rough draft of your paper, a fairly clear outline, and a number of subheadings you want to use throughout the paper. Now it is worksheet time to go over it with an for sales eye to help writing dissertation uk improving the details of writing. Work through each section and at the same time keep the entire description in mind. Make changes directly on the pages you had previously written. Associates? When you want to characteristics add a paragraph or sentence, write them on the back of the page or on a separate piece of paper with instructions as to where they will appear. At this stage, it is often useful to ask a friend to read over the manuscript and make general comments. An outside perspective is cover especially useful for making improvements that will enhance the communicative power of the description. Step Seven: Write the cover consultant introduction and conclusion . By now the descrip­tion has taken on substantial form and you can write these two parts of the paper in a more effective manner. Some writers find that they write better if they write a rough introduction at the start of the cover letters writing but save the conclusion until the end.

In either case, now is the time to review both the introduction and conclusion and revise them to fit the paper. Step Eight: Reread your manuscript for examples . Examples involve writing at the lowest level of abstraction. Because of their importance in communication, a special reading of the paper to see if you have used enough examples is highly desirable. Look for places where general state­ments have made your writing too “dense” and see if you can insert a brief or extended example at those places. Step Nine: Write the final draft . In some cases this will merely involve typing the paper or turning it over to someone else to type. In other cases. you will need to go carefully over the manuscript again, making the final editorial changes. Using steps such as this means you have been over worksheet a thesis statement, the entire manuscript numerous times during the course of writing. Cover Associates? Instead of a single, first-draft-as-final-draft, your paper has gone through a series of developmental stages. In this chapter we have discussed ethnographic writing as a part of the translation process. Writing is warming a skill learned slowly and one that shows great variation from one person to another.

The suggestions in this chapter are offered only as general guidelines, not as hard-and-fast rules that every writer should try to follow.

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How Do I Comfort My Frightened Son After the Election? I Tell Him How Our People Have Survived. By JACQUELINE WOODSON NOV. 15, 2016. My ancestors in South Carolina, a generation removed from slavery, always knew what their country was capable of. When I was a child in letters, South Carolina, survival was never a question. My grandparents, only a generation removed from for global warming enslavement and having witnessed the cruelty of this country’s racism daily, from the Whites Only signs that plagued pools and restaurants to associates, the way they were forced to walk through their Southern world — eyes downcast from creative writing picture prompts white folks, “Yes, ma’am” and “No, sir” more rule than reverence — knew that this was just where they were at this moment. Nothing surprised them. Nothing was shocking. They had seen black men hanging from trees, images of Emmett Till’s brutal beating, German shepherds unleashed on children, 6-year-old Ruby Bridges being spat on cover for sales associates by grown white men and essays games women.

In all my childhood, I never heard my grandparents say that anything shocked or surprised them. They knew what their country was capable of. Still, our nights, spent on associates the front porch, were as sweet as the tea my grandmother made and filled with stories of their everyday living. While so many of the stories are long forgotten, what stays with me is the way they could take a bitter moment, lace it with a turn of phrase or cluck of the tongue and excavate humor. More than once I heard my grandmother say, “I’m laughing to keep from crying.” As a child, I didn’t know what that meant. I do now. In this way, my grandparents moved through the South, through the help writing uk civil rights movement, through the for sales country’s violent resistance to change, the games rage of white people, the many deaths of black people. Letters For Sales Associates. And like so many from brown on the their generation, they didn’t live to see the changes they had fought so hard for. My son is 8 years old. Cover For Sales Associates. He wears glasses and has curly brown hair with a green mohawk, an affinity for “Calvin and john brown Hobbes” and a developing tween-edged sarcasm that makes a mother do an I know you didn’t just say what I thought I heard you say double-take.

He is tall for his age, has a deep aversion to guns, knows who Trayvon Martin and Tamir Rice are, has never known this country without a brown president whose platform was Hope. For my son, enormous change, up to this point, has been theoretical. He has always lived in his house, always been circled by the same big sister, parents, bevy of aunts and uncles and cousins. Walking toward a greater good has been drummed into his marrow. And as the numbers came in on election night I watched him head to for sales associates, his room, his head down, his shoulders curving into his chest. I saw my son bending against the shattered promises of not only his country but also his own family. When I was a child, we never began a meal without prayer. John On The Characteristics. We thanked God for the food, for each other. For Sales Associates. My grandparents always ended the prayer with “And most of all, thank you for short warming giving us all another day.” I didn’t understand the need to cover letters associates, be thankful for being able to wake up and walk — however we were walking — through the cover design world. But now I do.

So each evening, before starting our meal, we say what we’re grateful for and what kind act we witnessed, were a part of. Some days, my son can come up with no more than “I was nice to Toffee,” our dog, and “I’m grateful for mashed potatoes.” We’ll take it, because we know he’s growing to cover letters, understand that one of the many rules of short essay for global warming, life is letters for sales, kindness. Essays. But on election night, as my son headed downstairs, he was slowly beginning to understand new truths: that the people who love you cannot always protect you, that unkindness can be a platform for the presidency. That we can fight and write and for sales associates teach and help writing dissertation learn and hug away tears and bandage scraped knees and bring glasses of water into bedrooms at midnight but that this country is bigger than the beliefs of the family that loves him. “This wasn’t supposed to happen,” my son said, and I knew it would soon be time for him to know the deeper truths of cover letters for sales, this country.

It would soon be time to tell him about essay for global, what I saw this year: the Confederate flags in my own childhood home of South Carolina and in Alabama, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Mississippi, Virginia, Georgia — even in his home state of New York. It would soon be time to tell him that this country’s earliest history is one of unkindness. Cover Letters For Sales. That the blood of worksheet on writing a thesis statement, his ancestors was expendable, priced along with stocks of cotton and cover for sales gold. I knew the time was coming now, in the heart of his devastation and fear, with each question he asked — Will he really build a wall? Is he going to send my friends away? — to tell him that we as a people had not been meant to survive and yet we survived anyway. A Thesis. “You come from letters people who have always made a way out of no way,” I said as I rubbed his back. “We’ll get through.” And maybe both of us fell asleep believing this. Jacqueline Woodson is the author of more than two dozen books for adults and young people. She won a National Book Award, a Newbery Honor, the creative picture prompts pinterest N.A.A.C.P. Image Award and the Coretta Scott King Book Award for her 2014 book “Brown Girl Dreaming.” “Her name is Afiwa. She came here 19 years ago from Togo. She’s a citizen now, and she’s proud of that.

Here, she’s kneeling by a large tree and praying for her family and herself. She’s been through difficult times in her life, and she was saying that she was thankful to have made it this far. She said she voted for Clinton. She was openhearted, inviting and unguarded. She was a comfort to me, because I wasn’t really seeing a lot of optimism the letters for sales day after the election. Help Writing. The mood was predominantly dark, sad and angry that day, but I wasn’t getting any of that from her.” Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by Bill McCullough.

My Mother Saw Danger in This Election. She Crossed State Lines to Try to Stop It. Growing up black in Maryland, I thought of cover, Virginia as the essay for global warming South. Why did my mother go there to volunteer? Early in the morning on Election Day, my parents woke up, got dressed and drove around the Capital Beltway from Maryland into cover for sales, Virginia, where my father dropped my mother off at creative writing picture, a Hillary Clinton field office in associates, Alexandria. She spent the day there, where so many government defense contractors make their homes, making phone calls, urging registered Democrats in the far reaches of the state to vote. She worked until the early evening, when she was too exhausted to continue, and called my dad to brown essays on the characteristics, pick her up. “This young man was being fitted for his tuxedo at Dante Zeller Tuxedo Menswear on Staten Island. When I took the picture, everyone was happy that Trump was elected, so spirits were high.” Nov. Cover For Sales Associates. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by on writing statement Ruddy Roye.

A changing of the Republican guard in Ohio. Ohio was once the home of the Old Guard, Main Street, county Chamber of Commerce Republican Party: stolid, sober, civil, fiscally conservative, socially enlightened. Dead serious in all matters. But 2016 was the associates year when people who were not used to being taken seriously had to cover consultant, be taken very seriously indeed, even in Ohio. This was true of associates, Donald Trump, of course, but it was also true of the help uk people who had fueled his campaign. There was Don Phillips, an elderly catering-hall owner that I met in the Dayton suburbs, a fixture of the local G.O.P., who fired off an angry letter to cover, John A. Boehner last year, declaring he was done with him, before embracing Trump. Oh, people don’t really take Don seriously, other local Republicans assured me. Dissertation. And there was the cover Butler County sheriff, Rick Jones. “This man’s name is for global, Terrell Finger. I met him in Ferguson.

He was handsomely dressed, wearing a holster of body oils, standing by a sign that read: we must stop killing each other.” Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by Katy Grannan. A Maine road trip through a land of joy and cover for sales optimism — and shock and fear. Every July, we load up the minivan in short warming, the driveway of our house in Portland, Me., and drive to the North Woods for a week. For Sales Associates. We pack games, snacks, a cooler full of soda and beer, a stray fishing rod. It’s a tradition, this drive up the pine-curtained country roads of our state, this week in the moody wilderness.

Set loose from our little foodie enclave by the sea, we ogle the help uk barns and junkyards, tag sales and letters for sales associates signs advertising Maine’s prowess in the department of letter design consultant, making whoopee pies, two discs of chocolate cake with cream in between. Letters. (In case you’re wondering, Maine does hold the prompts world record for the biggest whoopee pie ever made, one weighing over 1,000 pounds.) But gazing upon this place once a year, through car windows, on our way to cover letters for sales associates, vacation, do we remotely understand it? Here is a rebel flag hung on a door. Here is john brown, a bumper sticker supporting gay marriage. “This picture was taken before the annual Veterans Day parade in Waco. I expected to find politics in evidence, given the recent election. Letters. But other than a small horse buggy with a Trump sign, there were no overt references.” Nov. 11, 2016. Credit Photograph by Peter Van Agtmael. What Jesse Ventura’s Minnesota Could Tell Us About Donald Trump’s America.

Do political upheavals happen because voters care or because they don’t? ‘We live in interesting times, do we not?” This was the email I got last Thursday morning from john brown essays on the a political consultant in Minneapolis named Bill Hillsman. After discovering that I was a soon-to-be-citizen of Donald Trump’s America in letters for sales, the bleary early hours of the day before, I had wanted immediately to speak with Hillsman, a man with a keen and idiosyncratic understanding of on writing a thesis statement, politics and one of the few people I knew with any experience living in the world in which America now found itself. In 1998, he was the principal consultant for the gubernatorial campaign of Jesse Ventura. “I was walking around the streets of Cincinnati with a local childhood friend. I found it poignant to see our nation’s first president looking out onto the city’s streets that day. My friend reminded me that George Washington was a member of ‘The Society of the Cincinnati,’ after which the city was named.” Nov. 10, 2016. Credit David La Spina for for sales associates The New York Times. ‘We’re Looking at a New Divide Within the Hispanic Community’

The Latino vote in Florida upended the Clinton campaign’s strategy, and what we thought we knew about where politics is picture prompts pinterest, headed. Chalk it up to a kind of cynical Latina wariness, but I never felt convinced that Hillary Clinton would win the general election. Yet as reports poured in about the historic number of Latinos lining up to vote early in Miami, I felt 100 percent certain that the state would remain blue. After all, Cuban-American members of letters, Congress like Carlos Curbelo and Ileana Ros-Lehtinen had refused to endorse Trump. In October, following the “Access Hollywood” scandal, Ros-Lehtinen called on Trump to essays, withdraw from the campaign. Cover Associates. When Hillary Clinton appeared at a Miami concert with Jennifer Lopez and essays games Marc Anthony, a stadium-size crowd showed up.

“This midconstruction castle-esque home struck me as a conjuring of storybook fantasy into reality, a representation of architecture as fortification and perhaps a precursor to cover for sales associates, the coming years.” Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by brown on the characteristics Brian Ulrich. Why Did College-Educated White Women Vote for Trump? A mother and her two daughters in a Pennsylvania town choose a different sort of for sales associates, 21st-century feminism.

Palma Frable has two daughters, and she raised them to be independent, to think for themselves. So she was thrilled when they told her they had decided to vote for Donald Trump. Abigail is 18, and writing dissertation uk she went with her older sister, Lauren, 22, to register to cover letters associates, vote. “Flint, where I’ve been photographing for the past year, is a city in essays on the, real struggle. In parts of the city, one in five houses is cover for sales associates, empty.

It once was extremely prosperous, but when the plants closed, and nothing came to replace them, a vacuum was created.” Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by Jessica Dimmock. Pundits are quick to say that it couldn’t be about prejudice in states like Iowa, where Obama voters went for Trump. But racial anxiety is always close to the surface — and can easily be stoked. On a cold, clear night in January 2008, when Iowa Democrats selected Barack Obama over a white woman and short essay warming a white man in the state’s first-in-the-nation caucus, the moment felt transformative. If voters in this overwhelmingly white, rural state could cast their ballots for a black man as president, then perhaps it was possible for cover letters for sales associates the entire nation to cover letter consultant, do what had never been done; perhaps America had turned far enough away from its racist past that skin color was no longer a barrier to the highest office of the land. In the cover months that followed, as Obama racked up primary victories, not just in the expected cities but also in largely white Rust Belt towns and farming communities, it seemed evidence for many Americans that the nation had finally become “post-racial.” “Maddie, the worksheet a thesis woman pictured in this image, is my wife’s best friend from high school. Associates. She and on writing her husband, Dan, are Latter-day Saints. Maddie didn’t vote for Trump; she said she couldn’t do it in good conscience.

As I took the letters picture, I sensed her anxiety about worksheet on writing statement, raising children in this environment.” Nov. 10, 2016. Credit Photograph by Michael Friberg. In New Hampshire, where Trump fever took hold in the first primary and cover never let go. ‘I wonder what our boy Donald is gonna do,” a middle-aged man in a worn blue vest said to a friend the other day at Bradford Junction, a diner in central New Hampshire. “I just hope he doesn’t take it out on New Hampshire,” the other man replied.

Trump might be angry, he said, because Hillary Clinton had beaten him here. But no, they decided, he wouldn’t carry a grudge. “I live in games, Minnesota, and most of cover, my photographs depict the big middle of America. The New York Times magazine asked me to letter, go to letters for sales associates, Wisconsin on Thursday to cover design, take a picture. I drove a couple of associates, hours to Barron, Wisconsin. Barron has a population of 3,300 and voted two to one for Trump. The man I photographed was named Lance. He was a Trump supporter. ‘I could see this country go back to its grass roots, even if it went all the way to revolution,’ he told me, ‘I’d be standing on that front line.’” Nov.

10, 2016.