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How to Write Dazzlingly Brilliant Essays: Sharp Advice for Ambitious Students. Rachel McCombie, a graduate of St John#8217;s College, Oxford, shares actionable tips on taking your essays from #8220;Good#8221; to #8220;Outstanding.#8221; Detail of animals The Hunt in the Forest by assignment Paolo Uccello. For ambitious students, essays are a chance to showcase academic flair, demonstrate original thinking and impress with advanced written English skills. The best students relish the challenge of writing essays because they’re a chance to essay exercise academic research skills and construct interesting arguments. Essays allow you to demonstrate your knowledge, understanding and intelligence in a creative and relatively unrestricted way provided you keep within the word count! But when lots of other people are answering the same essay question as you, how do you make yours stand out from the crowd? In this article, we’re going to help show you the secret of writing a truly brilliant essay. Essays test a wide variety of skills, including your ability to absorb and analyse information. Essay On Pet Animals! Before we get into the nitty gritty of how to write an othello homework outstanding essay, we need to go right back to basics and think about what essays are actually designed to on pet test. Only by thesis understanding the essay animals, purpose of an essay can you really begin to understand what it is essay offenders that tutors are looking for when they read your work.
No matter what the academic level of the student is, essays are designed to test many things: Knowledge fundamentally, essays test and help consolidate what you’ve read and learned, making them an on pet animals important part of the learning process, particularly for humanities subjects. Comprehension they test your ability to make sense of and reports clearly explain complex concepts and issues. Essay On Pet Animals! They test your ability to understand the question and produce a considered response to form government it. On Pet Animals! They evaluate your ability to absorb and condense information from a variety of sources , which will probably mean covering a lot of essay offenders material in a short space of time; this necessitates appraisal of essay which bits of essay offenders material are relevant and which are not. They test your ability to write a balanced and coherent argument that considers a number of on pet points of assignment paper design view. They even put your time management to the test essays are a part of your workload that must be planned, prioritised and delivered to a high standard, to deadline. Characteristics of the perfect essay. Now that we know why we’re asked to write essays, what are the characteristics that define the essays that impress?
The tutors marking your essays may have their own preferences and things they look for essay in outstanding essays, but let’s take a look at a few of the irrefutable traits of the thesis, best. A good essay can be derivative; a brilliant essay needs to be original. Essay On Pet Animals! The hallmark of the essay offenders, truly brilliant essay is original thinking. That doesn’t have to mean coming up with an essay on pet entirely new theory; most of, if not all, the topics you’ll be studying at GCSE, A-level or even undergraduate level have been thought about in so much depth and by copy reports so many people that virtually every possible angle will have been thought of essay already. But what it does mean is that the essay stands out from those of other students in that it goes beyond the obvious and takes an original approach perhaps approaching the topic from assignment, a different angle, coming up with a different hypothesis from what you’ve been discussing in class, or introducing new evidence and animals intelligent insights from material not included on the reading list. Short Form! Solid, in-depth knowledge and on pet understanding. It goes without saying that the brilliant essay should demonstrate a strong knowledge of the facts, and not just knowledge but sound comprehension of the concepts or issues being discussed and why they matter. The perfect essay demonstrates an ability to deploy relevant facts and use them to book form the basis of an argument or hypothesis.
It covers a wide range of material and considers every point of view, confidently making use of and quoting from a variety of sources. Clear structure with intelligent debate. The perfect essay provides a coherent discussion of both sides of the story, developing a balanced argument throughout, and with a conclusion that weighs up the evidence you’ve covered and essay on pet animals perhaps provides your own intelligent opinion on how the topic should be interpreted based on essay offenders, the evidence covered. Everything written in the perfect essay serves a purpose to inform and persuade. There’s no rambling or going off at essay on pet animals tangents it sticks to the point and assignment design doesn’t waste the reader’s time. Essay! This goes back to our earlier point about sorting the relevant facts from the irrelevant material; including material that isn’t relevant shows that you’ve not quite grasped the real heart of the matter.
The words in the perfect essay flow effortlessly, and the reader feels in safe hands. Assignment Paper! Sentences need never be read more than once to be understood, and each follows logically on from the next, with no random jumping about from topic to topic from one paragraph to the next. Spelling and grammar are flawless, with no careless typos. So how do you go about writing this mythical Perfect Essay? Read on to find out! The Long Room library, Trinity College, Dublin.
Committed students always read beyond what the on pet animals, reading list tells them to read. Guaranteed to impress, wide reading gives you deeper knowledge than your peers and gives you the extra knowledge and insights you need to make your essay stand out. If you’re studying English, for example, don’t just read the set text! Here are some ideas to widen your reading and give you a good range of impressive quotes to include in your essay: Other works by othello homework the same author how do they compare with your set text? Works by animals contemporary authors does your set text fit into a wider movement, or is it very different from what was being written at the time? Works by thesis etymology the author’s predecessors what works inspired the author of your set text? How do you see them shining through in the text you’re studying, and how have they been developed? Literary criticism gauge the essay, range of opinions about your set text by reading what the literary critics have to short democracy form government say. Whose opinion do you most agree with, and animals why?
Background history so that you can appreciate and refer to the context in which the author was writing (we’ll come back to this last point a little later). It sounds like a lot of extra work, but you don’t necessarily have to on obesity read everything in full. Essay Animals! It’s fine to essay offenders dip into these other resources providing you don’t inadvertently take points out of essay context. Know what you want to say before you start writing. You’re probably sick of hearing this particular piece of advice, but it’s important to start out essays on obesity with a clear idea in your mind of what you want to say in your essay and how you will structure your arguments. The easiest way to do this is to write an essay plan. Animals! This needn’t be a big deal, or time-consuming; all you need to do is to open a new document on your computer, type out the ideas you want to cover and copy book reports drag and drop them into a logical order. On Pet Animals! From there, you simply start typing your essay directly into the plan itself.
Your essay should include an introduction, a series of paragraphs that develop an argument rather than just jumping from topic to topic, and a conclusion that weighs up the assignment, evidence. Answer the question you’ve been set, not the question you want to answer. A common problem with students’ responses to essays is that rather than answering the question they’ve been set, they try to mould the question to what they’d prefer to write about, because that’s what they feel most comfortable with. Essay On Pet! Be very careful not to do this! You could end up writing a brilliant essay, but if didn’t actually answer the question then it’s not going to be well received by etymology the person marking it. Essay On Pet Animals! Good essays give both sides of an argument, presenting information impartially and essay offenders considering multiple points of view. One-sided arguments won’t impress, as you need to show that you’ve thought about the evidence comprehensively. #8230;but your opinion and essay on pet animals interpretation matter too. Show that you’ve made your own mind up based on your weighing up of the evidence. This shows that you’re not just hiding behind what other people say about the copy, topic, but that you’ve had the on pet, independence of mind to form your own intelligent opinion about it. Use quotations from academic works and sources to back up points you want to make.
Doing so strengthens your argument by providing evidence for your statements, as well as demonstrating that you’ve read widely around your subject. However, don’t go too far and short essay democracy best form write an essay that’s essentially just a list of what other people say about the subject. Quoting too much suggests that you don’t have the confidence or knowledge to essay on pet animals explain things in your own words, so have to hide behind those of other people. Make your own mind up about what you’re writing about as already mentioned, it’s fine to state your own opinion if you’ve considered the arguments and presented the assignment paper, evidence. Understanding the religious and political context of the times in essay, which Blake wrote is essential to understanding his writing and art. As we’ve already touched on, if you can demonstrate knowledge of the context of the subject you’re writing about, this will show that you’ve considered possible historical influences that may have shaped a work or issue. This shows that you haven’t simply taken the essay question at assignment paper design face value and demonstrates your ability to think beyond the obvious. An ability to look at on pet animals the wider picture marks you out help as an essay on pet animals exceptional student, as many people can’t see the wood for copy reports the trees and have a very narrow focus when it comes to writing essays. If you’re an English student, for instance, an essay on pet author’s work should be considered not in isolation but in the context of the historical events and thinking that helped define the period in which the author was writing.
You can’t write about Blake’s poetry without some knowledge and discussion of assignment paper background events such as the on pet, Industrial Revolution, and the development of the Romantic movement as a whole. You know what they say a picture speaks a thousand words. What matters in an essay is effective and assignment design persuasive communication, and if a picture or diagram will help support a point you’re making, include it. As well as helping to essay on pet communicate, visuals also make your essay more enjoyable to read for the person marking it and if they enjoy reading it, the chances are you’ll get better marks! Don’t forget to ensure that you include credits for essays on obesity any images and diagrams you include. Use full academic citations and a bibliography. Show you mean business by on pet including a full set of academic citations, with a bibliography at the end, even if you haven’t been told to.
The great thing about homework help, this is that it not only makes you look organised and scholarly, but it also gives you the opportunity to show off just how many extra texts you’ve studied to produce your masterpiece of an essay essay! Make use of the footnote feature in your word processor and include citations at the bottom of each page, with a main bibliography at the end of the essay. Book! There are different accepted forms for citing an academic reference, but the main thing to remember is to pick one format and be consistent. Typically the citation will include the title and essay animals author of the work, the date of publication and othello homework help the page number(s) of the on pet, point or quotation you’re referring to. Paper Design! Here’s an example: 1. Curta, F. (2007) – “Some remarks on ethnicity in medieval archaeology” in essay on pet, Early Medieval Europe 15 (2), pp. 159-185.
This much editing is copy book a good thing; it should mean you#8217;ve proofread thoroughly and picked up on any mistakes. Essay On Pet Animals! Before you ask, no, a spell check isn’t good enough! How many times have you typed “form” instead of “from”? That’s just one of a huge number of errors that spell check would simply miss. Your English should be impeccable if you want to be taken seriously, and that means clear and intelligent sentence structures, no misplaced apostrophes, no typos and no grammar crimes. Include your name at the top of each page of your essay, and number the pages.
Also, make sure you use a font that’s easy to read, such as Times New Roman or Arial. Othello! The person marking your essay won’t appreciate having to essay struggle through reading a fancy Gothic font, even if it does happen to match the Gothic literature you’re studying! You don’t need us to tell you that, but for the sake of being comprehensive, we’re including it anyway. You could write the best essay ever, but if you deliver it late, it won’t be looked upon favourably! Don’t leave writing your essay until the last minute start writing with plenty of othello homework help time to spare, and ideally leave time to sleep on it before you submit it. Allowing time for it to animals sink in may result in you having a sudden brilliant revelation that you want to help include. So there we have it everything you need to know in order to write an essay to essay on pet animals impress. If you have any further great tips to add, feel free to share them in book, the comments below! 45 Responses to #8220;How to Write Dazzlingly Brilliant Essays: Sharp Advice for Ambitious Students#8221; March 13, 2014 at animals 6:06 am, Hrithik Kumar said: Nice tips.
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Out of the Kitchen, Onto the Couch. By MICHAEL POLLAN JULY 29, 2009. I was only 8 when “The French Chef” first appeared on American television in 1963, but it didn’t take long for essay me to realize that this Julia Child had improved the othello quality of life around our house. My mother began cooking dishes she’d watched Julia cook on TV: boeuf bourguignon (the subject of the show’s first episode), French onion soup gratinee, duck a l’orange, coq au vin, mousse au chocolat. Some of the more ambitious dishes, like the essay animals duck or the essay offenders mousse, were pointed toward weekend company, but my mother would usually test these out on me and my sisters earlier in the week, and a few of the others — including the boeuf bourguignon, which I especially loved — actually made it into heavy weeknight rotation. So whenever people talk about how Julia Child upgraded the culture of food in on pet animals America, I nod appreciatively.
I owe her. Etymology! Not that I didn’t also owe Swanson, because we also ate TV dinners, and those were pretty good, too. Every so often I would watch “The French Chef” with my mother in the den. On WNET in New York, it came on late in the afternoon, after school, and because we had only one television back then, if Mom wanted to watch her program, you watched it, too. The show felt less like TV than like hanging around the kitchen, which is to say, not terribly exciting to a kid (except when Child dropped something on the floor, which my mother promised would happen if we stuck around long enough) but comforting in essay its familiarity: the homework help clanking of pots and pans, the on pet animals squeal of an oven door in need of WD-40, all the kitchen-chemistry-set spectacles of transformation. The show was taped live and broadcast uncut and unedited, so it had a verite feel completely unlike anything you might see today on assignment design the Food Network, with its A.D.H.D. editing and hyperkinetic soundtracks of rock music and clashing knives. While Julia waited for on pet animals the butter foam to subside in short essay form the saute pan, you waited, too, precisely as long, listening to Julia’s improvised patter over the hiss of her pan, as she filled the desultory minutes with kitchen tips and essay, lore. Thesis! It all felt more like life than TV, though Julia’s voice was like nothing I ever heard before or would hear again until Monty Python came to America: vaguely European, breathy and essay on pet, singsongy, and weirdly suggestive of a man doing a falsetto impression of a woman. The BBC supposedly took “The French Chef” off the air because viewers wrote in copy reports complaining that Julia Child seemed either drunk or demented. Meryl Streep, who brings Julia Child vividly back to the screen in Nora Ephron’s charming new comedy, “Julie Julia,” has the essay on pet animals voice down, and with the help of assignment paper, some clever set design and cinematography, she manages to evoke too Child’s big-girl ungainliness — the woman was 6 foot 2 and had arms like a longshoreman.
Streep also captures the deep sensual delight that Julia Child took in food — not just the eating of it (her virgin bite of sole meuniere at La Couronne in Rouen recalls Meg Ryan’s deli orgasm in on pet “When Harry Met Sally”) but the fondling and affectionate slapping of ingredients in their raw state and essay, the magic of essay, their kitchen transformations. But “Julie Julia” is more than an exercise in nostalgia. As the title suggests, the film has a second, more contemporary heroine. The Julie character (played by Amy Adams) is based on design Julie Powell, a 29-year-old aspiring writer living in Queens who, casting about for a blog conceit in 2002, hit on a cool one: she would cook her way through all 524 recipes in Child’s “Mastering the essay Art of French Cooking” in 365 days and blog about nursing on obesity her adventures. On Pet Animals! The movie shuttles back and forth between Julie’s year of compulsive cooking and blogging in Queens in 2002 and Julia’s decade in Paris and democracy form government, Provence a half-century earlier, as recounted in “My Life in France,” the memoir published a few years after her death in 2004. Julia Child in essay on pet 1949 was in some ways in the same boat in which Julie Powell found herself in 2002: happily married to a really nice guy but feeling, acutely, the lack of a life project. Homework! Living in Paris, where her husband, Paul Child, was posted in the diplomatic corps, Julia (who like Julie had worked as a secretary) was at a loss as to essay on pet animals what to thesis do with her life until she realized that what she liked to do best was eat. So she enrolled in Le Cordon Bleu and learned how to cook. As with Julia, so with Julie: cooking saved her life, giving her a project and, eventually, a path to literary success. That learning to cook could lead an American woman to success of any kind would have seemed utterly implausible in 1949; that it is so thoroughly plausible 60 years later owes everything to essay animals Julia Child’s legacy. Julie Powell operates in a world that Julia Child helped to create, one where food is taken seriously, where chefs have been welcomed into etymology, the repertory company of on pet animals, American celebrity and where cooking has become a broadly appealing mise-en-scene in which success stories can plausibly be set and played out.
How amazing is it that we live today in paper design a culture that has not only something called the essay on pet animals Food Network but now a hit show on that network called “The Next Food Network Star,” which thousands of 20- and 30-somethings compete eagerly to become? It would seem we have come a long way from Swanson TV dinners. The Food Network can now be seen in nearly 100 million American homes and on most nights commands more viewers than any of the cable news channels. Millions of Americans, including my 16-year-old son, can tell you months after the finale which contestant emerged victorious in Season 5 of “Top Chef” (Hosea Rosenberg, followed by Stefan Richter, his favorite, and Carla Hall). Othello! The popularity of cooking shows — or perhaps I should say food shows — has spread beyond the precincts of public or cable television to the broadcast networks, where Gordon Ramsay terrorizes newbie chefs on essay on pet “Hell’s Kitchen” on Fox and Jamie Oliver is preparing a reality show on ABC in which he takes aim at an American city with an obesity problem and tries to short democracy best form teach the population how to cook.
It’s no wonder that a Hollywood studio would conclude that American audiences had an appetite for a movie in animals which the road to personal fulfillment and othello help, public success passes through the kitchen and turns, crucially, on a recipe for essay animals boeuf bourguignon. Essay Offenders! (The secret is to pat dry your beef before you brown it.) But here’s what I don’t get: How is it that we are so eager to watch other people browning beef cubes on screen but so much less eager to on pet brown them ourselves? For the rise of Julia Child as a figure of cultural consequence — along with Alice Waters and Mario Batali and Martha Stewart and Emeril Lagasse and whoever is crowned the next Food Network star — has, paradoxically, coincided with the paper rise of fast food, home-meal replacements and the decline and fall of everyday home cooking. That decline has several causes: women working outside the home; food companies persuading Americans to let them do the cooking; and advances in technology that made it easier for them to do so. On Pet! Cooking is no longer obligatory, and for many people, women especially, that has been a blessing. But perhaps a mixed blessing, to essay offenders judge by the culture’s continuing, if not deepening, fascination with the essay on pet animals subject. Thesis! It has been easier for us to give up cooking than it has been to give up talking about it — and watching it. Today the average American spends a mere 27 minutes a day on food preparation (another four minutes cleaning up); that’s less than half the time that we spent cooking and cleaning up when Julia arrived on our television screens. It’s also less than half the time it takes to watch a single episode of essay animals, “Top Chef” or “Chopped” or “The Next Food Network Star.” What this suggests is etymology that a great many Americans are spending considerably more time watching images of cooking on television than they are cooking themselves — an increasingly archaic activity they will tell you they no longer have the time for. What is wrong with this picture?
When I asked my mother recently what exactly endeared Julia Child to her, she explained that “for so many of us she took the on pet fear out of nursing, cooking” and, to illustrate the point, brought up the famous potato show (or, as Julia pronounced it, “the poh-TAY-toh show!”), one of the episodes that Meryl Streep recreates brilliantly on screen. Essay On Pet Animals! Millions of Americans of a certain age claim to remember Julia Child dropping a chicken or a goose on the floor, but the memory is apocryphal: what she dropped was a potato pancake, and othello, it didn’t quite make it to on pet the floor. Still, this was a classic live-television moment, inconceivable on thesis etymology any modern cooking show: Martha Stewart would sooner commit seppuku than let such an outtake ever see the light of essay, day. The episode has Julia making a plate-size potato pancake, sauteing a big disc of nursing on obesity, mashed potato into on pet animals, which she has folded impressive quantities of cream and butter. Then the fateful moment arrives: “When you flip anything, you just have to have the courage of essay offenders, your convictions,” she declares, clearly a tad nervous at on pet the prospect, and then gives the essay offenders big pancake a flip. On the way down, half of it catches the lip of the pan and splats onto on pet animals the stovetop. Essay Offenders! Undaunted, Julia scoops the thing up and roughly patches the on pet pancake back together, explaining: “When I flipped it, I didn’t have the courage to do it the way I should have.
You can always pick it up.” And then, looking right through the camera as if taking us into her confidence, she utters the line that did so much to lift the fear of failure from my mother and her contemporaries: “If you’re alone in essay offenders the kitchen, WHOOOO” — the pronoun is sung — “is going to see?” For a generation of women eager to transcend their mothers’ recipe box (and perhaps, too, their mothers’ social standing), Julia’s little kitchen catastrophe was a liberation and animals, a lesson: “The only way you learn to flip things is just to flip them!” It was a kind of courage — not only to cook but to nursing essays on obesity cook the world’s most glamorous and essay animals, intimidating cuisine — that Julia Child gave my mother and so many other women like her, and to watch her empower viewers in paper design episode after episode is to appreciate just how much about cooking on television — not to mention cooking itself — has changed in the years since “The French Chef” was on the air. There are still cooking programs that will teach you how to cook. Public television offers the animals eminently useful “America’s Test Kitchen.” The Food Network carries a whole slate of so-called dump-and-stir shows during the day, and the network’s research suggests that at othello homework least some viewers are following along. But many of these programs — I’m thinking of Rachael Ray, Paula Deen, Sandra Lee — tend to animals be aimed at stay-at-home moms who are in a hurry and eager to please. (“How good are you going to look when you serve this?” asks Paula Deen, a Southern gal of the old school.) These shows stress quick results, shortcuts and superconvenience but never the sort of short democracy, pleasure — physical and mental — that Julia Child took in the work of cooking: the tomahawking of a fish skeleton or the chopping of an onion, the Rolfing of butter into the breast of a raw chicken or the vigorous whisking of heavy cream. By the end of the potato show, Julia was out of breath and had broken a sweat, which she mopped from her brow with a paper towel. On Pet! (Have you ever seen Martha Stewart break a sweat? Pant? If so, you know her a lot better than the rest of us.) Child was less interested in making it fast or easy than making it right, because cooking for her was so much more than a means to a meal. Paper! It was a gratifying, even ennobling sort of animals, work, engaging both the mind and the muscles. You didn’t do it to please a husband or impress guests; you did it to short essay democracy best please yourself.
No one cooking on animals television today gives the impression that they enjoy the actual work quite as much as Julia Child did. In this, she strikes me as a more liberated figure than many of the women who have followed her on television. Curiously, the year Julia Child went on the air — 1963 — was the same year Betty Friedan published “The Feminine Mystique,” the nursing essays book that taught millions of American women to regard housework, cooking included, as drudgery, indeed as a form of oppression. You may think of these two figures as antagonists, but that wouldn’t be quite right. They actually had a great deal in common, as Child’s biographer, Laura Shapiro, points out, and addressed the essay aspirations of many of the same women. Julia never referred to her viewers as “housewives” — a word she detested — and never condescended to them. Essay Offenders! She tried to show the sort of women who read “The Feminine Mystique” that, far from oppressing them, the work of cooking approached in the proper spirit offered a kind of fulfillment and deserved an intelligent woman’s attention. (A man’s too.) Second-wave feminists were often ambivalent on the gender politics of cooking. Simone de Beauvoir wrote in “The Second Sex” that though cooking could be oppressive, it could also be a form of “revelation and essay on pet animals, creation; and a woman can find special satisfaction in a successful cake or a flaky pastry, for not everyone can do it: one must have the gift.” This can be read either as a special Frenchie exemption for the culinary arts ( feminisme, c’est bon, but we must not jeopardize those flaky pastries! ) or as a bit of wisdom that some American feminists thoughtlessly trampled in their rush to get women out of the kitchen.
Whichever, kitchen work itself has changed considerably since 1963, judging from essay offenders its depiction on today’s how-to shows. Take the concept of cooking from scratch. Many of today’s cooking programs rely unapologetically on ingredients that themselves contain lots of ingredients: canned soups, jarred mayonnaise, frozen vegetables, powdered sauces, vanilla wafers, limeade concentrate, Marshmallow Fluff. This probably shouldn’t surprise us: processed foods have so thoroughly colonized the American kitchen and diet that they have redefined what passes today for cooking, not to mention food. On Pet Animals! Many of these convenience foods have been sold to women as tools of liberation; the rhetoric of kitchen oppression has been cleverly hijacked by food marketers and the cooking shows they sponsor to sell more stuff. So the shows encourage home cooks to take all manner of shortcuts, each of essays on obesity, which involves buying another product, and all of which taken together have succeeded in essay on pet redefining what is commonly meant by the verb “to cook.” I spent an enlightening if somewhat depressing hour on the phone with a veteran food-marketing researcher, Harry Balzer, who explained that “people call things ‘cooking’ today that would roll their grandmother in her grave — heating up a can of soup or microwaving a frozen pizza.” Balzer has been studying American eating habits since 1978; the NPD Group, the firm he works for, collects data from a pool of essays, 2,000 food diaries to track American eating habits.
Years ago Balzer noticed that the definition of cooking held by his respondents had grown so broad as to animals be meaningless, so the firm tightened up the meaning of “to cook” at least slightly to capture what was really going on in American kitchens. To cook from scratch, they decreed, means to prepare a main dish that requires some degree of “assembly of elements.” So microwaving a pizza doesn’t count as cooking, though washing a head of lettuce and pouring bottled dressing over it does. Under this dispensation, you’re also cooking when you spread mayonnaise on assignment paper design a slice of bread and pile on essay animals some cold cuts or a hamburger patty. (Currently the most popular meal in America, at both lunch and dinner, is a sandwich; the No. 1 accompanying beverage is a soda.) At least by Balzer’s none-too-exacting standard, Americans are still cooking up a storm — 58 percent of our evening meals qualify, though even that figure has been falling steadily since the homework 1980s. Like most people who study consumer behavior, Balzer has developed a somewhat cynical view of human nature, which his research suggests is ever driven by the quest to save time or money or, optimally, both. I kept asking him what his research had to say about the prevalence of the essay on pet animals activity I referred to as “ real scratch cooking,” but he wouldn’t touch the term.
Why? Apparently the activity has become so rarefied as to elude his tools of essay best, measurement. “Here’s an on pet, analogy,” Balzer said. Copy Book Reports! “A hundred years ago, chicken for essay on pet dinner meant going out and catching, killing, plucking and gutting a chicken. Do you know anybody who still does that? It would be considered crazy! Well, that’s exactly how cooking will seem to your grandchildren: something people used to do when they had no other choice. Get over it.” After my discouraging hour on the phone with Balzer, I settled in for copy book reports a couple more with the on pet Food Network, trying to square his dismal view of our interest in cooking with the hyperexuberant, even fetishized images of short essay democracy form government, cooking that are presented on the screen.
The Food Network undergoes a complete change of personality at night, when it trades the on pet animals cozy precincts of the home kitchen and chirpy softball coaching of Rachael Ray or Sandra Lee for othello help something markedly less feminine and less practical. Erica Gruen, the cable executive often credited with putting the Food Network on the map in essay on pet the late ’90s, recognized early on othello help that, as she told a journalist, “people don’t watch television to learn things.” So she shifted the network’s target audience from people who love to cook to people who love to eat, a considerably larger universe and one that — important for a cable network — happens to contain a great many more men. In prime time, the Food Network’s mise-en-scene shifts to animals masculine arenas like the short essay best form government Kitchen Stadium on “Iron Chef,” where famous restaurant chefs wage gladiatorial combat to see who can, in 60 minutes, concoct the most spectacular meal from a secret ingredient ceremoniously unveiled just as the clock starts: an octopus or a bunch of bananas or a whole school of daurade. Whether in the Kitchen Stadium or on essay “Chopped” or “The Next Food Network Star” or, over on Bravo, “Top Chef,” cooking in prime time is essay offenders a form of athletic competition, drawing its visual and even aural vocabulary from “Monday Night Football.” On “Iron Chef America,” one of the Food Network’s biggest hits, the cookingcaster Alton Brown delivers a breathless (though always gently tongue-in-cheek) play by play and color commentary, as the iron chefs and their team of iron sous-chefs race the clock to peel, chop, slice, dice, mince, Cuisinart, mandoline, boil, double-boil, pan-sear, saute, sous vide , deep-fry, pressure-cook, grill, deglaze, reduce and plate — this last a word I’m old enough to remember when it was a mere noun. On Pet! A particularly dazzling display of chefly “knife skills” — a term bandied as freely on the Food Network as “passing game” or “slugging percentage” is on ESPN — will earn an instant replay: an onion minced in slo-mo. Essay Offenders! Can we get a camera on this , Alton Brown will ask in a hushed, this-must-be-golf tone of essay animals, voice. It looks like Chef Flay’s going to othello homework try for on pet animals a last-minute garnish grab before the homework clock runs out! Will he make it? [The buzzer sounds.] Yes! These shows move so fast, in such a blur of flashing knives, frantic pantry raids and more sheer fire than you would ever want to essay animals see in assignment paper design your own kitchen, that I honestly can’t tell you whether that “last-minute garnish grab” happened on “Iron Chef America” or “Chopped” or “The Next Food Network Star” or whether it was Chef Flay or Chef Batali who snagged the on pet sprig of foliage at the buzzer. But impressive it surely was, in the same way it’s impressive to watch a handful of eager young chefs on “Chopped” figure out etymology, how to essay on pet make a passable appetizer from etymology chicken wings, celery, soba noodles and a package of string cheese in just 20 minutes, said starter to be judged by a panel of professional chefs on the basis of “taste, creativity and presentation.” (If you ask me, the key to victory on animals any of paper design, these shows comes down to one factor: bacon.
Whichever contestant puts bacon in the dish invariably seems to win.) But you do have to wonder how easily so specialized a set of skills might translate to the home kitchen — or anywhere else for that matter. For when in real life are even professional chefs required to conceive and execute dishes in 20 minutes from on pet animals ingredients selected by essays on obesity, a third party exhibiting obvious sadistic tendencies? ( String cheese? ) Never, is essay animals when. The skills celebrated on the Food Network in prime time are precisely the skills necessary to essay offenders succeed on the Food Network in essay on pet prime time. They will come in handy nowhere else on God’s green earth. We learn things watching these cooking competitions, but they’re not things about how to cook. Homework Help! There are no recipes to follow; the contests fly by essay animals, much too fast for viewers to take in any practical tips; and essays, the kind of cooking practiced in prime time is far more spectacular than anything you would ever try at home. No, for anyone hoping to pick up a few dinnertime tips, the implicit message of animals, today’s prime-time cooking shows is, Don’t try this at home. If you really want to short essay best form eat this way, go to a restaurant. Or as a chef friend put it when I asked him if he thought I could learn anything about cooking by watching the Food Network, “How much do you learn about on pet animals playing basketball by watching the paper N.B.A.?”
What we mainly learn about on the Food Network in prime time is essay on pet animals culinary fashion, which is no small thing: if Julia took the fear out of cooking, these shows take the fear — the social anxiety — out of ordering in nursing essays on obesity restaurants. ( Hey, now I know what a shiso leaf is and animals, what “crudo” means! ) Then, at the judges’ table, we learn how to taste and how to talk about food. For viewers, these shows have become less about the essay offenders production of essay on pet animals, high-end food than about its consumption — including its conspicuous consumption. ( I think I’ll start with the sawfish crudo wrapped in shiso leaves. . . . ) Surely it’s no accident that so many Food Network stars have themselves found a way to othello homework help transcend barriers of social class in animals the kitchen — beginning with Emeril Lagasse, the othello homework help working-class guy from Fall River, Mass., who, though he may not be able to sound the ‘r’ in “garlic,” can still cook like a dream. Once upon a time Julia made the same promise in reverse: she showed you how you, too, could cook like someone who could not only prepare but properly pronounce a bearnaise . Essay On Pet! So-called fancy food has always served as a form of cultural capital, and assignment design, cooking programs help you acquire it, now without so much as lifting a spatula. The glamour of food has made it something of a class leveler in America, a fact that many of these shows implicitly celebrate. Television likes nothing better than to animals serve up elitism to essay offenders the masses, paradoxical as that might sound. Animals! How wonderful is it that something like arugula can at the same time be a mark of sophistication and best form government, be found in essay animals almost every salad bar in America? Everybody wins!
But the shift from essay offenders producing food on television to consuming it strikes me as a far-less-salubrious development. Traditionally, the recipe for the typical dump-and-stir program comprises about 80 percent cooking followed by 20 percent eating, but in prime time you now find a raft of shows that flip that ratio on its head, like “The Best Thing I Ever Ate” and “Diners, Drive-Ins and Dives,” which are about nothing but eating. Sure, Guy Fieri, the tattooed and spiky-coiffed chowhound who hosts “Diners, Drive-Ins and Dives,” ducks into the kitchen whenever he visits one of these roadside joints to do a little speed-bonding with the startled short-order cooks in back, but most of the time he’s wrapping his mouth around their supersize creations: a 16-ounce Oh Gawd! burger (with the works); battered and deep-fried anything (clams, pickles, cinnamon buns, stuffed peppers, you name it); or a buttermilk burrito approximately the on pet animals size of his head, stuffed with bacon, eggs and cheese. What Fieri’s critical vocabulary lacks in analytical rigor, it more than makes up for in tailgate enthusiasm: “Man, oh man, now this is what I’m talkin’ about!” What can possibly be the appeal of watching Guy Fieri bite, masticate and help, swallow all this chow? The historical drift of essay animals, cooking programs — from a genuine interest in producing food yourself to the spectacle of copy reports, merely consuming it — surely owes a lot to animals the decline of cooking in nursing essays our culture, but it also has something to do with the gravitational field that eventually overtakes anything in television’s orbit. It’s no accident that Julia Child appeared on essay public television — or educational television, as it used to be called. Othello Homework! On a commercial network, a program that actually inspired viewers to essay get off the couch and spend an hour cooking a meal would be a commercial disaster, for book it would mean they were turning off the television to on pet animals do something else. The ads on the Food Network, at least in prime time, strongly suggest its viewers do no such thing: the food-related ads hardly ever hawk kitchen appliances or ingredients (unless you count A.1. steak sauce) but rather push the usual supermarket cart of edible foodlike substances, including Manwich sloppy joe in a can, Special K protein shakes and thesis etymology, Ore-Ida frozen French fries, along with fast-casual eateries like Olive Garden and Red Lobster. Buying, not making, is what cooking shows are mostly now about — that and, increasingly, cooking shows themselves: the whole self-perpetuating spectacle of competition, success and celebrity that, with “The Next Food Network Star,” appears to have entered its baroque phase.
The Food Network has figured out essay animals, that we care much less about what’s cooking than who’s cooking. A few years ago, Mario Batali neatly summed up the network’s formula to a reporter: “Look, it’s TV! Everyone has to fall into a niche. I’m the Italian guy. Emeril’s the exuberant New Orleans guy with the big eyebrows who yells a lot.
Bobby’s the grilling guy. Rachael Ray is the cheerleader-type girl who makes things at home the way a regular person would. Othello! Giada’s the beautiful girl with the nice rack who does simple Italian food. On Pet! As silly as the whole Food Network is, it gives us all a soapbox to talk about the things we care about.” Not to mention a platform from which to sell all their stuff. The Food Network has helped to transform cooking from something you do into something you watch — into yet another confection of spectacle and assignment paper design, celebrity that keeps us pinned to the couch. The formula is on pet as circular and self-reinforcing as a TV dinner: a simulacrum of home cooking that is sold on nursing on obesity TV and on pet animals, designed to be eaten in front of the TV. True, in the case of the Swanson rendition, at least you get something that will fill you up; by book reports, comparison, the essay on pet Food Network leaves you hungry, a condition its advertisers must love.
But in neither case is there much risk that you will get off the couch and actually cook a meal. Both kinds of TV dinner plant us exactly where television always wants us: in front of the set, watching. To point out that television has succeeded in turning cooking into a spectator sport raises the assignment question of why anyone would want to watch other people cook in the first place. There are plenty of things we’ve stopped doing for essay ourselves that we have no desire to watch other people do on TV: you don’t see shows about changing the copy reports oil in on pet animals your car or ironing shirts or reading newspapers. So what is it about essay offenders cooking, specifically, that makes it such good television just now? It’s worth keeping in mind that watching other people cook is not exactly a new behavior for us humans. Even when “everyone” still cooked, there were plenty of us who mainly watched: men, for animals the most part, and children. Most of nursing essays on obesity, us have happy memories of watching our mothers in the kitchen, performing feats that sometimes looked very much like sorcery and typically resulted in something tasty to eat. Watching my mother transform the raw materials of nature — a handful of plants, an animal’s flesh — into a favorite dinner was always a pretty good show, but on the afternoons when she tackled a complex marvel like chicken Kiev, I happily stopped whatever I was doing to watch. (I told you we had it pretty good, thanks partly to Julia.) My mother would hammer the boneless chicken breasts into flat pink slabs, roll them tightly around chunks of ice-cold herbed butter, glue the essay on pet cylinders shut with egg, then fry the little logs until they turned golden brown, in what qualified as a minor miracle of transubstantiation. When the dish turned out right, knifing through the crust into book reports, the snowy white meat within would uncork a fragrant ooze of melted butter that seeped across the plate to merge with the Minute Rice. (If the instant rice sounds all wrong, remember that in the 1960s, Julia Child and modern food science were both tokens of sophistication.) An error has occurred.
Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. Yet even the most ordinary dish follows a similar arc of transformation, magically becoming something greater than the sum of its parts. Every dish contains not just culinary ingredients but also the ingredients of narrative: a beginning, a middle and an end. Bring in essay on pet the element of fire — cooking’s deus ex machina — and on obesity, you’ve got a tasty little drama right there, the whole thing unfolding in essay on pet animals a TV-friendly span of time: 30 minutes (at 350 degrees) will usually do it. Cooking shows also benefit from the fact that food itself is — by definition — attractive to the humans who eat it, and that attraction can be enhanced by food styling, an art at which the Food Network so excels as to make Julia Child look like a piker. You’ll be flipping aimlessly through the cable channels when a slow-motion cascade of glistening red cherries or a tongue of nursing on obesity, flame lapping at a slab of meat on the grill will catch your eye, and your reptilian brain will paralyze your thumb on the remote, forcing you to stop to see what’s cooking. Food shows are the campfires in essay animals the deep cable forest, drawing us like hungry wanderers to short essay democracy best form their flames. (And on essay the Food Network there are plenty of flames to thesis etymology catch your eye, compensating, no doubt, for the unfortunate absence of aromas.)
No matter how well produced, a televised oil change and lube offers no such satisfactions. I suspect we’re drawn to the textures and rhythms of kitchen work, too, which seem so much more direct and satisfying than the more abstract and formless tasks most of us perform in our jobs nowadays. Essay On Pet Animals! The chefs on copy TV get to put their hands on real stuff, not keyboards and essay on pet animals, screens but fundamental things like plants and animals and fungi; they get to work with fire and ice and perform feats of book, alchemy. By way of explaining why in the world she wants to cook her way through “Mastering the essay on pet animals Art of French Cooking,” all Julie Powell has to do in the film is show us her cubicle at assignment the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, where she spends her days on the phone mollifying callers with problems that she lacks the power to essay fix. “You know what I love about on obesity cooking?” Julie tells us in a voice-over as we watch her field yet another inconclusive call on her headset. “I love that after a day where nothing is sure — and when I say nothing, I mean nothing — you can come home and absolutely know that if you add egg yolks to on pet chocolate and sugar and milk, it will get thick. It’s such a comfort.” How many of us still do work that engages us in a dialogue with the material world and ends — assuming the souffle doesn’t collapse — with such a gratifying and tasty sense of closure? Come to think of it, even the collapse of the essay offenders souffle is at least definitive, which is more than you can say about essay on pet animals most of what you will do at nursing essays work tomorrow. If cooking really offers all these satisfactions, then why don’t we do more of it?
Well, ask Julie Powell: for most of us it doesn’t pay the rent, and very often our work doesn’t leave us the time; during the essay year of Julia, dinner at the Powell apartment seldom arrived at the table before 10 p.m. For many years now, Americans have been putting in longer hours at work and paper design, enjoying less time at on pet animals home. Since 1967, we’ve added 167 hours — the equivalent of a month’s full-time labor — to the total amount of time we spend at work each year, and in form households where both parents work, the figure is more like 400 hours. Americans today spend more time working than people in essay animals any other industrialized nation — an extra two weeks or more a year. Not surprisingly, in copy those countries where people still take cooking seriously, they also have more time to devote to essay on pet it. It’s generally assumed that the entrance of copy book, women into the work force is responsible for the collapse of home cooking, but that turns out to be only part of the story. Yes, women with jobs outside the essay on pet home spend less time cooking — but so do women without jobs. The amount of time spent on food preparation in copy book reports America has fallen at the same precipitous rate among women who don’t work outside the home as it has among women who do: in both cases, a decline of about 40 percent since 1965. (Though for married women who don’t have jobs, the essay animals amount of time spent cooking remains greater: 58 minutes a day, as compared with 36 for married women who do have jobs.) In general, spending on restaurants or takeout food rises with income.
Women with jobs have more money to pay corporations to do their cooking, yet all American women now allow corporations to cook for them when they can. Those corporations have been trying to persuade Americans to let them do the cooking since long before large numbers of women entered the work force. After World War II, the food industry labored mightily to sell American women on essay offenders all the processed-food wonders it had invented to on pet animals feed the troops: canned meals, freeze-dried foods, dehydrated potatoes, powdered orange juice and coffee, instant everything. Copy Reports! As Laura Shapiro recounts in essay “Something From the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America,” the food industry strived to “persuade millions of Americans to develop a lasting taste for meals that were a lot like field rations.” The same process of peacetime conversion that industrialized our farming, giving us synthetic fertilizers made from munitions and new pesticides developed from nerve gas, also industrialized our eating. Shapiro shows that the shift toward industrial cookery began not in response to etymology a demand from women entering the work force but as a supply-driven phenomenon. In fact, for many years American women, whether they worked or not, resisted processed foods, regarding them as a dereliction of their “moral obligation to cook,” something they believed to be a parental responsibility on par with child care. It took years of clever, dedicated marketing to break down this resistance and on pet animals, persuade Americans that opening a can or cooking from a mix really was cooking. Honest.
In the 1950s, just-add-water cake mixes languished in the supermarket until the marketers figured out that if you left at least something for the “baker” to paper design do — specifically, crack open an egg — she could take ownership of the essay on pet cake. Over the years, the book reports food scientists have gotten better and better at simulating real food, keeping it looking attractive and seemingly fresh, and the rapid acceptance of microwave ovens — which went from being in only 8 percent of American households in 1978 to 90 percent today — opened up vast new horizons of home-meal replacement. Harry Balzer’s research suggests that the essay on pet corporate project of copy book reports, redefining what it means to essay animals cook and serve a meal has succeeded beyond the industry’s wildest expectations. People think nothing of buying frozen peanut butter-and-jelly sandwiches for their children’s lunchboxes. (Now how much of a timesaver can that be?) “We’ve had a hundred years of packaged foods,” Balzer told me, “and now we’re going to have a hundred years of copy book, packaged meals.” Already today, 80 percent of the cost of food eaten in essay animals the home goes to someone other than a farmer, which is to say to industrial cooking and packaging and copy reports, marketing. Balzer is unsentimental about this development: “Do you miss sewing or darning socks? I don’t think so.” So what are we doing with the time we save by outsourcing our food preparation to corporations and 16-year-old burger flippers? Working, commuting to on pet animals work, surfing the Internet and, perhaps most curiously of all, watching other people cook on television.
But this may not be quite the paradox it seems. Maybe the reason we like to watch cooking on TV is that there are things about cooking we miss. We might not feel we have the time or the energy to do it ourselves every day, yet we’re not prepared to essays on obesity see it disappear from essay on pet animals our lives entirely. Thesis! Why? Perhaps because cooking — unlike sewing or darning socks — is an animals, activity that strikes a deep emotional chord in us, one that might even go to the heart of copy book reports, our identity as human beings. What?! You’re telling me Bobby Flay strikes deep emotional chords? Bear with me.
Consider for on pet a moment the copy proposition that as a human activity, cooking is far more important — to our happiness and to our health — than its current role in our lives, not to mention its depiction on TV, might lead you to believe. Let’s see what happens when we take cooking seriously. The idea that cooking is a defining human activity is not a new one. In 1773, the Scottish writer James Boswell, noting that “no beast is a cook,” called Homo sapiens “the cooking animal,” though he might have reconsidered that definition had he been able to gaze upon on pet animals the frozen-food cases at Wal-Mart. Fifty years later, in “The Physiology of Taste,” the French gastronome Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin claimed that cooking made us who we are; by essay offenders, teaching men to essay on pet use fire, it had “done the most to advance the cause of civilization.” More recently, the anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, writing in 1964 in nursing on obesity “The Raw and the Cooked,” found that many cultures entertained a similar view, regarding cooking as a symbolic way of on pet, distinguishing ourselves from the assignment paper design animals. For Levi-Strauss, cooking is a metaphor for the human transformation of nature into culture, but in the years since “The Raw and the Cooked,” other anthropologists have begun to on pet animals take quite literally the idea that cooking is the thesis etymology key to our humanity. Earlier this year, Richard Wrangham, a Harvard anthropologist, published a fascinating book called “Catching Fire,” in which he argues that it was the discovery of cooking by our early ancestors — not tool-making or language or meat-eating — that made us human. By providing our primate forebears with a more energy-dense and easy-to-digest diet, cooked food altered the course of essay on pet animals, human evolution, allowing our brains to grow bigger (brains are notorious energy guzzlers) and our guts to book shrink. Essay Animals! It seems that raw food takes much more time and energy to chew and essay offenders, digest, which is why other primates of our size carry around substantially larger digestive tracts and on pet, spend many more of their waking hours chewing: up to six hours a day. (That’s nearly as much time as Guy Fieri devotes to the activity.) Also, since cooking detoxifies many foods, it cracked open a treasure trove of nutritious calories unavailable to short essay form other animals.
Freed from the need to essay spend our days gathering large quantities of raw food and then chewing (and chewing) it, humans could now devote their time, and their metabolic resources, to other purposes, like creating a culture. Cooking gave us not just the meal but also the occasion: the practice of eating together at an appointed time and place. This was something new under the sun, for the forager of essay offenders, raw food would likely have fed himself on the go and alone, like the animals. (Or, come to think of it, like the industrial eaters we’ve become, grazing at gas stations and on pet animals, skipping meals.) But sitting down to common meals, making eye contact, sharing food, all served to civilize us; “around that fire,” Wrangham says, “we became tamer.” If cooking is as central to human identity and culture as Wrangham believes, it stands to reason that the decline of cooking in our time would have a profound effect on modern life. At the very least, you would expect that its rapid disappearance from everyday life might leave us feeling nostalgic for etymology the sights and smells and the sociality of the cook-fire. Bobby Flay and Rachael Ray may be pushing precisely that emotional button. Interestingly, the one kind of essay, home cooking that is actually on the rise today (according to Harry Balzer) is outdoor grilling. Chunks of animal flesh seared over copy book an open fire: grilling is cooking at its most fundamental and explicit, the transformation of the animals raw into short, the cooked right before our eyes. Animals! It makes a certain sense that the grill would be gaining adherents at the very moment when cooking meals and eating them together is fading from the culture. (While men have hardly become equal partners in the kitchen, they are cooking more today than ever before: about 13 percent of all meals, many of them on the grill.) Yet we don’t crank up the reports barbecue every day; grilling for most people is more ceremony than routine. We seem to be well on our way to turning cooking into essay on pet animals, a form of book, weekend recreation, a backyard sport for which we outfit ourselves at Williams-Sonoma, or a televised spectator sport we watch from the couch.
Cooking’s fate may be to essay on pet join some of our other weekend exercises in recreational atavism: camping and gardening and hunting and riding on horseback. Something in us apparently likes to be reminded of our distant origins every now and then and to celebrate whatever rough skills for contending with the natural world might survive in government us, beneath the thin crust of animals, 21st-century civilization. To play at essay offenders farming or foraging for food strikes us as harmless enough, perhaps because the animals delegating of those activities to other people in real life is something most of us are generally O.K. with. Othello! But to on pet animals relegate the activity of cooking to a form of othello homework, play, something that happens just on animals weekends or mostly on television, seems much more consequential. The fact is that not cooking may well be deleterious to thesis etymology our health, and there is reason to believe that the outsourcing of food preparation to corporations and essay on pet, 16-year-olds has already taken a toll on our physical and psychological well-being. Consider some recent research on the links between cooking and dietary health.
A 2003 study by short government, a group of Harvard economists led by David Cutler found that the rise of food preparation outside the home could explain most of the increase in obesity in America. Mass production has driven down the cost of many foods, not only in terms of price but also in the amount of time required to obtain them. The French fry did not become the most popular “vegetable” in essay on pet America until industry relieved us of the considerable effort needed to prepare French fries ourselves. Similarly, the mass production of cream-filled cakes, fried chicken wings and taquitos, exotically flavored chips or cheesy puffs of refined flour, has transformed all these hard-to-make-at-home foods into the sort of essays, everyday fare you can pick up at the gas station on essay a whim and for essay offenders less than a dollar. The fact that we no longer have to plan or even wait to enjoy these items, as we would if we were making them ourselves, makes us that much more likely to indulge impulsively.
Cutler and essay on pet, his colleagues demonstrate that as the “time cost” of essay democracy best, food preparation has fallen, calorie consumption has gone up, particularly consumption of the animals sort of snack and convenience foods that are typically cooked outside the home. They found that when we don’t have to cook meals, we eat more of them: as the amount of time Americans spend cooking has dropped by about half, the number of meals Americans eat in a day has climbed; since 1977, we’ve added approximately half a meal to our daily intake. Cutler and his colleagues also surveyed cooking patterns across several cultures and assignment design, found that obesity rates are inversely correlated with the animals amount of nursing essays on obesity, time spent on food preparation. The more time a nation devotes to food preparation at animals home, the lower its rate of obesity. In fact, the essay offenders amount of time spent cooking predicts obesity rates more reliably than female participation in the labor force or income. Other research supports the idea that cooking is a better predictor of a healthful diet than social class: a 1992 study in animals The Journal of the American Dietetic Association found that poor women who routinely cooked were more likely to eat a more healthful diet than well-to-do women who did not. So cooking matters — a lot.
Which when you think about it, should come as no surprise. Nursing Essays! When we let corporations do the cooking, they’re bound to go heavy on on pet animals sugar, fat and salt; these are three tastes we’re hard-wired to like, which happen to assignment design be dirt cheap to add and do a good job masking the shortcomings of processed food. Essay On Pet Animals! And if you make special-occasion foods cheap and homework, easy enough to eat every day, we will eat them every day. The time and work involved in cooking, as well as the delay in gratification built into the process, served as an important check on our appetite. Now that check is gone, and we’re struggling to essay animals deal with the copy consequences. The question is, Can we ever put the genie back into the bottle? Once it has been destroyed, can a culture of everyday cooking be rebuilt? One in which men share equally in on pet animals the work? One in which the cooking shows on television once again teach people how to cook from thesis scratch and, as Julia Child once did, actually empower them to on pet animals do it?
Let us hope so. Because it’s hard to imagine ever reforming the American way of eating or, for that matter, the American food system unless millions of Americans — women and men — are willing to make cooking a part of daily life. The path to copy reports a diet of fresher, unprocessed food, not to mention to a revitalized local-food economy, passes straight through the home kitchen. But if this is a dream you find appealing, you might not want to call Harry Balzer right away to discuss it. “Not going to happen,” he told me. “Why? Because we’re basically cheap and lazy.
And besides, the skills are already lost. Who is going to teach the essay on pet next generation to cook? I don’t see it. “We’re all looking for someone else to cook for us. The next American cook is going to nursing essays be the essay animals supermarket. Takeout from the supermarket, that’s the othello homework future. All we need now is the drive-through supermarket.”
Crusty as a fresh baguette, Harry Balzer insists on dealing with the world, and human nature, as it really is, or at essay animals least as he finds it in the survey data he has spent the short essay democracy government past three decades poring over. But for a brief moment, I was able to essay engage him in the project of imagining a slightly different reality. This took a little doing. Copy! Many of his clients — which include many of the big chain restaurants and food manufacturers — profit handsomely from the decline and fall of cooking in America; indeed, their marketing has contributed to it. Yet Balzer himself made it clear that he recognizes all that the decline of everyday cooking has cost us. So I asked him how, in animals an ideal world, Americans might begin to undo the damage that the modern diet of nursing essays on obesity, industrially prepared food has done to essay on pet our health. “Easy.
You want Americans to eat less? I have the diet for on obesity you. Essay Animals! It’s short, and it’s simple. Here’s my diet plan: Cook it yourself . That’s it. Eat anything you want — just as long as you’re willing to cook it yourself.” Michael Pollan, a contributing writer, is the Knight Professor of Journalism at the University of California, Berkeley. His most recent book is “In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto.” A version of this article appears in print on , on Page MM26 of the Sunday Magazine with the headline: Out of the Kitchen, Onto the Couch.
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Three Views of the Intelligence Community Essay. At approximately 8:48 a.m. on essay animals the morning of September 11, 2001, the first pictures of the burning World Trade Center were broadcast on live television (Thompson Wood, 2004, p.1). The whole world was watching in their television sets through international channels as terrorists attack America. Essay Democracy Form? On September 11, America looked helpless and clueless as to what was happening. Essay? A variety of conspiracy theories emerged about the attacks, which goes against the popular account of events that day. Reports? Some suggestions say that individuals in the government knew of the forthcoming attacks and refused to act on that knowledge. Others believe that the attacks were a false flag operation carried out essay, with the intention of stirring up the passions and buying the allegiance of its people. Three men, Bamford, Baer, and Clarke offer us explanation on what the real ordeal was and othello help, tries to open the mind of Americans to on pet animals what they consider the truth. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States Government.
Its primary function is obtaining and essay offenders, analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and essay on pet, persons, and reporting such information to short democracy the branches of the Government. Its secondary function is propaganda or public relations, overt and covert information dissemination, both true and false, and influencing others to decide in favor of the United States Government. The third function of the CIA is as the hidden hand of the U.S. Government, by engaging in covert operations at the direction of the essay on pet President. This last function has caused most controversy for help, the CIA, raising questions about the legality, morality, effectiveness, and intelligence of such operations (Wikipedia, 2006). On Pet? Could the CIA and the president be hiding something from its citizens, and is the 9/11 terrorist attack a plan, a step, or a means in order to go after Irag and Saddam Hussein? The three books take into account the reaction of President George Bush during and after the attack. He was in a school discussing an educational plan before and during the attack. When his men told him of the World Trade Center collapse, he continued reading a children’s book in front of the students.
Wood and Thompson recounts, “So why, at etymology, 9:03 a.m.—fifteen minutes after it was clear the essay on pet United States was under terrorist attack—did President Bush sit down with a classroom of second-graders and begin a 20-minute pre-planned photo op? No one knows the answer to that question. In fact, no one has even asked Bush about it”. Bush’s actions on September 11 have been the subject of lively debate, mostly on the internet. Details reported that day and in the week after the attacks—both the paper media reports and accounts given by Bush himself—have changed radically over the past 18 months.
Culling hundreds of reports from newspapers, magazines, and the internet has only made finding the “truth” of what happened and when it happened more confusing. In the changed political climate after 9/11, few have dared raise challenging questions about Bush’s actions. A journalist who said Bush was “flying around the country like a scared child, seeking refuge in his mother’s bed after having a nightmare” and another who said Bush “skedaddled” were fired. (Washington Post). We should have a concise record of essay animals, where President Bush was throughout the day the copy reports US was attacked, but we do not (Thompson Wood, p.1). See No Evil: The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA’s War Against Terrorism is a 2003 memoir by animals, Robert Baer, a former CIA case officer in the Directorate of essay offenders, Operations. Baer begins with his upbringing in the US and Europe and continues with a tour of his CIA experiences across the globe. It ends with his growing disillusionment with the agency and animals, his eventual resignation.
It formed the basis for the 2005 movie Syriana (Wikipedia, 2006). Robert Baer was not surprised as to assignment paper design the reaction of the on pet US government. Nursing Essays On Obesity? A twenty-one-year veteran of the on pet animals CIA’s Directorate of Operations who had left the agency in etymology 1997, he observed firsthand how an increasingly bureaucratic CIA lost its way in on pet the post-cold war world and refused to adequately acknowledge and essay democracy form government, neutralize the essay on pet animals growing threat of Islamic fundamentalist terror in copy reports the Middle East and elsewhere. See No Evil is Baer’s frank assessment of an on pet, agency that forgot that “service to country” must transcend politics and is a forceful plea for the CIA to return to its original mission — the preservation of our national sovereignty and copy, the American way of life (E-Reader). His frustration is deeply felt in his introduction of the book. He tells of how many people had to suffer and sacrifice in order to wake up America. Baer believes that this was all for greed and convenience just like how Clarke and Bamford feels. In his book, Baer clearly says that politics is the greatest enemy of the American intelligence community.
Here he makes a clear point that somehow, the intelligence community is coerced by the government. Moreover, he cautions that unless changes are made, the United States is very vulnerable. “I’m incensed, and I think we should all be incensed, that the courageous passengers of United Airlines Flight 93 were the on pet animals White House’s first and only line of defense on short best September 11 – not the CIA or the FBI or the Immigration and Naturalization Service or any other office or agency that we pay our tax…” Clarke, an expert on surprise attacks, is not shocked by the ferocity of the White House response. During an interview with Salon.com on essay on pet Tuesday, on nursing the eve of his scheduled public testimony before the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission), Clarke blasted Cheney as an “attack dog” and described the administration’s attacks on his credibility as another example of the “big lie” strategy it has pursued since winning the White House. While he is critical of all four of the presidents he served, Clarke draws sharp contrasts between the records of the Clinton and Bush administrations.
He compares Clinton’s understanding of essay animals, terrorism as the most significant threat to U.S. and international security and his efforts to combat it to the neglect and illusions of Bush (Conason, 2004, p.1). “The [Bush] administration has squandered the opportunity to eliminate al Qaeda….A new al Qaeda has emerged and is growing stronger, in part because of assignment, our own actions and inactions. On Pet Animals? It is in many ways a tougher opponent than the original threat we faced before September 11, and we are not doing what is necessary to make America safe from that threat.” Clarke believes that the government used the 9/11 attack in order to pursue Iraq, and this action endangers America even more. He clearly states the point that the essay offenders government and the CIA are missing the target in this situation. On page 264 of his book, we see his basic premise is that there was no substantive link between Iraq and al Qaeda. “I know that in one sense the world is better off without him [Saddam] in power, but not the way it was done, not at the cost we have paid and will pay for it; not by diverting us from eliminating al Qaeda and essay on pet, its clones; not by short democracy form government, using the funds we need to eliminate our vulnerabilities to terrorism at home; not at the incredibly high price of increasing Muslim hatred of America and strengthening al Qaeda.” Clarke believes that “too many of my fellow citizens were being misled”.
He also told the readers about how the CIA has failures and law enforcement errors. As for the CIA’s involvement on the attack, the CIA just followed the animals president and gave him a reason to go to nursing essays war. This is evident when, as told by Clarke in his book, that on the evening of the 12th, Clarke left the video conferencing center and there, wandering alone around the essay on pet situation room, was the president. He looked like he wanted something to do. He grabbed a few of Clarke and the others, closed the form door to essay the conference room. “Look,” he told them, “I know you have a lot to copy reports do and all . . . but I want you, as soon as you can, to go back over everything, everything. See if Saddam did this.
See if he’s linked in any way.” Bamford’s account is similar to Clarke’s. He says in his book that from the very first moment, the essay on pet Bush foreign policy would focus on three key objectives: get rid of Saddam, end American involvement in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, and rearrange the dominoes in the Middle East. Reports? Just like Baer, Bamford’s point is that the CIA caved to pressure from administration hard-liners. He quotes a CIA case officer who says that in January of 2003, one of the agency’s higher-ups called a meeting and animals, said, “You know what – if Bush wants to go to war, it’s your job to give him a reason to do so.” Bamford heavily backed this up with personal accounts and stories from personnel within the CIA, NSA and associated groups. One notable remark by assignment, an unidentified figure in the CIA exclaimed to his employees that if the President wanted a war, then their jobs were to produce the justification and reasons. Bamford believes that America’s intelligence agencies are abused in on pet order to etymology fabricate a pretext for the war in Iraq, and achieve political goals on behalf of America and the Israeli government in the process.
Bamford feels that the Bush administration and its pro-Israeli neo-conservatives deceived the American public and the United Nations in order to justify the invasion of essay on pet animals, Iraq. Removing the Saddam Hussein regime from power in Iraq, and replacing it with a pro-American puppet, would change the map of the Middle East. The events of copy book reports, 9/11, Weapons of Mass Destruction, the accusation of Iraq having near-nuclear capabilities, the ties of Saddam and Al-Qaeda were all based on bogus, or very weak intelligence reports, and exaggeration. As according to Steven Stolder, James Bamford builds his case against America’s intelligence agencies from the ground up, which makes for devastating reading not only for his subjects, but also for anyone concerned with the nation’s security or simply smart use of essay, taxpayer dollars. With his book, one can’t help but cringe as the veteran journalist records the alarming post-Cold War floundering of the C.I.A., N.S.A., Defense Department, and succeeding administrations in the face of burgeoning terrorist threats that culminate with the attack on 9-11. Othello? The intelligence agencies seemed caught flatfooted by the demise of the Soviet Union, the U.S. intelligence community stumbles through the 1990s as it becomes institutionally hidebound and sluggish. During relatively peaceful times, its shortcomings, while not unnoticed, remain largely unaddressed. As Bamford sees it, with the arrival of George W. Bush, the situation goes from bad to worse. With the neocons in essay on pet power, intelligence gathering is corrupted and politicized to create the grounds for going to war with Iraq.
In his book, we see similarities with the earlier works by essay best, Joseph Wilson, Richard Clarke, and others. “Bamford pulls the on pet animals loose ends together and paper design, adds new reporting to create a wide-ranging yet taut and absorbing expose of an American security apparatus that combines vast power with stunning ineptitude”( Stolder, p.1). Bamford and Clarke both believe that the main focus of the Bush administration was to go to war with Iraq. They both tell readers that the President and the CIA communicated to animals the citizens that Saddam Hussein was behind the 9/11 attack. Bush’s response is form government also inline with this. He tells the public that Al Qaeda is being funded by on pet animals, another state power which is Iraq and short essay democracy best government, it was Irag that he sent the military to.
It seems that Bamford and Clarke is driving to the point that America’s intelligence agencies are abused and misused by the government. Baer, on the other hand blames the CIA’s inefficiency and on pet animals, lack of attention to the threats that the terrorists were communicating. His point is similar to Bamford who thinks that the CIA’s shortcomings are unaddressed and this lead to the 9/11 attack. There is essay offenders similarity with the claims of Baer and Clarke that the CIA is used for animals, greed of the government. He makes readers feel that the United States is very vulnerable with how the CIA acts as the thesis etymology citizens pay for them dearly through taxes. The CIA was not focused and on pet, the 9/11 attack was the result.
Today, not only these three books exists on the shelves that tell us what they think happened, what the truth is, and whose fault is the book reports 9/11 attack. Even more books are published on the CIA’s conspiracies and the secrets they keep from the public. These books open the minds of the American citizens, that they should not just take in and believe whatever politicians, and the popular media is essay animals saying. I believe that in this case, where so many lives have been sacrificed and copy, a very intricate plot was made by the terrorists, it is as hard to know the truth as this situation is. The three books remind me of a popular quote that may sound cliche but is definitely true in this situation, “power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely”. George Bush may definitely have and know something about the terrorist attack. Like other great leaders in other countries, he too can be obsessed over animals something and this may cause his downfall, in his case, Iraq. Baer, Clarke, and democracy government, Bamford tells us to become vigilant in protecting our own countries. Aside from them, many conspiracy theorists have allegations against the CIA like drug trafficking, mafia connections, and assassination plots.
Their courage in writing their own respective books already tells how citizen must love, serve, and protect their country and this is what we are to do. I believe Clarke that like other government agencies, the CIA has been used as a tool for government officials to achieve their personal goals. Similar to essay Bamford, I think CIA must be re-assessed and evaluated. The public should know what their real reason for existence is and if they really can protect the essay offenders people from outside sources. The CIA should act independently as an investigative and protective body. Thus, let us not put our fate in the hands of greedy leaders who are always subject to the temptation of absolute power. It is our responsibility to be inquirers and essay animals, be aware of on obesity, what is happening in and out of our nations.
As for on pet, CIA, the agency must realize and review their mission for being, that is, to protect the country, and not only the interests of the president. See No Evil. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2006, from E-Reader.com. (2001).Washington Post. Retrieved December 10, 2006, from Cooperative Research.
Thomson, A., Wood, A. (n.d.). An Interesting Day. Retrieved December 10, 2006, from Cooperative Research. Stolder, S. (n.d.). Review. Retrieved December 11, 2006, from Amazon.
Conason, J. (2004). Richard Clarke terrorizes the White House. Retrieved December 11, 2006, from Salon.com. Robert Baer. Retrieved December 11, 2006, from Wikipedia. CIA. Retrieved December 11, 2006, from assignment paper Wikipedia. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 13 March 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Three Views of the Intelligence Community.
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Essay on Monopoly Market | Micro Economics. In this essay we will discuss about monopoly market. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Monopoly 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly 3. Essay On Pet! Monopoly Price Determination 4. Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination 6. Types of Price Discrimination 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination 8. Design! Benefits of Price Discrimination and Other Details. Essay on on pet the Meaning of Monopoly Essay on the Sources and Types of Monopoly Essay on Monopoly Price Determination Essay on essays on obesity the Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination Essay on the Types of Price Discrimination Essay on the Conditions for Price Discrimination Essay on the Benefits of Price Discrimination Essay on the Harms of Price Discrimination Essay on Control and Regulation of Monopoly. Monopoly is a market situation in which there is only one seller of a product with barriers to entry of others. The product has no close substitutes. In the on pet, words of Salvatore, “Monopoly is the nursing essays, form of market organisation in which there is a single fir m selling a commodity for which there are no close substitutes.” The cross elasticity of demand with every other product is very low.
This means that no other firms produce a similar product. Thus, the monopoly firm is itself an on pet animals industry and the monopolist faces the industry demand curve. The demand curve for his product is, therefore, relatively stable and slopes downward to the right, given the tastes and incomes of book, his customers. It means that more of the product can be sold at a lower price than at a higher price. He is a price-maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. However, it does not mean that he can set both price and output. He can do either of the two things. His price is determined by essay on pet his demand curve, once he selects his output level.
Or, once he sets the short form government, price for his product, his output is determined by what consumers will take at that price. In any situation, the ultimate aim of the monopolist is to have maximum profits. Essay # 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly : Monopoly may arise from a number of sources and is of various types: First, grant of a patent right to a firm by the government to on pet, make, use or sell its own invention. Second, control of a strategic raw material for an exclusive production process. Third, a natural monopoly enjoyed by a firm when it supplies the on obesity, entire market at essay animals a lower unit cost due to increasing economies of scale, just as in the supply of electricity, gas, etc. Fourth, government may grant exclusive right to a private firm to operate under its regulation. Such privately owned and government regulated monopolies are mostly in public utilities and are called legal monopolies such as in transport, communications, etc. Fifth, there may be government owned and regulated monopolies such as postal services, water and sewer systems of municipal corporations, etc. Sixth, government may grant licence to a sole firm and protect it to exclude foreign rivals. Seventh, the sole manufacturer of a product may adopt a limit pricing policy in order to prevent the entry of new firms.
Essay # 3. Monopoly Price Determination : We study the determination of monopoly price in the short-run and the long-run. The analysis of the determination of the price, output and profits under monopoly is based on the following assumptions: (1) There is one seller or producer of a homogeneous product. (2) There are no close substitutes for the product. (3) There is nursing essays on obesity pure competition in the factor market so that the price of each input he buys is given to him. (4) The monopolist is a rational being who aims at maximum profit with the minimum of costs. (5) There are many buyers on the demand side but none is in essay on pet a position to influence the price of the product by his individual actions. Thus the price of the product is given for the consumer. (6) The monopolist does not charge discriminating price. He treats all consumers alike and charges a uniform price for his product.
(7) The monopoly price is uncontrolled. There are no restrictions on the power of the monopolist. (8) There is no threat of entry of essay offenders, other firms. Price and Output Determination : Given these assumptions, the price, output and profits under monopoly are determined by the forces of demand and supply. The monopolist has complete control over the supply of the product. He is also a price- maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. But he cannot fix the price and output simultaneously.
Either he can fix the price and essay leave the output to be determined by the customer demand at help that price. Or, he can fix the essay animals, output to be produced and leave the price to be determined by the consumer demand for his product. Thus, whatever price he fixes and etymology whatever output he decides to essay, produce is determined by design the conditions of demand. The demand curve faced by a monopolist is definite and is downward sloping to the right. Essay! It is his average revenue curve (AR). Its corresponding marginal revenue curve (MR) is also downward sloping and lies below it. But the manner and extent to which the monopolist will be able to influence price or output will depend upon thesis the elasticity of demand for his product.
If the essay on pet animals, demand for form government, his product is highly elastic, he can sell more by a small reduction in price. Essay! If, on the other hand, the demand is essay offenders less elastic, the essay on pet, tendency will be to raise the price and profit more by selling less. Given the demand for his product, the monopolist can select the most profitable output against othello homework help this demand. Essay! His cost of production may be rising, falling or constant. Whatever the nature of the cost curves- straight line, convex or concave—the monopoly equilibrium will take place at a point where the marginal revenue equals marginal cost i.e. Copy! ?R /?Q = ?C /?Q. The monopolist maximises his profits at the price where the difference between total revenue and total costs is the maximum i.e. Essay Animals! Max ? = TR-TC. In other words, the monopolist gains the maximum when he equates marginal revenue ( MR) to marginal cost (MC).
He may do this either by estimating the demand price and the cost of producing various outputs or by a process of trial and error. Geometrically speaking, the point of monopoly equilibrium is one where the MC curve cuts the MR curve from below or from the democracy government, left, and a perpendicular from it to the AR curve determines price. It implies that. Price MC = MR. In fact, monopoly price = MC –E/E-1. AR (Price) = MR MC –E/E-1 and MC = MR. Monopoly Price = MC E/E-1. Thus monopoly price is a function of the MC and the elasticity of demand. We discuss below the determination of monopoly price in the short period and the long period.
(A) Short-Run Monopoly Equilibrium : In the animals, short-run, the monopoly firm attains equilibrium when its profits are maximised or losses are minimised. Like the competitive equilibrium, this analysis can also he discussed in nursing essays terms of the total revenue-total cost approach and essay on pet animals the marginal revenue-cost approach. Total Revenue-Cost Approach: In Figure 1. TC is the essays on obesity, total cost curve showing a constant rise in the total costs as output increases. TR is the total revenue curve which goes on essay on pet rising to begin with, then flattens and later on slopes downward, showing fall in nursing total receipts after a given point. The monopolist will maximise his profits at that output where the difference between TR and TC is the greatest.
This will be the level at which the slopes of TR and TC curves equal. Accordingly, P is the equilibrium point as determined by the tangents at on pet points P and T on the TR and assignment paper design TC curves respectively. A and are the break-even points where TR = TC. To the left of A and right of essay on pet, B, the monopolist is incurring losses because TC TR. Thus his maximum profits will be PT and he will sell OM output at MP Price.
Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach: In the short-run, the monopolist can change the price as well as the quantity of the product. If he intends producing more, he can do so by increasing the use of variable inputs. He may start two shifts of production; hire more labour, raw materials, etc. But he cannot change his fixed plant and othello homework equipment. On the other hand, if he wants to restrict his output, he may dispense with certain workers, work for essay, less hours and use less of the variable factors. In any case, his price cannot be below the average variable costs. It implies that he can continue to etymology, incur losses during the short period so long as he covers his average variable cost (AVC) of production. Price is determined when (1) P SMC = MR, and (2) The SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. It is at this equilibrium point that profits are maximised or losses are minimised. In Figure 2, SAC and SMC are the short-run average and marginal revenue curves respectively.
AVC is the essay, average variable cost curve. D/AR is the demand curve (the average revenue curve) whose corresponding marginal revenue curve is copy MR. The short-run monopoly equilibrium is at point E where the essay animals, SMC curve cuts the MR curve from assignment paper below. The monopolist sells OM output at MP (=OB) price. The price MP, being above the essay on pet, short-run average cost MA, the monopolist earns AP profits per unit of output.
Thus total monopoly profits are AP ? CA= CAPB. In Figure 3, the homework, short-run equilibrium of the on pet, monopolist is shown when he earns only normal profits. The equality of short, SMC curve and on pet animals MR curve at point E determines OM output which is essay offenders sold at MP Price. Since the SAC curve is on pet animals tangent to the AR curve at this level of othello homework, output, the monopolist earns normal profits. The monopolist knows that any level of output other than OM would bring losses because the SAC curve would be higher than the AR curve. Figure 4 shows a short-run situation in which the monopolist incurs losses. As usual, the equilibrium point E is determined by the equality of SMC and MR. But the monopoly price MP, as fixed by demand conditions, does not cover the short-run average costs of production PA. It just covers the average variable costs MP, represented by the tangency of the demand curve D and essay on pet the AVC curve at point P. PA is thus per homework, unit loss which the monopolist incurs. Total losses are equal to BP x PA = BPAC.
In this figure, P is the shutdown point for this firm. If the market demand conditions lower the price from MP downward, the monopolist will temporarily stop production. On Pet Animals! His firm will close down. (B) Long-Run Monopoly Equilibrium: In the long-run, the monopolist can remain in business only essay offenders, if he is essay animals able to earn super-normal profits.
If he was incurring losses in the short-run, he has enough time to make changes in his existing plant in the long- run so as to maximise his profits. With entry of new firms ruled out, he can install a plant which gives him maximum profits. The scale of his plant depends upon the position of the demand (AR) curve and its corresponding MR curve. The most profitable level of output is at the point where the LMC curve intersects the MR curve from below and the SMC curve passes through this point. Further, the SAC curve must be tangent to the LAC curve at this level of output.
Suppose in the long-run, the monopolist installs an efficient plant represented by the curve SAC 1 and short essay democracy form government SMC 1 in Figure 5. On this plant, the essay on pet, long-run profits are the othello, maximum at the output OM where LMC = MR at point E. Since at this level the short-run average cost curve SAC 1 is tangent to the LAC curve at Point A, the SMC 1 curve is also equal to the LMC curve and to the MR curve (SMC 1 = LMC =MR) at the equilibrium point E. Thus when the monopoly firm is in long-run equilibrium, it is also in on pet animals short- run equilibrium. Thesis! By changing its scale of plant in the long-run, the monopolist charges the price OB (=MP), sells the output OM and earns BPAC monopoly profits. However this plant is less than the optimum size because the monopoly firm is not producing at the lowest point L of the LAC curve. It has some excess capacity. It is not in a position to take full advantage of the economies of scale due to the small size of the market for essay on pet animals, his product.
Essay # 4. Degree of design, Monopoly Power – Its Measure: In monopoly, the monopolist is able to essay animals, earn monopoly profit by his superior bargaining power. He is in essay democracy government a better position to exploit the market to his advantage. He gains more by putting restraints on his actual and potential competitors. Thus monopoly power refers to the restraints imposed over his competitors by the monopolist through his price-output policies.
There are two important methods of essay, monopoly power: First, the difference between marginal cost and price. Since in Monopoly, the marginal cost is always less than the on obesity, price, the greater the difference between the animals, two, the larger is the monopoly power. Second, the difference between monopoly super-normal profits and competitive super-normal profits is also considered as the nursing, measure of monopoly power. The greater the difference between the animals, two, the larger is the degree of monopoly. However, economists have given other measures of monopoly power.
We discuss a few. But no method is regarded as perfect. One of the earliest methods to measure monopoly power is expressed by Prof. Abba P. Lerner in terms of the homework help, bargaining strength. The difference between price and marginal cost is the measure of the degree of monopoly power. If P is animals price and MC the marginal cost, the formula for thesis etymology, measuring the on pet, degree of monopoly power is P-MC/P. Book! A seller’s monopoly power depends upon on pet his ability to sell his product at a price much above his marginal cost. The larger the gap between price and essay offenders marginal cost, the on pet, greater is the paper, monopoly power.
A competitive seller has no monopoly power at all, because under perfect competition P = MC. In all cases, the above formula will give zero. But in the case of overproduction, MC may exceed price and the index will have a negative value. Moreover, if the seller is a monopolist, the difference between price and marginal cost is always there. The index of monopoly power will, therefore, vary between zero and unity. Essay On Pet! For instance, if P is Rs.4 and MC Rs.2 the index of monopoly power will be 1/2 i.e. (4-2)/4. It is, however, not easy for a seller to raise the price of his product in order to increase his bargaining price. The attempt to raise profits by a price rise may be neutralized by the reduction in his sales resulting from raising the essay offenders, price. Therefore, the degree of monopoly power is measured in terms of the elasticity of demand and the formula is:
Degree of monopoly power (DMP) = (P – MC)/ P. For profit maximisation, MC = MR, and the formula becomes. DMP= or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, By substituting MR = P E-1/E in on pet the above equation, DMP= (P-P E-1/E)/P = P- PE +P/E/P = PE- PE+P/EP = 1/E. Or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, P/P-MR. Lerner’s measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where AC and MC curves are the firm’s average and marginal cost curves, while D and MR are its demand and marginal revenue curves.
The monopolist firm maximizes its profit at point E where MC = MR. It produces OM output and sells it at on obesity MP Price. The ratio PEIPM is termed as the degree of monopoly power. The degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the P-MR elasticity of demand i.e., P-MR/P. In Figure 6, P is equal to PM while MR is equal to EM. Rewrite the formula, The formula indicates that the degree of monopoly power is the on pet, reciprocal of the price elasticity of demand E. The lower is the price elasticity of demand the greater is the degree of monopoly power. The higher the elasticity, lower the monopoly power. If, for instance, price elasticity of demand is 2, the degree of monopoly power will be one-half. Paper! On the other hand, the elasticity coefficient of 1/2 will indicate a monopoly power of 2. Though interesting, this measure of monopoly power has many limitations.
First, monopoly power does not depend exclusively on the difference between price and cost. It also depends on the restriction of essay animals, output by the monopolist seller. The index showing the essays on obesity, degree of monopoly may be equal in the case of two firms. But one may have under utilisation on its existing plant and equipment while the essay on pet animals, other may show underinvestment. The above formula fails to explain these important aspects of monopoly power. Secondly, the Lerner formula is incapable of measuring non-price competition. Again the index of monopoly power may be the same in case of two firms. But one firm may be engaged in intensive non-price competition than the other firm. It may thus be selling a large quantity of its product. Lerner’s formula does not throw any light on this aspect of the problem.
Thirdly, even the case of absolute monopoly power is difficult to explain in terms of this formula. The price elasticity of demand measures income and substitution effects of a change in price on consumer’s demand. Essay Offenders! But under absolute monopoly where competition is absent, the substitution effect is zero and the income effect is the only effect. Thus the price elasticity of demand under monopoly measures only the essay on pet animals, income effect which may be negative or positive. The main flaw in thesis etymology Lerner’s measure is that it does not attach any definite coefficient of elasticity to the degree of monopoly power. Fourthly, Lerner’s measure is essentially static. It does not reveal whether the level of marginal cost is due to superior technology or the result of obsolete methods of production. Lastly, the Lerner measure is affected by changes over time in the ratio of capital to labour in an industry. Despite these limitations, economists like Dunlop and Kalecki used this index to measure the animals, degree of monopoly power.
The former used this in the case of othello help, selected industries and the latter for the whole economy. Prof. Robert Triffin has improved upon Lerner’s measure by suggesting price cross-elasticity instead of price elasticity of demand. Price cross-elasticity of demand measures the degree of substitution between the products of essay, two firms when a change in the price of one firm’s product affects the othello, demand for the other’s product. When the cross-elasticity of demand between the product of one firm and of all other firms is zero, the animals, reciprocal of cross-elasticity would be infinity and the firm would have absolute monopoly power. According to Triffin, under pure monopoly, the cross-elasticity of demand is nursing on obesity zero and the monopolist takes advantage of absolute monopoly power.
On the essay on pet, other hand, cross-elasticity is infinite under perfect competition and the firm’s monopoly power is essay offenders zero. First, like Lerner’s measure, the Triffin measure is unsuitable for practical purposes. Pure monopoly like pure competition is unreal. Secondly, it is not possible to find out a definite coefficient of cross-elasticity of demand in the case of any firm. Thirdly, the method of measuring monopoly power in terms of cross-elasticity of demand is not correct because its coefficient is zero both under pure monopoly and pure competition.
But monopoly power is found under pure monopoly rather than under pure competition. Prof. Essay Animals! J.S. Bain suggests the size of super-normal profit as the degree of monopoly power. He uses the divergence between price and average cost as the measure of monopoly power. Under perfect competition, super-normal profits are competed away with the entry of new firms in the industry. So the degree of monopoly power is zero when competition is pure. It is, therefore, under monopoly with no threat of entry of new firms that monopoly profits are the largest and the degree of monopoly power the absolute.
The degree of monopoly power will, however, be small where the threat of new entrants exists. Short Best Form Government! Thus the degree of monopoly power is measured by the size of super-normal profits. Animals! The greater the strength of the seller, the larger profits he will earn without any threat of new entrants. The Bain measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where the monopoly firm produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The difference between price and average cost (AC) is PC at OM per unit of output. Homework Help! Thus A PC are the super-normal profits which measure monopoly power. But this measure is also not free from shortcomings. First, it is difficult to estimate the on pet animals, net income accruing to a firm. It depends upon the extent of its amortization of the cost of fixed factors. Secondly, there are other difficulties, like the deduction of interest and essays on obesity wages of management from the firm’s net income in order to calculate its profits. Thirdly, all profits accruing to a firm are not monopoly profits.
Firms, whether competitive or monopolistic, often earn windfall profits when demand and cost conditions change. They, therefore, need to be deducted from total net profits to arrive at pure monopoly profits. Lastly, excess profits may be due to monopolistic selling practices, monopolistic buying practices, or the result of increase in efficiency, newer manufacturing techniques and expert management. Prof. Rothschild measures the degree of monopoly power as the ratio of the slope of a firm’s demand curve to the slope of the industry demand curve. In Figure 7, dd represents the demand curve of a firm which is elastic than the industry demand curve DD. On Pet Animals! Thus. DMP=Slope of dd/Slope of assignment paper design, DD= (KL/KR)/(KN/KR) = KL/KN. Since under pure competition the demand curve of a firm is horizontal, the Rothschild index equals zero. Under pure monopoly there being no difference between firm and industry, this index equals unity.
Therefore, the degree of monopoly power exists between zero and unity. The Rothschild measure of the degree of monopoly power is vaguer than the essay, other measures. First, it is not possible to estimate the exact shape of the demand curve for the relevant output range. Second, this index requires that all competitors keep their prices constant or they readjust their prices so as to essay offenders, keep them identical with the essay, price being charged by the monopolist. Lastly, this measure is nursing on obesity based exclusively on demand factors and essay animals neglects supply and cost conditions. Essay # 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination: Price discrimination means, charging different prices from different customers or for essay offenders, different units of the same product. In the words of Joan Robinson: “The act of selling the same article, produced under single control at essay different prices to different buyers is known as price discrimination.” Price discrimination is possible when the monopolist sells in different markets in such a way that it is not possible to transfer any unit of the commodity from the cheap market to the dearer market. Price discrimination is, however, not possible under perfect competition, even if the two markets could be kept separate. Since the market demand in paper design each market is perfectly elastic, every seller would try to sell in that market in which he could get the on pet, highest price.
Competition would make the price equal in both the etymology, markets. Thus price discrimination is possible only when markets are imperfect. Essay # 6. Types of Price Discrimination: Price discrimination is of many types: Firstly, it may be personal based on the income of the customer. For example, doctors and lawyers charge different fees from different customers on the basis of animals, their incomes. Higher fees are charged to rich persons and lower to the poor. Secondly, price discrimination may be based on the nature of the product. Paperback is cheaper than the deluxe edition of the same book, for the former is bought by the majority of readers, and the latter by short essay best libraries. Unbranded products, like open tea, are sold at lower prices than branded products like Brooke Bond or Tata tea. Economy size tooth pastes are relatively cheaper than ordinary-sized tooth pastes.
In the essay on pet animals, case of services too, price discrimination is practiced when off-season rates of hotels at short essay hill stations are very low as compared to the peak season. Dry-cleaning firms charge for two while they clean three clothes during off-season; whereas they charge more for quick service in peak season. Thirdly, price discrimination is also related to the age, sex and status of the customers. Barbers charge less for children’s haircuts. Certain cinema halls in small towns in on pet India admit ladies only at lower rates. Military personnel in uniform are admitted at paper concessional rates in essay certain cinema houses. Fourthly, discrimination is also based on the time of service. Cinema houses at homework certain places, like New Delhi, charge half the rates in the morning show than in the afternoon shows. Fifthly, there is geographical or local discrimination when a monopolist sells in one market at a higher price than in the other market. Lastly, discrimination may he based on the use of the on pet animals, product.
Railways charge different rates for essay offenders, different compartments or for on pet animals, different services. Less is charged for the transportation of paper, coal than for bales of cloth on the same route. State power boards charge low rates for industrial use than for on pet, domestic consumption of electricity. Essay # 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination: For price discrimination to thesis, exist the essay, following conditions must be satisfied: Price discrimination is essay offenders possible when there is some degree of market imperfection. The individual seller is able to divide and keep his market into separate parts only if it is essay imperfect. Customers do not move readily from one market to the other because of ignorance or inertia. (2) Agreement between Rival Sellers: Price discrimination also takes place when the best, seller of a commodity is a monopolist or when rivals enter into on pet an agreement for the sale of the product at short essay democracy different prices to different customers.
This is usually possible in the sale of direct services. A single surgeon may charge a high fee for an operation from a rich patient and essay on pet a relatively low fee from a poor patient. Lawyers charge from homework their clients in proportion to the degree of risk or amount of money involved in a law suit. Essay Animals! Price discrimination is possible in the case of services because there is no possibility of resale. (3) Geographical or Tariff Barriers: Discrimination may occur on geographical grounds. The monopolist may discriminate between home and foreign buyers by selling at a lower price in the foreign market than in the domestic market. This type of thesis, discrimination is known as “dumping”. It can only be successful if the commodities sold abroad can be prevented from being returned to the home country by tariff restrictions. Sometimes transport costs are so high that they act as a safeguard against the return of dumped goods. Discrimination is on pet animals possible when buyers need the thesis etymology, same service in connection with differentiated products.
Railways charge different rates for the transport of coal and copper. For they know that it is physically impossible for a copper merchant to convert copper into coal for the purpose of transporting it cheaper. It also applies to discrimination based on age, sex, status and income of essay animals, buyers of services. For instance, a rich man cannot become poor for the sake of getting cheap medical facilities. Discrimination also occurs when small manufacturers sell goods made to etymology, order. They charge different rates to essay on pet, different buyers depending upon nursing essays on obesity the intensity of their demand for the product. Shoe makers and tailors charge a high price for the same variety from those customers who want them earlier than others. For the same variety of shoes and clothes, different buyers are also charged different prices because individual buyers are not in a position to know the price being charged to others.
(6) Artificial Difference between Goods: A monopolist may create artificial difference by presenting the same commodity in different quantities. Essay On Pet Animals! He may present it under different names and labels, one for the rich and snobbish buyers and copy the other for the ordinary. Thus he may charge different prices for substantially the essay animals, same product. A washing soap manufacturer may wrap a small quantity of the soap, give it a separate name and charge a higher price. He may sell it at Rs.20 per kg. as against Rs.18 for the unwrapped soap. (7) Differences in essay form Demand Elasticity: For price discrimination, the demand in the separate markets must be considerably different. Different prices can be charged in separate markets based on differences of elasticity of demand.
Low price is charged where demand is more elastic and high price in the market with a less elastic demand. (4) Price Determination under Monopoly Discrimination: Price discrimination occurs when the monopolist divides the essay on pet animals, buyers of his commodity or service into two or more groups and charges a different price to each group. We take the case of a monopolist who sells his commodity in two separate markets. This analysis is based on the following conditions: (i) The aim of the monopolist is to maximise his profits. He, therefore, produces that output at which his marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Since he sells in two separate markets, he adjusts the quantity such wise in each market that marginal revenues in essay offenders both markets are equal. Given the marginal cost of producing the commodity, the most profitable monopoly output will be determined at essay on pet a point where the combined marginal revenue of both the markets equals the thesis etymology, marginal cost.
Or, monopoly profit = MR 1 = MR 2 = MC. If the marginal revenue is greater in market (one) than in market 2 (two), the monopolist will sell less to market 2 and essay shift this quantity to market 1. This will tend to raise the price in market 2 and lower it in market 1 up to a point where marginal revenues in the two markets are equal. (ii) The number of buyers in each market is very large and there is perfect competition among them. (iii) There is no possibility of resale from one market to the other. (iv) The monopolist’s demand curve in nursing each market is downward sloping which implies that his monopoly in selling the commodity is well established in the two markets. (v) Lastly, the most important condition for price discrimination is essay on pet that the elasticities of demand in the two markets must be different. It means that the price charged in each market must be different from the other. Thesis Etymology! The price will be high in the market with the on pet animals, less elastic demand and low in the market with the high elastic demand. Essay Offenders! In the animals, words of Joan Robinson: “The sub-markets will be arranged in ascending order of their elasticities, the highest price being charged in the least elastic market and the lowest price in the most elastic market.”
Figure 8 illustrates price and output determination under price discrimination. The monopolist sells his product in two markets, 1 and 2. Market 1 has high elastic demand for the product and thesis etymology market 2 has low elastic demand. Accordingly, the demand curve in market 1 is D 1 and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR 1 and in market 2 the corresponding curves are D 2 and MR 2 . Panel of the figure shows MR T , the total marginal revenue curve, drawn by the lateral summation of MR 1 , and MR 2 , curves, and MC is the on pet, marginal cost curve. The point of essay offenders, intersection between the MR T and MC curves at E determines the equilibrium level of output OQ T . The monopolist divides this output between the two markets by essay equating the best form government, marginal cost Q T E with the marginal revenue of essay on pet animals, each market. To equal the marginal costs Q T E with MR, and MR, draw a line EA parallel to the horizontal axis. It cuts MR, at E, and MR, at E 2 which become equilibrium points for the sale of output in each market. Othello Homework! Thus, the quantity sold in market 1 is OQ, and in market 2 it is OQ 2 , so that OQ 1 + OQ 2 equal the essay animals, total output OQ T . The price in the highly elastic (foreign) market is Q, P, and in the less elastic (domestic) market Q 2 P 2 and Q 2 P 2 Q 1 P 1 Total profits earned by the discriminating monopolist are MEC. We may conclude that under price discrimination the monopolist sells his product in two separate markets with different elasticities of demand so that he maximises his profits when he sells more at a lower price in thesis etymology the foreign market with elastic demand and on pet sells less at a higher price in domestic market with less elastic demand. It follows that when marginal revenues equal and prices differ in the two markets, price discrimination is possible and profitable. (5) Dumping: International Price Discrimination:
Dumping is international price discrimination in nursing which an exporter firm sells a portion of its output in a foreign market at a very low price and the remaining output at on pet a high price in thesis the home market. Essay Animals! The home market is controlled or protected and the foreign market is free or open. Heberler defines dumping as: “The sale of goods abroad at a price which is lower than the selling price of the same goods at the same time and in the same circumstances at home, taming account of differences in transport costs.” The analysis of price-output determination under dumping assumes that: (a) Total output is not fixed, it can be varied; (b) Marginal revenues must be equal in the two markets, and. (c) The foreign market is perfectly competitive and the home market is monopolistic, so that the help, demand curve facing the monopolistic in the foreign market is perfectly elastic and in the home market less elastic. Given, the above assumptions, price, output will be determined by the equality of the on pet, total marginal revenue curve and the marginal cost curve of producing the commodity. Figure 9 illustrates price-output determination under dumping. The foreign market demand curve faced by essay offenders the monopolist is the horizontal line PD F which is essay on pet animals also the MR curve because the foreign market is assumed to be perfectly elastic. The demand curve in the home market with a less elastic demand for copy book reports, the product is the downward sloping curve D H and on pet animals its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR^ The lateral summation of the MR H and PD curves leads to the formation of othello homework, TRED F as the combined marginal revenue curve.
In order to determine the quantity of the product to be produced by the monopolist, we take the marginal cost curve MC which cuts the combined marginal revenue curve TRED F from below at point E. Thus OF output will be produced for sale in the two markets. Since EF is the marginal cost, equilibrium in the domestic market will be established at point R where the marginal cost EF equals the MR H curve. Now OH quantity will be sold at HM price in the home market and essay on pet the remaining quantity HF will be sold in on obesity the foreign market at OP price. Thus the monopolist sells more in the foreign market with the more elastic demand at a low price and less in the home market with the less elastic demand at a high price. His total profits are TREC. Essay # 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination: Pigou and on pet animals John Robinson have analysed the circumstances under which price discrimination is harmful or beneficial to society. In many cases where there is perfect competition or simple monopoly, production of a certain commodity is not possible because its average cost curve lies above its demand (AR) curve. But under price discrimination the essay offenders, average cost curve is likely to be below the average revenue curve at some point.
Thus, if there were no discrimination, society would be deprived of the use of certain commodities and services. As emphasised by Mrs. Robinson: “It may happen, for essay animals, instance, that a railway would not be built, or a country doctor would not set up in practice, if discrimination were forbidden. From the point of homework help, view of society, it is essay only necessary that the nursing on obesity, concern should make sufficient profits to maintain the efficiency of the plant, and not a profit which would have been sufficient to animals, justify the original investment.” If a doctor charges a uniform fee to all his patients, his income may be so low as to induce him to leave his private practice and join some hospital. The community is essay offenders thus deprived of his services in the particular area where he is practising. If, however, he charges more fee to his rich patients than to the ordinarily, his income is likely to be so high as to induce him to stay in that area.
Similarly, the existence of railways depends upon their charging higher rates to some customers than to others in the same train. If discrimination occurs under conditions of falling average costs, it is actually beneficial to essay on pet animals, consumers because it results in larger output for the market. This is illustrated in nursing on obesity Figure 10 where D is the average revenue curve of the discriminating monopolist and d/MR is the ordinary demand curve which becomes the MR curve to the discriminator. The average cost curve AC lies above the market demand curve d throughout its length. Essay On Pet Animals! So no production is possible at thesis any price on essay the ordinary d curve.
But production is possible under price discrimination because the demand curve D of the discriminating monopolist lies above the downward sloping portion of the AC curve. Equilibrium is established at E where MC = MR and the output OQ is assignment design produced and sold at QP price and the discriminator g earns RP profits per essay on pet, unit of output. Price discrimination is justified if it helps in essay offenders promoting economic welfare. Governments usually permit or even encourage price discrimination if it leads to the production of some public utility service, such as telephone, telegraph, or rail transportation. In public utility services, the essay on pet animals, higher income groups are charged higher prices and essay offenders the funds so collected may be used to subsidies the goods meant for the poor. Price discrimination is also beneficial to society for it helps in reducing inequalities of personal incomes when higher prices or fees are charged to the rich than to the poor. In public utility services, the higher price charged to the higher income groups serves as a tool for income redistribution because the government may use these funds to subsidies the lower income groups. Thus price discrimination helps in promoting social warfare. Price discrimination is not only beneficial but is also justified when a country sells a commodity cheaper abroad than at home. If a foreign market is elastic, more will be sold at a lower price. It means expansion in output, the use of larger resources of the economy, more employment and income to the community.
Price discrimination of this type proves particularly useful if the essay, industry obeys the law of decreasing costs. It implies the realisation of larger economies of scale, lowering of costs and prices to nursing on obesity, the home market also. It is possible that without price discrimination the commodity would not have been produced at all. In that case, had it been imported from abroad, it would have cost the economy more both in pecuniary and real terms. Some of the country’s resources being used for the production of this commodity would have remained idle and instead of receiving income from abroad, its wealth would have floated to the other country. May be, economies of scales could be realised only when the monopolist started producing for the foreign market.
Hence price discrimination is justified. Essay # 9. Harms of Price Discrimination : Price discrimination is, however, harmful to essay, society when it leads to mal-distribution of resources as between different uses with the democracy best form, result that output, employment and on pet animals income are not maximised. It may lead to the diversion of resources from their socially optimal uses. It leads to exploitation when people are made to pay higher prices for smaller quantities. Even on international plane when price discrimination takes to form of essay offenders, dumping, it. Deliberately shatters the economy of the other country by undercutting the foreign producers and forcing them to close their business.
Such discrimination is highly undesirable. Essay # 10. On Pet Animals! Control and Regulation of Monopoly: There are three methods of controlling and regulating monopoly : First, government may adopt anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. Second, government may either run natural monopolies directly or regulate monopolies by imposing price ceilings. Essay Offenders! Third, government may regulate monopolies through taxation. Besides, there are certain fears that prevent the animals, monopolist from charging a very high price in order to earn large super-normal profits. Othello! They are discussed as under. (1) Fear of Potential Rivals. The fear of essay animals, potential competitors may prevent a monopolist to charge a very high price to his customers.
If he sets a vary high price, he will earn large super-normal profits. Attracted by these monopoly profits, new entrants may force themselves into the monopolised industry. The monopolist, being averse to the entry of new firms, would prefer to charge a reasonable price and thus earn only a modest profit. (2) Fear of Government Regulation. The same consideration applies to potential government regulation.
The monopolist is well aware that charging unusually high prices or earning abnormal profits would attract the attention of the government. Othello Help! Rather than risk government regulation, he may voluntarily fix a low price, and earn less monopoly profit. (3) Fear of Nationalisation. The fear of nationalisation also prevents the animals, monopolist to wield an absolute monopoly power. If the product or service which the monopolist provides is a public utility service, there is etymology every likelihood of the essay on pet animals, state taking over the monopoly organisation in public interest.
This consideration may prevent the monopolist from charging too high a price. (4) Fear of Public Reaction. Democracy Form! The monopolist is also aware of public reaction if he charges a very high price and earns huge profits. Voices may be raised against the monopoly firm in parliament to on pet animals, press for anti- monopoly legislation. (5) Fear of Boycott. People may even boycott the use of monopolised service and start their own service instead. For instance, if in paper design a big city taxi operators combine to charge high rates, people may boycott taxi service and even start operating their own services by forming a cooperative society. Naturally, such a fear compels monopoly firms to essay, charge reasonable prices and earn only nominal profits.
(6) Fear of Substitutes. Then there is the fear of substitutes. In fact, the fear of thesis etymology, substitutes is the most potent factor which prevents monopoly firms from charging very high prices and thereby earn super-normal profits. The monopoly product has some substitute though it is essay animals not a close substitute. Essay Offenders! Therefore, the fear of the emergence of very close substitutes is always uppermost in essay on pet animals the mind of the monopolist which acts as a restraint on his absolute power. (7) Differences in Elasticities of Demand.
The differences in the short-and long-run elasticities of demand for the monopoly product also limit monopoly power. In the othello, short-run, the monopolist can charge a very high price because customers take time to adjust their habits, tastes and incomes to some other substitutes. The demand for the monopoly product is, therefore, less elastic in the short-run. But in the long-run, the fear of public opinion, emergence of substitutes, government regulations, etc. will force the monopolist to set a low price. He will view his demand curve as elastic, and sell more at a low price.” (i) Control of Monopoly through Legislation: Government tries to control monopoly by anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. These measures tend to: (i) Remove restrictive trade practices and fixation of high prices; (ii) Reduce the incidence of market-sharing agreements; (Hi) Remove unfair competition; (iv) Restrict the control of very large share of the market; (v) Prevent unfair price discrimination; (vi) Restrict mergers in order to animals, avoid market domination; and. (vii) Prohibit exclusive agreements between the producer and retailer to the detriment of other traders. (ii) Control of Monopoly through Price Regulation:
We now take the case where the government feels that monopoly price is essays on obesity very high and tries to bring it down by price regulation. To regulate monopoly, the government imposes price ceiling so that monopoly price should be near or equal to on pet animals, competitive price. This is paper design done when the government appoints a regulating authority or commission which fixes a price for the monopoly product below the monopoly price, thereby increasing output and lowering the essay animals, price for the consumer. This is illustrated in Figure 11. Before the regulation of monopoly price, the monopolist is design making PF x OM profits by selling OM output at MP (=OA) price. Suppose the state regulatory authority sets the maximum price QK (=OB) at the competitive level.
The new demand curve facing the essay on pet animals, monopolist becomes BKD. Essay Offenders! Its corresponding MR curve becomes BKHMR. Now the essay animals, monopolist behaves as a perfectly competitive producer. He produces and sells OQ output at on obesity point where the MC curve cuts the BKHMR curve from below. As a result of price regulation, the monopolist increases his output to OQ from OM. He still makes super- normal profits equal to KG x OQ that are smaller than the monopoly profits (PF x OM) at the unregulated price MP.
If the essay animals, price regulatory authority fixes the monopoly price WS equal to the average cost where the AC curve cuts the D/AR curve at point S, the monopolist would be able to place a greater quantity of output OW in copy the market. At this level, the monopolist would earn only normal profits. In such a situation, the monopolist would continue to produce so long as he is getting a fair return on his capital investment. But the essay on pet, regulatory authority cannot force him to increase output beyond OW because the monopolist would not be operating at a loss. (iii) Control of Monopoly through Taxation: Taxation is another way of controlling monopoly power. The tax may be levied lump-sum without any regard to the output of the monopolist. Or, it may be proportional to the output, the amount of tax rising with the increase in output. By levying a lump-sum tax, the government can reduce or even eliminate monopoly profits without affecting either the price or output of the product. Help! A lump-sum tax imposed on essay on pet animals the monopoly firm is assignment paper shown in Figure 12 where AC and MC are the average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax is levied. The monopolist earns APRT super-normal profits by selling OM product at MP Price.
The imposition of the lump-sum tax is, in fact, a fixed cost to the monopoly firm because it is independent of output. It, therefore, raises the average cost by the amount of the tax TC so that the AC curve shifts upward as AC ] but the marginal cost remains unaffected. So the imposition of a lump-sum tax has the effect of reducing monopoly profit from APRT to APBC. The entire burden of the tax will be borne by the monopolist himself. He cannot shift any part of it to his customers at any stage by raising the price and reducing output. Since the monopolist’s marginal cost curve and the marginal revenue curve remain unaffected by the tax imposition, any change in the existing price- output combination would only lead to losses. The government can also reduce monopoly profits by essay animals levying a specific or a per unit tax on essay offenders the monopolist’s product. A per unit tax on monopoly output has the effect of shifting both the average and essay marginal cost curves upward by the amount of the tax.
Figure 13 illustrates this case. AC and MC are the monopoly firm’s average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax imposition. It earns BPGK monopoly profits by selling OM quantity of the product at short essay democracy best form government UP price. Suppose a the government levies a specific tax which being a variable cost to the monopoly firm tends to shift the cost curves upward to AC 1 and MC 1 . The monopolist’s new equilibrium point is E 1 where the MC 1 curve cuts the MR curve. The new price is M 1 P 1 MP (the old price) and the output is OM 1 OM (the original output). In this case, the essay on pet animals, monopolist is able to shift a part of the tax burden to consumers in the form of etymology, higher price and a smaller output of the product. Since the monopolist has to essay on pet, bear a portion of the tax burden him, his profits are also reduced from BPGK to RP 1 CF. Such a tax does not help in regulating monopoly price and output. For the higher, the demand elasticity of tax, the higher the price for the product and the lower the output. The ultimate loss will be borne by the public rather than by the monopolist. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net!
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