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Mc Donalds vs Burger King Essay - 679 Words | Cram
Anne Boleyn - A queen who inspired a revolution. Extracts from this document. Anne Boleyn: A queen who inspired a revolution. In the three years that Anne Boleyn stood along side Henry VIII as his Queen, she managed to shake the foundations of the country's culture and religion. She was a major influence in the reformation of the English church and had the ability to use her personal strengths to achieve political success. Her ideas and position of power often caused disturbance within political groups, she introduced and sometimes enforced her own revolutionary ideas and the fact that she was not of Royal Blood increased her struggle to king essay take the position of queen in the eyes of the nation. While not deliberately inciting a revolution, the consequence of Anne's personal and tablet pc, selfish actions led to mcdonalds topics the England reformation. However, the passion and determination that she displayed both in the Royal Court and in her personal affairs would eventually bring about her downfall. Although not born into Royalty, Anne's whole upbringing had been designed to prepare her to become, at worst a lady of standing, at best a Queen. Her father Thomas Boleyn was a powerful and established diplomat; he served the king and was often directly involved with the hope essay royal family. As a result, both him and mcdonalds vs burger king topics, his family were prominent courtiers; his children were raised in the world of politics with a keen sense of loyalty towards their family and faction.
Non so much as Anne: Thomas Boleyn, after travelling Europe when dealing with foreign matters, decided that it would be vital to Anne's development as a lady and political player to hope essay spend the king topics majority of her early life in hope essay Brussels and Paris. Mcdonalds Vs Burger King Essay! . read more. The book had been banned in England, despite this, Anne took it upon herself to bring it into essay writing, the royal court and to bring its content and message to the attention of Henry, who soon complied with Anne's obvious belief in the message conveyed in the text. In 1530, Anne began to steer the problem in mcdonalds essay topics a radical new direction. In continuing her campaign, Anne began to lay the foundations for tablet a protestant England. Anne had built up a group of Protestants within the mcdonalds vs burger king essay topics Royal Court. Three of the most powerful and influential members of this group were Matthew Parker: a man who gathered such a deep sense of trust from Anne, that she left the on college acceptance education and welfare of her daughter in mcdonalds topics his hands. Secondly, Thomas Cranmer: who became the Archbishop of the reformed church and finally Thomas Cromwell whom replaced Wolsey as Henrys 'right hand man', and who was a major influence in events that followed. Resume Pc! In 1533 an event marked the affirmation of the break from the Catholic Church and Rome. Anne and Henry were finally married. Strangely, the ceremony was kept secret, showing that Henry was still dubious as where he stood with the Catholic Church and still had concerns about the essay topics validity of his contract with Catherine.
These worries were soon repressed however. Hope Essay! With the news that Anne was pregnant, Henrys hopes for a male heir refuted any other concern and so, the king essay topics Boleyn faction continued to grow in influence and Anne decided to take a major risk. . read more. These absurd tales of Anne's crimes were mostly unbelievable but yet provided the perfect opportunity for executive housekeeper cover her to be overthrown. Within days of the 'confessions' made by essay, Smeaton, both Anne and five men were tried for high treason. On the resume tracker excel 21st May 1536 Anne was executed along side her brother, Henry Norris, Mark Smeaton and two other men, all of whom were probably innocent of the mcdonalds vs burger essay crimes they had been accused. The entirety of this bloody drama that endorsed Anne's dramatic downfall was the creation of on college Thomas Cromwell. At much the same time as Anne's downfall, opposing factions to that of the vs burger essay topics Boleyn's were playing a major part in influencing Henry and the general ideas of the court. In order to resume strengthen their own position, a rival faction dedicated to Catherine of Aragon introduced a young Jane Seymour to the scene, a woman who almost instantly caught the attention of Henry. His hopes for a male heir were once again possible of coming true and Anne, with all her charisma and intelligence was soon forgotten. In conclusion, Anne Boleyn was a woman who had great and revolutionary ideas, the enforcement of which she could only sustain for a while.
The enemies she made in order to achieve such 'greatness' soon returned with vengeance and vs burger, removed her from her position of both Queen of England and wife of Henry VIII. Hope Essay! The consequence of her actions however stained the history of England and the question still arises as to weather Anne, the mother of the vs burger king reformation gave birth to hope essay a revolution or a plague that would haunt England and its politics for eternity. 1 1 . read more. This student written piece of mcdonalds vs burger essay work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level British History: Monarchy Politics section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month.
Related AS and A Level British History: Monarchy Politics essays. Was the Henrician Reformation inevitable? great deal of acceptance evidence suggesting that the reformation was an accident and that Henry's initial impatience for his first divorce led him to cut the vs burger king essay first strings with Rome. Henry's first wife, Catherine of Aragon, refused to co-operate and at no point would she agree to a divorce. To what extent was Henry's decision to break with Rome influenced by Thomas Cranmer . Resume Tracker! However, as Wolsey's successor Cromwell would have realised the massive financial gains that could be had by tapping the Church's income and diverting even a small proportion of it to mcdonalds vs burger king topics his personal coffers. Much in the same way the early dissolutions funded Wolsey's extravagance, Cromwell stood to gain financially from. Examine the Degree to which Wolsey was responsible for resume tablet pc his own downfall.
Henry refused to follow Wolsey's wise advise regarding how to construct his brother's widow following a special dispensation from Pope Julius II. The dispensation removed not only the Impediment of Public Honesty created by the kingship of Henry and mcdonalds king, Catherine, but also the impediment of affinity created by the supposed. Hope Essay! Why did Charles V fail to crush Luther? They were, as Ozment put it, 'the ideologically mobile', that is more receptive to new ideas by political change. Many were attracted to Luther's message because it gave them the choice of how they interpret the bible rather than being dictated to by the clergy. Was Anne Boleyn or Thomas Cromwell the mcdonalds vs burger king more influential in bringing religious reform in . The Pope was also highly unlikely to admit that his predecessor had acted contrary to divine law, which would have been a cause of major embarrassment. In such circumstances, the tracker excel likelihood of an annulment being granted from the Pope was slim indeed, due to complex considerations of Foreign Policy, and.
The measure of the vs burger king topics level of industrialisation ought to be gauged in excel social and political as well as economic terms. To me it was all in slow motion and each blink lasted about a minute. I was standing beside the coffin but both lids were closed. Vs Burger King Essay! I had received permission to open the coffins. Resume! My fingers let out to open it and my veins were popping out. The reformation of 1529-36 was a political development to bring the mcdonalds essay church fully under . - 'if a man shall take his brothers wife it is an unclean thing. they shall be without sons'- despite a special dispensation from the hope essay Pope of the mcdonalds vs burger essay time. Henry believed that this was the reason no male heir had been born and that his marriage was divinely cursed. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. Resume Tablet! improve your own work.
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Mcdonald s And Burger King: Comparative Essay Topics
How to Write an mcdonalds vs burger essay topics Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. JAY SIWEK, M.D., and essay on college, MARGARET L. GOURLAY, M.D., Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington D.C. DAVID C. SLAWSON, M.D., University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia. ALLEN F. SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Jan 15;65(2):251-258.
Traditional clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from mcdonalds essay topics systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Updates selectively review the medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. Nonquantitative systematic reviews comprehensively examine the medical literature, seeking to identify and synthesize all relevant information to formulate the best approach to diagnosis or treatment. Meta-analyses (quantitative systematic reviews) seek to answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of all purpose letter pooled research studies. This article presents guidelines for writing an king essay evidence-based clinical review article for American Family Physician . First, the topic should be of common interest and relevance to family practice. Include a table of the continuing medical education objectives of the review. State how the literature search was done and include several sources of evidence-based reviews, such as the Cochrane Collaboration, BMJ's Clinical Evidence , or the InfoRetriever Web site. On College Acceptance! Where possible, use evidence based on king topics clinical outcomes relating to morbidity, mortality, or quality of pc life, and studies of primary care populations. In articles submitted to American Family Physician , rate the level of evidence for key recommendations according to the following scale: level A (randomized controlled trial [RCT], meta-analysis); level B (other evidence); level C (consensus/expert opinion). Finally, provide a table of key summary points.
American Family Physician is particularly interested in receiving clinical review articles that follow an mcdonalds evidence-based format. Clinical review articles, also known as updates, differ from systematic reviews and meta-analyses in important ways.1 Updates selectively review the medical literature while discussing a topic broadly. An example of such a topic is, #x201c;The diagnosis and on college acceptance, treatment of myocardial ischemia.#x201d; Systematic reviews comprehensively examine the medical literature, seeking to identify and synthesize all relevant information to mcdonalds king, formulate the best approach to diagnosis or treatment. Examples are many of the teaching systematic reviews of the Cochrane Collaboration or BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium. Meta-analyses are a special type of mcdonalds vs burger king essay topics systematic review. They use quantitative methods to analyze the literature and essay acceptance, seek to answer a focused clinical question, using rigorous statistical analysis of pooled research studies. An example is, #x201c;Do beta blockers reduce mortality following myocardial infarction?#x201d; The best clinical review articles base the discussion on existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and incorporate all relevant research findings about the management of a given disorder. Such evidence-based updates provide readers with powerful summaries and vs burger topics, sound clinical guidance. In this article, we present guidelines for writing an evidence-based clinical review article, especially one designed for continuing medical education (CME) and incorporating CME objectives into resume letter, its format. King Essay! This article may be read as a companion piece to hope essay, a previous article and accompanying editorial about reading and evaluating clinical review articles.1 , 2 Some articles may not be appropriate for an evidence-based format because of the vs burger king essay nature of the topic, the slant of the article, a lack of sufficient supporting evidence, or other factors.
We encourage authors to review the literature and, wherever possible, rate key points of evidence. This process will help emphasize the summary points of the article and strengthen its teaching value. Choose a common clinical problem and avoid topics that are rarities or unusual manifestations of hope essay disease or that have curiosity value only. Topics! Whenever possible, choose common problems for resume tracker, which there is new information about diagnosis or treatment. Emphasize new information that, if valid, should prompt a change in vs burger king, clinical practice, such as the recent evidence that spironolactone therapy improves survival in patients who have severe congestive heart failure.3 Similarly, new evidence showing that a standard treatment is no longer helpful, but may be harmful, would also be important to resume letter, report. For example, patching most traumatic corneal abrasions may actually cause more symptoms and vs burger king essay, delay healing compared with no patching.4. When searching the literature on your topic, please consult several sources of evidence-based reviews (Table 1) . Look for pertinent guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of the disorder being discussed. Incorporate all high-quality recommendations that are relevant to the topic. When reviewing the first draft, look for all key recommendations about diagnosis and, especially, treatment.
Try to on college acceptance, ensure that all recommendations are based on the highest level of evidence available. If you are not sure about the source or strength of the recommendation, return to the literature, seeking out the basis for the recommendation. Some Sources of Evidence-Based Medicine. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the Agency for vs burger king essay, Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and Preventive Services. All Purpose Cover Letter! The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated. American College of Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC) ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in vs burger essay topics, individual articles.
Commentary by ACP author offers clinical recommendations. Access to the online version of ACPJC is a benefit for tablet, members of the ACP-ASIM, but will be open to all until at least the end of 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of vs burger king individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice. Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of letter Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to CEBM within the Faculty of Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to evidence-based journals, and EBM-related teaching materials. Center for Research Support, TRIP Database. The AHRQ began the vs burger essay Translating Research into Practice (TRIP) initiative in 1990 to resume cover letter, implement evidence-based tools and information. The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to the largest collection of EBM materials on the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and individual articles. Mcdonalds Vs Burger King Essay Topics! A good starting place for an EBM literature search. Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group*
Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. Lists available topics and describes the teaching to kids supporting body of evidence to vs burger king topics, date (e.g., number of to kids relevant randomized controlled trials published to date). Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the mcdonalds king essay topics United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews* Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by the Cochrane Group. Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for the development of EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management.
Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)* Structured abstracts written by University of York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). Acceptance! Abstract summaries review articles on diagnostic or treatment interventions and discuss clinical implications. Effective Health Care* Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for king essay topics, medical decision-makers. Based on resume tablet pc systematic reviews and synthesis of mcdonalds research on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of hope essay health service interventions. Bimonthly publication launched in 1995 by the BMJ Publishing Group. Article summaries include commentaries by clinical experts. Mcdonalds King Essay Topics! Subscription is required. Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])*
This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for Category 1 CME credit. Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for the complete POEMs database and six additional evidence-based databases. Subscription is excel required. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an mcdonalds vs burger king independent, nonprofit collaboration of health care organizations, including the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Web site includes the ICSI guidelines for preventive services and disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of all purpose cover evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from government agencies and mcdonalds king topics, health care organizations.
Describes and compares guideline statements with respect to objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and hope essay, Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for mcdonalds vs burger essay topics, EBM reviews. More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines.
University of California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)* This Web site features updated recommendations for clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by essay acceptance the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of systematic evidence reviews. King Essay Topics! When these sources are used to hope essay, prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to topics, guidelines issued by the AAFP Commission of Continuing Medical Education, the content will qualify for executive housekeeper, the special designation of evidence-based CME. See the AAFP Web site for vs burger king essay topics, additional information about preparing evidence-based CME . Some Sources of Evidence-Based Medicine.
Agency for resume cover letter, Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), formerly known as the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR): Clinical Guidelines and Evidence Reports* The AHRQ Web site includes links to the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Evidence Reports from the AHRQ's 12 Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPC), and Preventive Services. The AHCPR released 19 Clinical Practice Guidelines between 1992 and1996 that were not subsequently updated. American College of mcdonalds vs burger king topics Physicians Journal Club (ACPJC) ACP Journal Club evaluates evidence in essay writing to kids, individual articles. Commentary by ACP author offers clinical recommendations. Access to the online version of king topics ACPJC is a benefit for members of the all purpose cover ACP-ASIM, but will be open to all until at least the end of 2001. Features short evaluations/discussions of mcdonalds vs burger topics individual articles dealing with evidence-based clinical practice.
Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) The University of teaching to kids Oxford/Oxford Radcliffe Hospital Clinical School Web site includes links to CEBM within the Faculty of Medicine, a CATbank (Critically Appraised Topics), links to evidence-based journals, and EBM-related teaching materials. Center for Research Support, TRIP Database. The AHRQ began the essay Translating Research into essay on college acceptance, Practice (TRIP) initiative in king essay topics, 1990 to implement evidence-based tools and information. The TRIP Database features hyperlinks to pc, the largest collection of EBM materials on the internet, including NGC, POEM, DARE, Cochrane Library, CATbank, and individual articles. A good starting place for an EBM literature search.
Clinical Evidence , BMJ Publishing Group* Searches BMJ's Clinical Evidence compendium for up-to-date evidence regarding effective health care. Lists available topics and mcdonalds king essay, describes the supporting body of evidence to resume, date (e.g., number of relevant randomized controlled trials published to date). Concludes with interventions #x201c;likely to be beneficial#x201d; versus those with #x201c;unknown effectiveness.#x201d; Individuals who have received a free copy of Clinical Evidence Issue 5 from the United Health Foundation are also entitled to free access to the full online content. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews* Systematic evidence reviews that are updated periodically by king essay topics the Cochrane Group. Reviewers discuss whether adequate data are available for the development of EBM guidelines for diagnosis or management. Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE)* Structured abstracts written by University of York CRD reviewers (see NHS CRD). Excel! Abstract summaries review articles on vs burger essay diagnostic or treatment interventions and discuss clinical implications. Effective Health Care*
Bi-monthly, peer-reviewed bulletin for medical decision-makers. Based on systematic reviews and synthesis of research on the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of resume letter health service interventions. Bimonthly publication launched in 1995 by the BMJ Publishing Group. Article summaries include commentaries by clinical experts. Subscription is required. Evidence-Based Practice Newsletter (including JFP Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters [POEM])* This JFP newsletter features up-to-date POEM, Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE), and tests approved for Category 1 CME credit. Subscription required. Includes the InfoRetriever search system for the complete POEMs database and six additional evidence-based databases. Subscription is mcdonalds vs burger essay required.
Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI)* ICSI is an independent, nonprofit collaboration of writing to kids health care organizations, including the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Web site includes the vs burger essay ICSI guidelines for tablet, preventive services and disease management. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) Comprehensive database of vs burger essay topics evidence-based clinical practice guidelines from government agencies and health care organizations. Describes and resume cover, compares guideline statements with respect to objectives, methods, outcomes, evidence rating scheme, and mcdonalds vs burger topics, major recommendations. National Health Service (NHS) Centre for tracker, Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) Searches CRD Databases (includes DARE, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database) for EBM reviews. More limited than TRIP Database. Primary Care Clinical Practice Guidelines. University of California, San Francisco, Web site that includes links to NGC, CEBM, AHRQ, individual articles, and organizations.
U.S. Vs Burger King Essay Topics! Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)* This Web site features updated recommendations for clinical preventive services based on systematic evidence reviews by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. EBM = evidence-based medicine . *#x2014; These Web sites are AAFP-approved sources of systematic evidence reviews.
When these sources are used to prepare continuing medical education clinical content according to guidelines issued by the AAFP Commission of Continuing Medical Education, the content will qualify for the special designation of essay evidence-based CME. See the AAFP Web site for additional information about preparing evidence-based CME . In particular, try to find the mcdonalds vs burger essay answer in an authoritative compendium of evidence-based reviews, or at resume, least try to find a meta-analysis or well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) to support it. If none appears to be available, try to cite an mcdonalds vs burger topics authoritative consensus statement or clinical guideline, such as a National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference statement or a clinical guideline published by a major medical organization. If no strong evidence exists to support the conventional approach to managing a given clinical situation, point this out in essay writing, the text, especially for key recommendations. Keep in mind that much of traditional medical practice has not yet undergone rigorous scientific study, and high-quality evidence may not exist to support conventional knowledge or practice.
Patient-Oriented vs. Mcdonalds King Essay Topics! Disease-Oriented Evidence. With regard to types of evidence, Shaughnessy and Slawson5 #x2013; 7 developed the concept of Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters (POEM), in resume, distinction to Disease-Oriented Evidence (DOE). POEM deals with outcomes of king topics importance to patients, such as changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of life. Acceptance! DOE deals with surrogate end points, such as changes in mcdonalds vs burger topics, laboratory values or other measures of response. Although the results of DOE sometimes parallel the results of POEM, they do not always correspond (Table 2) .2 When possible, use POEM-type evidence rather than DOE. When DOE is the only guidance available, indicate that key clinical recommendations lack the support of outcomes evidence. Letter! Here is an example of how the latter situation might appear in king essay, the text: #x201c;Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing identifies prostate cancer at an early stage, it has not yet been proved that PSA screening improves patient survival.#x201d; (Note: PSA testing is an example of DOE, a surrogate marker for the true outcomes of importance#x2014;improved survival, decreased morbidity, and improved quality of life.) Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the incidence of PVCs on hope essay ECGs.
Antiarrhythmic drug X is associated with an increase in mortality. POEM results are contrary to DOE implications. Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is associated with a decrease in mortality. POEM results are in concordance with DOE implications.
Screening for prostate cancer. PSA screening detects prostate cancer at an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the important POEM is currently unknown. DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from vs burger essay topics review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Hope Essay! Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Antiarrhythmic drug X decreases the incidence of mcdonalds vs burger king essay PVCs on ECGs. Antiarrhythmic drug X is essay on college acceptance associated with an increase in mortality.
POEM results are contrary to DOE implications. Antihypertensive drug treatment lowers blood pressure. Antihypertensive drug treatment is associated with a decrease in mortality. POEM results are in vs burger king topics, concordance with DOE implications. Screening for prostate cancer. PSA screening detects prostate cancer at housekeeper letter, an early stage. Whether PSA screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer is currently unknown. Although DOE exists, the vs burger king topics important POEM is currently unknown.
DOE = disease-oriented evidence; POEM = patient-oriented evidence that matters; PVCs = premature ventricular contractions; ECGs = electrocardiograms; PSA = prostate-specific antigen . Adapted with permission from Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Getting the most from all purpose cover review articles: a guide for mcdonalds king, readers and writers. Am Fam Physician 1997;55:2155#x2013;60 . Evaluate the essay strength and validity of the literature that supports the discussion (see the following section, Levels of Evidence). Look for meta-analyses, high-quality, randomized clinical trials with important outcomes (POEM), or well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trials, clinical cohort studies, or case-controlled studies with consistent findings. In some cases, high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies are appropriate (e.g., the evidence supporting the efficacy of Papanicolaou smear screening). Mcdonalds! Avoid anecdotal reports or repeating the hearsay of conventional wisdom, which may not stand up to the scrutiny of scientific study (e.g., prescribing prolonged bed rest for low back pain). Look for studies that describe patient populations that are likely to be seen in housekeeper cover, primary care rather than subspecialty referral populations.
Shaughnessy and Slawson's guide for writers of clinical review articles includes a section on information and validity traps to avoid.2. Readers need to know the strength of the evidence supporting the key clinical recommendations on diagnosis and treatment. Many different rating systems of varying complexity and clinical relevance are described in the medical literature. Recently, the third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) emphasized the importance of rating not only the study type (RCT, cohort study, case-control study, etc.), but also the vs burger essay study quality as measured by internal validity and the quality of the entire body of evidence on a topic.8.
While it is important to executive housekeeper resume cover letter, appreciate these evolving concepts, we find that a simplified grading system is more useful in AFP . We have adopted the following convention, using an vs burger king ABC rating scale. Resume Tablet Pc! Criteria for high-quality studies are discussed in several sources.8 , 9 See the AFP Web site (www.aafp.org/afp/authors) for additional information about levels of evidence and king essay topics, see the accompanying editorial in this issue discussing the resume potential pitfalls and limitations of any rating system. Level A (randomized controlled trial/meta-analysis): High-quality randomized controlled trial (RCT) that considers all important outcomes. King Essay Topics! High-quality meta-analysis (quantitative systematic review) using comprehensive search strategies. Level B (other evidence): A well-designed, nonrandomized clinical trial.
A nonquantitative systematic review with appropriate search strategies and well-substantiated conclusions. Includes lower quality RCTs, clinical cohort studies, and case-controlled studies with non-biased selection of study participants and executive housekeeper resume, consistent findings. Other evidence, such as high-quality, historical, uncontrolled studies, or well-designed epidemiologic studies with compelling findings, is also included. Level C (consensus/expert opinion): Consensus viewpoint or expert opinion. Each rating is applied to vs burger essay, a single reference in the article, not to acceptance, the entire body of mcdonalds vs burger king topics evidence that exists on a topic. Each label should include the letter rating (A, B, C), followed by letter the specific type of study for that reference. For example, following a level B rating, include one of these descriptors: (1) nonrandomized clinical trial; (2) nonquantitative systematic review; (3) lower quality RCT; (4) clinical cohort study; (5) case-controlled study; (6) historical uncontrolled study; (7) epidemiologic study. Here are some examples of the way evidence ratings should appear in the text: #x201c;To improve morbidity and vs burger essay topics, mortality, most patients in congestive heart failure should be treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Tracker! [Evidence level A, RCT]#x201d; #x201c;The USPSTF recommends that clinicians routinely screen asymptomatic pregnant women 25 years and younger for chlamydial infection. Mcdonalds Vs Burger! [Evidence level B, non-randomized clinical trial]#x201d; #x201c;The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for tracker, diabetes every three years in mcdonalds essay, all patients at high risk of the disease, including all adults 45 years and older. [Evidence level C, expert opinion]#x201d; When scientifically strong evidence does not exist to resume tracker, support a given clinical recommendation, you can point this out in the following way: #x201c;Physical therapy is traditionally prescribed for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), although there are no randomized outcomes studies of mcdonalds essay topics this approach.#x201d; The introduction should define the topic and purpose of the review and describe its relevance to family practice.
The traditional way of doing this is to discuss the epidemiology of the condition, stating how many people have it at hope essay, one point in time (prevalence) or what percentage of the population is expected to develop it over a given period of time (incidence). A more engaging way of king essay doing this is to indicate how often a typical family physician is likely to encounter this problem during a week, month, year, or career. Emphasize the key CME objectives of the review and summarize them in a separate table entitled #x201c;CME Objectives.#x201d; The methods section should briefly indicate how the literature search was conducted and what major sources of evidence were used. Ideally, indicate what predetermined criteria were used to include or exclude studies (e.g., studies had to be independently rated as being high quality by an established evaluation process, such as the Cochrane Collaboration). Be comprehensive in trying to identify all major relevant research. Critically evaluate the quality of research reviewed. Avoid selective referencing of only information that supports your conclusions.
If there is controversy on a topic, address the full scope of the controversy. The discussion can then follow the typical format of a clinical review article. It should touch on one or more of the following subtopics: etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation (signs and symptoms), diagnostic evaluation (history, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and hope essay, diagnostic imaging), differential diagnosis, treatment (goals, medical/surgical therapy, laboratory testing, patient education, and follow-up), prognosis, prevention, and future directions. The review will be comprehensive and vs burger essay topics, balanced if it acknowledges controversies, unresolved questions, recent developments, other viewpoints, and any apparent conflicts of interest or instances of bias that might affect the strength of the evidence presented. Housekeeper Resume Cover Letter! Emphasize an evidence-supported approach or, where little evidence exists, a consensus viewpoint. In the absence of vs burger topics a consensus viewpoint, you may describe generally accepted practices or discuss one or more reasoned approaches, but acknowledge that solid support for resume tablet, these recommendations is mcdonalds king topics lacking. In some cases, cost-effectiveness analyses may be important in on college acceptance, deciding how to implement health care services, especially preventive services.10 When relevant, mention high-quality cost-effectiveness analyses to help clarify the costs and health benefits associated with alternative interventions to achieve a given health outcome. Highlight key points about diagnosis and treatment in the discussion and include a summary table of the key take-home points. These points are not necessarily the same as the key recommendations, whose level of evidence is mcdonalds vs burger topics rated, although some of them will be.
Use tables, figures, and illustrations to highlight key points, and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to diagnosis or treatment when possible. Rate the evidence for resume, key statements, especially treatment recommendations. We expect that most articles will have at most two to four key statements; some will have none. Rate only those statements that have corresponding references and base the rating on the quality and level of evidence presented in the supporting citations. Use primary sources (original research, RCTs, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews) as the basis for determining the mcdonalds king level of evidence. In other words, the acceptance supporting citation should be a primary research source of the information, not a secondary source (such as a nonsystematic review article or a textbook) that simply cites the original source. Systematic reviews that analyze multiple RCTs are good sources for determining ratings of evidence. The references should include the most current and important sources of support for key statements (i.e., studies referred to, new information, controversial material, specific quantitative data, and mcdonalds essay topics, information that would not usually be found in most general reference textbooks).
Generally, these references will be key evidence-based recommendations, meta-analyses, or landmark articles. Although some journals publish exhaustive lists of reference citations, AFP prefers to include a succinct list of key references. (We will make more extensive reference lists available on our Web site or provide links to your personal reference list.) You may use the following checklist to ensure the completeness of your evidence-based review article; use the source list of essay to kids reviews to identify important sources of evidence-based medicine materials. Checklist for an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. The topic is mcdonalds vs burger king topics common in tracker excel, family practice, especially topics in which there is new, important information about diagnosis or treatment. The introduction defines the topic and the purpose of the vs burger king review, and describes its relevance to family practice. A table of CME objectives for the review is included. The review states how you did your literature search and indicates what sources you checked to tablet pc, ensure a comprehensive assessment of relevant studies (e.g., MEDLINE, the Cochrane Collaboration Database, the mcdonalds vs burger essay topics Center for Research Support, TRIP Database). Several sources of tracker evidence-based reviews on the topic are evaluated (Table 1) . Where possible, POEM (dealing with changes in morbidity, mortality, or quality of life) rather than DOE (dealing with mechanistic explanations or surrogate end points, such as changes in laboratory tests) is used to support key clinical recommendations (Table 2) . Studies of patients likely to mcdonalds vs burger king essay, be representative of acceptance those in primary care practices, rather than subspecialty referral centers, are emphasized. Studies that are not only statistically significant but also clinically significant are emphasized; e.g., interventions with meaningful changes in absolute risk reduction and mcdonalds vs burger topics, low numbers needed to treat. On College Acceptance! (Seehttp://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116.)11. The level of evidence for key clinical recommendations is labeled using the following rating scale: level A (RCT/meta-analysis), level B (other evidence), and level C (consensus/expert opinion).
Acknowledge controversies, recent developments, other viewpoints, and any apparent conflicts of mcdonalds vs burger interest or instances of bias that might affect the strength of the evidence presented. Highlight key points about diagnosis and essay to kids, treatment in the discussion and include a summary table of key take-home points. Use tables, figures, and illustrations to highlight key points and present a step-wise, algorithmic approach to king topics, diagnosis or treatment when possible. Emphasize evidence-based guidelines and primary research studies, rather than other review articles, unless they are systematic reviews. The essential elements of this checklist are summarized in Table 3 . Essential Steps in housekeeper cover, Writing an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article.
Choose a common, important topic in family practice. Provide a table with a list of mcdonalds king essay continuing medical education (CME) objectives for the review. State how the literature search and reference selection were done. Use several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic. Rate the level of evidence for key recommendations in the text. Provide a table of key summary points (not necessarily the same as key recommendations that are rated). Essential Steps in Writing an Evidence-Based Clinical Review Article. Choose a common, important topic in family practice. Provide a table with a list of continuing medical education (CME) objectives for the review. State how the literature search and reference selection were done. Use several sources of evidence-based reviews on the topic.
Rate the level of evidence for key recommendations in the text. Provide a table of key summary points (not necessarily the hope essay same as key recommendations that are rated). Read the full article. Get immediate access, anytime, anywhere. Choose a single article, issue, or full-access subscription. Earn up to 6 CME credits per issue. Already a member or subscriber? Log in.
Get Full Access. Includes: Immediate, unlimited access to all AFP content More than 130 CME credits per year Access to the AFP app Print delivery option. Access This Issue. Includes: Immediate access to mcdonalds topics, this issue CME credits in executive resume, this issue. Access This Article. JAY SIWEK, M.D., is professor and chair of the Department of Family Medicine at Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, D.C.
He is also editor of American Family Physician. A graduate of Georgetown University School of Medicine, Dr. Siwek completed his family practice residency at vs burger king topics, Middlesex Hospital in Middletown, Conn. . MARGARET L. GOURLAY, M.D., is currently the American Family Physician Medical Editing Fellow at Georgetown University Medical Center. A graduate of Rush Medical College, Chicago, she completed a residency in family medicine at the University of hope essay California, San Diego, Medical Center. DAVID C. SLAWSON, M.D., is the B. Lewis Barnett, Jr. professor of family medicine at the University of Virginia Health System in Charlottesville, Va. He is director and founder of the vs burger king Center for Information Mastery and serves as section editor for The Journal of teaching essay to kids Family Practice POEMs. Dr. Slawson is a graduate of the University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Mich., and he completed postdoctoral training in mcdonalds, family medicine at the University of essay writing to kids Virginia. ALLEN F. SHAUGHNESSY, PHARM.D., is mcdonalds king director of research and associate director of the Harrisburg Family Practice Residency, Harrisburg, Pa.
He completed his doctorate and resume cover letter, fellowship training at the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. Address correspondence to Jay Siwek, M.D., Department of Family Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 215 Kober-Cogan Hall, 3750 Reservoir Rd. NW, Washington DC 20007 (e-mail:[email protected]). Reprints are not available from the authors . The authors thank Ted Ganiats, M.D. for a helpful review and conceptual contributions to mcdonalds vs burger, the manuscript . The authors indicate that they do not have any conflicts of hope essay interest. Sources of funding: none reported . 1. Siwek J. Reading and evaluating clinical review articles. Am Fam Physician . 1997;55:2064,2069#x2013;70,2072. . 2. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC. Vs Burger King! Getting the most from review articles: a guide for readers and writers. Am Fam Physician . Resume Tablet Pc! 1997;55:2155#x2013;60. 3. Mcdonalds King Essay Topics! Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ, Cody R, Castaigne A, Perez A, et al. for the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators.
The effect of spironolactone on cover morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Vs Burger King Essay! N Engl J Med . 1999;341:709#x2013;17. 4. Flynn CA, D'Amico F, Smith G. Should we patch corneal abrasions? A meta-analysis. J Fam Pract . 1998;47:264#x2013;70.
5. Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF, Bennett JH. To Kids! Becoming a medical information master: feeling good about not knowing everything. J Fam Pract . 1994;38:505#x2013;13. 6. Shaughnessy AF, Slawson DC, Bennett JH. Becoming an vs burger essay topics information master: a guidebook to the medical information jungle. J Fam Pract . 1994;39:489#x2013;99. 7. Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF.
Becoming an information master: using POEMs to change practice with confidence. Patient-oriented evidence that matters. Resume Tracker! J Fam Pract . 2000;49:63#x2013;7. 8. Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, Lohr KN, Mulrow CD, Teutsch SM, et al. Methods Work Group, Third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
Current methods of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. A review of the king process. Am J Prev Med . 2001;20(3 suppl):21#x2013;35. 9. CATbank topics: levels of evidence and grades of recommendations. Essay On College! Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/. 10. Vs Burger King! Saha S, Hoerger TJ, Pignone MP, Teutsch SM, Helfand M, Mandelblatt JS. for housekeeper resume, the Cost Work Group of the Third U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
The art and science of incorporating cost effectiveness into evidence-based recommendations for clinical preventive services. Am J Prev Med . 2001;20(3 suppl):36#x2013;43. 11. Evidence-based medicine glossary. Retrieved November 2001, from: http://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1116. Copyright © 2002 by the American Academy of Family Physicians. This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference.
This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in vs burger essay topics, any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in teaching essay to kids, writing by the AAFP. Contact [email protected] for essay, copyright questions and/or permission requests. This page will be removed from your Favorites Links. Are you sure? Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions.
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A literature synthesis of symptom prevalence and severity in persons receiving active cancer treatment. King Topics! Patients with cancer experience acute and hope essay, chronic symptoms caused by their underlying disease or by king essay topics the treatment. Resume Pc! While numerous studies have examined the impact of mcdonalds king essay topics, various treatments on symptoms experienced by cancer patients, there are inconsistencies regarding the resume symptoms measured and reported in treatment trials. Vs Burger King Essay! This article presents a systematic review of the research literature of the resume tracker excel prevalence and severity of symptoms in patients undergoing cancer treatment. A systematic search for studies of persons receiving active cancer treatment was performed with the search terms of “multiple symptoms” and “cancer” for studies involving patients over the age of 18 years and published in English during the years 2001 to 2011. Search outputs were reviewed independently by seven authors, resulting in the synthesis of 21 studies meeting criteria for generation of an Evidence Table reporting symptom prevalence and severity ratings.
Data were extracted from 21 multi-national studies to develop a pooled sample of 4,067 cancer patients in whom the prevalence and severity of individual symptoms was reported. Mcdonalds Vs Burger King Topics! In total, the pooled sample across the 21 studies was comprised of 62 % female, with a mean age of 58 years (range 18 to 97 years). A majority (62 %) of these studies assessed symptoms in homogeneous samples with respect to tumor site (predominantly breast and lung cancer), while 38 % of the included studies utilized samples with mixed diagnoses and treatment regimens. Eighteen instruments and structured interviews were including those measuring single symptoms, multi-symptom inventories, and single symptom items drawn from HRQOL or health status measures. The MD Anderson Symptom Inventory was the most commonly used instrument in the studies analyzed ( n = 9 studies; 43 %), while the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, Hospital Anxiety and hope essay, Depression Subscale, Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36, and mcdonalds king essay, Symptom Distress Scale were each employed in two studies. Forty-seven symptoms were identified across the 21 studies which were then categorized into 17 logical groupings. Symptom prevalence and severity were calculated across the entire cohort and acceptance, also based upon sample sizes in which the symptoms were measured providing the ability to rank symptoms. Symptoms are prevalent and severe among patients with cancer. Mcdonalds Vs Burger Essay! Therefore, any clinical study seeking to evaluate the impact of treatment on hope essay patients should consider including measurement of symptoms. This study demonstrates that a discrete set of symptoms is mcdonalds king, common across cancer types.
This set may serve as the basis for hope essay, defining a “core” set of mcdonalds vs burger king topics, symptoms to be recommended for elicitation across cancer clinical trials, particularly among patients with advanced disease. Patients with cancer experience acute and chronic symptoms caused both by their underlying disease and by the often toxic treatments employed in oncology care [ 1 , 2 ]. Clinical investigators, regulators, and healthcare providers often focus on the prevention or cure of illness, whereas relief of symptoms is a paramount goal for patients [ 3 , 4 ]. Essay To Kids! Symptoms are a common reason healthcare is sought and an impetus for testing to definitively diagnose an illness or injury. Once treatment is essay topics, implemented, symptomatic treatment toxicities frequently develop [ 5 ]. Teaching Writing To Kids! While numerous studies have examined the vs burger king essay topics impact of various treatments and medications on symptoms in patients receiving cancer treatment, a limitation in comparing these outcomes is the lack of resume tracker, a common or “core” set of patient-reported symptoms, consistently measured across studies. For example, one study may report an improvement in nausea with a specified treatment and king essay topics, another study may report worsening fatigue, leaving the clinician and patient comparing treatment efficacies and weighing side effects based upon disparate outcomes. These differences in symptom outcomes between studies to some extent can be attributed to executive housekeeper resume cover the use of varying symptom assessment questionnaires and strategies. While there is value to focusing on vs burger essay specific symptoms in housekeeper cover particular clinical contexts (e.g., pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer to bone), there is also value in assessing a common set of symptoms both in order to characterize the broader impact of disease and treatment on the patient experience, and to enable cross-trial comparisons and aggregation of data.
Therefore, in 2011, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a scientific meeting to identify a standard core set of patient-reported symptoms to be recommended across cancer clinical trials as well as existing questionnaires that are appropriate for assessing these symptoms. As a component of this initiative, a multi-disciplinary team conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that measured the mcdonalds king prevalence and severity of resume tracker excel, symptoms in patients undergoing cancer treatment. Mcdonalds Vs Burger Essay! In 2009, Esther Kim et al. [ 25 ] published a literature synthesis of letter, cancer symptomatology in 18 studies. This paper and four additional literature reviews [ 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 ] identified in our systematic search were excluded from this analysis. Instead, the findings by Esther Kim et al. Mcdonalds King Essay Topics! (that also contained these four papers) were compared to all purpose our findings (see “ Discussion ”). Unlike the Esther Kim et al. synthesis which only included studies that used the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), Memorial Symptom Assessment Scales (MSAS), or the Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), this present analysis intentionally did not limit to king essay topics any specific assessment instrument so that a wide array of symptoms could be collated and analyzed across a broader range of studies. Resume Letter! Nine publications that failed to report symptom statistics [ 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 ] and one publication that was a secondary study of king essay topics, a sample already included in this analysis [ 39 ] were excluded, resulting in 21 studies included in this analysis [ 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 ]. All Purpose Resume! Potentially relevant data were abstracted for the review including disease/treatment, sample, instrument used to measure symptoms, and king essay, symptom prevalence and severity. Where information about prevalence and severity was not presented, the authors were contacted by tracker e-mail to obtain the necessary detail.
Data were managed using Excel. Analysis and mcdonalds vs burger king essay topics, synthesis methodology. Sample characteristics ( n , age, stage, treatment type, phase of resume cover, care, special population) Outcome measure(s) of symptoms, functioning, and/or HRQL. Study design/analytic approach. Symptoms and symptom dimensions (provide %s or #s as they relate to prevalence, severity, duration, and/or interference) Comments and caveats. Mcdonalds Vs Burger King! 100 patients during the acute phase of autologous PBSC transplantation with multiple myeloma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-BMT) and on college, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) were completed at baseline, 3–4 days into conditioning, day of transplant, day of nadir, and 30 days post transplant. Mcdonalds Vs Burger King Essay Topics! The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) at BL and 30 days.
The time point associated with the most reported disturbances was nadir: the top five symptoms at each time point rated by patients as moderate to severe were: BL 29 % fatigue, 21 % pain, 17 % distress, 14 % weakness, 13 % sadness; Conditioning: 34 % disturbed sleep, 22 % fatigue, 22 % loss of appetite, 14 % nausea, 13 % weakness; Transplant: 34 % loss of appetite, 32 % fatigue, 26 % disturbed sleep, 25 % nausea, 23 % weakness. Nadir: 56 % lack of appetite, 55 % fatigue, 52 % weakness, 42 % feeling sick, 39 % disturbed sleep; Day 30: 34 % fatigue, 31 % weakness, 14 % disturbed sleep, 11 % loss appetite, 10 % distress. Cancer diagnosis was a significant predictor of changes in symptoms over time. The patterns of fatigue, pain, sleep disturbance, and lack of appetite were significantly different for essay to kids, patients with multiple myeloma as compared with patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Bevans, Mitchell, Marden (2008) 76 adults undergoing allogeneic HSCT from a single institution. Mean age of 40 years (SD 13.5 years). 67 % of the sample was male; 30 % of the sample was Hispanic; two thirds were undergoing transplant for mcdonalds vs burger king topics, acute or chronic leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma; 66 % were in a complete remission at the time of transplant, while 34 % had progressive disease. Symptom Distress Scale (SDS) Longitudinal study with data about the symptom experience collected pre-transplant, day 0 (after HSCT conditioning), and executive housekeeper resume cover letter, days 30 and vs burger, 100 post-transplant. The most prevalent symptoms at baseline were fatigue and worry (both 68 %), at day 0, the most prevalent symptom was appetite change (88 %), and fatigue was most prevalent at days 30 (90 %) and 100 (81 %). Hope Essay! Symptoms that were severely distressing including worry (16 % severely distress at baseline), insomnia (32 % severely distressed at day 0), appetite change (22 % severely distressed at day 30), and vs burger essay topics, fatigue (11 % severely distressed at day 100).
The SDS was highest at day 0 (mean 26.6 SD 7.6), when the highest number of symptoms were reported. Tablet Pc! Symptoms formed clusters comprised of king, fatigue, appearance change, and worry at baseline, and resume tracker excel, fatigue, insomnia, and bowel changes at days 0 and 30. Examining the symptom experience over time, it is apparent that HSCT patients tend to present for transplantation with low symptom distress, and king essay, experience multiple symptoms and resume tracker, high symptom distress after conditioning. Though not consistently the mcdonalds king topics most prevalent or distressing, GI complications, including bowel changes, nausea, and all purpose cover, appetite limitations, were noted across the treatment trajectory. King Essay! Chen ML, Chang HK (2004) 121 patients with breast (40 %), head and cover, neck (33 %), or esophageal cancer (27 %) who were hospitalized in Northern Taiwan for chemotherapy (76 %), symptom management (20 %) and mcdonalds essay topics, follow-up or surgery (4.1 %).
Male = 55 %. Mean age = 52.19 (SD 10.44). Range = 26–81. Cancer stage = II (15 %), III (17 %), IV (33 %), missing (36 %) Patient Disease Symptom/Sign Assessment Scale (PDSA), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Subscale (HADS-D) Insomnia was the most prevalent symptom (67 %), followed by pain (62 %), anorexia (47 %), fatigue/weakness (40 %), nausea/vomiting (24 %), wound/pressure sore (17 %), dyspnea (14 %), edema (8.3 %), elimination problems (2.5 %), and change in cover consciousness (0 %). The average number of symptoms for total sample was 2.83 (median 3.0, range = 0–7).
55 % reported 3 or more. Mcdonalds Vs Burger! 25 % were classified as depressed (HADS-D cutoff of 11). The average number of hope essay, symptoms observed total sample was 3.77 (median 3.5), depressed patients had average number of 3.77 (median = 3.5) and non-depressed had 2.52 (median = 2.0). Depressed patients showed a significantly higher occurrence rate than that of non-depressed patients in insomnia, pain, anorexia, fatigue, and wound/pressure sore. Patients simultaneously experiencing insomnia, pain, anorexia, and fatigue had a higher risk of depression (odds ratio 5.03) Using HADS-D to measure depression decreases the likelihood of confounding the assessment of depression with physical symptoms caused by cancer and its treatment since HADS-D does not use physical symptoms to measure depression. 329 multi-disease site pts. Study from mcdonalds Taiwan 29 % breast; 25 % GI; 76 % local disease without mets; time since dx 1–311 mos with median of hope essay, 14 mos; 53 % had chemo; 73 % had RT. MDASI-Taiwanese-13 common ca related symptoms measured on mcdonalds vs burger scale 1–10 assessed in primary study but only 9 symptoms used in this secondary CFA analysis based on previous EFA (Chen and Tseng 2006) Secondary analysis of all purpose, cross-sectional study; confirmatory factor analysis. Mean # of symptoms per pt = 6.6 (range 0–13); prevalence 72 % dry mouth; 70 % fatigue; 63 % sleep disturbance; 3 clusters: sickness including pain, fatigue, disturbed sleep and drowsiness; GI including NV and lack of appetite; emotional including distress and mcdonalds vs burger topics, sadness.
115 outpatients with cancer, who had not received cancer treatment in resume tablet the last 30 days who reported at king least 2 symptoms. Female = 61 %. Acceptance! Mean age = 57.2 (SD 13.5). Vs Burger Essay Topics! Type of cancer—breast = 38.9 %, lung = 23.9 %, prostate = 10.6 %, genitourinary = 13.3 %, head and neck = 7.1 %, gastrointestinal = 5.3 %, and other = 0.9 %. Presence of essay, metastases = 67.6 %. Previous treatment—chemotherapy = 51.4 %, radiation therapy = 55.0 %, hormonal therapy = 19.8 %, and surgery = 66.7 %. Country of study = Brazil. Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and mcdonalds vs burger, the European Organization for resume excel, Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Prevalence and mcdonalds king, mean of symptoms as follows: pain 100 %, 7.36; fatigue 87 %, 41.50; insomnia 73 %, 57.39; constipation 51 %, 36.52; lack of appetite 50 %, 37.97; dyspnea 44 %, 24.19; depression 44 %, 14.43; nausea and resume, vomiting 28 %, 11.65; diarrhea 11 %, 5.01. King Essay Topics! Application of two-step cluster analysis resulted in two distinct patient subgroups based on 113 patient symptom experiences.
One group had multiple and severe symptom subgroup and another had less symptoms and essay on college, with lower severity. Pain scale 0–10, depression 0–63, other symptoms 0–100. n = 220, with newly diagnosed lung; sample from 24 community oncology sites in Michigan; 91 % white; 65–89 years (mean 72); stages 0–II—38 %, stages III–IV—62 %; treatment—surgery 42 %, chem 43 %, rad 63 % Given (lead author) Physical Symptom Experience tool (37 symptoms; occurrence, severity, interference). Secondary data analysis of NIH panel study; data collected at diagnosis. Most frequent (%): fatigue 79; up at king essay topics night urinate 68; cough 65; pain 60; diff breathing 58; weakness 57; app loss 50; dry mouth 49; wt loss 45; altered taste 35; nausea 34; lack of hope essay, sex interest 31; diff swallow 30; dizziness 23; diff concentrating 20; problems coordination 16; vomiting 15; hot flashes 7; arms swelling 2. Most severe (mean, scale 1–3): arm swell 2.33; lack sex interest 2.07; vomit 2; hot flash 1.94; trouble sleep 1.89; fatigue 1.84; pain 1.84; diff breath 1.82; diff swallow 1.82; alter taste 1.76; app loss 1.74; weakness 1.69; wt loss 1.67; problems coordination 1.61; dry mouth 1.56; cough 1.54; diff concentrating 1.44; dizziness 1.43; up at night urinate 1.39. 31 adult renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients: average age 55 years; 55 % of patients were male, 74 % had attended college, and 97 % were Caucasian. The participating RCC patients were a convenience sample drawn from the Kidney Cancer Association (KCA) membership.
A brief, self-administered RCC Symptom Index was created that captures the mcdonalds king topics relevant signs and symptoms of both localized and metastatic patients. Pending additional content validation, the index can be used to assess the excel signs and symptoms of RCC and the clinical benefit resulting from essay topics RCC treatment. National cross-sectional study was conducted to all purpose letter define patient-reported RCC symptomatology. The five most frequent symptoms among localized stage patients ( n = 14) were irritability (79 %), pain (71 %), fatigue (71 %), worry (71 %), and sleep disturbance (64 %). Among metastatic patients ( n = 17), the five most frequent symptoms were fatigue (82 %), weakness (65 %), worry (65 %), shortness of breath (53 %), and irritability (53 %). More than 50 % of mcdonalds vs burger king essay, localized and metastatic-stage patients reported pain, weakness, fatigue, sleep disturbance, urinary frequency, worry, and executive resume, mood disorders as being moderately to highly relevant. Essay Topics! The RCC Symptom Index was developed through a structured, iterative process that drew upon executive resume, several information sources to mcdonalds vs burger king essay topics identify the essay acceptance appropriate signs and mcdonalds vs burger essay topics, symptoms. A broad range of physiological and psychological disease manifestations were identified and resume tracker excel, found relevant by a national, US cohort of king essay topics, RCC patients who were undoubtedly treated at different cancer centers.
N = 287, Australian women age 74 or younger (mean 54), early stage, all post-surgery (PS) by 4 mo+, 87 % had one or more LNs dissected w median of resume cover letter, 12 LNs examined. PRO: FACT-B + 4 (arm subscale), Disability of Arm, Shoulder, Hand (DASH) collected at 6 mo and vs burger king essay topics, q3 mo ?4. Objective measures: ROM, Exercise protocol, Bio-impedance Spectroscopy (BIS) to measure LE. Descriptive study, prospective, longitudinal, population-based sample through cancer registry in Queensland, Australia. Numbness (19–29 %) and swelling (13–23 %) most common symptoms. Multiple symptoms were 1.7? more common in LE pts and by 18 mo PS, having LE doubled chance of 1 or more symptoms. By 18 mo the teaching writing to kids differences were minimal, except those w LE reported more tingling, swelling, and numbness. 1 in 2 women reported moderate to extreme pain, tingling, weakness, stiffness, poor ROM, swelling, and/or numbness at 6 mo PS, but 51 % reported at vs burger topics least 1 complaint 12 mo later. n = 80 newly diagnosed with lung cancer; 2 CCOPs and 2 Comprehensive CA centers; age range 41–83, mean 63; Caucasian 95 %; early stage 10 %; late Stage 90 % Given (co-author) Cancer Symptom Experience Inventory (15 symptoms; occurrence, severity, interference) Secondary data analysis from baseline of randomized clinical trial; explore relationship among pain, fatigue, insomnia, and gender.
Most frequent (%): fatigue 97; pain 69; nausea 53; constipation 53; insomnia 51; poor appetite 50; cough 49; dry mouth 44; diff breathing 44; diarrhea 30; diff concentrating 26; coordination 24; vomiting 23; fever 11; mouth sores 8. 287 Turkish pts from a university hospital. 56 % male, 66 % had stage II disease; mean duration since tx was 3 yrs ± 2.5 yrs; 39 % GI, 17 % lung, 14 % AML/ALL, 13 % HN, 12 % breast. 72 % had chemo only, 2 % RT only and 8 % chemoRT. Resume Tablet Pc! Cross-sectional design using hierarchical cluster analysis to identify symptom clusters and regression analysis to mcdonalds king assess predictors of housekeeper resume cover, clusters. Prevalence: fatigue 95.5 %, difficulty remembering 91 %, sadness 90 %, loss of mcdonalds vs burger king topics, appetite 88 %, enjoyment of life 89 %, pain 88 %, distress 87 %, difficulty walking 87.5 %, dry mouth 87 %. Overall, 37.5 % had moderate and 12.5 % had severe symptoms. Mean MDASI scores for housekeeper cover letter, 13 symptom items were 5 and vs burger essay topics, 4.4 for teaching essay to kids, the 6 interference items. 48 % of pts rated loss of appetite, fatigue, sadness, dry mouth, and distress as mod or severe.
Loss of appetite was most prevalent symptom. The 6 interference symptoms formed a cluster (gen activity, mood, work relations with others, walking, and enjoyment with life); a second cluster was formed with sleep disturbance, difficulty remembering, pain, distress, sadness, fatigue, dry mouth, and appetite loss. Vs Burger King! A third cluster was formed with nausea, vomiting, SOB, numbness, and drowsiness. N = 55, age 60 or older (mean 68), 61% white, 37 % AA, stage I or II BCA. To Kids! Symptom Distress Scale (SDS) Longitudinal data collection at hospital discharge and 3 and mcdonalds vs burger king essay, 6 mo post-discharge. Secondary, descriptive analysis from a larger study of a home care nursing intervention on tracker QOL of topics, older pts newly diagnosed with several types of cancer. SDS scores range from 13 to 65 and mean total SDS were 23.81 at discharge from all purpose letter hospital and 20.52 at 3 mo, and 18.6 at mcdonalds vs burger topics 6 mo. Most frequent sx were fatigue, frequency of letter, pain, outlook, and insomnia. More education and younger age were associated with greater symptom distress at discharge.
This analysis did not consider the possible effects of adjuvant chemo or hormones or radiation as its focus was on symptoms post-surgery of older women. Keene Sarenmalm (2007) N = 56, age 55 and older (mean 65), newly diagnosed w local, regional, or distant recurrent BCA (29 had loco-regional recurrence) (1/3 had past hx of anxiety and/or depression) MSAS, MSAS-PHYS, MSAS-PSYCH, TMSAS (total symptom burden), MSAS-GDI, HADS, Sense of Coherence (soc) measures coping capacity, PACIS, QLQ-C30, IBCSG-QOL. Descriptive study, pts recruited prospectively from 2 oncology centers, correlation analyses with multiple regressions for developing prediction model. 65 % reported 10–23 symptoms (avg 14), prevalent sx 50 %: lack of king essay, energy (67 %), difficulty sleeping (61 %), pain (59 %), worrying (59 %), problems w sexual interest/activity (59 %), feeling sad (57 %), dry mouth (52 %) Stat sig correlations among highly related symptoms were worrying and teaching writing, feeling nervous, worrying and feeling sad, nausea and lack of appetite, difficulty swallowing, and feeling bloated. N = 282, women w BCA all stages, age 30, (mean 55), 92 % white, initiating rx of at mcdonalds vs burger essay topics least 3 cycles of chemo (44 %) or 6 wks of executive housekeeper resume cover letter, XRT (56 %) General fatigue scale, POMS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Side Effect Checklist. Time points—baseline pre-rx and 48 h post-rx 2 and 3. Secondary analysis of data from RCT of cognitive behavioral rx on fatigue (1999–2002 at 2 ca ctrs), factor analysis for symptom clusters. Mcdonalds King! Common factoring identified a psychoneurological symptom cluster at 1st time point: depressed mood, cognitive disturbance, fatigue, insomnia, and pain and was generalizable to all subgroups. Symptom cluster at 2nd time point included upper-GI symptoms (nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite) Confounding variables on executive resume cover symptom clustering that included varying CTX regimens, XRT dose, hormonal rx, surgery type, and time lapse since surgery were not controlled for. Essay Topics! n = 16 at lung cancer clinic in Toronto mean age 67; 9 men, 7 women; chemo before 1st interview—4; btwn interviews—radiation 9, rad and resume excel, chemo 2, surgery and vs burger, rad 1, surgery only resume 1, chemo alone 1. Spontaneous reports and probes on symptoms (21 in mcdonalds king total were identified) Semi-structured interview to describe their symptom experiences; interview at time of diagnosis and second interview 2 months later. Out of all purpose cover, N = 16, symptoms with greater than 25 % include (#s are reported at baseline and 2 months later): fatigue = 14, 15; pain = 10, 9; shortness of mcdonalds vs burger king topics, breath = 9, 7; loss of appetite = 8, 11; cough = 8, 8; insomnia = 8, 9; mucus = 8, 9; weight loss = 8, 8; wheeze = 7, 4. Fatigue and pain most troublesome symptoms; most often cited combo of acceptance, symptoms was respiratory symptoms (wheeze, cough, mucus, and shortness of breath) 165 cancer patients in Morocco (Arabic-speaking); mean age 48.7; 56 % female; 8 % receiving chemotherapy/14 % receiving radiotherapy; 32 % stage II–III/68 % stage IV; 95 % ECOG PS 2–4 (39 % ECOG PS 4); 21 % gastro-intestinal/19 % breast/15 % gynecological/12 % lung/8 % unknown/7 % genitourinary/7 % head and neck/10 % other.
MD Anderson Symptom Inventory Arabic version (MDASI-A); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) Cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods. Vs Burger King Topics! Mean score (0–10 scale, in order of on college, mean severity high to mcdonalds vs burger essay topics low): pain (9.62); fatigue (7.05); lack of appetite (6.07); disturbed sleep (5.35); dry mouth (5.07); sadness (4.85); distress (4.33); shortness of essay, breath (3.89); numbness (3.76); drowsiness (3.28); nausea (3.03); difficulty remembering (2.85); vomiting (2.43). % with score ?5 (moderate or severe; in order of incidence high to low): pain (100 %); fatigue (86 %); lack of appetite (79 %); disturbed sleep (69 %); dry mouth (68 %); sadness (62 %); distress (54 %); shortness of breath (47 %); numbness (46 %); drowsiness (43 %); nausea (35 %); difficulty remembering (35 %); vomiting (25 %). % with score ?7 (severe; in order of incidence high to low): pain (96 %); fatigue (65 %); lack of appetite (48 %); dry mouth (30 %); sadness (31 %); shortness of mcdonalds vs burger essay, breath (29 %); distress (28 %); disturbed sleep (24 %); numbness (22 %); drowsiness (16 %); nausea (16 %); difficulty remembering (16 %); vomiting (15 %) Interview format; very poor performance status overall. 48 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer receiving chemoradiation 5040 cGY in 28 fractions, capecitabine and bevacizumab) on a phase I protocol. Median of writing to kids, 58 years of age 9range 41–80), 92 % Caucasian, equally divided between males and vs burger king, females. KPS was preserved (100 % of the sample with KPS 80 %), however 74 % had one or more comorbidities.
Longitudinal, descriptive, with symptoms and their interference with usual function measured at acceptance baseline, weekly during treatment, and at vs burger essay the time of the first clinical assessment after chemoradiation. All Purpose Resume Cover Letter! 95 % of the patients reported at least one of the 13 symptoms at initial presentation. The highest mean score was observed for mcdonalds king essay, fatigue, followed by lack of hope essay, appetite and pain. The mostly commonly reported symptoms at moderate to severe intensity over mcdonalds essay the course from hope essay presentation, during treatment and after treatment were fatigue, lack of mcdonalds, appetite, pain, nausea and sleep disturbance. At entry to on college the study, 51 % of the sample reported multiple symptoms that were of moderate to severe intensity, with the proportion reporting symptoms of moderate to severe intensity decreasing to 20 % at the time chemoradiotherapy was concluded. Pain decreased across the course of treatment, while fatigue, nausea and sleep disturbance increased. Fatigue and appetite changes formed a distinct grouping.
Forty-two patients with breast, head and neck, lung, gynecological, gastrointestinal, prostate, or brain cancer in their 3rd to vs burger king essay topics 8th week of chemoradiation. Majority female, white, 55 yrs, breast cancer; 50 % metastatic cancer. To examine the effects of recall on symptom severity ratings by comparing ratings made using 24-h and 7-day recall periods of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). Acceptance! Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) was also recorded at both T1 and T2. The five most severe symptoms from both recall periods were fatigue, sleep disturbance, drowsiness, lack of mcdonalds vs burger essay, appetite, and pain. Paired t tests did not find any significant difference between the 24-h and resume pc, 7-day recall periods. For both recall periods, more than half of patients reported moderate to severe fatigue. Percentages did not differ significantly between the 24-h and 7-day recall periods. Comparing the mcdonalds vs burger king topics 24-h and 7-day recall periods, the correlation coefficient for total symptom severity was 0.888.
All correlation coefficients for symptom severity items were 0.7 except for distress ( r = 0.67). The percentages of tracker excel, moderate to severe symptoms (rated 5) were consistent for both recall periods, with no significant difference between recall periods in the prevalence of moderate to mcdonalds vs burger essay topics severe symptoms. 45 patients actively receiving treatment for either hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or pancreatic cancer. The mean age was 59 years, and tracker excel, 64 % were male. 51 % Caucasian, 22 % Asian, 18 % Hispanic, and 4 % African American participants.
50 % of the Hispanic and mcdonalds essay, Asian participants were diagnosed with HCC, whereas most Caucasian participants were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. The study sample included 22 patients with HCC and 23 patients with pancreatic cancer. Housekeeper Resume Cover Letter! The majority of participants had stage III (26 %) or IV (61 %) disease at mcdonalds vs burger topics the time of accrual; 82 % had been diagnosed recently, and 13 % had recurrent disease. Patients were followed from executive letter baseline for 3 months, with outcome measures repeated monthly. Mcdonalds King Topics! Outcome measures included the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Hepatobiliary (FACT-Hep) and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Spirituality Subscale (FACIT-Sp-12) Descriptive, longitudinal study.
Descriptive analysis of demographic, treatment, and symptom data was conducted, followed by two-way repeated measures analysis of variance of FACT-Hep and FACIT-Sp-12 scale scores by diagnosis and treatment type. No significant differences were observed in overall symptom subscale scores over time or by diagnosis. In the resume letter HCC group, the overall symptom subscale score decreased over time from baseline, 1-, and 2-month evaluations, but was increased at 3 months. For the pancreatic cancer group, overall scores stabilized between 1 month and 2 months and vs burger king, then decreased by teaching to kids the 3-month evaluation. Vs Burger King Topics! These changes were not statistically significant.
Overall, symptom scores were high for weight loss, appetite, fatigue, ability to perform usual activities, and hope essay, abdominal pain and tended to worsen over time. Pearson’s correlations between the disease-specific symptom subscale and mcdonalds, each of the QOL subscale scores were computed for all four evaluations, including baseline. Results at resume tablet baseline suggest that symptoms were highly correlated with physical well-being (0.72), functional well-being (0.73), and overall FACT-Hep scores (0.93) Wang SY, Tsai CM, Chen BC, Lin CH, Lin CC (2008) n = 108 lung cancer in Taiwan; oncology in mcdonalds king essay topics and outpatient units (3 sites); mean age 68; radiation 81 %; localized cancer 74 % Taiwanese version of MDASI. Most severe (mean score, range 0–10): fatigue 6.68, sleep disturbance 6.04; lack of app 5.83; short breath 5.59; distress 5.27; drowsiness 5.19; dry mouth 5.11; pain 5.10; sadness 4.87; diff remembering 4.65; numbness 4.01; nausea 2.48; vomiting 1.35. Executive Housekeeper Resume Cover Letter! 1,433 patients were included in analyses: 524 patients from the USA, 249 from China, 256 from Japan, 226 from topics Russia, and resume letter, 178 from vs burger king essay Korea. Percent female: US 55, China 54, Japan 42, Russia 62, Korea 40. Mean age (SD) US 55(15.0), China 51(12.8), Japan 62(12.1), Russia 61(14.3), Korea 51(11.3). Percent with metastatic disease: US 30, China 47, Japan 50, Russia 56, Korea 56. Percent undergoing chemotherapy US 56, China 54, Japan 22, Russia 40, Korea 60. MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), ECOG.
Cross-nationally, fatigue was consistently the most prevalent moderate to severe symptom (rated ?5 on executive cover letter the MDASI 0–10 scale). Across all countries—prevalence moderate to severe MDASI symptoms: fatigue = 54 %, disturbed sleep = 41 %, distress = 39 %, pain = 35 %, lack of appetite = 34 %, drowsiness = 33 %, dry mouth = 32 %, sadness = 32 %. Treatment-induced symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and numbness were consistently rated as the least severe of the king 13 MDASI symptoms. MDASI symptoms severity mean (SD): fatigue = 4.75 (2.95), disturbed sleep = 3.73 (3.16), distress = 3.60 (3.17), pain = 3.16 (3.16), lack of appetite = 3.25 (3.23), drowsiness = 3.25 (2.92), dry mouth = 3.11 (3.16), sadness = 3.15 (3.13), shortness of breath = 2.51 (2.92), difficulty remembering = 2.39 (2.69), numbness and tingling = 2.38 (2.97), nausea = 1.95 (2.86), and executive cover, vomiting = 1.34 (2.97) The results of this study indicate that national and linguistic (country) variations in patient responses to mcdonalds vs burger king topics the MDASI are small relative to individual patient-related factors. Analysis of hope essay, MDASI symptom and interference ratings from cancer patients in five countries revealed that the vs burger essay topics variance of the random effects for country was between 20 % and 50 % of the inter-subject variance. Wang XS, Williams LA, Eng C, Mendoza TR, Shah NA, Kirkendoll KJ, Shah PK, Trask PC, Palos GR, Cleeland CS (2010) 184 gastrointestinal cancer patients (English-speaking in resume the US); median age 60; 53 % female; 61 % currently receiving chemotherapy/33 % receiving no treatment; 34 % local or regional disease/54 % metastatic disease; 12 % ECOG PS 2–4; 28 % colon/25 % pancreas/19 % rectum/15 % hepatobiliary/13 % gastric/1 % esophageal.
MD Anderson Symptom Inventory plus 5 gastrointestinal-specific symptom items (MDASI-GI); Medical Outcomes Survey 12-item Short-Form Survey (SF-12); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) Cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods. Mean score (0–10 scale, in mcdonalds king essay topics order of resume tracker, mean severity high to vs burger king essay topics low): fatigue (2.57); drowsiness (1.97); pain (1.87); disturbed sleep (1.66); lack of appetite (1.62); diarrhea* (1.51); numbness (1.43); distress (1.42); dry mouth (1.32); difficulty remembering (1.15); bloating* (0.98); sadness (0.95); constipation* (0.93); change in taste* (0.77); nausea (0.70); shortness of breath (0.50); vomiting (0.36); difficulty swallowing* (0.19). *GI module. Percentage of essay acceptance, patients experiencing each symptom not provided. Characteristics of mcdonalds topics, papers included in synthesis. Number specified when provided.
Bevans, Mitchell, Marden (2008) Chen ML, Chang HK (2004) B = 48; D = 33; E = 40. Essay On College! A = 6; B = 93; C = 79; E = 57; H = 55; I = 24; L = 7. B = 44; C = 6; E = 8; G = 15; I = 27; J = 12; L = 1. B = 34; C = 113; E = 37; F = 15; H = 39; I = 49. Mcdonalds Vs Burger! Keene Sarenmalm (2007) B = 32; C = 35; E = 12; F = 25; G = 12; H = 4; I = 20; K = 6; L = 19. Teaching Essay! Wang SY et. al (2008) USA, China, Japan, Russia, Korea. Multi-cancer, not defined. Wang XS, et. al (2010) Cancer type/location: A = brain/CNS; B = breast; C = digestive/gastrointestinal; D = esophageal; E = head and neck; F = gynecologic; G = genitourinary/renal; H = hematologic; I = Lung; J = Prostate; K = stem; L = other/unknown. Prevalence and severity of essay topics, symptoms by essay paper.
Bevans et. Mcdonalds Vs Burger King Topics! al (2008) Chen ML, Chang HK (2004) Keene Sarenmalm (2007) Wang SY, et. Hope Essay! al (2008) Wang XS et Al. (2010) A similar procedure was used for mcdonalds vs burger king essay, tabulating severity, although mean severity by symptom was often not reported. In addition, many of the all purpose cover letter studies only reported those symptoms in which the severity was classified as moderate to vs burger king topics severe. Because there was variation in hope essay the range of the severity scales among the mcdonalds vs burger topics instruments used in the studies, mean values were linearly transformed to a 0–10 scale to facilitate comparisons. Thus, symptoms rated a 2 on the 0–4 scale were linearly transformed to a 5 on the 0–10 scale. Lastly, to assess if the most commonly used instruments asked about the resume tablet most compelling symptoms to patients, thresholds by number of patients queried for the symptom were constructed. This allowed for the comparison of ranked symptoms based upon the number of patients queried. Thus symptoms that were assessed in 100 or more people were ranked by frequency and severity, symptoms assessed in 500 or more people, and then a final threshold of 1,000 or more people. The lowest threshold of 100 people had the most symptoms ranked while creating the topics threshold of hope essay, 1,000 people limited the mcdonalds vs burger king topics number of symptoms. On College! Some symptoms found in king essay this synthesis did not include query by at least 100 patients and were therefore not included in letter this rank ordering of symptoms by threshold level.
Data were extracted from the reported studies to develop a pooled sample of king essay topics, 4,067 cancer patients in whom the prevalence and severity of individual symptoms was reported. Individual studies contributed from resume cover letter 16 to 1,433 participants; nine (43 %) studies included a sample size less than 100. All of the investigations employed convenience samples. Eleven (52 %) of the mcdonalds vs burger king essay studies were conducted in the USA while the essay remainder were multinational as listed in Table 2 . In the mcdonalds vs burger topics US studies where race and ethnic demographics were reported, 1,154 participants were studied of whom 18.5 % of the samples were non-white. Studies from other nations failed to distinguish race/ethnicity. Hope Essay! In total, the pooled sample across the 21 studies was comprised of mcdonalds vs burger king essay topics, 38 % male and hope essay, 62 % female, with a mean age of 58 years (range 18 to 97 years). A majority (62 %) of these studies assessed symptoms in homogeneous samples with respect to tumor site (predominantly breast and lung cancer), while 38 % of the included studies utilized samples with mixed diagnoses and treatment regimens.
Table 2 summarizes the topics characteristics of participants in the included studies by cancer disease site, stage, and treatment type. Writing! Persons with breast cancer were the single largest group by cancer site (approximately 25 % of patients) followed by lung (approximately 20 %). In the pooled sample, 51 % of patients were classified as stage I–II with 46 % metastatic disease. The largest majority of study participants were treated with chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery. Approximately 5 % of the participants additionally received HSCT, with symptom assessment before and after this treatment. King! For these two longitudinal studies, the frequency and severity of symptoms was averaged across the various assessment times for essay on college acceptance, this synthesis. Forty-seven symptoms were identified across the 21 studies which were then categorized into 17 logical groupings. While many studies only reported the king essay topics most prevalent or severe symptoms, some reported every symptom acknowledged by tracker patients. Mcdonalds Vs Burger Essay! In an attempt to be as inclusive as possible, all symptoms reported were included in hope essay this synthesis. Vs Burger! Summary of pooled prevalence and pooled mean severity rates (when available) Number of patients reporting symptom.
Total sample of patients queried. Writing To Kids! Fatigue and weakness (100 % of studies) Pain (100 % of studies) Sleep issues (91 % of studies) Anorexia and weight loss (91 % of studies) GI issues (81 % of essay topics, studies) Affect (76 % of studies) Respiratory issues (76 % of studies) Impaired cognition (67 % of studies) Oral and swallowing issues (62 % of studies) Neurologic issues (57 % of studies) Edema (29 % of studies) Urinary elimination issues (19 % of studies) Skin and wound issues (19 % of resume, studies) Hot flashes/sweating (14 % of studies) Fever (14 % of studies) Sexual dysfunction (10 % of studies) Hair loss/appearance (5 % of studies) The pooled prevalence and mean severities reported in Table 4 were calculated by aggregating all queries for that specific symptom across studies to provide a pooled prevalence per king topics symptom. Cover! Where possible, symptoms of the same nature but labeled differently such as anorexia and mcdonalds vs burger essay, decreased appetite were combined into one symptom. This was possible when only one term was used in a study providing one statistic; however, some symptom terms which could be synonymous for each other were often reported as separate items in the same study. Examples include the terms “fatigue”, “lack of essay writing to kids, energy”, and “weakness”. Each is listed separately in this synthesis to assure the capture of constructs that may be related but distinct. Of note, while all of studies measured and vs burger king topics, thus reported the symptom of fatigue, 59.63 % of the pooled patients reported some degree of this symptom when queried.
Further, the severity of the fatigue when assessed with such large pooled data was rated a 4.62 on a 0–10 scale. Given the large spread of sample sizes, the variety of essay acceptance, instruments utilized and vs burger king essay, the identification of housekeeper resume cover letter, 47 separate symptoms presented in Table 3 , it was determined that the most appropriate method to rank symptoms in a systematic, unbiased, and interpretable fashion was to compare the symptom prevalence by aggregated sample size thresholds. Three thresholds were constructed for mcdonalds essay topics, combined samples of greater than 100 patients, greater than 500 patients, and greater than 1,000 patients who were queried for the symptom. Pc! Thus the most inclusive threshold was 100 taking into king essay topics account all symptoms in which at least 100 patients across studies were queried. Not included in this analysis then were symptoms such as irritability which was only essay on college assessed in mcdonalds king essay a total of 85 patients in two studies or headache included in excel only one study of mcdonalds vs burger king topics, 31 patients. Rank ordering of symptom prevalence by hope essay sample threshold. Number of patients reporting symptom. Total sample of patients queried. Prevalence ordering of mcdonalds essay, symptoms in sample 1,000. Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample 500. Excel! Prevalence ordering of mcdonalds vs burger king, symptoms in writing sample 100.
Rank ordering of symptom severity by sample threshold. Number of patients reporting symptom. Total sample of patients queried. Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample 1,000. Prevalence ordering of symptoms in sample 500. Prevalence ordering of king essay, symptoms in sample ?100.
Forty-seven distinct symptoms were reported in the 21 studies of this literature synthesis across different cancers. Most studies employed instruments that assessed for excel, symptoms of fatigue and weakness (100 % of studies), pain (100 % of essay topics, studies), sleep issues (91 % of all purpose, studies), anorexia and weight loss (91 % of studies), GI issues such as nausea and vomiting (81 % of king topics, studies), affect issues such as depression and resume tracker, irritability (76 % of studies), and respiratory issues such as cough and dyspnea (76 % of studies). Fewer studies assessed symptoms related to urinary elimination issues (19 % of studies), skin and wound issues (19 % of studies), hot flashes/sweating (14 % of mcdonalds vs burger essay, studies), sexual dysfunction (10 % of all purpose cover letter, studies), fever (14 % of studies), and hair loss/appearance (5 % of vs burger essay topics, studies), yet the prevalence and all purpose resume cover letter, severity of some of essay, these symptoms was greater than the more commonly assessed symptoms. Resume Tracker! This disparity is most obvious when evaluating the prevalence and severity by threshold levels. Nocturia is an example of an infrequently measured symptom that patients report is highly prevalent (74.8 %) and moderately severe (4.07 on scaled of 0–10). Further analysis of the two studies that assessed for nocturia reveals that one study was completed in mcdonalds king essay topics the USA and the other in Turkey, that adequate sample sizes of 220 and 287 were included, and that various cancer sites were involved with lung being the predominant cancer [ 45 , 49 ]. Given the heterogeneous nature of the studies, this finding suggests that nocturia is a symptom that has been infrequently assessed, but which necessitates further systematic evaluation and consideration as a symptom to assess in a broad range of cancers. Similar arguments can be made for teaching writing to kids, sexual dysfunction [ 45 , 51 ] and king essay topics, cough [ 45 , 46 , 48 , 51 , 53 ] which each were reported by patients in disparate studies (nation, cancer site, and acceptance, sample sizes) as highly prevalent and king topics, of moderate to high severity. Findings from this literature synthesis are most useful when compared with the research synthesis by Esther Kim et al. [ 25 ] Many similarities between the two syntheses exist including the similar mean age of tablet, 58 and 59 years, a predominance of mcdonalds vs burger king essay topics, heterogeneous cancer diagnoses (62 % and 50 %), and when reported for essay to kids, US studies, an approximate 18 % non-Caucasian sample. Differences include a greater range of sample sizes in mcdonalds vs burger essay topics this present analysis (16–1,433 compared to hope essay 26–527) and a greater proportion of females in this analysis (62 % vs. 48 %). Whereas Esther Kim et al. limited their review to only studies that employed the MDASI, MSAS, or the vs burger SDS, this present analysis included studies employing any symptom assessment tools.
Comparison of prevalence statistics between this literature synthesis and Esther Kim et al. Esther Kim et al. prevalence. Key for tablet, symptom assessment in the Esther Kim et al. synthesis: MDASI MD Anderson Symptom Inventory, MSAS Memorial Symptom Assessment Scales, SDS Symptom Distress Scale. Limitations and future directions. As with any literature synthesis, findings must be tempered by acknowledging publication bias as only vs burger king essay topics published manuscripts were included in this literature synthesis. Further, because most studies used questionnaires with preselected lists of symptoms (without collection of unsolicited symptoms), any symptoms not included in the lists were not measured. Therefore, systematic under-reporting of symptoms which could be prevalent and severe in a population is writing, possible in the included studies.
An example of this is mcdonalds king, nocturia, which when elicited was prevalent and severe, but was infrequently systematically assessed in essay on college acceptance studies. Future studies should included a two-step methodology, starting with qualitative work in which patients in a given population are interviewed in groups or individually to mcdonalds king determine likely prevalent and severe symptoms, followed by questionnaire administration in a larger sample. Over-representation of studies in breast, colorectal, and lung cancer may have yielded a disproportionate influence on the results, and work parallel to this paper supported by the NCI is evaluating prevalence and essay acceptance, severity of symptoms by cancer type and stage. It is unclear if symptoms reported in this analysis are attributable to the morbidity of cancer, to side effects of mcdonalds king topics, treatment, to accumulated toxicities of resume, prior treatment, or to mcdonalds king comorbidities. As previously noted, this is acceptance, a synthesis of cross-sectional studies and longitudinal studies whereby symptoms in vs burger king essay the longitudinal studies were average across the measurement times, and no control was made for cross-sectional sampling related to the time of symptom measurement (i.e., at resume cover diagnosis, following treatment, or at another arbitrary point in vs burger essay topics time). In addition, attribution is beyond the scope of essay to kids, this paper, but is a salient consideration because the impetus for measuring symptoms in a given clinical trial may be contingent on the cause of the symptom. For example, a trial seeking to vs burger evaluate whether a cancer-related symptom improves with active treatment may yield a negative result if the principal driver of tracker, measured symptoms is toxicity or comorbidity. Mcdonalds King Topics! Therefore, any given clinical trial aiming to measure symptoms should provide a rationale specific to the population and interventions regarding why particular symptoms were selected, and their suspected cause and hypothesized direction of change. This synthesis is focused on the prevalence and severity of symptoms and did not assess measures of health-related quality of teaching essay writing to kids, life domains such as enjoyment of mcdonalds king essay topics, life or physical functioning. Excel! Future work will evaluate these areas. Symptoms are prevalent and severe among patients with cancer.
Therefore, any clinical study seeking to mcdonalds topics evaluate the impact of treatment on patients should consider including measurement of resume pc, symptoms. Without such an assessment, the vs burger king topics picture of the resume patient experience is incomplete [ 61 ]. Mcdonalds! Symptoms may be due to various etiologies, and on college acceptance, understanding their trajectories in a given context is essential to profiling both the benefits and harms of treatment. This study demonstrates that a discrete set of symptoms is common across cancer types. This set may serve as the mcdonalds vs burger basis for defining a “core” set of on college, symptoms to be recommended for elicitation across cancer clinical trials, particularly among patients with advanced disease. Vs Burger King Topics! Indeed, the NCI is currently engaged in such an activity, which serves as the impetus for this review. It is notable that a number of existing multi-symptom questionnaires already include a set of pre-specified symptoms. All Purpose Resume Letter! It is the authors’ hope that the data included in this review will assist in the design of vs burger, future studies and questionnaires, and in improved methods for all purpose cover letter, assessing the mcdonalds vs burger essay prevalence and severity of symptoms in cancer populations. The analyses reported in this paper were conducted in conjunction with preparations for an NCI Clinical Trials Planning Meeting Building Bridges: The Identification of Core Symptom and Health-Related Quality of Life Domains for hope essay, Use in Cancer Research, convened by the National Cancer Institute’s Symptom Management and Health-Related Quality of Life Steering Committee. Support from the National Cancer Institute is gratefully acknowledged.
The authors have no conflicts to declare, had full control of all primary data, and agree to allow the journal to review the mcdonalds vs burger essay topics data if requested. Carolyn Miller Reilly 1 Email author Deborah Watkins Bruner 1 Sandra A. Excel! Mitchell 2 Lori M. Minasian 2 Ethan Basch 3 Amylou C. Dueck 4 David Cella 5 Bryce B. Reeve 3 1. Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of king essay, Nursing Emory University Atlanta USA 2. National Cancer Institute Bethesda USA 3. Teaching Essay Writing! University of North Carolina Chapel Hill USA 4. Mayo Clinic Scottsdale USA 5. Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University Chicago USA. Published in cooperation with. King Topics! Published in executive housekeeper cover letter cooperation with. Mcdonalds Vs Burger Essay Topics! .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.
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Mcdonald s And Burger King: Comparative Essay Topics
Examples Of Classical Conditioning Essays and Research Papers. do it!! Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning Phobias in a human being are a very powerful thing. So . powerful that they can be developed at a very early age, and essay topics, affect the rest of our lives. There are many types of phobias, some are more common than others, such as heights, insects, or needles. I have also seen phobias as weird as pickles and tracker excel, rabbits! Despite how weird a phobia might be, these phobias have developed a certain way: Through classical or operant conditioning . As far. Classical conditioning , Extinction , Operant conditioning 1616 Words | 5 Pages. Classical Conditioning Over the last 100 years classical conditioning evolved from a simple . Vs Burger Topics! transfer of one stimuli to another to more complex studies of conditioning . Researchers still use classical conditioning today as a method used to study associative learning (Terry, 2009). Classical conditioning has several levels: Behaviorally - is learning of on college acceptance a new response, cognitively - is to mcdonalds essay topics, gain knowledge between the stimuli’s relationships, and neutrally - is the synaptic changes that motivate.
Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 1669 Words | 5 Pages. Classical Conditioning Pape PSY/390 July 25, 2011 Introduction There are many theories about learning, one in . particular sought to explain learning through processes that occur through associations with environmental stimuli and executive housekeeper resume cover letter, natural stimuli. This theory was discovered coincidently by a Russia physiologist named Ivan Pavlov; Pavlov called this approach classical conditioning . Mcdonalds! The following short essay will describe the theory of classical conditioning as well to provide some history. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 784 Words | 3 Pages. Classical Conditioning PSYCH/550 July 9, 2012 Dr. Ming Zheng . Classical Conditioning Introduction Concept of Classical Conditioning and Factors that Affect Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is learning which has been acquired by experience (Terry, 2009). Pavlov was the first one to experiment classical conditioning by training dogs how to salivate when they heard a bell ring. In order for Pavlov to be able to do this. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 1740 Words | 6 Pages. Classical Conditioning Paper Psychology of resume tracker excel Learning-PSYCH/550 Abstract The purpose of mcdonalds this paper . is to writing to kids, examine and discuss classical conditioning . Mcdonalds King Topics! Much of the material has been covered in class discussion questions based on hope essay, classical conditioning , allowing for vs burger king essay a greater insight from the group of essay students providing the research of what classical conditioning is. Classical conditioning is defined as, “A process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to respond.
Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 1754 Words | 5 Pages. ?Use classical conditioning principles to explain the development of phobias, and describe how systematic desensitisation can be . used to king topics, overcome fears and phobias. Illustrate with an tablet pc example /s Classical conditioning is a wonderful form of therapy which involves studying the condition that predicts that a spesific event will occur. Vs Burger King Topics! Humans acquire a lot of their behavior through classical conditioning . Classical conditioning involves different learning principles, which include: acquisition. Classical conditioning , Desensitization , Fear 976 Words | 3 Pages. way that you view your environment.
In the field of essay on college acceptance psychology, behavioural psychology is a way to explain the mcdonalds king learning process. Essay On College! Classical . conditioning is a type of learning Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist whose research on the physiology of digestion led to mcdonalds vs burger essay topics, the development of the essay on college first experimental model of learning, Classical Conditioning . Classical conditioning is defined as “a type of learning which is based on the association of a stimilus that does not ordinarily elicit a particular. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 1166 Words | 4 Pages. Classical conditioning is a type of learning that had a major influence on the school of vs burger king topics thought in psychology known as . Executive Housekeeper Cover Letter! behaviorism. Mcdonalds Vs Burger King Topics! Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. Behaviorism is based on the assumption that learning occurs through interactions with the environment. Two other assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 1047 Words | 3 Pages. ‘ Classical conditioning provides us with a way to learn cause and effect relations between environmental events’ (Martin, Carlson . and Buskist, 2010, pg 259).
Classical conditioning is learning by association and is the hope essay main way in which we develop phobias. The main type being specific phobias which are generally influenced by genetics or a traumatic childhood event. There are three basic principles off classical conditioning which are important to mcdonalds vs burger essay, be aware of when researching the development of phobias. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 1339 Words | 4 Pages. What is classical conditioning ? Classical Conditioning is defined as the basic learning process . Resume! that involves repeatedly pairing a natural stimulus with a response-producing stimulus until the natural stimulus elicits the same response. Essay Topics! Ivan Pavlov founded the process of classical conditioning in 1904, when he observed the behavior of his dog once he placed food on the dogs tongue.
Classical Conditioning five basis principles which make up this process those of which are the hope essay neutral stimulus, unconditioned. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1141 Words | 4 Pages. ?PSYCHOLOGY EXPERIMENT- CLASSICAL CONDITIONING . Mcdonalds Essay Topics! REVIEW OF LITERATURE Classical . conditioning (also Pavlovian or respondent conditioning ) is a process of on college behavior modification made famous by Ivan Pavlov and his experiments conducted with dogs. In this process, a subject comes to respond in mcdonalds vs burger essay a desired manner to essay writing to kids, a previously neutral stimulus, by associating it with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response. Classical conditioning became the basis for a theory of how organisms learn. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 1535 Words | 4 Pages. Classical conditioning has also found its way into the realms of entertainment. The most notable example of this is . the 1962 novel A Clockwork Orange written by Anthony Burgess and it subsequent 1971 movie directed by the late Stanley Kubrick (Internet Movie Database.) A Clockwork Orange details the activities of a young ultra-violet protagonist named Alex. Alex is cured of his evil tendencies via classical conditioning . He is forced to watch various films depicting ultra-violence (US) and the. A Clockwork Orange , Advertising , Anthony Burgess 853 Words | 3 Pages. Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning.
differences and similarities between Classical conditioning and mcdonalds vs burger king topics, Operant conditioning ? Many people believe that . Classical and Operant are similar. Several people don’t know what the similarities and differences of Classical and Operant are, several people think it is the same learning method, which in this case I’m going to executive cover, compare and contrast each behavior and vs burger king essay topics, give you information about each one, so you could have a better understanding of each method and what they do. Classical and Operant are very similar. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1197 Words | 4 Pages. Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning PY-100 April 2002 Jason Forsythe #ABSTRACT 1904 Nobel Prize Winner, Ivan Pavlov was . born in Ryazan, Russia on September 14, 1849. Pavlov is tablet pc best known for his intricate workings with the vs burger essay topics drooling dog experiment that lead to his further research in conditioning . Essay On College Acceptance! This experiment, which began in 1889, had an influence on the development of physiologically oriented behaviorist theories of psychology in topics the early years of the writing nineteenth century. His work on the. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Flooding 1339 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Development Desensitisation of mcdonalds Phobias using Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning . plays a huge part in the development of phobias.
A phobia is a fear of an animal/place/situation etc. which can make the person feel compelled to avoid it. Phobias have the ability to disrupt your everyday life, like your ability to resume excel, work, socialize etc. People who suffer from phobias are usually very overwhelmed by mcdonalds their anxiety which might cause them to avoid the feared objects or situations. This. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 1226 Words | 4 Pages. classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. ? Classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning Classical conditioning is about . pairing a stimulus with another stimulus that cause a natural reaction. As a good example of essay on college Pavlov’s dog meat powder experiment, the vs burger topics dog meat powder and dog salivating is unconditional reponse which naturally occurred.
However, if a dog was given a meat powder after the bell ring, eventually the dog will salivate whenever bell rings even if there are no meat powder, meaning, by pairing the on college two stimulus the desired. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 839 Words | 3 Pages. ? Classical conditioning Results from presentation of mcdonalds conditioned stimulus with unconditioned stimulus. Pc! Definition of vs burger king topics Stimulus- . Unconditioned stimulus Stimulus which reliably elicits a reflex-like response. E.g., puff of air- eye blink, Pain- withdrawal, loud noise- startled response, food powder- salivation.
Unconditioned Response Reflex-like response elicited by unconditioned stimulus Eye blink Withdrawal Startle Salivation Conditioned stimulus An originally neutral stimulus (does. Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning , Fear conditioning 298 Words | 3 Pages. Classical conditioning has become a part of daily life for the last 50 years or so. Though other forms of behavior modification . Hope Essay! have grown from the mcdonalds vs burger king essay original experiments of the early behaviorist, classical conditioning has found a permanent place in society. Originally discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is executive housekeeper a learning process that occurs when associations are formed between an mcdonalds vs burger topics organism’s naturally occurring response and an environmental stimulus (Cherry, 2010). Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 825 Words | 3 Pages. Different authors have different perspectives on classical conditioning , yet they agree on one aspect which is common, that it is resume pc . Essay Topics! a natural sequence of events; an executive resume cover letter unconscious, uncontrolled, and unlearned relationship. King! Comer (2004) defines classical conditioning as a process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in resume tracker a person's mind and mcdonalds king essay, produce the same response. Executive Resume! Conditioned stimulus or CS, comes to signal the mcdonalds occurrence of.
Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 2133 Words | 7 Pages. Classical Conditioning and Smoking Chandler-Gilbert Community College Abstract Through Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov’s . findings we know that dogs have been trained to salivate under the influence of a neutral stimulus when that stimulus is paired with the conditioned response. In time the resume cover neutral stimulus becomes the mcdonalds vs burger king topics conditioned stimulus that draws out the conditioned response. In the same process a smoker can have conditioned stimuli that influences them to smoke. Classical Conditioning. Behaviorism , Cigarette , Classical conditioning 860 Words | 2 Pages. a long time called classical conditioning . Classicalconditioning was discovered and hope essay, researched by Ivan Pavlov, a . Russianphysiologist. Vs Burger Essay! His famous experimentwith his dog is known to nearly everyone who has had a middle school or highereducation. Excel! He fed his dog in a pattern,every time he fed his dog he rang a bell. Mcdonalds Vs Burger King! Eventually the dog associated the bell with food and would begin tosalivate just on hearing the writing bell.
Thatis the original experiment proving classical conditioning . What is aconditioned. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 1075 Words | 3 Pages. behaviours UCR: happiness and relaxation CS: the smell of her perfume CR: happiness and relaxation Identifying . Classical Conditioning Processes 1. generalization 2. extinction 3. discrimination 4. generalization 5. discrimination 6. Mcdonalds Vs Burger! extinction and spontaneous recovery 7. extinction Classical and Operant Conditioning 1. trembling (CC); running (OC) 2. drooling (CC); racing (OC) 3. foot dragging (OC); whimpering uncontrollably (CC) . Classical conditioning , Extinction , Operant conditioning 868 Words | 7 Pages. Classical Conditioning Theory Magda Murillo de Potes PSY 383 Psychology January 23, 2013 Introduction . Classical conditioning is a very popular theory in these times that is tablet pc used to treat phobias and anxiety problems. In addition, teachers use this theory to create positive environments in their class rooms to essay topics, prevent anxiety and hope essay, other behavior problems in their students. This theory is also used to help pets and humans to king topics, modify their negative behaviors. Furthermore, it is used in TV commercials. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 708 Words | 3 Pages. Classical Conditioning My Experience with Classical Conditioning Though it may be difficult . to believe, I had never tasted a sip of alcohol until my freshman year of tablet college.
A combination of king essay topics dedication to my sport, track and resume, field, fear of vs burger essay my father?¦s reprisal, and dreams of getting a scholarship kept me from indulging in the normal temptations that teenagers succumb to during my high school years. But being on tracker excel, my own in college and king, having secured a scholarship, allowed me to give way to. Alcoholic beverage , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 1571 Words | 5 Pages. Module 13 / Classical Conditioning Module 13 /Pavlov Demonstrates Conditioning in Dogs My Story of Posttraumatic . Stress Disorder It is a continuous challenge living with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and I’ve suffered from it for hope essay most of essay my life. I can look back now and gently laugh at all the people who thought I had the perfect life. I was young, beautiful, and talented, but unbeknownst to them, I was terrorized by an undiagnosed debilitating mental illness. Having been properly diagnosed. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear conditioning 2721 Words | 7 Pages. | Classical Conditioning | | | Markeda Shipman | 7/15/2012 | | Introduction When we think of . Teaching Essay! classical conditioning we think of Ivan Pavlov. Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning , during 1904 when he began studying the digestion of mcdonalds vs burger essay topics dogs.
Ivan Pavlov is one of the tablet pc most remarkable men that came up with theories so that we are able to vs burger essay, understand what is going on in the housekeeper letter world of psychology today. King! Classical conditioning is one of the theories that will always be brought up. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 948 Words | 3 Pages. cal Conditioning Classical Conditioning Jessica DeVore PSY 390 January 28, 2012 R. Trent Codd III . Classical Conditioning Introduction Behaviorism is essay acceptance a institute of thought in psychology founded on the assumption that learning occurs through interactions with our environment. Two other assumptions of this theory are that the mcdonalds environment contours behavior as well as that taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings an also emotion into consideration is impractical in explaining. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 802 Words | 3 Pages. Classical: Higher Order Conditioning. • Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life When students first learn about Pavlov's dogs--that dogs learn to salivate to the . sound of a bell (the conditioned stimulus) when the bell had been sounded before the presentation of executive housekeeper resume food (the unconditioned stimulus)--they see it as an odd, laboratory phenomenon, something that is unrelated to everyday life, and mcdonalds vs burger king essay, with good reason: It is a contrived arrangement involving dogs, bells, and research assistants wearing laboratory coats in a country very far. A Clockwork Orange , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 1385 Words | 4 Pages.
Classical conditioning VS Operant conditioning. fittest and helps adjust to the ever-changing environment. Learning is the association between two events together. Letter! Classical . conditioning and vs burger king topics, operant conditioning both work with associating events together. Classical conditioning Thanks to Ivan Pavlov, the accidental discovery of classical or 'Pavlovian conditioning ' led to a whole new section of hope essay learning.
Classical conditioning is what happens when the learner learns to associate stimulus together through involuntary or automatic responses. Mcdonalds! . Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1094 Words | 4 Pages. Traditionally Classical conditioning is a powerful and widely utilised form of hope essay learning best associated with Ivan Pavlov . (Mcsweeny, 2004). The basic Pavilion model of vs burger king behaviour proposes, learning is hope essay largely an associative process and most behaviour is conditioned by reward and punishment. The model discusses the presentation of two or more events defined experimentally through a distinct sequential relationship which occur in complete sequence, over a short period of time. This sequence becomes fused.
Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 958 Words | 4 Pages. Classical Conditioning Process For most of the world the words “ classical conditioning ” . Vs Burger Topics! produce one common name, Ivan Pavlov. According to all purpose cover letter, Harris (2006), “Pavlovian conditioning has come to be viewed as the cardinal example of associative learning—the process by which an organ- ism represents the correlations between the events it experience” (p. Mcdonalds Vs Burger Essay Topics! 584). Executive Letter! Associative learning is a simple name of mcdonalds essay classical learning, which further implies the association of teaching writing to kids stimuli to engage in learning or conditioning. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 885 Words | 3 Pages. Operant and Classical Conditioning.
problems with one’s behavior, and a dysfunctional emotional response” (ASAM, 2013, p. Vs Burger King! 1). Classical and operant conditioning are . in relation to common phobias and present addictions Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are learning styles associated with human behavior. According to teaching essay writing, Kowalski and Westen, (2011) “ Classical conditioning is a procedure by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after it is. Addiction , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 1139 Words | 4 Pages. Assignment Classical Conditioning Paper. grades!
You must do your own work with paraphrasing and mcdonalds essay topics, summarizing. Thank you! Classical Conditioning Student’s Name PSY . 390 Date __, 20__ Kay Rubin Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is an resume intrinsic style of king essay learning, which occurs by generating a response made by unconditioned stimuli’s, and resume, was produced in 1903 by Ivan Pavlov (Olson Hergenhahn, 2009). The theory behind classical conditioning is often known as one the most acceptable and oldest forms to model when learning. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 1343 Words | 5 Pages. The Use of Classical Conditioning in Advertising.
? Introduction Classical conditioning in essay advertising has been used by firms who sell products to get consumers to resume cover letter, . Vs Burger King Essay Topics! purchase from them instead of their competition. This essay will briefly explain what classical conditioning is. Essay! It will examine the problems with experiments on classical conditioning in mcdonalds king essay topics advertising and briefly look at two experiments which try to overcome these problems in all purpose resume letter testing classical conditioning in advertising. The first experiment will look at the effects of background. Advertising , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 2402 Words | 7 Pages.
Classical Conditioning Learning Experience. Classical Conditioning Learning Experience My Learning Experience As early as I can remember, my house growing up . was always free of bell peppers. My mother is allergic to them; even the smell makes her sick to her stomach. Mcdonalds Topics! I always wondered if I was allergic to them as well, but never took any chances as a child and didn’t eat them either. Even to this day when dining out with my parents my mother always asks “are there bell peppers in this” her face would always have that crinkled. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 836 Words | 3 Pages. Classical Conditioning Suzanne Gilbert PSY/390 July 24, 2011 Dr. Resume Cover Letter! Tyra Ripley CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY I certify . that the attached paper is vs burger king essay my original work. I am familiar with, and acknowledge my responsibilities which are part of, the University of Phoenix Student Code of Academic Integrity. I affirm that any section of the paper which has been submitted previously is attributed and hope essay, cited as such, and vs burger essay, that this paper has not been submitted by anyone else. Acceptance! I have identified the mcdonalds vs burger king essay topics sources.
Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 1279 Words | 4 Pages. Classical Conditioning Paper Gregory Finch . PSY/390 Axia College/University of resume pc Phoenix Classical Conditioning Paper By definition, classical conditioning refers to mcdonalds vs burger essay topics, conditioning in which the conditioned stimulus is paired with and precedes the unconditioned stimulus. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 1110 Words | 4 Pages. you have learned to teaching writing to kids, use a computer, the skill usually does not leave you. Mcdonalds King Essay! Similar to resume tracker excel, learning how to drive a car, you do not have to go through the process . Mcdonalds Vs Burger King Essay Topics! again at a later time. There are three main types of learning are classical conditioning (responding), operant conditioning (acting), and observational learning (observing). It is a nice spring day. A father takes his baby out for a walk. The baby reaches over to touch a pink flower and is badly stung by the bumblebee sitting on pc, the petals.
Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1138 Words | 4 Pages. Classical Conditioning and Ethics. ssical condir=tioningu03d1 Classical Conditioning and vs burger, Ethics What can classical conditioning theory . teach us about both developing and alleviating fears and phobias? Our textbook describes phobia as being an tablet pc excessive and intense fear, usually of a specific object or situation. (Terry, pg.77, 2009). The classical conditioning theory teaches us several different aspects about phobias; including how phobias develop and how to vs burger essay, treat phobias, thus, alleviating fears altogether. Resume! Many behaviorists. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 1194 Words | 4 Pages. Classical Conditioning by Ivan Pavlov. Classical conditioning was first observed by researcher Ivan Pavlov in an experiment on digestion gone wrong. Mcdonalds! In trying to . To Kids! measure the mcdonalds vs burger king salivation of hope essay dogs, he realized that many of the dogs began salivating before the food was even presented.
This debacle would lead to the discovery of the phenomenon know as classical conditioning . Mcdonalds! Classical conditioning is a behavioral event that is resume based off of a series of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli and responses. Before the king topics official conditioning process. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 787 Words | 3 Pages. Operant vs. Classical Conditioning. being classical conditioning , social learning and operant conditioning are three very different learning methods. . The three methods have the tablet word conditioning in mcdonalds king essay common. What is conditioning ? Conditioning is the learning of specific patterns of behavior in the presence of pc well-defined backgrounds or environments.
While classical and operant conditioning are basic forms of mcdonalds essay topics learning, social is a type of learned behavior that comes from interactions with different people. Classical conditioning is a. Albert Bandura , Behavior , Behaviorism 1821 Words | 5 Pages. Classical and Operant Conditioning. Classical and Operant Conditioning In 1889, a psychologist by the name of Ivan Pavlov began experimenting with dogs to acceptance, study . digestion by measuring their saliva. He discovered that the dogs “predicted” the arrival of food, leading to salivation. Although he is famous for mcdonalds vs burger essay his work on digestive psychology, he is known for his early impact on behavioral psychology. Resume Tracker! He described that there were things such as a neutral stimulus, unconditioned stimulus and topics, an unconditioned response.
A neutral stimulus. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1291 Words | 4 Pages. classical and operant conditioning. ? Classical and Operant Conditioning Classical and operant conditioning Janerisa . Encarnacion Borough of Manhattan Community college Author note: This paper was prepared for all purpose resume cover letter Social Psychology 200, taught by professor Pastor. What is essay topics classical conditioning ? Classical conditioning is resume excel a learning process of behavior modification in which a subject learns to vs burger king essay topics, respond in a preferred way such that a neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) is repeatedly shown in. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1855 Words | 10 Pages. Classical And Operational Conditioning. ? Classical and Operational Conditioning Classical conditioning is a technique often used by . Essay! marketers. It is essentially a process of behaviour adjustment by which a person comes to respond in a desired manner to vs burger king, a stimulus that was formerly neutral to them but that has now been repeatedly presented along with an writing to kids unconditioned stimulus that obtains a desired response for the marketer. For example , the Pharmacy Boots has affiliated the vs burger king topics song ‘here come the girls’ with their stores by playing it.
Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 1265 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Classical Conditioning with Operant Conditioning. Topic: Compare and resume tablet pc, contrast classical conditioning with operant conditioning . Mcdonalds Vs Burger! We are constantly learning . whether we realize it or not. From the moment we are born our lives begin to be shaped into all purpose resume letter, what is socially acceptable and mcdonalds vs burger king essay, morally right in our cultures. We learn and pc, retain what we have been taught. There are two major ways that our behaviors can be learned, classical conditioning , and operant conditioning , both a form of mcdonalds king essay topics behavioral learning. Classical conditioning is housekeeper cover when we find a stimulus. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 921 Words | 3 Pages.
Classical and Operant Conditioning. Classical and Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning is a basic form of learning in king essay which . Teaching Essay! one stimulus comes to serve as a signal for the occurrence of a second stimulus. During classical conditioning , organisms acquire information about the mcdonalds vs burger essay topics relations between various stimuli, not simple associations between them. (Psychology, pg.170). In classical condition a stimulus, or a physical event capable of all purpose resume cover affecting behavior, that initially doesn’t elicit a particular response can obtain the capacity. B. F. Skinner , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 1592 Words | 4 Pages. com/peter-greenberg/you-wont-believe-what-cou_b_4537567.html Carbonell PhD, D. (2009, September 20). Overcome Fear of Flying with practical, powerful . methods.
Retrieved October 7, 2014, from http://www.anxietycoach.com/fearofflying.html Powell, R., Symbaluk, D. (2001). Chapter 5 Classical Conditioning : Basic Phenomena and vs burger topics, Various Complexities. In Introduction to learning and behavior (4th ed., p. 612). Resume Tracker! Australia: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. . Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 922 Words | 4 Pages. Behaviorism: Classical Conditioning. There are four primary conditioning theories of behaviorism. Vs Burger Essay Topics! These four theories are Pavlov’s (1849-1936) classical . conditioning , Thorndike’s (1874-1949) connectionism (also known as law of effect), Guthrie's (1886-1959) contiguous conditioning , and Skinner’s (1904-1990) operant conditioning . According to the text (Shunk 2012) Classical conditioning was discovered around the to kids beginning of the 20th century by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov was studying digestive process in dogs when he.
Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Ivan Pavlov 1181 Words | 4 Pages. in chapter 5, explain what is mcdonalds vs burger king meant by the term “ conditioning ” and describe and distinguish between classical and operant . conditioning . Resume! Finally, discuss how research into the effects of mcdonalds essay topics biology and cognition on resume tablet, conditioning has changed psychology’s understanding of the mcdonalds vs burger king topics conditioning process Classical Conditioning Conditioning is an resume associative learning, which occur when we make a connection or an association with two events. King! Classical conditioning is when two stimuli becomes associated with each. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Educational psychology 753 Words | 4 Pages. Classical Conditioning and the Pupil Dilation Response. National University of Singapore Department of Psychology PL1101E: INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY Question 2 Classical . Conditioning and the Pupil Dilation Response Here is a simple classical conditioning experiment that you can perform on writing to kids, yourself at king essay topics home. You will need a bell (or something you can ring), a hand-held mirror, and hope essay, a room that becomes completely dark when the light is turned off. Mcdonalds Vs Burger! Hold the housekeeper resume letter bell while standing in the room near the light switch. Once in position, you should. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 910 Words | 3 Pages. Classical conditioning/ systematic desensitization essay.
?“Use classical conditioning principles to explain the development of phobias, and describe how systematic desensitization can be . used to overcome fears and phobias. Illustrate with examples .” This essay explores the practices of classical conditioning and systematic desensitization in relation to phobias and fears. John Watson proposed that the mcdonalds king topics process of hope essay classical conditioning was able to ‘’explain all aspects of human psychology’’. Mcdonalds Vs Burger King! Classical conditioning is the form of learning in hope essay which one stimulus. Anxiety , Behavior therapy , Classical conditioning 1130 Words | 4 Pages. use of the word research and the use of the word research in the social and behavioral sciences • Identify the major steps in the research process using a . classic study in Psychology as an example . Part I: Defining Research The word research is mcdonalds vs burger king used in many different ways.
Consider the following examples : • Your friend tells you that he intends to research different hair products before deciding on one to buy. • A real estate agent advises you to research home values in your neighborhood. Bronze medal , Gold medal , Hypothesis 1076 Words | 4 Pages. also appeared open to the whole interview, everything about her was open and relaxed, at the time I wasn’t aware I had been watching her in this manner until . I went to hope essay, transcribe my notes. I did it without thinking. I hope to follow her inspiring example . Mcdonalds Essay Topics! Resources: Berger, K. S. (2011). The developing person through the life span.
New York, NY: Worth Publishers. Ageing , Cousin , Dissociative identity disorder 1665 Words | 4 Pages. Classical and Operant Conditioning and Substance Misuse. 2. Psychological Factors and Substance Misuse: How do the ideas of Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning . explain why someone might misuse drugs? How can these theories be applied to hope essay, the treatment of mcdonalds vs burger king substance misuse? (1500 words) Learning ( conditioning ) is the process that eventually leads to relative permanent change in behavior or training. Some things are innate - we are born with the knowledge but others must be acquired actively. Thus, it is ‘an adaptive process in which the tendency. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 1710 Words | 5 Pages.
Classical Conditioning and Behavior. principle of “stimulus-response.” All behavior caused by external stimuli (operant conditioning ). All behavior can be explained without the executive resume letter . need to consider internal mental states or consciousness. Originators and important contributors: John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, E. L. Thorndike (connectionism), Bandura, Tolman (moving toward cognitivism) Keywords: Classical conditioning (Pavlov), Operant conditioning (Skinner), Stimulus-response (S-R) Behaviorism Behaviorism is a worldview that. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Educational psychology 2372 Words | 7 Pages. How Organism Learn: Classical and Operant Conditioning. How Organism Learn: Classical and Operant Conditioning There are two main explanations of how organisms learn.
The first . Mcdonalds Topics! explanation is known as classical conditioning . The second explanation is known as operant conditioning . These two types of learning are exhibited in essay writing our everyday lives through our home, school, and school. Classical conditioning was discovered by Iran Petrovich Pavlov. He was originally a physiologist whose main focus was the digestive system (Gazzaniga 230). . Behavioral concepts , Behaviorism , Classical conditioning 885 Words | 3 Pages. Biological Constraints in Classical Conditioning. What are the biological constraints in Classical Conditioning ? Report the procedure and results of two studies supporting your . answer.
Word count: 1500 words excluding references Abstract A biological constraint in learning theory refers to an inherited tendency to learn and create certain relationships, and it has been said that some species are much more readily than others in mcdonalds essay topics learning such behaviour. All Purpose! Therefore it involves the factors which make populations resistant to evolutionary. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Fear 2007 Words | 5 Pages. Classical Conditioning Paper Lakeshia Jackson Psy 390 August 1, 2011 Gary Burk Classical . Conditioning Paper Although classical conditioning is something that most people experience in a daily basis, it may also be the first thing someone remembers in a day. According to Olson and mcdonalds vs burger essay, Hergenhahn (2009) classical conditioning is writing to kids defined as a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response. In. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Eyeblink conditioning 1247 Words | 4 Pages.
Addictions and Phobias Through Classical and king essay topics, Opperant Conditioning. Phobias and essay on college, Addictions through Classical and Operant Conditioning PSY-300 January 28, 2013 Lillian Fillpot, M.A., Ed.S., CRC . Vs Burger Topics! Phobias and Addictions through Classical and Operant Conditioning This paper will explore how phobias and addictions are formed through both classical and operant conditioning and show just as addictions and phobias can be formed, they can also become extinct. Classical conditioning is the use of a conditional stimulus such as a person, place or object. Anxiety , Classical conditioning , Extinction 868 Words | 3 Pages. Classical Conditioning and Phobias. Classical Conditioning - AKA Respondant Conditioning AKA Partisan Conditioning -discovered . by Ivan Pavlov (1904) -dog with meat powder and salivation -demonstrated empirically by John Watson (1920) -Little Albert and executive housekeeper cover letter, the white rat stimulus- an agent that may illicit a response response- a behavior that results from a stimulus neutral stimulus- a stimulus that does not automatically trigger a certain response in almost everyone -doesn’t provoke a response from anyone.
Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , Extinction 812 Words | 4 Pages.