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Essay on european imperialism in africa

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History: World/ Eugenics term paper 17639. Since the end of the essay on european imperialism in africa, 19th century, eugenics has had a significant role in the development of Western society. There have been laws established by its presence and a war fought to cease its progress. To analyze the philosophy of and the actions due to eugenics, one must look at the past and see what contributions eugenics has made to events in history. One must also look at the present applications of eugenics and how they affect the lives of people. With these two directions, one can see that because it is racist, encourages immoral actions and animation, is biologically unsound, eugenics is iniquitous and should be abolished from modern medical and imperialism, political thought. In 1883, Sir Francis Galton developed a so called science that dealt with the manner in which the human population could be improved. Examples Of Conclusion Paragraphs Papers. Galton thought that a pure race would make all population problems on essay on european earth obsolete and therefore contribute to an increased longevity of the human race. Photosythesis Animation. He called it the science of on european imperialism in africa, eugenics, a word derived from the Greek eugenes, meaning well born.

He published the aspects of his new science in his book Hereditary Genius in 1869, establishing the roots and importance of his theories. Galton had admired how horticulturists tried to improve the plant system by encouraging reproduction between the strongest species. He decided that this could be done with humans in the same way. Galton once wrote that the point of eugenics was to drug addiction and abuse essay, give the essay, more suitable races or strains of blood a better chance of critical situations, prevailing speedily over the less suitable (Chase, p.13). Essay Imperialism. Galton wrote in a time where the industrial revolution had brought along some new medical advancements that decreased the death rate among newborn babies. These new technologies however were only critical, given to the upper classes at on european in africa first. Julius Ceaser Essay. As a result, the upper classes had a lower birth-rate as they were more confident in keeping their children alive. This scared Galton, seeing this change as a threat to essay imperialism, humanity as he believed that it meant there would be more lower class citizens in the future, thus decreasing the average level of society. These ideas came from the fact that he believed the cheating, old theories that the poor received infectious diseases, were illiterate and generally uneducated because it was this way in their blood. He also looked at imperialism in africa the most important people in society such as judges, politicians and scientists and decided that they were all biologically alike.

He saw that they were all Caucasian and mostly Nordic, which makes sense since he conducted his studies in England. It then logically follows that he believed that the social pyramid was and should be dominated by Caucasians, at the top of which reigned the Nordics. Galton thus encouraged reproduction among upper class citizens to eugenically encourage this hereditarily superior race to fend off the increasing number of inferior, poorer breeds. Examples For Research. He not only concentrated on economic factors when dividing the people but on racial factors as well. Galton believed that he had created a new science and thus proceeded to develop its scientific components.

He created a scale from A to X, X being the highest and A the lowest, grading different aspects of human beings. Essay In Africa. It was also based on julius rarity; an individual in the V-class appeared every 300 births and essay in africa, was therefore assured a successful life while an individual in the C-class appeared every 16 births, placing him in the ranks of the common folk. There was a different system however for the Negroes. Galton once said, classes E and F of the Negro may roughly be considered as the olaudah equiano, equivalent of our C and D-a result which again points to on european in africa, the conclusion that the average intellectual standard of the Negro race is some two grades below our own(Galton, P.327). Essay. He also said that, the Jews are specialized for parasitical existence upon other nations, showing that his science was to be partially derived from personal, self-admiring beliefs. Galton's theories were accepted by many high-profile people in on european imperialism in africa most industrial countries but the type of eugenics practiced was slightly different and over time became entirely different philosophies. The first difference between eugenic practices around the world is the type of eugenics practiced. There are two types: positive eugenics and ceaser, negative eugenics. The latter involves the expulsion of people that are racially deficient. Many such techniques have been practiced in history. Positive eugenics improves humans by encouraging the reproduction of fit humans or by genetically improving a person.

Unfortunately, although positive eugenics is regarded as a better technique, it tends to bring on negative eugenics, which causes many problems. It seems as though one cannot be present without the other. In history, this happened in some of the most respected countries. Galton created, in England, The National Eugenics Education Society in essay on european imperialism in africa 1907, with followers such as Winston Churchill and Harold Laski. In Canada, a group called the Eugenics Society of Canada was put together in 1930, and in papers the United States, many different divisions of the Galton Society came together in 1923. They formed the on european imperialism, American Eugenics Society.

It is here and in animation Nazi Germany that the most interesting events took place; where the eugenics movement became almost synonymous to a religious faith. In the essay on european imperialism in africa, United States, a Eugenics society was not needed in order for situations, people to believe in it. Ten years before the essay, Eugenics Society was created, President Theodore Roosevelt wrote, it is obvious that if in essay about the future racial qualities are to be improved, the improving must be wrought mainly by favoring the fecundity of the worthy types(Chase, p.15). In the United States, this favoring became a new type of racism, labeling all non-Nordic immigrants as less suitable races. There had also been many laws established, allowing the imperialism in africa, sterilization of julius ceaser, deviants and deficients. The first such law was created in Indiana in 1907, followed by 27 other States in the next 30 years.

These laws gave the imperialism in africa, permission to life situations, the individual States to forcefully sterilize all confirmed criminals, idiots, rapists and imbeciles By 1964, 63, 678 forced sterilizations had been performed under sterilization laws in 28 American States. In order for the purification of the American population to occur, it had to essay imperialism, be determined who were the intelligent races and who were the idiots. Persuasive Essay Cheating In School. As a result, a group of psychologists introduced the idea of testing, using IQ tests, the intelligence of all army recruits during the First World War. On European In Africa. Carl Brigham, a member of this group, then published his book, A Study of American Intelligence, showing that the julius ceaser essay, Nordic Races were indeed more intelligent than the other races. He concluded that the average mental age of White individuals was 13 years and on european imperialism in africa, that of Black individuals was 10 years. Addiction. It was then accepted by the American public that the Blacks were the unclean race and in africa, the whites were the honorable race. Galton's theories were therefore proven by these tests and were doubtlessly accepted by many psychologists, not only by the naive public. When Calvin Coolidge became President in 1924, he signed the Immigration Restriction Act, which limited, in life situations percentage, the entrance of immigrants according to the American Census of 1890.

He tried to, Keep America American, as he stated when he was the imperialism in africa, vice-president. The attitude being developed in the United States was one slightly different from Galton's. It was concerned with the invasion of the country by inferior races rather than Galton's idea of the upper class being threatened by pauperism. However, eugenics in Germany also took on thinking life a new look compared to Galton's theories. Essay Imperialism In Africa. In fact, when the nazi party came into power in 1933, they exercised eugenic ideas to the point of causing the Second World War. Drug Addiction Essay. The Nazis exercised their power long before their election however, something that people fail to realize. The man in charge of the purification of the German race was Heinrich Himmler, the Reichfuhrer SS as of 1929. He had a fleet of 300 men who would be responsible for purifying the essay in africa, German race. Himmler decided that the persuasive in school, whole country was to be examined in essay on european order to find out exactly how many Germans were actually of the authentic race before he could accurately control them. Hans Gunther decided that this race of heroes had the following characteristics: Tall, long head, narrow face, well-defined chin, narrow nose with very high root, soft fair hair, receding light eyes, and pink white skin colour(Hillel, p. 24). Himmler was thus searching for descendants of the tribes of Denmark, on which he was to base his ideal race, the Teutonic race.

The SS army was also to be comprised of only such Teutonic specimens. In late 1931, the thinking, RuSHA (Head Office for Race and Settlement) was created, which was to essay on european imperialism, be responsible for the eugenic movement during the Third Reich. Its initial role was that of a propaganda machine. Slogans were posted up on walls, warning of mixing Aryan and inferior blood. Much like the American ideas, Nazi leaders thought that the photosythesis animation, degradation of the German race was due to the incorporation of mostly Jewish blood into imperialism in africa, it. This led to the publication of the Nuremberg laws in critical thinking situations 1935 that forbade marriage, and essay on european imperialism in africa, sexual relations between Jews and citizens of German blood(Hillel, p. 28). The RuSHA also encouraged a breeding program developed by Dr.

Wilhelm Schallmayer. It was composed of eight main points that basically encouraged Aryan women to have many children and to do nothing else. Schallamayer also encouraged SS soldiers, who had been judged as perfect human beings to have many wives. The doctor did not want to simply encourage his points, but he wanted permanent eugenic control of the German population. This doctor became a driving force in ceaser the creation of the essay on european imperialism in africa, concentration camps as well as the about, Lebensborns.

In 1935, the Lebensborn Registered Society came into existence. Lebensborns were establishments that housed Aryan women, whose basic responsibilities were to on european, produce children. They were originally designed to house pregnant widows or orphan girls. Women thus flocked to cheating, them as they were thought to give great services. However, they soon became brothels where Aryan men could go and essay on european imperialism in africa, conceive racially appropriate children for the State.

They often married the women but breeding was the emphasis since according to Himmler, the Lebensborns' founder, a marriage without many children is no more than an affair (Hillel, p. 48). Photosythesis Animation. Not any woman could be taken in to a Lebensborn however. She had to be young, attractive, slim and of course, Aryan. For this reason, 50 percent of the in africa, pregnant women who applied to Lebensborns were rejected. As the number of Lebensborns grew, they were officially taken over by the SS in 1936. The Nazi party thus had complete power over them. The SS soldiers would find Jewish run orphanages, take them over, sending the Jews to concentration camps and of conclusion paragraphs for research papers, killing those who would not readily go. They would then fill up the buildings with young girls destined to be child-bearers.

Soon, Aryan girls were being kidnapped from Poland, Czechoslovakia, and other Northern European countries. In fact, 100 000 girls were taken from Poland alone. Truly harsh deeds were done to them. For example, they were given drugs in essay on european imperialism in africa order to achieve puberty earlier. Julius Essay. This would make them capable of having more children. Also, racially inadequate children, perhaps conceived by non-Aryan men, would be sent off to on european imperialism, be tossed on flaming heaps of garbage in ceaser the Nazi concentration camps. These concentration camps were perhaps the most brutal and most notorious acts of the Nazi party that involved eugenic ideas. Essay. The Lebensborns were responsible for the reproduction of racially adequate Germans and the concentration camps were responsible for the extermination of the racially inferior. Many people were gassed, shot and even buried alive.

By 1945, there had been 6 million Jews and persuasive essay cheating, approximately 2 million non-Jews killed in concentration camps. The Holocaust was perhaps the most repulsive government operation in the history of the essay on european in africa, world. Critical Thinking. Since this event, eugenics has been looked upon in an entirely different way. As seen, Eugenics has been quite a driving force in the history of essay on european in africa, modern civilization. Such events in the United States and Europe are still shocking and disgusting, even to people who have been hearing about them for many years. This shows how negative eugenics can ultimately destroy the harmony between members of a diverse society. Although most reputable eugenic practices have been practiced in the past, there are still many different customs that can be filed under eugenic behaviour. The new type of eugenics involves much more science.

The increased knowledge in the field of genetics and heredity has made it possible to accurately predict the medical future of a child before it is born or even fertilized. In this way, a doctor can see that a child will have a genetic disorder and can prepare the parents for the child's birth. The general term for these practices is genetic counseling. This is an umbrella term which includes in vitro fertilization, artificial insemination, amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling. In vitro fertilization and artificial insemination are techniques that were originally created in order to overcome infertility among couples. In vitro fertilization involves fertilizing an egg outside a woman's body and later inserting it into essay, the uterus.

Artificial insemination involves placing sperm inside a female in order to fertilize an egg. Due to eugenic ideals, these techniques have become a way of producing racially or intellectually superior children. For example, Hermann J. Muller, an American Nobel-prize winning biologist suggested that a few outstanding males could be used for essay on european imperialism, breeding with many women. This would create many strong, beautiful and intelligent children. This led to Robert K. Graham's suggestion to keep Nobel-prize winners' sperm frozen in olaudah sperm banks such as his 1971 Hermann J. Muller Repository for Germinal Choice, dedicated to his mentor. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling are surgical procedures that help determine if a f?tus will be healthy after birth. Essay On European Imperialism In Africa. Amniocentesis consists of critical life, extracting some of the amniotic fluid using a needle. Essay In Africa. The liquid contains some shed cells from the f?tus and therefore can be evaluated to see if there are any genetic disorders. Julius Ceaser Essay. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is essentially the on european imperialism in africa, same thing but instead of essay about equiano, extracting liquid, a piece of the membrane surrounding the f?tus is removed and evaluated.

Another difference is that amniocentesis can only be performed five months into the pregnancy whereas CVS can be used only 9 weeks after fertilization. Amniocentesis and CVS have also become eugenic procedures as the main concern of doctors is if the parents should have the baby. Most genetically unfit f?tuses end up being aborted. Therefore, the unfit are rejected which is a characteristic of in africa, eugenics. Although it has, until now, been portrayed as a universally accepted concept, eugenics has been critiqued since its dawn in England.

For example, scientists have rejected it because of its unscientific practices and pro-life advocates rejected its use of critical thinking situations, abortion. Even though these groups have slightly different perspectives on essay on european the issue, one can see that they all have the same basic concern. They want eugenics, as it has been practiced until now, to be abolished. Scientifically speaking, most critiques of eugenics are consequentialists. All these people think about when judging eugenic actions are their consequences. The main scientific objection to eugenics is the fact that human crossbreeding is a great contributor to genetic variation. By having many different types of genes, a human can more easily adapt to its environment. However, if a pure race is produced, many of the genes responsible for effective adadtation may disappear from the essay cheating in school, human gene pool. In this way, in the future, humans could not adapt to an increased global temperature, for example, and on european, the population could be severely depleted. Therefore, keeping the gene pool diverse could represent a longer duration of human life. Similarly, there is a belief that genes that are harmful in critical thinking life the homozygous (double dose) state, they may be helpful in the heterozygous (single dose) state.

Therefore, removing these genes from humanity by on european sterilizing or killing all carriers may be harmful to other people who could benefit from the julius ceaser, heterozygous state of the gene. Before scientists can begin to eliminate certain genes, they must know exactly what role each gene plays in an individual. It is perhaps possible to on european, obtain this information, but humanity is very far from photosythesis achieving this type of knowledge. Therefore, scientists should let nature take its course as people have done for millions of years. There is also a concern that gene mutations can be eliminated in other ways instead of essay on european imperialism in africa, eliminating the genes themselves. For example, it has been discovered that radiation is a great contributor to gene mutations. North Americans might think that this only applies to victims of olaudah, Hiroshima but in fact, X rays such as those in all North American hospitals and doctors' offices, have much greater mutative effects on a population gene pool than that of Hiroshima. Imperialism. In this way, abolishing X-ray machines could inhibit new mutations to occur. Photosythesis. Thus, eugenic practices would be unnecessary. The Catholic Church also rejects most eugenic practices. John-Paul II once wrote that No biologist or doctor can reasonably claim, by virtue of his scientific competence, to be able to decide on people's origin and destiny(John Paul II, p.14).

In essence, this is what eugenicists do. Essay On European In Africa. They judge who should live and who should die. The Pope also wrote that no one can, in any circumstance, claim for photosythesis, himself the right to on european imperialism in africa, destroy directly an innocent human being(John Paul II, p. 16). This statement directly attacks Nazi holocaust as well as the sterilization laws of the early 20th century. By sterilizing a person, one is essentially destroying the lives of future children. As stated earlier, no doctor can decide if these children should be born or not, therefore eugenic sterilization is essentially wrong. These opinions are rooted deeply in the Catholic Faith as it is believed that all humans are the temples of God and that they are created in his image. The body as it is in nature thus must be the standard of biological good.

In this way, any genetic tampering or physical harm inflicted on the body is actually interfering with what God wants for drug and abuse, human beings. Therefore, Catholics believe that eugenics is iniquitous. Catholics also have a strong opinion on natural human rights. For example, the Charter of the Rights of the Family, published by the Holy See, states that, Human life must be absolutely respected and protected from the moment of conception(Holy See, 4). This statement places a delicacy upon the modern eugenic practices such as amniocentesis and artificial insemination. These customs could be regarded as sinful by the above statement as it is interference with the natural birth process devised by God. However, therapeutic interventions such as the ones mentioned are not completely wrong, according to Pope John Paul II.

He stated in essay in africa 1983, at the 35th General Assembly of the World Medical Association that, A strictly therapeutic intervention whose explicit objective is the healing of various maladies such as those stemming from chromosomal defects will, in animation principle, be considered desirable, provided it is directed to the true promotion of the personal well-being of the essay on european, individual without doing harm to essay, his integrity or worsening his conditions of essay imperialism in africa, life. Such an intervention would indeed fall within the logic of the Christian moral tradition. (John Paul II, p. 22) The problem though is the fact that the eugenic use of therapeutic intervention usually leads to abortion. Therefore, the Catholic Church disapproves of eugenics, and its use of ceaser essay, intervention on f?tuses. As seen, the on european in africa, eugenic movement is completely opposed to the beliefs encouraged by thinking life the Catholic Church. Essay Imperialism. Some people would say that the photosythesis animation, Church is exaggerating its conservative values, which tends to be a common comment these days, but when one truly thinks about what the Church is opposing, one can see that its objections are well conceived. In fact, there are also other elements that make eugenics a truly immoral activity.

Perhaps the foremost problem with eugenics is the fact that the people in on european in africa charge of the projects decide the addiction essay, fate of others. This totally contradicts the ancient and still reasonable idea of human rights. By these rights, an individual is allowed to make his own choices that determine the fate of himself and his family. In a eugenic system, the whole population is on european in africa, considered a whole body. When part of the population gets sick, they are sterilized and they die without reproducing themselves. This is like cutting off a baby finger when it is diseased; it does not hurt the whole body . The population is not a whole body however, it is a society where each person is an individual human being. In this way, eugenic practices threaten the existence of human rights and critical thinking situations, therefore should be abolished. Eugenics is also a very useful science for powerful villains. All eugenic practices, as seen in the past, have been based on the personal feelings of the leader of the society involved. Essay Imperialism. For example, if Hitler had been an atheist, he would have killed religious people and if he had hated Orientals, he would have killed them.

Eugenics seems to be an easy way for powerful people to act against persuasive cheating in school, their enemies. This is wrong since no person has the on european in africa, right to julius ceaser, expose another person to suffering or death simply because of who they are. This is truly prejudiced and without a doubt immoral. Unfortunately, some people disregard this natural right. Racism is on european, a big part of eugenics as well as eugenicists determine that a certain group is more fit to live than another. Critical Thinking Life. This means that some individuals are more important than others.

Since God created all humans equal, then it is outright impossible for essay imperialism in africa, a person to examples of conclusion paragraphs for research, be inferior to another. Therefore racism is iniquitous and essay in africa, should not be a part of eugenics. However, it is difficult to about, have eugenics without racism. Imperialism In Africa. If a perfect race was discovered, the unforgettable fact is that no sane person would accept his own to examples paragraphs for research, be inferior. Even if it was proven by essay legitimate tests, that person would do anything to photosythesis, avoid suffering, which, for the racially unfit, is the ultimate end of eugenic practices. Imperialism. As a result, whoever is the authority of the research tests will ultimately choose another race to julius, be eliminated. Essay On European. Therefore, there is extreme racism when eugenics comes into people's heads. Biologically and about olaudah, ecologically speaking, eugenics is essay on european, a very uncertain practice.

Humans have been alive for millions of years now, without ever tampering with their biological makeup. They simply let nature do its job. Now, by looking at everything that humans have developed, one can then see that letting evolution function by itself is thinking life, not a bad thing. In fact, it is probably the wisest thing to do. Scientists tend to think that they know all the essay on european imperialism, consequences of eugenic practices but actually, this is essay about olaudah equiano, impossible. On European In Africa. The human being and its society are too complex for people to examples of conclusion papers, know the effect of every minute change. Essay On European Imperialism. A small variation in the gene pool could cause some major problems. Thinking Life. Therefore, humans should simply let nature do its job in essay on european preserving the life of humans, just as it has for millions of years.

Who knows, scientists might be lowering the survival rate of humanity by tampering with its natural biological processes. As seen, because eugenics is biologically unsound, encourages racial inequality and includes immoral actions, eugenics is iniquitous and olaudah equiano, should no longer be performed. If eugenics ever became a driving force in society, there would be racial, biological and moral disputes everywhere. The fact of the matter is that eugenic conclusions cannot satisfy everyone. There must be a triumphant party as well as a failing one. Naturally, the failing group would not give up its fight and larger disputes would arise. Ultimately, this could lead to World War III, and, considering the presence of nuclear weapons, the destruction of the essay on european in africa, world. In this way, the addiction, science concerned with the on european in africa, amelioration the condition of humanity would ultimately be responsible for its destruction. Chase, Allan The Legacy of Malthus: the Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism New York: The Random House, 1976. Eugenics New Catholic Encyclopedia, 1st Edition (1967), Volume V, pp.

627-629. Garrigan, Owen Man's Intervention in essay Nature New York: Hawthorn Books, 1967. Henton, Darcy, $740,000 Awarded for Sterilization, The Toronto Star (January 26, 1996), p. Essay. A 2. Henton, Darcy, Faith in Eugenics Ran Deep in Alberta The Toronto Star (February 11, 1996), p. F 1. Hillel, Marc Of Pure Blood New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1976. Hilton, Bruce Ethical Issues in Human Genetics New York: Plenum Press, 1973. Hillel, Marc Of Pure Blood New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1976.

John Paul II Respect for Human Life in Its Origin and the Dignity of Procreation Sherbrooke: Les Editions Paulines, 1987. Kevles, Daniel J. In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and essay, the Use of essay on european in africa, Human Heredity Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. McLaren, Angus Our Own Master Race: Eugenics in Canada, 1885-1945 Toronto: McClelland Stewart Inc., 1990. Packard, Vance Oakley The People Shapers Boston: Brown Little, 1977. Rey, Alain Le Petit Robert 2 Montreal: Les Dictionnaires Robert - Canada, 1987. Word Count: 4014. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and cheating in school, professional projects. Every paper is essay on european in africa, written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind.

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Selbst bei Gleichwertigkeit des auslandischen Studienabschlusses kann der zustandige Promotionsausschuss die Zulassung zur Promotion von weiteren Zulassungskriterien, wie z.B. Essay Olaudah. dem Dissertationswissenschaftsgebiet fachlich zusammenhangende Bildungsauflagen, abhangig machen. Hierbei ist auch zu beachten, dass Bewerber, dessen Muttersprache nicht Deutsch ist, haufig deutsche Sprachkenntnisse vorweisen konnen mussen, sofern die Dissertation in on european, Deutsch verfasst werden soll. Paragraphs. Sofern die Dissertation in imperialism, einer anderen Sprache als Deutsch angefertigt werden sollte, kann dieser Nachweis entfallen. Julius Ceaser Essay. Hierzu erhalten Sie nahere Erlauterungen in essay on european, den entsprechenden Promotionsordnungen. Eine wissenschaftliche Betreuung durch einen Doktorvater/einer Doktormutter/einem Betreuungsteam ist bei jedem Promotionsvorhaben unabdingbar. Sobald der Doktorvater/die Doktormutter die Betreuung angenommen haben, verpflichten sich diese, dem Doktoranden/der Doktorandin bei der Erstellung der Dissertation unterstutzend und fachlich beratend zur Seite zu stehen. Photosythesis Animation. Selbiges gilt auch fur das Betreuungsteam, welches ferner Ansprechpartner fur weitergehende Aspekte der Betreuung ist (bspw. Unterstutzung beim Auswahlen von Qualifizierungsangeboten). In den jeweiligen Promotionsordnungen der Fakultaten und Fachbereiche ist festgelegt, welcher Personenkreis fur die Betreuung des Doktoranden/der Doktorandin infrage kommen.

Regelma?ig handelt es sich hierbei um (Junior-)Professoren, Hochschul-, Universitats- oder Privatdozenten der promotionsfuhrenden Universitat. Essay. In einem kooperativen Promotionsverfahren kann die Betreuung der Dissertation auch in essay about olaudah, Beteiligung eines promovierten Fachhochschulprofessors/einer promovierten Fachhochschulprofessorin vorgenommen werden. Finden einer Betreuerin/eines Betreuers. Grundsatzlich ist es wichtig, dass Ihr Doktorvater/Ihre Doktormutter auf das Themengebiet Ihrer Doktorarbeit spezialisiert ist. Jedoch muss neben der fachlichen Kongruenz selbstverstandlich auch die Sympathie berucksichtigt werden, da auch die zwischenmenschliche Beziehung fur eine erfolgreiche Promotion ausschlaggebend ist. Essay In Africa. Folgende Punkte konnen in Bezug auf die Betreuersuche hilfreich sein: - Internetseiten der Fakultaten bzw. Critical Life Situations. Fachbereiche, ggf. Essay On European In Africa. Internetseiten der Lehrstuhlinhaber/innen.

- Internetseiten der Universitat zum Thema Promotion. - Forschungsprojekte (lfd. oder abgeschlossen) und an diesen beteiligte Wissenschaftler/innen. - Forschungsschwerpunkte der Graduiertenschulen und -kollegs. - Doktorandenforen und -netzwerke. In den meisten Fallen kommt man mit einem geeigneten Betreuer/einer geeigneten Betreuerin in animation, Kontakt, sofern man mehrere Informationsquellen nutzt. Essay Imperialism In Africa. Da auch hier die Moglichkeit besteht, dass fur Ihr Promotionsvorhaben mehrere Wissenschaftler/Wissenschaftlerinnen infrage kommen, ist ein personliches Gesprach zwingend erforderlich, da hier geklart werden kann, welcher Betreuer/welche Betreuerin fur Sie an geeignetsten ist. Eine direkte Kontaktaufnahme ist durchaus moglich, doch auch eine Kontaktaufnahme uber das Dekanat der Fakultat kommt in persuasive cheating in school, Frage. Essay On European In Africa. Grundsatzlich ist eine sehr gute Vorbereitung auf Gesprache mit eventuellen Betreuern/Betreuerinnen wichtig, da man sich neben dem organisatorischen Verlauf der Betreuung auch nach Regelma?ig- und Haufigkeit sowie dem Umfang der Betreuungsgesprache erkundigen sollte. Vorgenanntes sollte in einer Betreuungsvereinbarung festgehalten werden; dies wird durch etliche Promotionsordnungen so auch vorgesehen.

Betreuung durch Fachhochschulprofessoren/Fachhochschulprofessorinnen. Die Universitaten und gleichwertigen Hochschulen geben immer ofters die Moglichkeit, dass Fachhochschulprofessoren/-professorinnen aktiv an ceaser essay dem Promotionsverfahren teilnehmen konnen. Eine Bestellung des Fachhochschulprofessors/der -professorin zum Gutachter/zur Gutachterin ist durchaus auch moglich. Auch die Mitbetreuung der Doktoranden/Doktorandinnen. On European. Dieses Verfahren hat sich unter dem Ausdruck „kooperatives Promotionsverfahren“ eingeburgert. Ihre Promotionsphase nimmt ihren Anfang mit der offiziellen Annahme als Doktorand/Doktorandin, welche durch die promotionsfuhrende Fakultat ausgesprochen wird. Sofern Sie die Voraussetzungen zur Promotion erfullt und die Betreuung Ihrer Dissertation bestatigt haben, werden Sie zur Promotion angenommen. Equiano. Die Annahme als Doktorand/Doktorandin muss vor Dissertationsbeginn schriftlich beantragt werden.

Da es sich bei der Dissertation um eine eigenstandige wissenschaftliche Leistung handelt, macht diese den Grundstein der Promotionsphase aus. Essay On European Imperialism In Africa. Die Dissertation wird regelma?ig als monographische, in critical thinking situations, sich abgeschlossene Abhandlung eines bestimmten Forschungsthemas – unter Berucksichtigung wissenschaftlicher Praxisregeln – erstellt. Essay In Africa. Sodann erfolgt eine Bewertung der Dissertation durch Gutachter/innen. Addiction And Abuse Essay. Eine Zulassung zur mundlichen Prufung erfolgt erst nach positiver Begutachtung Ihrer Dissertation und deren Annahme. In Africa. Bei der mundlichen Prufung handelt es sich um eine Promotionsleistung, welche grundsatzlich bestanden werden muss, da eine Promotion andernfalls nicht in examples paragraphs papers, Betracht kommt, die mundliche Prufung ist unausweichlich. Ein schriftlicher Antrag auf Annahme als Doktorand/in bei der zustandigen Fakultat ist moglich, sobald samtliche Zulassungsvoraussetzungen zur Promotion erfullt sind. Essay Imperialism. Hierbei ist auch die Angabe des geplanten Themas fur die Dissertation anzugeben. Examples. Ferner ist auch die schriftliche Bestatigung vorzulegen, innerhalb welcher der Doktorvater/die Doktormutter die Betreuungsbereitschaft anzeigt. Essay. Diesbezuglich ist es anzuempfehlen (dies ist auch von einigen Fakultaten vorgeschrieben), eine entsprechende Betreuungsvereinbarung zwischen Doktorvater/Doktormutter und dem/der Doktoranden/Doktorandin abzuschlie?en. Essay Equiano. In dieser Betreuungsvereinbarung sind die grundlegenden Anforderungen an essay imperialism die jeweilige Partei geregelt.

Unter anderem enthalt selbige Regelungen zur Zuordnung und Anzahl von Fach-Betreuern. Julius Ceaser Essay. Regelma?ig wird es so gehandhabt, dass es zwei Betreuer/innen gibt, wobei lediglich eine/r die Hauptbetreuung ubernimmt und der/die zweite als zusatzliche/r Ansprechpartner/in anzusehen ist. Essay On European In Africa. Ferner sind in persuasive essay in school, einer Betreuungsvereinbarung Angaben zu anderen Betreuungsinhalten geregelt. Essay In Africa. Hier kann man beispielsweise die Zwischenergebnisdokumentation oder die Haufigkeit der Kontakte, welche sich nach Fachdisziplin gravierend unterscheiden konnen, anbringen. Dem vorbenannten Antrag sind zumeist auch weitere Unterlagen beizufugen. Life Situations. Diese bestehen regelma?ig aus einem Lebenslauf, Studiumsnachweis, Erklarung uber bereits angefangene oder abgeschlossene Promotionen, amtlichem Fuhrungszeugnis und Betreuungszusage. Nahere Angaben hierzu findet man wiederum in essay on european in africa, den Promotionsordnungen der einzelnen Fakultaten.

Der Antrag sollte bereits vor Arbeitsbeginn an animation der Dissertation gestellt werden. Uber den Antrag auf Annahme als Doktorand/in wird durch den Promotionsausschuss entschieden. Sofern Sie daruber nachdenken, Ihre Doktorarbeit in einer anderen Sprache als der deutschen, oder sogar mit weiteren Promovierenden, zu verfassen, ist es empfehlenswert, sich hierzu die Zustimmung Ihrer Betreuerin/Ihres Betreuers einzuholen. Essay. Endgultig entschieden wird hier wiederum durch den zustandigen Promotionsausschuss. Durch Annahme als Doktorand/in wird lediglich die grundsatzliche Bereitschaft der Fakultat angezeigt, eine Dissertation uber das beabsichtigte Thema als wissenschaftliche Arbeit zu bewerten und den/die Doktoranden/Doktorandin bei der Erstellung der jeweiligen Arbeit zu unterstutzen und zu betreuen. Essay. Zu unterscheiden sind die Annahme als Doktorand/in von der Zulassung zur Promotionsprufung. Der Beginn der Dissertation (wissenschaftliche Abhandlung) ist davon abhangig, ob Sie die formalen Voraussetzungen erfullt und die Annahme zum Promotionsverfahren erreicht haben. Essay On European Imperialism In Africa. Der eigentliche Kern der Promotion ist die Dissertation. Critical Life. Die Dissertation die wichtigste Leistung. Imperialism In Africa. Zumeist wird eine Dissertation als Monographie verfasst, welche eine in essay, sich abgeschlossene und umfassende Abhandlung eines Forschungsthemas bedeutet.

Inhaltlich ist die Dissertation mit dem Betreuer/der Betreuerin vereinbart, wobei die Promovierenden hier bezuglich Planung und Durchfuhrung des Promotionsvorhabens selbst verantwortlich sind. On European Imperialism. Die Dissertation sollte dem neuesten Stand des Fachgebietes entsprechen; sie ist eine selbststandige Forschungsleistung. Julius Essay. Ferner sollte die Dissertation dem wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisgewinn dienen und sollte, da sie eine Einzelleistung ist, hohen wissenschaftlichen Anspruchen genugen. On European In Africa. Unterschiedlich ist auch – je nach Fachdisziplin – der experimentelle oder theoretische Anteil der Doktorarbeit. Julius Ceaser. Die Moglichkeit, die Doktorarbeit in on european in africa, einer anderen als der deutschen Sprache, oder mit anderen Promovierenden zusammen, ist durchaus gegeben. Essay. Innerhalb der Dissertation mussen alle Stellen deutlich kenntlich gemacht werden, die aus anderen Werken sinngema? (oder aber auch wortgetreu) ubernommen wurden. Essay On European In Africa. Bei einer gemeinsamen Dissertation ist es unumganglich, den einzelnen Beitrag einem der einzelnen Autoren/Autorinnen zuzuordnen; es muss eindeutig nachgewiesen und dokumentiert werden. Neben der monographischen Dissertation wird immer haufiger auch eine publikationsbasierte (kumulative) Doktorarbeit ermoglicht.

Hier besteht Hauptaugenmerk darauf, dass bei der kumulativen Doktorarbeit die Arbeiten in about equiano, einem inhaltlichen Zusammenhang stehen mussen, die einzelnen wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten jedoch weniger umfangreich sind. Summarisch mussen die einzelnen Promotionsleistungen den Anforderungen einer monographischen Dissertation in on european imperialism in africa, etwa gleich sein. Examples Of Conclusion. Durch die Fakultaten, welche eine kumulative Dissertation zulassen, werden jedoch sehr unterschiedliche Anforderungen bezuglich folgender Punkte gestellt: - Publikationsart (Buch, Zeitschrift, Manuskript) - aktueller Publikationsstatus (in Vorbereitung, eingereicht, bereits veroffentlicht) - Publikationsumfang und Umfang der darin enthaltenen Ergebnisse. Sollten Sie sich fur die kumulative Form Ihrer Doktorarbeit entscheiden, sollten Sie sich bereits im Vorfeld grundlich daruber informieren, ob dies an Ihrer Fakultat uberhaupt moglich ist und wenn ja, welche Anforderungen hieran geknupft sind. Prufungszulassung – Promotionsverfahrenseroffnung. Nach Abschluss des Forschungsvorhabens und Verfassung der Dissertation mussen Sie Ihre Doktorarbeit bei der Fakultat einreichen, wo selbige sodann begutachtet werden wird. Damit einhergehend wird zumeist auch der Antrag auf Prufungszulassung gestellt. On European In Africa. Hier handelt es sich um das eigentliche Promotionsverfahren.

Haufig sind dem Zulassungsantrag noch folgende Unterlagen beizufugen: - Dissertation in animation, mehrfacher Ausfuhrung. - Nachweis uber Erfullung der Zulassungsvoraussetzungen. Grundsatzlich muss eine Versicherung Ihrerseits erfolgen, dass die Doktorarbeit selbststandig durch Sie verfasst wurde und alle in Anspruch genommenen Quellen/Hilfen innerhalb der Dissertation vermerkt wurden. Essay In Africa. Ferner muss eine Versicherung Ihrerseits erfolgen, dass Sie die Regeln der guten wissenschaftlichen Praxis beachtet haben. Persuasive Essay Cheating. Weitere beizufugende Unterlagen werden Ihnen im Promotionsburo Ihrer Fakultat genannt bzw. Essay On European. ergeben sich aus der Promotionsordnung selbiger. Mindestens zwei Gutachter/innen sind fur die Begutachtung Ihrer eingereichten Dissertation zustandig. Essay About. Eine Person hiervon muss als Professor/in der promotionsfuhrenden Fakultat angehoren. In Africa. Ferner kann der Betreuer/die Betreuerin der Doktorarbeit als Gutachter/in bestellt werden bzw. Animation. der/die Doktorand/in kann eine/n weitere/n fachlich geeignete/n Gutachter/in vorschlagen, welche/r sodann ebenfalls als Gutachter/in bestellt werden kann. On European In Africa. Diese Bestellung erfolgt sodann durch den Promotionsausschuss. Essay Cheating. Nachfolgend genannte Personen konnen regelma?ig zum Gutachter/zur Gutachterin bestellt werden: - Professoren/Professorinnen (auch im Ruhestand) - Hochschul- bzw.

Privatdozenten/-dozentinnen. Bei einem kooperativen Promotionsverfahren konnen auch Hochschullehrer/innen, welche an essay on european in africa einer Fachhochschule tatig sein mussen, die Funktionen eines Gutachters/einer Gutachterin ubernehmen. Photosythesis Animation. Bei der Bewertung der Doktorarbeit erfolgt eine einzelne und voneinander unabhangige Begutachtung, wobei innerhalb einer bestimmten Frist eine Note vorgeschlagen werden muss. On European Imperialism In Africa. Es erfolgt eine offentliche Auslegung der Dissertation und der Gutachten im Dekanat der Fakultat fur einen bestimmten Zeitraum. Stellungnahmen zur ausgelegten Doktorarbeit sind an die Prufungskommission zu richten. Critical Thinking Situations. Nach Ablauf der Auslegungsfrist erhalt der/die Doktorand/in Mitteilung uber Annahme oder Ablehnung der Dissertation. Essay. Sollten in addiction and abuse, der Dissertation Mangel gefunden werden, kann eine Ruckgabe an imperialism in africa den/die Doktoranden/Doktorandin zur Uberarbeitung erfolgen. Essay Olaudah Equiano. Sollte auch dann die Dissertation abgelehnt, also endgultig abgelehnt, werden, so gilt das Promotionsverfahren als „nicht bestanden“ und die Dissertation darf im Nachfolgenden dann auch nicht mehr als Promotionsarbeit abgegeben/vorgelegt werden. Sofern die Dissertation positiv begutachtet wurde, erfolgt die mundliche Prufung.

Innerhalb der mundlichen Prufung muss durch Sie nachgewiesen werden, dass Sie vertiefte Fachkenntnisse und eine notwendige wissenschaftliche Befahigung innehaben. Die mundliche Prufung kann als Disputation, Rigorosum oder Kolloquium erfolgen. In Africa. Bei der mundlichen Prufung handelt es sich um eine Einzelprufung. Photosythesis. Die Durchfuhrung unterliegt der Promotionskommission. On European Imperialism. Ob bei der mundlichen Prufungsform Zuhorer/innen zugelassen sind konnen Sie der Promotionsordnung entnehmen. Of Conclusion Paragraphs Papers. Hier finden Sie auch Angaben uber die Dauer der mundlichen Prufung. In Africa. Die Wahl, ob die mundliche Prufung als Disputation, Kolloquium oder Rigorosum abgelegt wird, liegt in persuasive cheating in school, den meisten Fallen beim Doktoranden/bei der Doktorandin selbst. Essay. Auch ist bei manchen Fakultaten eine Kombination dieser Prufungsformen moglich, dies wenngleich bei den meisten Promotionsverfahren das Kolloquium oder die Disputation als mundliche Prufungsform vorgesehen ist.

Die Bekanntgabe des Prufungsergebnisses erfolgt direkt im Anschluss an critical thinking situations die mundliche Prufung und wird durch den Vorsitzenden der Promotionskommission vorgenommen. Essay On European In Africa. Das Ergebnis der mundlichen Prufung flie?t in thinking life situations, die Gesamtnote mit ein. Essay Imperialism In Africa. Sollte die mundliche Prufung nicht bestanden werden, ist in olaudah equiano, der Regel eine einmalige Prufungswiederholung moglich. Bei der Disputation handelt es sich im eigentlichen Sinne um ein wissenschaftliches Streitgesprach. On European. Bei diesem Streitgesprach mit den Mitgliedern der Prufungskommission haben Sie auf die bezuglich Ihrer Dissertation geau?erte Kritik zu reagieren. Persuasive Cheating In School. Heutzutage ist diese Form der Disputation jedoch nicht mehr ublich. On European. Stattdessen ist nunmehr so, dass Sie ein Kurzreferat uber Ihre Dissertation halten und sodann anschlie?end hieruber mit den Pruferinnen und Prufern diskutieren.

Hier konnen Diskussionsgegenstand auch weitere Wissenschaftsgebiete sein, welche sich aus Ihren Nebenfachern ergeben konnen. Julius Ceaser. Bei der Disputation handelt es sich um eine hochschuloffentliche und traditionelle Form sowie um die meistverbereitete Form der mundlichen Prufung. Bei einem Kolloquium werden Sie ublicherweise ebenfalls ein Kurzreferat uber Ihre Dissertation halten, welches sodann anschlie?end mit der Prufungskommission erortert wird; es kann daher als abgewandelte Form der Disputation bezeichnet werden. Essay Imperialism. Jedoch handelt es sich bei einem Kolloquium eher um einen Gedankenaustausch und nicht um ein Streitgesprach, daher ist in equiano, diesem Zusammenhang oftmals die Rede von einem Prufungsgesprach und eben nicht ein Streitgesprach. On European Imperialism In Africa. Auch bei einem Kolloquium konnen andere wissenschaftliche Gebiete gepruft werden. Beim Rigorosum handelt es sich um eine Form der mundlichen Prufung, welche sich auf Ihre Dissertationsinhalte bezieht, aber auch deutlich daruber hinausgehen kann. Examples Of Conclusion Paragraphs Papers. Neben den durch Sie behandelten (in Ihrer Dissertation) Wissenschaftsgebiete werden auch Ihre gesamten Kenntnisse in essay on european, Ihrem Fach- bzw. Animation. Wissenschaftsgebiet gepruft, welche jedoch bereits im Vorfeld mit den Pruferinnen und Prufern abgesprochen werden. Zumeist ist das Rigorosum eine nicht offentliche Prufung. Die positiv begutachtete Dissertation und die bestandene mundliche Prufung bedeuten jedoch noch nicht den Abschluss der Promotion.

Eine Fuhrung des Doktorgrades ist erst mit Veroffentlichung Ihrer Dissertation moglich. Essay. Nur, sofern alle Promotionsleistungen erbracht und die Dissertation veroffentlich ist, erhalten Sie die Promotionsurkunde ausgehandigt. In School. Mit der Aushandigung der Promotionsurkunde erhalten Sie erst das Recht, den entsprechend erworbenen Doktorgrad auch offentlich zu fuhren. Die Festlegung der Gesamtnote erfolgt nach bestandener mundlicher Prufung unter Berucksichtigung der Dissertationsnote; das hei?t, dass das Promotionsverfahren mit einer Gesamtnote abgeschlossen wird, welche sich aus dem Mittel der Dissertationsnote und der in essay on european imperialism in africa, der mundlichen Prufung erreichten Note ergibt. Es ist zu beachten, dass die Note der Dissertation hier starker gewichtet wird. Fur die Bewertung der Dissertation und der mundlichen Prufungsleistung sowie der Gesamtnote werden die entsprechenden deutschen oder die traditionellen lateinischen Bezeichnungen verwandt. Persuasive Essay In School. Eine Vergabe des Pradikats „summa cum laude“ wird regelma?ig nur vergeben, sofern die Bewertung der Dissertation und der mundlichen Prufung einstimmig von Gutachtern und Prufern mit „summa cum laude“ erfolgte. Essay On European. Aus den Promotionsordnungen ergeben sich fur die Erteilung dieses Pradikats weitere Anforderungen. Nach Veroffentlichung und Aushandigung der Promotionsurkunde haben Sie das Recht, den Ihnen verliehenen Titel offentlich zu fuhren.

Nach bestandener mundlicher Prufung muss die Dissertation durch den Doktoranden/die Doktorandin der wissenschaftlichen Offentlichkeit zuganglich gemacht werden. Examples Of Conclusion Paragraphs For Research. Die Veroffentlichung hat innerhalb einer festgelegten Frist zu erfolgen. Eine offentliche Fuhrung des Doktorgrades ist bekanntlich erst mit Veroffentlichung der Dissertation und Erhalt der Promotionsurkunde gestattet. Essay On European In Africa. Doktoranden/innen sind hier verpflichtet, die Dissertation innerhalb einer vorgegebenen Frist und in photosythesis animation, angemessener Weise der wissenschaftlichen Offentlichkeit zuganglich zu machen. Essay Imperialism In Africa. Die Dissertation hat als Buch, Zeitschriftenaufsatz, Sammelbandbeitrag, Manuskript (in vielfacher Ausfuhrung) oder elektronische Form veroffentlicht zu werden. Ceaser. Doktoranden/innen konnen hier selbst entscheiden, ob die Veroffentlichung selbststandig oder unter Zuhilfenahme eines Verlages in in africa, elektronischer oder gedruckter Form erfolgt. Addiction And Abuse. Innerhalb einer bestimmten Frist haben die Pflichtexemplare bei der Universitatsbibliothek vorzuliegen.

Die Frist betragt meistens ein bis zwei Jahre nach Abschluss der mundlichen Prufung. On European. Erst der Nachweis, dass die erforderlichen Pflichtexemplare abgegeben und die Dissertation veroffentlicht wurde, berechtigen zur Fuhrung des Doktorgrades. Essay Olaudah Equiano. Haufig mussen zur Veroffentlichung redaktionelle Anderungen an essay on european der Dissertation vorgenommen werden, welche aber unbedingt vorab genehmigt werden mussen. Diese Genehmigung kann von der Prufungskommission oder der Fakultat selbst vorgenommen werden.

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How to Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Summarizes what you read. Gives your reaction to the text. Your reaction will be one or more of the following: Agreement/disagreement with the ideas in in africa the text. Reaction to addiction and abuse essay, how the on european in africa ideas in the text relate to your own experience. Reaction to how ideas in the text relate to other things you've read. Your analysis of the author and audience. Your evaluation of how this text tries to convince the examples paragraphs reader and whether it is effective.

Your introduction will be 1-3 paragraphs. For this essay, because you want to give both information about the subject and also briefly summarize the article you are responding to, you probably need at least two paragraphs. In all introductions, you want to: Get the reader’s attention. Describe your subject. Give your thesis. For a responsive reading essay, you also need to:

Mention the author and title of the essay on european article you are discussing. Give a brief summary of the equiano article or the on european part of the essay article that you are responding to. Paragraph One . Get the reader’s attention by describing the subject in one of the following ways: Use a startling statistic. Essay In Africa. Cite an essay in school, interesting fact. Pose an appropriate quotation. Tell an anecdote. Describe a scenario. Write a conversation.

Tell a story. Put forth a question your essay will answer. Give an example. Explain general information about the topic. Using a Frame for Your Introduction and in africa, Conclusion.

One of my favorite techniques is to use a “frame” story or conversation for the opening and the conclusion. The way this works is drug and abuse essay, that you tell half of a story or conversation in the introduction and on european, then tell the critical thinking situations rest of the story in the conclusion. Or you could open with a dilemma or problem and then close with a solution. Essay On European Imperialism. Another approach is to julius, retell the same story in the conclusion with a different (usually better) ending. Examples: In an essay about cell phone use in cars, you could open with a scenario showing a person getting a call while driving and thinking about what to do. In the conclusion, you could tell the end of the scenario—maybe the driver pulls over to take the call or decides to let voicemail take it. In an essay, essay about dealing with a family member with Alzheimer’s, you could open with a conversation between family members trying to figure out what to do and essay, conclude with a conversation between the same people after they have decided to place that person in a nursing home. In an essay about oil drilling in the Gulf, you could open by describing vividly the imperialism in africa oil-soaked coastline and the dying wildlife. You could conclude with what that coastline looks like now.

On any topic which you have personal experience, you can open with part of your story, and then conclude with the cheating in school ending of your story. How to Become a Republican. On European Imperialism In Africa. My analysis of examples papers a Harvard study that reported that watching 4th of July parades makes people vote Republican. Reading Response Example Paper: A reader response about Chris Adrian's article Under My Skin from the on european imperialism New York Times. Introduction and Conclusion Ideas. Paragraph 2 : After your introduction, transition by explaining what the author of the article you have written has to say about this topic. Briefly explain the main points of the article that you want to talk about. Then you will give your thesis.

Example: According to Mary Johnson in critical thinking “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to use them either. Johnson gives statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the on european imperialism increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use. Her conclusion is that we need to photosythesis, personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and essay on european in africa, family to photosythesis, give up cell phones while driving, too. Then add a thesis statement like one of the following examples: (Agree) I agree with Johnson because I have observed many people driving dangerously while talking on cell phones and have even been in an accident myself while talking on the phone. (Disagree ) I disagree with Johnson because I don’t think that using a cell phone is any different from eating in a car or talking with other passengers. (Reflect on author’s experience ) I believe Johnson has come to her conclusions because of her own traumatic experiences while using a cell phone while driving. (Optional: you could add an extension, like but personal experiences are not a good basis for public policy.) (Expand on an assertion made in the essay ) I agree with Johnson’s assertion that cell phones are dangerous, but I’d go even further than she does because I think we cannot control this problem by essay on european, merely educating the persuasive essay cheating in school public.

We need to have laws prohibiting the use of cell phones while driving. Here are six different ways to in africa, respond to an essay: You can agree with the article and explain three or more reasons why you agree. You can disagree with the article and explain three or more reasons why. Persuasive Cheating. You can agree with some parts of the article and disagree with other parts and explain why. On European. You can analyze the rhetorical situation (occasion, purpose, audience, and examples paragraphs for research, context) of essay on european this article and about olaudah equiano, explain why the author’s personal experience causes them to write this piece. Imperialism. You can take one part of the essay, agreeing or disagreeing with it, and expand on that idea, giving reasons for your reader to agree with you. You can explain your reaction to the article and then analyze how the writer’s style, tone, word choice, and examples made you feel that way. Remember that all essays have three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. There are many ways to write a good essay, but I will give you a general guide to follow which will help you to organize your ideas.

Here you will argue your thesis and cheating, give support for essay on european imperialism, your ideas from your personal experience and your own thinking and reading. You can also use evidence from the article you read but don’t just repeat the ideas in the article. The body of your paper should have three or more paragraphs. Each paragraph should have a topic sentence which communicates one response idea you have about the paper such as, I agree with Jones that _________ or My personal experience makes me relate to _____ because _______. The rest of the paragraph should give details to back up that point. You can use examples from the reading, your own life, something else you have read, or common experiences we all have. Of Conclusion Paragraphs For Research Papers. You can also use reasoning to in africa, prove your points. Explain why you think this way. Don't forget to critical life, use author tags when you are talking about something in the story. The best essays do refer back to the text and imperialism, explain why and how the reader's response relates to the article. The first time you talk about the article, you should give the full name of the author and critical thinking life situations, the title of the article in imperialism parenthesis: John Jones in his article, “Taking Back Our Lives,” states _________.”.

After that, you need to always tell when you are paraphrasing the article instead of giving your own view. Use “author tags” to show you are talking about something in the article and animation, not your own ideas. Author tags use the on european in africa last name of the photosythesis author and a verb. Essay On European. Try these variations: Differentiating Your Voice from the addiction and abuse essay Author's: Instead of essay on european in africa Jones says, you can use: Contrary to essay, what you may have learned in previous writing classes, you should not repeat or summarize your arguments in the conclusion. That is sometimes appropriate for in-class essays when you are not sure you’ve been clear about your main points, but it is not appropriate for college writing. Instead, you need to actually conclude your arguments. You can often use the on european same type of technique that you use in an introduction. Examples Of Conclusion Paragraphs Papers. You can also: call attention to larger issues call for a change in on european action or attitude conclude with a vivid image appeal to the reader to examples paragraphs for research, agree with you or link back to on european imperialism in africa, your introduction by finishing the story/scenario, revising it, or explaining how it proves your point.

This is a sample reading response essay to an article titled “Cell Phones are Dangerous by Mary Johnson, agreeing with the article and extending one of the ideas. Paragraph 1 : Dramatic re-telling of a personal story of picking up my cell phone and then realizing that I am going to crash into another car. Stop the story right before the crash. Paragraph 2 : Like most people, I thought I was a good enough driver to drug and abuse, handle using a cell phone while driving. I found out I was wrong. It turns out I’m not unusual. In her article “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” Mary Johnson argues that as statistics of cell phone use while driving goes up, so do accidents. On European. According to drug and abuse essay, Johnson, we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to in africa, use them either. Johnson cites statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is critical life situations, as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use.

Her conclusion is on european imperialism in africa, that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and family to ceaser, give up using cell phones while driving too. I agree with Jones that cell phones are dangerous and that we should personally choose to in africa, not use one while driving; however, I’d go further than Jones by critical, adding that we need to have laws that prohibit anyone from essay in africa using cell phones in cars. Each of these statements would be the topic sentence of one of the body paragraphs. About Equiano. For the first one, I also give examples of the type of arguments and support I would use to write that paragraph and prove my point. 1. Laws make people realize that cell phone driving is dangerous. (Below is an example of in africa some support I could use to back up this idea—you can use ideas from the article but do not repeat the equiano article.) support with an anecdote of friends or family thinking a call is more important than driving use statistics from article argue some people will be convinced by being educated, but not everyone use example of seatbelt laws saving lives argue that using a cell phone endangers others and not just yourself. 2. Essay Imperialism In Africa. New technology requires changes in public policy. 3. Persuasive. People in my generation feel obligated to take a call, but if it is illegal to in africa, call while driving, they won’t feel that pressure. 4. Using hands-free headsets won’t work because it is the essay call which is essay imperialism in africa, distracting, not holding the phone. 5. This law will save a lot of lives. I would return to my personal story and pick it up where I left off.

I do crash and thinking life, there is a lot of damage to my car, but no one is hurt. I can explain my great relief that my cell phone use did not end more tragically, and essay on european, my personal decision to put my cell phone where I can’t reach it while driving. End with an appeal to the reader to do the same, but to also support legislation to prohibit cell phone use while driving. Additional Information for Essay on Cell Phone Use While Driving. You formulate an evaluation any time you answer someone’s question, “What did you think of that book (article, movie, class, or news report)?

Responding personally to an article is usually the in school start of essay on european imperialism in africa any analysis of writing, so it is a good first paper type to write. However, unlike a review or evaluation paper, your purpose in a response paper is not to tell someone else whether or not they should read this article. Instead, your purpose is to explain your reaction and to give reasons (this will be the body of and abuse your paper) why you reacted that way. Doing an evaluation paper would take the imperialism reading response a step further and is probably one of the papers you will do next in your course. How long does your instructor give you to write each essay? How long does your English Instructor usually take to in school, grade your essays? Reading Response Sample Paper on Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6.

How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. by Virginia Kearney 14. Summary Analysis Response to imperialism, Men and addiction and abuse essay, Women in essay in africa Conversation. by Virginia Kearney 7. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108.

100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Coming into about my assignment, I was very nervous. I've never written a reader-response paper. The information I found on your site gives me the confidence to move forward! Thanks so much!

Carmel Therese C. Crauz 6 weeks ago. Hi Ms. Virginia, thanks a lot for on european, a very helpful article. Been searching for a while on how to write a synopsis on our assignment. THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH! GOD BLESS YOU! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Maria, I'm so glad that you found this article helpful to examples paragraphs for research, you. Writing responses to essay imperialism, things you read is critical situations, such a fundamental part of many college tasks that mastering this ability makes you a much better student overall. Maria I Reyes 23 months ago.

Ms. Lynne thank you so much. This was extremely helpful. I like the essay imperialism in africa fact that you added examples for photosythesis animation, a better understanding. I also added it as a favorite so that I can refer to it as often as possible. Thanks again!

Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. ChocoMoco--all papers need to have a thesis sentence because a thesis sentence is the main idea of the paper. However, not all thesis sentences are roadmap ones which tell everything you will talk about. A thesis sentence for a Reading Response paper will say the main response you have to the what you've read. Imperialism. Here is a Reading Response paper with examples about a thesis:https://letterpile.com/writing/Reading-Response-Sa. For a responsive paper is it necessary to have a thesis sentence? Thank you this saved life! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Lex--I have several other sample papers that you can see if you just search on HubPages for Reading Response sample essays. I really like how you give your example , it sure help me a lot . Please add more to help other people that need it! Kristi Tipps-Deutsch 3 years ago from Colorado Springs.

I enjoyed this hub very much. It's so helpful to have sample papers that students can try to recreate with their own content. I will happily rob you of this fabulous step by step tutorial. Thank you for taking such time and effort to make it so accessible. Thank you it was so helpful I had two videos and thinking situations, the Dr. asked us to write responds I did what have said thank you. Thank you for your response examples. i was awesome i got lots of idea . thanks. : ) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad that my Hub reassured you reniesaenz.

I have been so happy to find that many students both in my class and out have been able to essay imperialism in africa, write better and essay, faster when given clear instructions. To be honest I was a little nervous going into essay imperialism in africa your class. After reading this hubpage I'm actually not as nervous because I know that following your hubpages will give me the help I need to julius ceaser essay, right the essay's this semester. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much for essay on european, stopping by! Thanks! it is really helpful 5 years ago. Thanks! It is really helpful. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.

Thanks so much peytons for letting me know that this has helped you. I can't believe how many people are reading this hub, which I originallly put up mostly for life situations, my own students to use. Finally, I Googled this topic and realized that there isn't much on the web explaining how to essay in africa, write reading responses, even though that is a very common essay topic in a lot of disciplines. In fact, I've especially noticed that my ESL students were required to do these projects in their classes. Thanks for your hub, and I have learned a lot about the skills of addiction essay writing a reading reponse. You recommended ways of in africa introduction are exceptionally engaging and desirable. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.

Hi--the two samples in the blue block are reading response essays my students have done. Paragraphs For Research Papers. Good luck on your assignment! Check out some of my other hubs for on european imperialism, other writing help. Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico. Thanks for taking the time to photosythesis animation, answer my question. I have also been thinking about on european writing book reviews, this hub might help me on that. Cheers!

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks for your comments Claudia. I have written reading response hubs on persuasive Chinese books for imperialism in africa, kids and early readers. My Stone Age hub is really a reading response too. Of Conclusion. Actually, I have a ton of hubs planned of this type but I haven't gotten to them yet. Reading Response is really a lot like a book review, and on european imperialism in africa, so that is always fun! Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico.

I used to write reading response essays for a literature course I engaged in during my college years. I enjoy writing and addiction, analyzing my response to on european imperialism in africa, the things I read. It was quite fun in those days because the thinking situations professor obviously chose books that where especially thought provoking and essay on european imperialism, that made it much more interesting and easy too. Do you write many reading response hub-essays? Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks Carol3san--I've been very surprised at thinking, the number of people who have looked at my writing hubs and I'm always grateful for positive feedback. Thanks for stopping by! Carolyn Sands 5 years ago from Hollywood Florida. Thanks for on european imperialism in africa, the hub. Great info.

I voted you up. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks somethingblue! I appreciate your comment and the time you've taken to respond at essay, length. Although my hubs on writing instruction don't always have a lot of comments, they have gotten more views than I expected. I know that many writing instructors don't have a lot of previous experience or instruction in teaching writing before they are put in on european imperialism in africa a class. Sometimes the books they use aren't particularly helpful at explaining the process. I try to take the steps of drug essay writing these essays and break them down so they are easier. Essay Imperialism In Africa. Thanks again! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and examples paragraphs, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

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