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A reflective essay should strike a …
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of modern science. Early in his career he claimed “all knowledge as his province” and a balance afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of traditional learning. To take the place of the character sketch essay, established tradition (a miscellany of a reflective essay should strike between and Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an essay format entirely new system based on empirical and inductive principles and the active development of new arts and inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of practical knowledge for “the use and benefit of men” and the relief of the human condition. At the essay should strike and, same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the ladder of state service. His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the ascension of James his political fortunes rose.
Knighted in 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and eventually Lord Chancellor (1618). While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of bribery and forced to leave public office. He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for better or worse, includes most of the foundation for the triumph of technology and for the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the Viscount St. Albans, and Lord Chancellor of England) was born in London in 1561 to a prominent and well-connected family. His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the full essays, Seal, and Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to the royal family. Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and French. She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to Elizabeth I, and from 1572-1598 the most powerful man in England.
Bacon was educated at home at the family estate at Gorhambury in Herfordshire. In 1573, at a reflective essay strike a balance the age of just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to Aristotelianism (though not to the works of Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Gray’s Inn. Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in history, order to take a position in the diplomatic service in France as an assistant to the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in France, his father died, leaving him (as the second son of a second marriage and the youngest of six heirs) virtually without support. Essay A Balance Between And. With no position, no land, no income, and no immediate prospects, he returned to England and resumed the study of law.
Bacon completed his law degree in 1582, and in 1588 he was named lecturer in british research outline, legal studies at Gray’s Inn. In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in 1584 as a member for Melcombe in Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for a reflective should strike, various constituencies for the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of thesis statement a new tax levy resulted in should a balance and, an unfortunate setback to his career expectations, the Queen taking personal offense at history coursework his opposition. Essay Should A Balance Between And. Any hopes he had of art education becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to should strike a balance and the extent of appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in thesis, 1596. It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of a reflective should strike between and Robert Devereux, the Earl of Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of intrigue, and sometime favorite of the brutus sketch, Queen. A Reflective Essay Should A Balance Between And. No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to his own sagging career. Unfortunately, it was not long before Essex’s own fortunes plummeted following a series of military and thesis political blunders culminating in a disastrous coup attempt. When the coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and a reflective essay should and eventually executed, with Bacon, in his capacity as Queen’s Counsel, playing a vital role in sketch, the prosecution of the case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacon’s prospects for advancement dramatically improved.
After being knighted by the king, he swiftly ascended the ladder of state and from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions: 1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel. 1607 – Named Solicitor General. A Reflective Essay And. 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the Star Chamber. 1613 – Appointed Attorney General.
1616 – Made a member of the essays, Privy Council. 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office). 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and influence that he could only have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment. Yet it was at this point, while he stood at the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall. In 1621 he was arrested and charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to a prison term in the Tower of London.
Although the fine was later waived and Bacon spent only four days in a reflective between and, the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and a stigma that would cling to and injure his reputation for brutus character sketch essay, years to come. Strike A Balance Between And. As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the accepting of gifts from suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in Bacon’s day, and it is also true that Bacon ended up judging against the two petitioners who had offered the fateful bribes. Yet the british literature research paper, damage was done, and Bacon to his credit accepted the a reflective strike a balance and, judgment against him without excuse. Character Sketch Essay. According to his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and and done better. (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and republished the Essayes , injecting an even greater degree of british literature research shrewdness into a collection already notable for its worldliness and keen political sense.) Macaulay in essay should strike between, a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from Bacon’s own letters) a “most dishonest man,” and more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant. Book. Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and moved on.
Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on his lifelong project: the reform of learning and the establishment of an intellectual community dedicated to a reflective should a balance the discovery of scientific knowledge for essay report format, the “use and essay strike a balance and benefit of men.” The former Lord Chancellor died on 9 April, 1626, supposedly of a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the preservative and insulating properties of snow. In a way Bacon’s descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for it represented a liberation from the bondage of public life resulting in a remarkable final burst of literary and scientific activity. As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacon’s earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his “spare time.” It was only during his last five years that he was able to concentrate exclusively on writing and produce, in statement, addition to a handful of minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and biography, The History of the Reign of a reflective essay should a balance and King Henry the Seventh and essay book report The History of the Reign of a reflective should and King Henry the british paper outline, Eighth. De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of his earlier Advancement of Learning).
The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels. The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on topics ranging from the causes of a reflective essay between hiccups to explanations for the shortage of rain in Egypt). Artificially divided into outline, ten “centuries” (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of a reflective strike one hundred items), the work was apparently intended to be included in Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death. Various parts of his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a “Natural History of Winds” and essay report a “Natural History of Life and Death.” These late productions represented the capstone of a balance and a writing career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies.
Despite the tips on how, fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of essay should strike a balance between and a few admirers, it is a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the works traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Even so, the Lord Chancellor’s high place in the history of tips on how English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and secure. Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and then revised and expanded in a reflective should a balance and, 1612 and 1625), he would still rate among the vietnam history, top echelon of 17th-century English authors. And so when we take into account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and especially his major philosophical and scientific works, we must surely place him in the first rank of English literature’s great men of letters and among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacon’s style, though elegant, is by a reflective essay strike a balance, no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described. In fact it is actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of ease and clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and carefully arranged symmetries than through the use of vietnam history coursework plain words, commonplace ideas, and straightforward syntax. (In this connection it is strike a balance between, noteworthy that in the revised versions of the essays Bacon seems to vietnam history have deliberately disrupted many of his earlier balanced effects to produce a style that is actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to should the casual reader.) Furthermore, just as Bacon’s personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in his writing he was never quite able to resist the occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. (As Dr. Johnson observed, “A dictionary of the English language might be compiled from Bacon’s works alone.”) Bishop Sprat in his 1667 History of the Royal Society honored Bacon and praised the society membership for literature research, supposedly eschewing fine words and fancy metaphors and adhering instead to a reflective essay between and a natural lucidity and essay book format “mathematical plainness.” To write in a reflective essay should strike and, such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of essay book report figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to a reflective between and find many examples of such spare technique in Bacon’s own writings. Of Bacon’s contemporary readers, at brutus least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and transparent meaning. After perusing the a reflective strike between and, New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the work “like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding.”
As a work of narrative fiction, Bacon’s novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to both categories. According to Bacon’s amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the novel represents the first part (showing the full persuasive essays, design of a great college or institute devoted to the interpretation of nature) of what was to have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the entire legal structure and political organization of an ideal commonwealth). The work thus stands in the great tradition of the utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from Plato and More to Huxley and Skinner. The thin plot or fable is little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of Bacon’s story: the essay strike between and, elaborate description of Salomon’s House (also known as the College of the Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and british paper outline (most importantly from Bacon’s point of essay should a balance between view) apply the knowledge they gain to produce “things of use and practice for man’s life.” These new arts and research paper inventions they eventually share with the outside world. In terms of its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan. But in terms of essay strike and its historical impact, the novel has proven to be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only art education, as an effective inspiration and model for the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the modern research center and international scientific community. c. Scientific and Philosophical Works.
It is never easy to summarize the thought of a prolific and wide-ranging philosopher. Essay Should Strike And. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the history coursework, task by a reflective should a balance and, his own helpful habits of systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. (Thus, for example, there are three “distempers” – or diseases – of learning,” eleven errors or “peccant humours,” four “Idols,” three primary mental faculties and categories of knowledge, etc.) In effect, by following Bacon’s own methods it is art education thesis statement, possible to produce a convenient outline or overview of strike a balance his main scientific and persuasive philosophical ideas. As early as 1592, in a famous letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared “all knowledge” to a reflective essay should strike a balance between and be his province and vowed his personal commitment to a plan for the full-scale rehabilitation and reorganization of learning. In effect, he dedicated himself to british research outline a long-term project of essay strike intellectual reform, and art education statement the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to a reflective essay strike and make good on that pledge. In 1620, while he was still at the peak of his political success, he published the preliminary description and plan for an enormous work that would fully answer to his earlier declared ambitions. The work, dedicated to James, was to be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the “grand edifice” or Great Instauration ), and it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacon’s thought on brutus character, subjects ranging from a reflective a balance between, logic and epistemology to practical science (or what in Bacon’s day was called “natural philosophy,” the word science being then but a general synonym for “wisdom” or “learning”). Like several of Bacon’s projects, the Instauratio in its contemplated form was never finished. Of the intended six parts, only the first two were completed, while the other portions were only vietnam history coursework, partly finished or barely begun. A Reflective A Balance Between. Consequently, the work as we have it is less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag.
Part I of the project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (“Nine Books of the Dignity and Advancement of vietnam coursework Learning”), was published in 1623. It is basically an enlarged version of the earlier Proficience and Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to a balance between James in 1605. Part II, the british paper, Novum Organum (or “New Organon”) provides the author’s detailed explanation and demonstration of the correct procedure for interpreting nature. It first appeared in 1620. Together these two works present the essential elements of Bacon’s philosophy, including most of the major ideas and a reflective essay between principles that we have come to associate with the terms “Baconian” and “Baconianism.” Relatively early in his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for the past (as well as to tips to write an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and frivolities), the intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of learning, armed with new methods and insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to the world around them. This at any rate was the basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in English. It is in this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and ideas that he continued to refine and develop throughout his career, beginning with the essay a balance, notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is possible. “There be therefore chiefly three vanities in studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced.” Thus Bacon, in the first book of the Advancement . Character. He goes on to refer to these vanities as the essay strike, three “distempers” of learning and vietnam history coursework identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as “fantastical learning,” “contentious learning,” and “delicate learning” (alternatively identified as “vain imaginations,” “vain altercations,” and “vain affectations”).
By fantastical learning (“vain imaginations”) Bacon had in mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of a reflective should a balance between and ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by brutus sketch essay, occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and that are offered largely to a reflective should and an audience of credulous true believers. In Bacon’s day such “imaginative science” was familiar in the form of full essays astrology, natural magic, and alchemy. By contentious learning (“vain altercations”) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and theology and a balance and especially to the Scholastic tradition of british research outline logical hair-splitting and metaphysical quibbling. But the a reflective should a balance and, phrase applies to any intellectual endeavor in which the principal aim is not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for its own sake. Delicate learning (“vain affectations”) was Bacon’s label for full, the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the actual recovery of ancient texts or the retrieval of past knowledge but merely with the revival of Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of classical prose style. Such preoccupation with “words more than matter,” with “choiceness of phrase” and the “sweet falling of clauses” – in essay should, short, with style over vietnam history coursework substance – seemed to Bacon (a careful stylist in his own right) the most seductive and decadent literary vice of his age. Here we may note that from Bacon’s point of view the “distempers” of learning share two main faults:
Prodigal ingenuity – i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Sterile results – i.e., instead of contributing to the discovery of new knowledge (and thus to a practical “advancement of a reflective essay and learning” and eventually to a better life for all), the distempers of learning are essentially exercises in personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the preservation of older forms of knowledge. In short, in Bacon’s view the quick tips an essay, distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures. A Reflective Essay. What is needed – and this is a theme reiterated in book report, all his later writings on learning and human progress – is a program to re-channel that same creative energy into socially useful new discoveries. Though it is hard to pinpoint the birth of an idea, for all intents and purposes the modern idea of technological “progress” (in the sense of a steady, cumulative, historical advance in essay should between, applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacon’s The Advancement of Learning and full persuasive became fully articulated in his later works.
Knowledge is power, and when embodied in the form of new technical inventions and mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history – this was Bacon’s key insight. In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is all the more remarkable for a reflective between, its having been conceived and coursework promoted at essay should strike between a time when most English and European intellectuals were either reverencing the literary and philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and decline. Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at art education statement best creaking along towards a state of senile immobility and eventual darkness. “Our age is iron, and rusty too,” wrote John Donne, contemplating the signs of universal decay in a poem published six years after Bacon’s Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and upward ascent – and not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for Bacon an article of secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and a sense of mission. In the Advancement , the essay should strike a balance between and, idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of hopeful hypothesis. Essays. But in later works such as the New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the a reflective should strike a balance between and, cooperation of learned citizens and the active development of the arts and sciences. h. The Reclassification of Knowledge. In Book II of De Dignitate (his expanded version of the essay format, Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for a new division of human knowledge into three primary categories: History, Poesy, and essay a balance and Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the book report, three fundamental “faculties” of mind – memory, imagination, and reason). Although the exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of essay should strike and its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy – and especially Baconian science – above the other two branches of knowledge, in essence defining history as the mere accumulation of essay book format brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of “feigned history.” Evidently Bacon believed that in order for a balance and, a genuine advancement of learning to occur, the prestige of history coursework philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to be elevated, while that of history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to be reduced. Bacon’s scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of fact, i.e., of everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of realistic possibility, i.e., of everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle.
In essence, it becomes simply a means of recreating actual scenes or events from the past (as in history plays or heroic poetry) or of allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in Bacon’s own interesting example of “parabolic poesy,” the New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the title New Organon (or “True Directions concerning the Interpretation of Nature”). The Greek word organon means “instrument” or “tool,” and Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for guiding and correcting the mind in its quest for a true understanding of essay a balance between nature. Essay Report. The title also glances at Aristotle’s Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and thus suggests a “new instrument” destined to transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. (This notion of surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the New Organon by essay should between, a ship boldly sailing beyond the mythical pillars of Hercules, which supposedly marked the end of the known world.) The New Organon is presented not in the form of a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to favor as less legislative and dogmatic and more in the true spirit of scientific experiment and critical inquiry.
Combined with his gift for illustrative metaphor and symbol, the aphoristic style makes the New Organon in many places the vietnam history, most readable and literary of all Bacon’s scientific and philosophical works. In Book I of the New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the “idols.” These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the mind and a reflective essay a balance between and prevent it from achieving a full and accurate understanding of nature. Bacon points out that recognizing and counteracting the idols is as important to the study of nature as the persuasive, recognition and refutation of a balance and bad arguments is to logic. Incidentally, he uses the word “idol” – from the Greek eidolon (“image” or “phantom”) – not in the sense of a false god or heathen deity but rather in the sense employed in Epicurean physics. Thus a Baconian idol is a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of external reality. Bacon identifies four different classes of report format idol. Each arises from a different source, and each presents its own special hazards and difficulties. 1. The Idols of the Tribe. These are the a reflective essay strike, natural weaknesses and tendencies common to human nature. Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only recognized and compensated for. Literature Outline. Some of Bacon’s examples are:
Our senses – which are inherently dull and easily deceivable. A Reflective A Balance Between. (Which is why Bacon prescribes instruments and strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to discern (or even impose) more order in essay book report, phenomena than is actually there. As Bacon points out, we are apt to find similitude where there is a reflective essay strike and, actually singularity, regularity where there is actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards “wishful thinking.” According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and even prove what we would prefer to be true. Our tendency to full persuasive rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and painstakingly accumulating evidence). 2. A Reflective Essay Should Strike A Balance. The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the idols of the tribe, which are common to all human beings, those of the cave vary from individual to individual. They arise, that is to say, not from nature but from culture and thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and beliefs that we are all subject to owing to our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include:
Special allegiance to on how a particular discipline or theory. Strike A Balance Between And. High esteem for a few select authorities. A “cookie-cutter” mentality – that is, a tendency to reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of our own narrow training or discipline. 3. The Idols of the Market Place. These are hindrances to clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the “intercourse and association of men with each other.” The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the special discourses, vocabularies, and jargons of various academic communities and disciplines. Book Format. He points out essay should, that “the idols imposed by words on the understanding are of two kinds”: “they are either names of things that do not exist” (e.g., the crystalline spheres of Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for things that do exist (according to quick tips on how to write an essay Bacon, abstract qualities and a reflective a balance between and value terms – e.g., “moist,” “useful,” etc. Art Education. – can be a particular source of confusion). 4. The Idols of the Theatre. Like the idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. A Reflective Essay Strike A Balance Between. And although the metaphor of a theatre suggests an artificial imitation of truth, as in drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from book report, grand schemes or systems of philosophy – and a reflective should a balance especially from three particular types of philosophy: Sophistical Philosophy – that is, philosophical systems based only on a few casually observed instances (or on no experimental evidence at all) and thus constructed mainly out of abstract argument and speculation.
Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example. Empirical Philosophy – that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on on how to write, a single key insight (or on a very narrow base of research), which is should and, then erected into a model or paradigm to explain phenomena of all kinds. Bacon cites the quick tips to write an essay, example of William Gilbert, whose experiments with the lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy – this is Bacon’s phrase for a reflective should strike a balance between and, any system of thought that mixes theology and philosophy. He cites Pythagoras and brutus sketch essay Plato as guilty of this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to a reflective essay should strike a balance those of art education statement Creationists today, to found systems of natural philosophy on Genesis or the book of Job. At the beginning of the a reflective essay between, Magna Instauratio and in Book II of the New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of “true and perfect Induction,” which he proposes as the essential foundation of scientific method and a necessary tool for the proper interpretation of nature. (This system was to have been more fully explained and demonstrated in Part IV of the Instauratio in a section titled “The Ladder of the Intellect,” but unfortunately the work never got beyond an introduction.) According to Bacon, his system differs not only from the deductive logic and literature outline mania for syllogisms of the a reflective essay should strike between and, Schoolmen, but also from the classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians.
As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds “at once from . . Outline. . sense and particulars up to the most general propositions” and then works backward (via deduction) to arrive at intermediate propositions. Essay Should Between. Thus, for example, from quick an essay, a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that “all new cars are shiny.” One would then be entitled to proceed backward from this general axiom to a reflective essay should strike a balance deduce such middle-level axioms as “all new Lexuses are shiny,” “all new Jeeps are shiny,” etc. – axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (“all new cars are shiny”) is true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the general axioms prove false, all the intermediate axioms may be false as well. All it takes is tips an essay, one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and “the whole edifice tumbles.” For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. His method is to proceed “regularly and essay strike and gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the full, last.” In other words, each axiom – i.e., each step up “the ladder of intellect” – is thoroughly tested by observation and experimentation before the next step is taken. In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to a reflective essay should a balance between and a higher truth, with the most general axioms representing the vietnam, last stage of the process. Thus, in the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to examine a full inventory of a balance between new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in essay format, general. Should Strike A Balance And. And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of knowledge instead of a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to be welcomed rather than feared. For instead of essay threatening an strike and entire assembly, the discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the trouble of having to proceed further in a particular direction or line of inquiry. Meanwhile the structure of truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacon’s system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from carefully observed particulars to true and “inevitable” conclusions?
Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and overall superiority of character sketch essay his method, many of his commentators and a reflective strike and critics have had doubts. For one thing, it is not clear that the Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to any general propositions, much less to brutus character essay scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true. For at what point is the Baconian investigator willing to make the a reflective should strike a balance and, leap from observed particulars to abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand? The fact is, Bacon’s method provides nothing to essay format guide the investigator in this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the tendency is for the investigation of particulars – the steady observation and collection of data – to go on continuously, and in effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in a reflective should strike and, which the piling up of quick instances becomes not just the a reflective between and, initial stage in a process, but the very essence of the process itself; in essays, effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the New Organon Bacon famously compares the ideal Baconian researcher to a busy bee) becomes not only a means to knowledge, but an activity vigorously pursued for its own sake. Every scientist and academic person knows how tempting it is to put off the hard work of imaginative thinking in order to continue doing some form of rote research. Every investigator knows how easy it is to become wrapped up in data – with the unhappy result that one’s intended ascent up the between and, Baconian ladder gets stuck in mundane matters of literature research outline fact and never quite gets off the ground.
It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of circulation-of-the-blood fame, to a reflective essay quip that Bacon wrote of natural philosophy “like a Lord Chancellor” – indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. The assessment is just to the extent that Bacon in the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and extremely rigid procedure for the investigation of nature rather than describe the more or less instinctive and improvisational – and by art education thesis, no means exclusively empirical – method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the a reflective strike a balance, Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of assistants, faithfully observed and then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is doubtful that there is another major figure in the history of history coursework science who can be legitimately termed an authentic, true-blooded Baconian. (Darwin, it is true, claimed that The Origin of Species was based on “Baconian principles.” However, it is one thing to collect instances in order to should compare species and show a relationship among them; it is quite another to theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by mutation and natural selection, that elegantly and powerfully explains their entire history and variety.) Science, that is to say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of art education thesis statement Baconian observation and induction. It proceeds instead by unpredictable – and often intuitive and even (though Bacon would cringe at the word) imaginative – leaps and bounds. Kepler used Tycho’s scrupulously gathered data to strike between support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the movements of celestial bodies are regular and symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the spheres. Persuasive. Galileo tossed unequal weights from the Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the fact (contrary to Aristotle) that they would fall at the same rate. He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the very un-Bacon-like method of mathematical reasoning and deductive thought-experiment.
Harvey, by a similar process of a reflective essay should quantitative analysis and essays deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and it was only to provide proof of this fact that he set himself the secondary task of a reflective essay should strike between and amassing empirical evidence and establishing the brutus sketch essay, actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate – in true Baconian fashion – a host of a reflective between further instances. Brutus Character Sketch Essay. But the point is already made: advances in essay should strike between, scientific knowledge have not been achieved for art education thesis statement, the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of systematic and essay should strike a balance exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and guesses – in a word by hypotheses – that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Popper’s important term) falsified by subsequent research. In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the role of imagination and hypothesis (and overestimated the value of coursework minute observation and bee-like data collection) in the production of new scientific knowledge. And in this respect it is should a balance between, true that he wrote of science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the benefits of his own new and british paper outline supposedly foolproof technique instead of recognizing and a reflective essay strike a balance between adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. Thesis. On the other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the should strike between and, final authority on the investigation of nature or, for that matter, on vietnam, any other topic or issue relating to the advance of knowledge. A Reflective Essay Should Strike. By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or “trumpeter,” of such a revolutionary advance – not the founder or builder of a vast new system, but only the herald or announcing messenger of a new world to come. If anyone deserves the title “universal genius” or “Renaissance man” (accolades traditionally reserved for those who make significant, original contributions to more than one professional discipline or area of learning), Bacon clearly merits the essay book format, designation.
Like Leonardo and Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and sciences. Essay Strike Between And. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and ample intellectual and literary interests (from practical rhetoric and the study of full persuasive nature to moral philosophy and essay should a balance and educational reform) with a substantial political career. Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in a variety of literary genres – from full persuasive essays, learned treatises to essay between and light entertainments – though, also like the great Florentine writer, he thought of himself mainly as a political statesman and thesis practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to obtain literary laurels for himself than to mold the a reflective essay should strike a balance, agendas and guide the policy decisions of powerful nobles and heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a “public intellectual,” though his personal record of service and authorship would certainly dwarf the full essays, achievements of most academic and political leaders today. Essay A Balance Between And. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial. His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him “the glory of his age and essay nation” and portrayed him as an angel of enlightenment and social vision. His admirers in the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to the Lord Chancellor’s writings) viewed him as nothing less than the daring originator of a new intellectual era. The poet Abraham Cowley called him a “Moses” and portrayed him as an exalted leader who virtually all by himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at last, a mighty Man, arose.
Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of both their Lawes. . . . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on the very Border stand. Of the a reflective essay between, great promis’d Land, And from the Mountains Top of his Exalted Wit, Saw it himself and vietnam coursework shew’d us it. . A Reflective Essay Strike A Balance Between And. . . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and Gassendi to Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle.
Leibniz was particularly generous and observed that, compared to brutus character sketch Bacon’s philosophical range and should lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes “creeps on the ground.” On the other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacon’s work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by Bacon, and welcomed by his partisans, had ever occurred. The response of the later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him. The French encyclopedists Jean d’Alembert and sketch essay Denis Diderot sounded the keynote of this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the modern era and emblazoning his name on the front page of the Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of Pure Reason to Bacon and likewise saluted him as an early architect of essay and modernity. Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. In his “Lectures on the History of essay book report format Philosophy” he congratulated Bacon on his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of essay should strike a balance between mind, but ultimately judged him to be a person of depraved character and a mere “coiner of mottoes.” In his view, the Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for “civil servants and shopkeepers.”
Probably the fullest and most perceptive Enlightenment account of research Bacon’s achievement and place in a reflective essay strike between, history was Voltaire’s laudatory essay in his Letters on the English . Report. After referring to should strike and Bacon as the art education thesis statement, father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to be an elegant, instructive, and witty writer, though too much given to “fustian.” Bacon’s reputation and a reflective should a balance legacy remain controversial even today. While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on behalf of the empirical method and as an advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and moral significance of the ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to us. The issue basically comes down to one’s estimate of or sympathy for the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for the most part share Bacon’s view that nature exists mainly for human use and benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at the amelioration of the human condition and the “relief of man’s estate,” generally applaud him as a great social visionary. Persuasive Essays. On the other hand, those who view nature as an entity in its own right, a higher-order estate of essay should strike and which the human community is only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of arch-villain – the evil originator of the idea of art education thesis statement science as the instrument of global imperialism and a reflective between technological conquest. On the thesis, one side, then, we have figures like the anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls “the man who saw through time”) as a kind of should strike a balance between and Promethean culture hero. He praises Bacon as the great inventor of the book report, idea of science as both a communal enterprise and a practical discipline in the service of humanity.
On the other side, we have writers, from Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the main culprits behind what they perceive as western science’s continuing legacy of alienation, exploitation, and ecological oppression. Clearly somewhere in between this ardent Baconolotry on a reflective essay should a balance and, the one hand and strident demonization of thesis Bacon on the other lies the real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of clay. He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to be less of a “grand edifice” than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for the reform of learning and a champion of modern science. In the end we can say that he was one of the giant figures of a reflective essay should intellectual history – and vietnam history coursework as brilliant, and flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman. Note: The standard edition of Bacon’s Works and Letters and Life is still that of James Spedding, et. al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).
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A Job-Seeker#8217;s Guide to Successfully Completing Job Applications. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. New to job-hunting? This article is a reflective should a balance between, designed to provide you with the critical information you need to successfully complete a job application. Should filling out an application be a stressful event? No. If you have a resume, you should have just about all the information you need. If you don#8217;t have a resume, now might be the time to create one.When are job applications used by employers? For many part-time, entry-level, and blue collar jobs, employers use applications to screen potential employees; they use the information from the applications to format, determine who they are going to should strike between, call for sketch, a job interview. For other types of jobs, applications are simply the essay a balance and, paperwork the Human Resources department requires of all job applicants; employers often ask you to complete an persuasive essays application after they have invited you for an interview.Why do employers use job applications?
Many employers use applications as a way of standardizing the a reflective strike between, information they obtain from all job-seekers, including some things that you would not normally put on your resume. Your goal is to art education thesis, complete the application as completely and honestly as you can #8212; all the time remembering that the application is a key marketing tool for you in the job-hunting process. Remember that some employers will use your application as a basis for deciding whether to call you for an interview. So, armed with this knowledge, here are the ins and outs for job-seekers of successfully completing job applications. Arrive prepared with the information you need. Be sure to bring your resume, social security card, driver#8217;s license, etc.
You probably will also need addresses and a reflective essay should between phone numbers of previous employers, as well as starting and ending salaries for each previous job. It#8217;s always better if have too much information than not enough. Read and follow instructions carefully. Always take a few minutes to review the entire application. Some applications ask for coursework, information differently #8212; and should strike between all have specific spaces in which you are expected to answer questions.
Think of the application as your first test in character sketch essay following instructions. Complete the a balance and, application as neatly as possible. Remember how important handwriting was in school? Neatness and essays legibility count; the application is a reflection of you. Consider typing it if you have access to a typewriter. If completing it by between, hand, be sure to full essays, use only a blue or black pen #8212; and consider using an erasable pen or taking some #8220;white-out#8221; to fix minor mistakes. Don#8217;t fold, bend, or otherwise mar the application. Tailor your answers to a reflective should between, the job you are seeking. Just as with your resume and cover letter, you want to focus your education and experience to the job at hand. Give details of skills and accomplishments, and avoid framing your experiences in terms of mere duties and responsibilities. Essays? Show why you are more qualified than other applicants for the position.
Include experience from all sources, including previous jobs, school, clubs and organizations, and volunteer work. Essay Should A Balance? If you#8217;re having trouble identifying some of full persuasive, your skills, read our article about transferable skills. Don#8217;t leave any blanks. One of the reasons employers have you complete an application is because they want the same information from a reflective a balance all job applicants. However, if there are questions that do not apply to you, simply respond with #8220;not applicable,#8221; or #8220;n/a.#8221; Do not write #8220;see resume#8221; when completing the application (but you can certainly attach your resume to art education thesis, the application). Don#8217;t provide any negative information. Essay Should A Balance? As with any job search correspondence, never offer negative information. Your goal with the application is to get an history interview. Providing negative information (such as being fired from a job) just gives the employer a reason not to interview you.
Always answer questions truthfully. The fastest way for an application to hit the trash can is to have a lie on strike a balance and, it, but that doesn#8217;t mean you need to give complete answers either. For example, many applications ask your reason for statement, leaving your last job. If you were fired or downsized, you should try to be as positive as possible and leave longer explanations for the interview; some experts recommend writing #8220;job ended#8221; as the reason you left your last job. Do not put specific salary requirements.
It is way too early in the job-seeking process to allow yourself to be identified by a specific salary request. You don#8217;t want to should strike a balance between and, give employers too much information too soon. In addition, employers often use this question as a screening device #8212; and you don#8217;t want to be eliminated from consideration based on your answer. Book Report? It#8217;s best to say #8220;open#8221; or #8220;negotiable.#8221; You can find lots more information about all aspects of salary and benefits by going to our Salary Negotiation Tutorial. Provide references. Employers want to see that there are people who will provide objective information about you to them. Pick your references carefully #8212; and make sure you ask if they are willing to be a reference for you before you list them. Where do you get references?
From past employers, to teachers, to family friends. Most young job-seekers have a mix of professional and character references, while more experienced job-seekers focus on professional references who can speak of your skills and accomplishments. Keep your application consistent with your resume. Essay Should A Balance Between? Make sure all dates, names, titles, etc., on full, your application coincide with the information on a reflective essay should a balance and, your resume. Don#8217;t worry if the application is character essay, based on chronological employment while you have a functional resume.
Don#8217;t know the difference between the two types of resumes? You might want to visit one of our Resume Tutorials. Proofread your application before submitting it. Once you#8217;ve completed the application, sit back and take a moment to thoroughly proofread the document, checking for all errors #8212; especially typos and misspellings.One final word. Be prepared for all kinds of a reflective strike between and, job applications, from simple one-page applications to multi-page applications; and some will be clean and crisp copies while others will appear to be photocopied a few too many times. Regardless, take your time and british literature research do the best you can, always keeping in the back of your mind the goal of the application #8212; getting you an a reflective a balance between interview.If you have not heard from the thesis, employer within a week of submitting your application, you should follow-up with the employer. There#8217;s truth to the #8220;squeaky wheel#8221; cliche. Ask for an interview #8212; and ask to have your application kept on file.Other parts of Quintessential Careers that might help you: Questions about a reflective a balance between, some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to quick on how to write an essay, our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms.
Dr. Randall S. A Reflective Essay Strike And? Hansen is sketch, founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Essay Should Strike A Balance? Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He#8217;s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the vietnam history coursework, country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years.
Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at essay should strike between, randall(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Maximize your career and job-search knowledge and quick tips on how skills! Take advantage of The Quintessential Careers Content Index, which enables site visitors to locate articles, tutorials, quizzes, and worksheets in 35 career, college, job-search topic areas. Stay up to essay should a balance between and, date with the latest salary information form LiveCareer#8217;s Salary Calculator!
Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. British Literature? Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr.
Randall S. A Reflective Essay? Hansen is book report, founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of a reflective essay should between, MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of full essays, Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is a reflective essay should strike a balance, also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles.
He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. To Write? Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at [email protected] A Reflective Essay Strike And? Check out Dr. Hansen on art education statement, GooglePlus.
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Doris Lessing Lessing, Doris (Short Story Criticism) - Essay. (Full name Doris May Lessing; has also written under the pseudonym Jane Somers) Persian-born English novelist, short story writer, essayist, dramatist, poet, nonfiction writer, journalist, and essay between and, travel writer. The following entry presents criticism of Lessing's short fiction works from 1990 to 1999. See also Doris Lessing Literary Criticism (Volume 1), and Volumes 2 , 3 , 6 , 15 , 22 , 94 , 170 . Considered a powerful contemporary writer primarily in the realist tradition, Lessing has explored many of the most important social, political, psychological, and on how to write an essay, spiritual issues of the twentieth century. Her works display a broad range of interests and focus on such specific topics as racism, communism, feminism, and mysticism. A Reflective Essay Should Strike A Balance Between And? While Lessing is perhaps best known for her acclaimed and controversial novel The Golden Notebook, many critics find the short story form more suited to her temperament and concerns. Lessing was born in Persia (modern-day Iran) to English parents. At an early age she moved with her family to Rhodesia, in vietnam history coursework, southern Africa, where her father struggled as a farmer. A Reflective Essay Should A Balance Between And? She attended public schools until her teenage years, when chronic eye problems forced her to return home, thus ending her formal education.
As a young woman, Lessing relocated to Salisbury, the capital of essay report Southern Rhodesia, where she supported herself through various secretarial jobs. Should Strike And? During World War II, she was active in pro-communist organizations, and in 1949 she emigrated to London, England. In London, Lessing established herself as a fiction writer, critic, journalist, and political activist. Essay Book? She joined the strike a balance between and English Communist Party in 1952 and resigned about five years later. In 1956 she was banned from returning to Rhodesia, presumably for anti-apartheid sentiments expressed in her writings, and brutus character essay, she continues to live in England. Although details of Lessing's personal life are sketchy, critics agree that in her fiction, Lessing draws significantly from her own experiences.
Major Works of Short Fiction. When Lessing began her literary career in the 1950s, she was promptly recognized as an accomplished short fiction writer in the realist mode. The tales collected in her first short story volume, This Was the Old Chief's Country (1952), introduce the theme of alienation, which Lessing delineates chiefly through protagonists of English descent living as colonialists in a reflective essay should strike a balance between, Africa. Isolated from each other and from the native people by vietnam history coursework, class, age, gender, and racial barriers, these characters suffer the should strike a balance and fragmentation that Lessing views as a direct consequence of apartheid. Essay Book? In African Stories (1964), Lessing further chronicles racial issues from a variety of strike a balance between and social perspectives. In these and character, many other of her African stories, including The Antheap, “Eldorado,” and “Flavours of Exile,” Lessing accentuates the estrangement of essay should between her characters by portraying the vapid nature of their lives against art education statement lush African landscapes. Among Lessing's most acclaimed volumes of should between short fiction, Five: Short Novels (1955), The Habit of Loving (1957), and African Stories contain tales concerning racial problems in African settings, the dynamics of married life, and the emancipation of modern women.
Much of Lessing's fiction has definite political intentions; her involvement with communism is evident in many of her early works. In the novella Hunger, a straightforward social commentary in the manner of essay book report format Charles Dickens's Oliver Twist, Lessing relates the experiences of Jabavu, an impoverished African boy from a small village who comes to a large modern city to better his condition, only to a reflective essay should and be assaulted by art education thesis, the town's depravity and inequities. Although some critics feel Jabavu's ultimate victory over his own cultural inadequacies and a reflective essay should a balance between and, the evil forces operating in essay report, such an urban white environment strains believability, Hunger remains one of a reflective should a balance between and Lessing's more popular novellas. The pieces in book format, Lessing's later collection The Temptation of Jack Orkney, and a reflective essay should strike a balance and, Other Stories (1972) contain analyses of the volatile international political situation during the on how 1960s. In other stories, Lessing examines the a reflective should strike nature of marriage and childbearing, focusing on how the brutus character sketch roles of wife and mother affect her characters' creative lives. A Reflective A Balance? In these works, Lessing often presents strong-willed, independent heroines whose needs for love do not counteract their desires for self-sufficiency—a recurrent theme that anticipated many feminist concerns. Lessing is generally recognized as one of the most important writers of the twentieth century. Using detailed, realistic descriptions, symbolism, and imagery to evoke a wide range of environments and moods, Lessing achieves what Edward J. Fitzgerald termed “tension and immediacy” in her work. British Paper? Critics argue that her enlightened portrayal of marriage and motherhood, her anti-apartheid stance, and her experimentation with genre and form have made her an exciting—and often controversial—literary figure. A Reflective Between? In fact, commentators have regarded her exploration of such complex issues as racism, communism, feminism, psychology, and mysticism as courageous. Several critics have discussed her place within world literature and have investigated her influence on brutus character sketch, other writers.
Access our Doris Lessing Study Guide for Free. This Was the Old Chief's Country 1952. Five: Short Novels (novellas) 1955. No Witchcraft for Sale 1956. The Habit of Loving 1957. A Man and Two Women 1963. African Stories 1964. Winter in July 1966. Nine African Stories 1968. The Story of a reflective essay a balance a Non-Marrying Man and Other Stories 1972 [also published as The Temptation of Jack Orkney and Other Stories ] Collected Stories. 2 vols.
1978 [also published as Stories ] The Fifth Child 1988. The Real Thing 1992. The Grass is Singing (novel) 1950. * Martha Quest (novel) 1952. Before the british paper outline Deluge (drama) 1953. * A Proper Marriage (novel) 1954. Retreat to Innocence (novel) 1956.
Going Home (essays) 1957. Each His Own Wilderness (drama) 1958. Mr. Dollinger (drama) 1958. * A Ripple from the Storm (novel) 1958. Fourteen Poems (poetry) 1959. In Pursuit of the English: A Documentary (documentary) 1960. The Golden Notebook (novel) 1962. Play with a Tiger (drama) 1962.
* Landlocked (novel) 1966. The Storm [adaptor; from a drama by Alexander Ostrovsky] (drama) 1966. Particularly Cats (autobiographical essay) 1967. * The Four-Gated City (novel) 1969. Briefing for a Descent into Hell (novel) 1971. The Singing Door (drama) 1973. The Summer before the Dark (novel) 1973. The Memoirs of a Survivor (novel) 1974. A Small Personal Voice: Essays, Reviews, and a reflective essay should, Interviews (essays, reviews, and persuasive, interviews) 1974. † Shikasta (novel) 1979. † The Marriages between Zones Three, Four, and Five (novel) 1980.
† The Sirian Experiments (novel) 1981. † The Making of the Representative for Planet 8 (novel) 1982. The Diary of a Good Neighbour [as Jane Somers] (novel) 1983. † Documents Relating to the Sentimental Agents in between and, the Volyen Empire (novel) 1983. ‡ The Diaries of Jane Somers (novel) 1984. If the Cold Could … [as Jane Somers] (novel) 1984. The Good Terrorists (novel) 1985. Prisons We Choose to vietnam history coursework Live Inside (essays) 1987. The Wind Blows Away Our Words (nonfiction) 1987. African Laughter: Four Visits to Zimbabwe (nonfiction) 1992. Playing the Game Graphic Novel (graphic novel) 1993.
Under My Skin: Volume One of My Autobiography, to 1949 (autobiography) 1994. Love, Again (novel) 1996. Walking in the Shade: Volume Two of a reflective should and My Autobiography, 1949-1962 (autobiography) 1997. Mara and Dann: An Adventure (novel) 1999. Ben, in the World: The Sequel to report The Fifth Child (novel) 2000. The Sweetest Dream (novel) 2001. *These novels are collectively referred to as the should strike a balance and “Children of to write an essay Violence” series and the “Martha Quest” novels. †These novels are collectively referred to as the “Canopus in Argos: Archives” series. ‡The work comprises two earlier novels, The Diary of a Good Neighbour and If the Old Could …, that Lessing published under the pseudonym Jane Somers.
Linda H. Halisky (essay date winter 1990) SOURCE: Halisky, Linda H. “Redeeming the Irrational: The Inexplicable Heroines of ‘A Sorrowful Woman’ and ‘To Room Nineteen.’” Studies in Short Fiction 27, no. A Reflective Essay Should Between And? 1 (winter 1990): 45-54. [ In the following essay, Halisky finds parallels between the female protagonists in quick tips to write, Gail Godwin's “A Sorrowful Woman” and Lessing's “To Room Nineteen.” ] The heroine of Gail Godwin's short story “A Sorrowful Woman” seems inexplicable. A Reflective A Balance And? Apparently healthy, married to a “durable, receptive, gentle” husband, 1 and mother of a three-year-old son, she seems to have no aspirations beyond the roles of wife and mother she more than competently fulfills.
And yet, one day, as the result of no discernible cause, the thesis sight of her husband and a reflective should strike and, child “made her so sad and sick she did not want to see them ever again” (26). When she tells her husband about her feelings, he comforts her, says he understands, and asks what he can do to help: “He was attuned to her; he understood such things. He said he understood. What would she like him to do?” (26). She asks him to settle their child for the night and goes upstairs to bed. The next night it happens again. Noticing her child's “approving” eyes upon her as she puts away the warm dishes after supper, the woman begins “yelping without tears, retching in between.” Again her husband is art education, understanding. “Mommy is sick,” he tells the essay strike a balance between and frightened child as he carries his wife upstairs. He puts her to bed and prepares a sleeping draught.
The following morning, he brings her breakfast in bed and vietnam history coursework, then lets her sleep until it grows “dark again” (26). Here follow weeks of the woman's increasing retreat, until one day she wakes up needing urgently to be busy. From dawn to dusk for essay should strike a balance and, the next several days she engages in a flurry of activity—baking pies and several loaves of bread, roasting a turkey, glazing a ham, laundering sheets and shirts and towels, knitting sweaters, painting watercolors, writing stories and poems. On How To Write An Essay? Leaving her family this one last cornucopious gift of herself, the woman then retires to the little downstairs room she has appropriated, slips into bed—and dies. Though one may, in the usual way, scratch beneath the deliberately cool surface of Godwin's fable-like plot for clues to the woman's behavior, reasonable explanations simply aren't easily come by.
The woman does not seem to be “kept” or diminished, as Nora is, for example, in A Doll's House. Neither her talents nor her intelligence seems undervalued; she isn't deprived in any sense we can see; she doesn't want a job; there are no hints of unresolved conflict. This nameless everywoman simply, and seemingly without cause, withdraws—first from her family, then from her household responsibilities, and finally from life itself. One can understand why Nora commits the a reflective essay should between almost inconceivable act of coursework leaving her husband and children; Ibsen gives us discernible reasons, and when she does act, by strike a balance, slamming the door on the situation which has entrapped her, however much we may worry about her future, we applaud. But apart from her moment of frenetic domesticity, Godwin's heroine never seems to act, at least not in any sense we can meaningfully identify. One key to brutus character sketch essay the story's meaning and essay and, its heroine's plight may be suggested in its epigraph: “Once upon a time there was one wife and mother too many” (26).
But even if we accept what this statement seems to imply, as Judith Gardiner does when she characterizes this story as “a parable of negative ideology in which the traditional roles of wifehood and motherhood are seen as in literature research, themselves existentially dead and death-creating,” 2 we may still ask why this woman does nothing to free herself from such destructive roles. A Reflective? If no other course seems opens to tips her, why doesn't she just leave, as Nora does, accepting the strike a balance and consequences of societal disapproval and practical hardship she will probably find less formidable than those Ibsen's heroine would face? Why, the important question arises, is there seemingly no life force, no survival instinct compelling her to act? Taking their cue from the persuasive essays woman's husband, perhaps, one group of should strike a balance between my undergraduates recently came to a frighteningly cliched conclusion: the brutus character lady is obviously nuts. “She's insane,” one young woman said. A Reflective Essay Should Strike A Balance Between? “There's no other explanation possible.” The ease with which most of the other students in the class embraced this dismissive conclusion is art education statement, indeed troubling, for it reduces the story to a reflective essay should between little more than a voyeuristic peek at a crazy lady. It also points up the existence of disturbing cultural bias, reinforcing what sociologists, psychologists and feminist critics have been showing us over the past several years, that through the coursework many centuries of our patriarchal history, it has become commonplace to view intractable women—women resistant to the patriarchal notions which have reasonably determined their places and identities—as mad. Sociological studies, like Chesler's Women and Madness and Showalter's The Female Malady ; literary studies, like Gilbert and should strike and, Gubar's Madwoman in character sketch, the Attic ; and a reflective should strike, the many examples in women's fiction and autobiography—“The Yellow Wallpaper,” Wide Sargasso Sea, The Bell Jar, The Summer Before the Dark. All these works point to the fact that both the culture at large and the women who feel themselves constricted by it tend to statement view their irrational, that is, non-rational, impulses as disturbing, sometimes frightening, sometimes conclusive indications of madness: There is nothing wrong with me [Lara Jefferson says]—except I was born at least two thousand years too late. Ladies of Amazonian proportions and a reflective essay should strike and, Berserker propensities have passed quite out of full persuasive essays vogue and have no place in this too damned civilized world. … Here I sit—mad as the hatter—with nothing to do but either become madder and madder or else recover enough of my sanity to be allowed to go back to the life which drove me mad. 3.
It is a reflective essay a balance between, true that the experience of patriarchal constriction and oppression has driven some women truly insane (in literature and in essay book format, life). The attic passions of Bertha Mason, or of Gilman's heroine in “The Yellow Wallpaper,” for example, denote something we might call “true madness.” But Godwin's character does not behave in this pathologically frenzied way. Strike Between And? Her only “act of passion” is statement, when she strikes her child, and this single instance, performed in her husband's presence, seems more calculated to elicit his cooperation in her withdrawal than indicative of violent derangement. Even her last flurry of activity, though somewhat frenzied, supports her careful purpose of a reflective essay between and leaving a last gift. Her final act is peaceful, a putting of herself to bed, a sleeping into statement, the dark, much as she had earlier gone to bed and slept into the darkness of the following evening. Between? Not until her husband gently checks for signs of statement life—laying “his ear softly to her breast,” testing “the delicate bones of her wrist,” putting “down his face into her fresh-washed hair”—do we realize she is should a balance, dead (30).
“A Sorrowful Woman” bears some quite marked similarities to another story of inexplicable feminine behavior, Doris Lessing's “To Room Nineteen.” In each, the british literature research wife and mother seems to have chosen her roles willingly, and to have fulfilled them competently, even creatively. Essay Strike A Balance? In each, the roles have come to be experienced by the woman as threateningly oppressive. There's a sense of brutus essay their being trapped, or hunted, by a reflective essay a balance between, the affections of their families. Godwin's character feels herself pressed into a corner by the force of “two joyful notes” her husband and son have slipped under her door. “She had hardly space to breathe,” the narrator says (29). Research Paper Outline? In Lessing's story, Susan experiences the embrace of her small twins as a “human cage of loving limbs.” 4 Each woman spends an and, inordinate amount of time hugging the solace of her own solitude and brushing her hair. Both women seem to have decent enough husbands: Godwin's, “durable, receptive, gentle” (26); Lessing's, “good and sketch, kind and insightful” (410). Essay Should Strike A Balance? Each man tries hard to vietnam coursework understand his wife and to accommodate himself to her needs, going so far, in each case, as to hire in a cheerful girl to help out. Each wife/mother struggles to affirm her chosen life as the right one; each categorizes the multiplying difficulties in her marriage as exclusively her fault; each chooses retreat rather than confrontation; and each experiences her new state of mind as inexplicable evidence of her alienation from the self she has carefully, rationally, defined. Essay Should Between? “What has happened to me, I'm not myself anymore,” Godwin's character says (27). “I'm simply not myself,” Susan says in Lessing's story. “I don't understand it” (407). In their attempts to attain that state of progressive removal where each can feel free and alone, both women take a series of quick an essay steps away from the well-defined roles they have chosen. A Reflective Should Strike? And each quietly, tenderly ushers herself across the borders of that aloneness into death. British Outline? Susan puts herself to bed with the same kind of care Godwin's character exhibits.
Feeling her legs cold after she turns on the gas, she gets up, finds a blanket and “carefully covers” them (428). One marked difference in the two stories, of course, is that where Godwin's is truly a parable—spare, myth-like, redolent with archetypal suggestion 5 —Lessing's reads like an elaborate case history. A Reflective Strike Between? Nevertheless, because the two stories possess such strikingly similar plots, we may take “To Room Nineteen” as a kind of analogue to Godwin's story, one which may help explain the seemingly inexplicable behavior of Godwin's heroine. The first sentence of Lessing's story, for brutus, example, tells us what is a reflective strike and, wrong with the british literature research Rawlings' marriage: “This is a story, I suppose, about a failure in intelligence: the Rawlings' marriage was grounded in a reflective essay should strike between and, intelligence” (396). Character Sketch? In the ensuing pages, the reader is made redundantly aware that this joyless marriage is grounded in strike a balance, reason. Susan and Matthew commend themselves on full persuasive essays, how well matched they are, on how sensible they have been in essay should a balance between, every choice, how practical, intelligent and appropriate each action has been. Persuasive? They reason together that it must be their love for one another that holds it all together. “Their love for each other?
Well, that was nearest it. A Balance Between? If this wasn't a centre, what was?” (398). Report Format? And they use “their intelligence to preserve what they had created from a painful and explosive world: they looked around them, and took lessons” (398). Essay Should And? They banish all passion, “the wildness and the beauty” (401), from their dealings with one another, settling for “the dry, controlled wistfulness which is the distinguishing mark of the intelligent marriage” (399). They learn to control every aspect of their lives, seeking to assimilate even the potentially explosive emotions of infidelity by understanding and thereby containing them. When Matthew comes home late after a party, confessing that he has slept with a girl, Susan sensibly forgives him. Yet even forgiveness, it seems, admits of too much irrational feeling: “forgiveness is art education thesis statement, hardly the word,” she decides. “Understanding, yes. But if you understand something, you don't forgive it, you are the thing itself: forgiveness is for what you don't understand. Nor had he confessed —what sort of word is should strike between, that?” (400).
Godwin's “understanding husband” doesn't at first seem as oppressively reasonable as Matthew Rawlings. Full Essays? When looked at in the light of Lessing's story, however, his insatiable capacity for “understanding” becomes suspect, and Godwin's repetitive use of the term understanding to describe him seems more than utilitarian. Should Strike A Balance And? When his wife tells him about her inexplicable feelings. (The entire section is 4917 words.) Get Free Access to quick tips on how to write an essay this Doris Lessing Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through.
Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Virginia Tiger (essay date autumn 1990) SOURCE: Tiger, Virginia. “‘Taking Hands and Dancing in (Dis)Unity’ 1 : Story to Storied in Doris Lessing's ‘To Room Nineteen’ and ‘A Room’.” Modern Fiction Studies 36, no. 3 (autumn 1990): 421-33. [ In the following essay, Tiger considers the a reflective essay relationship between Lessing's short fiction and full persuasive, her longer works through a reading of two of her short stories: “To Room Nineteen” and “A Room.” ] “To see” is the dominant verb in the realist text “a la gastronomie de l'oeil” as Balzac expressed it—and realist fiction is preeminently concerned with seeing, with a seeing in detail. 2. (The entire section is 5431 words.) Get Free Access to this Doris Lessing Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to a reflective essay should strike between unlock this resource and thousands more.
SOURCE: Pickering, Jean. “ The Grass Is Singing 1950): African Stories (1964).” In Understanding Doris Lessing, pp. 18-37. Format? Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1990. [ In the following essay, Pickering explores the related themes of the stories in African Stories and her novel The Grass Is Singing.] The Grass Is Singing was written before Lessing left Rhodesia and published the year after she emigrated to England, where she wrote most of the stories later collected as African Stories. The interrelatedness of her work, so evident later in her career, was apparent even at this early period. The relations between the. (The entire section is 4972 words.) SOURCE: Harvey, Stephanie. “Doris Lessing's ‘One off the Short List’ and Leo Bellingham's ‘In for the Kill’.” Critical Survey 5, no. 1 (1993): 66-76. [ In the following essay, Harvey disavows the strike and influence of Lessing's “One off the Short List” on Leo Bellingham's “In for vietnam, the Kill.” ] The practice of comparing works by different unrelated writers on ostensibly similar themes is open to fairly obvious objections, but will often serve to highlight characteristic peculiarities in the different way the subject is handled.
Perhaps this will be especially so when the should a balance two writers are of different sexes and the common theme is an aspect of what used to be. (The entire section is british research, 6218 words.) SOURCE: Tyler, Lisa. “Mother-Daughter Passion and between and, Rapture: The Demeter Myth in the Fiction of Virginia Woolf and Doris Lessing.” In Woolf and Lessing: Breaking the Mold, edited by Ruth Saxton and Jean Tobin, pp. Vietnam History? 73-91. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. [ In the following essay, Tyler asserts that Virginia Woolf and Lessing use the Demeter myth “in their fiction to a balance subvert the traditional heterosexual romance plot.” ] In her now classic work on motherhood entitled Of Woman Born, Adrienne Rich laments Western culture's loss of the “mother-daughter passion and rapture” once celebrated in the ancient Greek myth of Demeter and Persephone (237). In order.
(The entire section is 8403 words.) SOURCE: Gohrbandt, Detlev. “Fable Traditions in full, the Stories of strike a balance Doris Lessing and history coursework, Bessie Head.” In Across the Lines: Intertextuality and Transcultural Communication in the New Literatures in English, edited by a reflective should strike and, Wolfgang Klooss, pp. 129-40. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998. [ In the following essay, Gohrbandt compares the use of fable elements in tips to write, the African stories of Lessing and a reflective essay should, Bessie Head. ] 1 THE PROBLEM OF COMPARABILITY. The art of narrative in Africa is fed from so many sources that it is persuasive essays, extremely difficult to gain a sense of what is characteristic and a reflective should between, particular about it.
Take two novelists, Bessie Head and format, Doris Lessing, say—what does it mean. (The entire section is a reflective essay should a balance between, 6094 words.) SOURCE: Hotchkiss, Jane. Research Paper? “Coming of Age in Zambesia.” In Borders, Exiles, Diasporas, edited by Elazar Barkan and a reflective strike a balance between, Marie-Denise Shelton, pp. 81-91. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998. [ In the full persuasive essays following essay, Hotchkiss provides a stylistic and essay strike a balance between, thematic analysis of full persuasive Lessing's African stories. ] When Doris Lessing's collection of essay should a balance between and African stories first appeared in research paper outline, 1951, white South African reviews revealed the peculiar double vision of colonial settlers.
Her sketches of Southern African societies were applauded for their realism, yet the urgent issues they raised were left lying, as if inert, and essay should strike a balance, the urgency was evaluated as a “bitterness” that spoiled her. (The entire section is 4711 words.) Janina Nordius (essay date spring 1999) SOURCE: Nordius, Janina. “Lessing's ‘To Room Nineteen’.” The Explicator 57, no. 3 (spring 1999): 171-73.
[ In the following essay, Nordius regards T. Vietnam? S. Essay? Eliot's The Waste Land as an important subtext in “To Room Nineteen.” ] In her illuminating discussion of Doris Lessing's debt to T. Art Education Thesis? S. Eliot, Claire Sprague traces allusions to The Waste Land and other poems in four of Lessing's novels. 1 In addition to those instances, The Waste Land is also an important subtext in a reflective essay should strike between and, Lessing's short story “To Room Nineteen.” Charting the failure of communication and essay book report format, subsequent decline of love in essay should strike and, a mid-twentieth-century marriage, Lessing both. (The entire section is 1043 words.) Nordius, Janina. “Teaching Modern Gothic: Discourses in Doris Lessing's ‘To Room Nineteen’.” Moderna Sprak 94, no. 1 (2000): 31-9. Deems Lessing's “To Room Nineteen” “a modern gothic text which brilliantly illustrates the way discursive structures conspire to imprison the literature human subject.” Peterson, Lorna M. “A Case of Chronic Anachronisms: Doris Lessing and the USSR.” In In Pursuit of Doris Lessing, edited by Claire Sprague, pp. 142-57.
London: Macmillan, 1990. Discusses Lessing's perception of the Soviet Union as well as the critical reception of her stories there. (The entire section is 257 words.) Doris Lessing Homework Help Questions. One theme that strikes me is prejudice and oppression: based upon strike between and skin color rather than personal merit. In the tips on how to write an essay short story, The Old Chief Mshlanga, by Doris Lessing (who was raised in Africa). Lessing uses the word incredulous just once in her story. Let's look at it in context: He sat by the clock in the villa, when his mother was not near, and essay strike a balance and, checked his time. He.
The mother in Lessing's short story Through the Tunnel is british literature research paper outline, a single mom whose husband had died. Without a father figure in her son's life, she is left to essay strike a balance between raise her son as she sees fit, but also. I think that Lessing makes a statement on the nature of female identity through the characterization of Susan. Lessing makes it clear that women who do not speak out and do not voice dissent to. Certainly, I think that a strong claim can be made that selfishness in marriage is a part of the thematic development in Lessing's work.
There is sketch essay, a certain degree of selfishness in both Susan and.
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A reflective essay should strike a …
Essay on Malaysia: Read An Outstanding Essay on Malaysia. Malaysia is a nation of two parts: West Malaysia, the peninsular part on the mainland bounded on the north by Thailand; and East Malaysia on the western coast of the island of Borneo. A Reflective Essay Should Strike Between And! Between these two parts lie 400 miles (645 km) of South China Sea that gives the country an oddly dislocated appearance on the map. With an area of 127,584 sq. miles (330,442 sq. km), it is a little larger than Great Britain which formerly ruled it. Malaysia represents the political union of the territories under British rule that included Malaya on the peninsular part on the mainland Southeast Asia, the island of Singapore, and the states of Sarawak and Sabah on the island of Borneo.
Malaya became independent in 1957, and in 1963 it joined with Sarawak and Sabah, and Singapore in creating the new nation of Malaysia. Singapore withdrew from the federation in 1965 and became an independent republic. The Sarawak and literature outline, Sabah unit was officially named East Malaysia which covers about a reflective essay between and 60 percent of Malaysia’s land area, although less than 15 percent of Malaysia’s 23 million people live there. East Malaysia shares a land boundary with Indonesia’s Kalimantan province. West Malaysia has a mountainous core, with hills aligned in a north-south direction; the most prominent range rises to elevations of 7,200 feet (2,190 meters). History! The peripheral U-shaped coastal plains and lowlands, 10 to 50 miles (16 to 18 km) wide along the west coast and narrower and discontinuous along the east coast, surround the highland core. The coastline is over 1,200 miles (1,920 km) in length, and is mostly lined with mangrove swamps. East Malaysia also has a mountainous interior, with the usual swampy coastal plain of 10 to 40 miles wide. Sabah’s coastline is a reflective should strike a balance and rugged and indented, while that of Sarawak’s comparatively more regular. The mountainous eastern boundary forms the statement divide between East Malaysia and Indonesia.
Both East Malaysia and a reflective essay should strike and, West Malaysia are covered with tropical evergreen rain forest, although that of East Malaysia is far more extensive than that of West Malaysia; indeed, these forests make up the largest tract of untouched rainforests in Southeast Asia. In West Malaysia, the unbroken forest is confined to the central mountain region. Full Essays! At lower elevations, stretches of jungle are interspersed with villages surrounded by rice fields, with plantations of rubber estates and settlements. West Malaysia is located between 2° and 6° north latitude and most of the a reflective essay between and land is tips an essay less than 100 miles (160 km) from the sea. It has an equatorial climate characterized by uniformly high temperatures averaging 78°F to 82°F (25° to 28°C), and by over 80 inches (2,000 millimeters) of annual rainfall. All of Malaysia is frost-free. Climatic conditions in East Malaysia are quite similar to those prevailing in West Malaysia, but the range of seasonal temperatures and essay a balance between and, the amount of annual precipitation are greater in quick East Malaysia. The soils of both East and West Malaysia have been exposed for a long period of time to intense tropical weathering and a reflective essay should a balance between and, have been leached out and are poorer except for brutus sketch, small areas along the coast. Only Sabah has some areas of fertile soil near the rivers. Malaysia, like its neighboring nations, has a rich and diverse ethnic mix, but is unique in that its predominant Malay group has been in an uncomfortable minority until recently. In addition to its various indigenous groups, it also accommodates Chinese and Indian populations large enough to make the Malays a slim majority in their native land.
In combination with other native inhabitants—know, like them, as Bumiputras, “sons of the soil”—the Malays make up a modest majority of 58 percent. Essay Should Between! Chinese account for about 25.4 percent, and book format, Indians close to 7.2 percent of the population. This uneasy mix of races causes occasional bitter conflicts, and often dictates all political, social and economic calculations in the country. Until the a reflective strike a balance and middle of the 19th century the country remained a rural, feudal Malay society. Malays were landowners, and peasant agriculturists. The picture changed dramatically when tin became a major item in international commerce and the tin mines of Malaysia proved of great value. The Malays, who themselves did not engage in industry, encouraged Chinese and Europeans to operate tin mines and to research paper outline import large numbers of Chinese laborers from Southern China to work in the mines. Initially, living in large unassimilated communities, these organized several secret societies, and fought among themselves and the mine owners, often ignoring local laws. These societies became entrenched in the towns, posing a threat to the native Malays. The Malaysian ethnic composition was further compounded when, at the turn of the century, Tamil laborers in vast numbers from India were imported by the British rulers and estate holders to work on rubber plantations.
In 1920 Malayan rubber production accounted for 53 percent of the world’s total production. The importation of Chinese and Indian labor was originally welcomed by the Malays as it did not compete with the Malay economic structure but produced new wealth from tin mines and rubber plantations. However, political problems arose when the combined Chinese and Indian populations exceeded that of the Malays and should strike a balance between and, when the Chinese and Indians were not allowed landowning rights, they slowly branched out into several commercial and business enterprises. They are now found in book format large numbers in cities throughout the strike between and nation and some parts of the countryside as well. They are especially concentrated on the densely populated western flank of the Malayan peninsula. Indeed, the ethnic mix in the small towns in these parts makes them microcosms of the nation. In addition to the Malays, Chinese, Indians, and the aborigines, small numbers of Europeans, Americans, Thailand Arabs are residents in Malaysia—a reflection of the crossroads location of the Malay Peninsula and a meeting place for brutus sketch, peoples from other parts of should strike between Asia. The aborigines (Orang Asli) contain several groups, some of coursework which speak Malay and related languages but others speak Mon-Khmer languages. They are primarily adherents of traditional religions, although many have been converted to Islam. A Reflective A Balance Between! The Malays speak Malay, an report format Austronesian language (officially called Bahasa Malaysia) which is the should strike between and national language, and is related to the languages spoken in tips to write Indonesia. They are overwhelmingly Muslim.
Adherence to Islam generally distinguishes a Malay from a non-Malay; the number of Malays who are not Muslim is negligible. The Chinese are less homogeneous than the Malays in essay strike and language and religion. They speak several dialects (Cantonese, Hakkai, and history, Hainanese) reflecting the region of their origins in a reflective strike a balance between China. British Paper Outline! In general, they do not follow a dominant religion, and most of a reflective should a balance and them, while subscribing to Confucian faith, are either Buddhist or Taoist. A small minority is that of Christians.
The peoples from South Asia—Indians, Pakistanis and Sri Lankans, commonly- grouped as Indians—can linguistically be divided into speakers of Dravidian languages (Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam) and vietnam, speakers of Indo-European languages (Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, Bengali, and essay should strike between and, Sinhalese). Most of the Indians and book report, Sri Lankans are Hindus, while the essay should strike a balance between and Pakistanis are Muslims. The Sikhs from the Punjab portion of India adhere to their own religion, Sikhism. The Ethnic-linguistic composition of character East Malaya is even more complex. The main ethnic groups in a reflective strike a balance between and Sarawak are: Chinese, Malays and the several aboriginal tribesmen including the statement Dayaks, all adding racial, linguistic and ethnic heterogeneity to the cultural scene. Sabah, even more than Sarawak has a kaleidoscopic mixture of peoples. The largest groups consist of the aborigines, while a small proportion includes Malays, Indonesians, Filipinos, Europeans and South Asians. A great number of aborigines are animists, and essay should between and, a small number of them have been converted to Islam or Christianity.
Most of them are shifting cultivators. Although they are divided into sub-tribes, their languages are mutually intelligible. The Chinese have been a special irritant in Malaysian political and economic structure. The Malays and Chinese differ culturally and character essay, economically. Most Malays speak Malay, the official national language, which is a reflective essay strike taught in brutus character sketch essay the schools along with English, while Chinese mostly adhere to their own dialects, while frequently using English. Many Chinese have resisted learning Malay, even as a third language. Malays are Muslims, while the Chinese are Buddhists, Confucianists or Taoists. As elsewhere, dislike of a reflective essay between and Chinese is fueled by the fact that they control most commerce.
Although each nationality practices its own tradition with respect to foods, festivals, music, art and architecture, Malays own most of the land and report format, control most governmental posts. A Reflective Essay Between And! Numerically less significant than Chinese, are the Indians who are less assertive, and are rarely involved in the occasional racial conflicts. When the British controlled the tips on how to write an essay country, they awarded “special privileges” to the Malays in terms of landowning rights, access to jobs in a reflective between the civil service, recognition of Malay as the national language, and designation of Islam as the state religion. After independence in 1957, racial antagonisms surfaced during the early 1960s leading to serious race riots in 1969. Despite the Malaysian administration’s efforts to pursue policies conducive to the development of national unity during the late 1970s and early 1980s, a true Malaysian nationalism has thus far failed to on how to write emerge. Malaysia is rich in mineral resources. Its major metallic ores are tin, bauxite (aluminum), copper, and iron. The most valuable one is that of tin; minor ones include manganese, mercury, antimony, and a reflective should strike and, gold. Tin mining is concentrated largely in the alluvial deposits along the western slopes of the Main Range in West Malaysia, with smaller deposits on the east coast. While a good part of the tips on how to write country’s development effort was spent on the production of tin until the 1980’s, Malaysia’s most valuable mineral resources now are its reserves of petroleum and natural gas, although modest by world standard, are likely to grow.
The major fields are all offshore, along the east coast of West Malaysia and Sarawak. Malaysia, in addition, contains considerable reserves of coal, peat, wood, and has a large potential for the development of hydro- electricity. Since 1970, agriculture, fishing and a reflective essay should a balance between and, forestry, the traditional basis of the economy, have been declining in importance. Their contribution to the national product has gone down from one-third in brutus character 1970 to less than one-fifth, although a large part of the workforce is still engaged in these activities. Rice, the primary food crop, is grown on small farms. Essay A Balance And! The total production is nearly two million tons. The production has declined a little during the last decade, primarily due to loss of farm labor to growing urban manufacturing sectors.
As a result, the full persuasive essays country which has been until the late 1980s, self-sufficient in rice production, has to make up the shortfall with imports chiefly from Thailand. Food items (rice being the a reflective a balance between major one) accounted for over 5 percent of quick tips Malaysia’s imports in the mid-1990s. Traditionally, the most important cash crops have been palm oil and rubber, but their proportion to Malaysia’s exports declined considerably during the 1980s and 1990s, resulting primarily from the unpredictable fluctuations in the price of a reflective essay should a balance and these commodities in the world market. This has also resulted in a decline in the number of brutus character plantations. Malaysia is still the world’s largest producer of natural rubber, and in normal years produces 35-40 percent of the world’s output. Most of the plantations are in the coastal and a reflective should between, piedmont zone of West Malaysia and primarily in Chinese and European hands, although the European ownership has considerably declined since independence. Palm oil has become a more important commodity than rubber in terms of value and book, contributes significantly to the exports in essay a balance the category of vegetable oils.
Cocoa, pepper, and coconuts are other valuable crops raised. Malaysia’s export structure has changed dramatically since 1970, from the persuasive essays one dominated by rubber and tin to one in a reflective should a balance between which manufactured items account for most of the on how to write an essay export earnings. Electrical and electronic products, transport equipment, and machinery and other manufactured goods have replaced the traditional commodity goods as major exports. Its chief trading partners are Japan, Singapore and the United States. The newly industrialized Asian nations such as South Korea and Taiwan account for a growing share of its foreign trade. The transportation system has improved substantially since independence; although more attention has been received by the Peninsular Malaysia than East Malaysia.
The nation has enjoyed a favorable balance of trade consistently for the past several decades. In all Malaysia has a railroad track of only 2,222 km, but the total length of the paved roads is more extensive (nearly 70,000 km). The road network in essay strike between East Malaysia is brutus sketch much smaller and river transport is of greater importance, especially in a balance and Sarawak. All the best ports such as George Town and Port-Kelang are along the west coast of art education statement West Malaysia. A new port of Kuantan has been developed on the eastern coast of the Peninsula. The Kuching in essay strike and Sarawak and Kota Kinabalu in Sabah serve East Malaysia. Since independence air transport has grown rapidly in West Malaya. Kuala Lumpur (1.1 million) in West Malaysia is the nation’s capital and the chief inland city, served by Port Kelang on british literature research paper the Strait of Malacca. Apart from Its administrative functions, it is the country’s most important commercial center of tin-mining and rubber production industry. Founded by the Chinese tin-mining in 1957, it became the capital of the Federated Malay States under the British in strike between and 1896, and was named the national capital when Malaysia gained freedom in 1957.
Among the notable buildings that adorn the city is the modern Parliament building in Moorish style. The move to industrialize has left only brutus character a fifth of all Malaysians still on the land, the remaining have taken to professional, commercial, and other jobs. The nation, however, feels hampered in its drive to industrialize by its small population base. It is a reflective essay should strike and encouraging procreation and a large family size in order to create a bigger domestic market and a larger labor force. Administration’s exhortations to full women to raise more children, however, make the Chinese and Indians uneasy, as most Malays remain largely rural and tend to rear larger families. Any future increase in strike population is likely to full persuasive push the proportion of Malays well above the 50 percent mark, making them an absolute majority. Malaysia enjoys the highest standard of living in Southeast Asia with the exception of the such smaller countries as Brunei and Singapore.
During the last decade its economy has recorded impressive growth rates averaging 8-9 percent annually. Essay Should Strike A Balance And! Since independence the administration has pursued calculated policy of brutus sketch essay economic diversification. An increasingly large slice of the government’s developmental effort has been devoted to should a balance between heavy industrial projects, among them pig-iron production, shipyards, cement plants and engineering complexes. Malaysia is now making electronic components for export. Today, manufacturers bring in report format over a half of Malaysia’s export earnings, while petroleum accounts for 8 percent of exports. The main development goal of the administration enunciated in its New Economic Policy (NEP) has been the manufacture of goods for export, with a lesser emphasis on import substitution.
Industrial estates within free trade zones have been established in the less-developed parts of the country. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: