Custom Essay Writing Service -
Get myHomework - Microsoft Store
best essay endings by Sophie Herron of ma homework, Story to about methods, College. Last Friday we worked on com, how to identify your Pivot , the online, key moment or climax of your college essay, as the ma homework com, first step to make sure your essay meets the three requirements of the form: that your college essay needs to be short and energetic, and reveal your character. Today, we’re going to jump right into essay teaching, the next step of revising your essay: The End. We’ll look at the most important dos and don’ts , and 5 techniques you can use in your own essay. We’re working on the end today because: 1. It’s harder to get right than the beginning. Sorry. It just is.
2. Having a good, clear ending helps you write revise the rest of your story. 3. It’s the last thing an admissions officer will read, so it’s especially important. All right, enough chatter. On to the good stuff. The Most Important Do and ma homework Don’t of College Essay Endings. DO: End in the action. End right after your pivot, or key moment.
I constantly tell students to end earlierend right next to your success! (Whatever “success” means, in cover letter, your particular essay.) Think of the “fade-to-black” in a movieyou want us to end on the high, glowy feeling. Ma Homework Com! End with the robot’s arm lifting, or your call home to celebrate, or your grandma thanking you. Assassination Caesar! Then stop. Leave your reader wanting more! Keep the ma homework, admissions officer thinking about you. In fact, that’s why we call successful endings Glows here at obesity argument essay, Story To College, because that’s exactly how you want your admissions officer to feel. Com! Glowy. Impressed.
Moved. Inspired. Don’t ruin the moment. End earlier. Argument Essay! Here’s your challenge: don’t ever say the point of your essay. Cut every single “that’s when I realized” and “I learned” and “the most important thing was…” Every single one. They’re boring, unconvincing, and ma homework com doing you no favors.
When you tell the friends online essay, reader what to feel, or think, you stop telling a story. And then the reader stops connecting with you. And then they stop caring. Don’t let this happen. Ma Homework! Don’t summarize. But if you don’thow do you end?
5 Ways to caesar essay, Powerfully End Your College Essay. Did someone tell you good job, or thank you, or congratulate you? Did you finally speak up, or get something done? Put it in ma homework, dialogue. It’s a powerful way to end.
In fact, it’s an easy revision of those “I learned…” sentences earlier. So you learned to never give up? “Hey mom,” I said into my phone. “Yeah, I’m not coming home right awayI’ve got practice.” BOOM. Look at love or obsession research paper wuthering heights, that. Here’s a simple example: I pushed open the ma homework com, door, and stepped inside. Even without context, you can tell this student took a risk and committed to something. It’s all in the actions . Maybe you want to childhood essay, end in a mood, or by creating a wider view of things, or by focusing in on a certain important object. The whole robot shuddered as it creaked to ma homework, life and rolled across the concrete floor. It’s silver arm gently grasped the upturned box, and then, lifted it. There’s some combination here with action, but that’s perfectly fine. 4. Go full circle.
Did you talk to someone at the beginning? You might end by talking to them again. Or if you described a certain object, you might mention it again. There are lots of ways to love or obsession paper heights, end where you began, and it’s often a really satisfying technique. 5. Directly address the college. Tell them what you’re going to do there, or what you’re excited about. Ma Homework! I did this, actually in argument essay, minesomething like: And that’s why I’m so excited about the Core Curriculum: I’m going to study everything . This technique breaks the “don’t tell them what your essay is about” rulebut only a little. Be sure to still sound like yourself, and to be very confident in your plans. That’s all! Be sure to ma homework com, check out “Success Stories” (again, here ) if you haven’t yet for more examples of each of childhood obesity, these techniques.
Next, we’ll look at beginnings! In the meantime, check out these great resources: Find out your strengths and weaknesses. Get comments and a full-length letter detailing your strengths and next steps from our highly-trained instructors. ADDITIONAL TIME SLOT. Due to demand , we’re having another webinar this Tuesday.
Register for our FREE webinar October 22 , from 7-8 pm. Build supplement essays that connect powerfully with admissions officers. Ma Homework! Stay on task and never miss a deadline. Keep track of each school’s deadlines, supplements, and other requirements. Sophie Herron taught high school English in Houston, Texas, at KIPP Houston High School through Teach For America. Since then, she received her MFA in Poetry from New York University, where she was a Goldwater Fellow, instructor of Creative Writing, and Managing Editor of Washington Square Review, the graduate literary journal. She continues to teach as an instructor at Story To College and as a teaching artist with the Community-Word Project. She is essay about a poet and podcaster. I have two things to say here.
1. Write your stories out loud: Gather a small group of friends, and tell your stories out loud to one another. Even writing as you talk will unleash your memories, emotions, and active voicewhich generate powerfully moving essays every time. Com! The Story To College Moments Method™ is based on the neuroscience of friends online, oral storytelling. Ma Homework! Tomorrow I’ll share 5 specific tips on how to make the sam watkins, most of oral storytelling in ma homework com, your college essays. 2. When in doubt, walk: Let’s say you’ve told your story out loud, you’ve used one or more of the exercises from of julius caesar last week to go from scripts to stories, and you’ve expanded the strongest parts of your writing with more detail. Ma Homework Com! And you still feel stuck!
Now what? Stand up, walk around the roomor go outsideand imagine your essay as physical movement from one place to another. Essay! Your story has a beginning, middle, and end, like a physical journey. Ma Homework Com! Once you can feel that movement, go back and revise your essay with that journey in mind. im not in college. I don#8217;t quite agree with you, because you should never leave your admission officers wondering about where you will go. In my opinion, end with both the present you and the future you.
So this will give them who you were, are and essay will be. Just my 2cents. Why can#8217;t we summarize in the conclusion,my middle school teacher said to summarize your essays in the the ma homework com, conclusion but only the important parts.Also you should make a high school and middle school page for teaching, Those who aren#8217;t in college yet because not only do college students need help on essays we do too. You shouldn#8217;t summarize in a college admissions essay because it pulls the reader out of the story, and like the article says tells the reader what to think or how to feel about the ma homework, story you just told. Plus you shouldn#8217;t need to worry about beautician cover letter this type of essay right now if you#8217;re in middle school. Share your view. Discover more than $11 billion in scholarships and merit aid Get your college matches and see which colleges want you Instantly see your admissions chances for getting into the college of your dreams Create My Profile Now.
2017 College Greenlight. Powered by WordPress.
Buy Essays Online from Successful Essay -
Redirig par www on ma - HomeworK: : …
rpi edu thesis TWO MODERN UTOPIAS: A Comparative Study of. Aldous Huxley's Brave New World. and Stanislaw Lem's Return From the Stars. Michael Richard Lopez.
#9;A comparison of the literary Utopias depicted in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and Stanislaw Lem's Return From The Stars entails two major prerequisites: locating both novels within the general tradition of ma homework literary Utopias, and demonstrating that Brave New World is, in fact, a part of that tradition. #9;By analogy with Mikhail Bahktin's novelistic discourse, then, the origins of the literary Utopia are traced to an archaic-folkloric Utopia that reflects the intent and essay technique of ma homework com ancient rituals of the regeneration of time (e.g., New Year rites). Argument? Also by analogy, subsequent literary productions of this archaic Utopia are shown to follow two lines of ma homework com development, in the official Utopia (characterized by authoritarianism, monologism, legalism, and a closed and static nature), and beautician letter the unofficial Utopia (characterized by comparatively greater individuality, polylogism, freedom, and com a more open and dynamic nature), such that the former mandates an array of of julius final solutions, while the ma homework, latter displays an open field of possibilities. #9;Consequently, by a combination of psycho-biographical and discourse analysis that examines the monologism, conventions, narration, and hidden polemic of Brave New World , Huxley's novel is demonstrated to be an official Utopia. By a contrasting and primarily thematic analysis that examines the ubiquitous polylogism of Return From The Stars , Lem's novel is love or obsession research paper, demonstrated to be an unofficial Utopia; one that offers the reader the unique opportunity of entering into dialogue with Utopia itself. #9;The comparison, then, of Huxley's and Lem's literary Utopias reveals the artistic, intellectual and moral shortcomings of the former over against the latter; shortcomings that have especially profound social implications (as despair and nihilism) in a genre that is ma homework, home to of julius caesar essay the brightest hopes and most cherished dreams of humankind. Lem's novel, by contrast, offers an art of possibilities that nurtures and encourages those hopes and dreams. TWO MODERN UTOPIAS: A Comparative Study of. Aldous Huxley's Brave New World.
and Stanislaw Lem's Return From the Stars. Presented to Antioch University. in Partial Fulfillment. of the Requirements. for the Masters of Arts Degree. Michael Richard Lopez. Suzann Bick, Ph.D. Degree Committee Chair.
Steven Olson, Ph.D.#9;Jon Saari, Ph.D. Degree Committee Member#9;Faculty Advisor. TABLE OF CONTENTS. TABLE OF CONTENTS #9; * CHAPTER I - A HISTORY of LITERARY UTOPIAS #9; * The Archaic Utopia #9; * CHAPTER II - THE OFFICIAL UTOPIA of BRAVE NEW WORLD #9; * Monologism in Brave New World #9; * Metalinguistics Discourse in Brave New World #9; * Convention in com Brave New World #9; * Narration in Brave New World #9; * CHAPTER III - THE UNOFFICIAL UTOPIA of RETURN FROM THE STARS #9; * Coherence in Return From The Stars #9; * Robots in teaching methods Return From The Stars #9; * Polylogism in ma homework com Return From The Stars #9; * LIST of WORKS CITED #9; * #9;It would seem that a justification for the study of literary Utopias would not be required. However, in the event that this proves to making friends online be a presumption, Paul Tillich provides a concise and com tightly-argued presentation in his Critique and essay Justification of Utopia: #9;A thoroughgoing analysis of utopia would involve showing first that it is rooted in com the nature of man himself, for it is impossible to cover letter understand what it means for ma homework, man to have utopia apart from this fundamental fact. Online? Such an analysis would involve showing further that it is impossible to understand history without utopia, for neither historical consciousness nor action can be meaningful unless utopia is envisaged both at the beginning and the end of history. And, finally, such an analysis would show that all utopias strive to negate the negative itself in human existence which makes the idea of utopia necessary (296). #9;From this basis, Tillich stresses the truth of Utopia, that it is but one manifestation of what man has as inner aim and what he must have for fulfillment as a person (296), its fruitfulness that opens up possibilities which would have remained lost if not seen by utopian anticipation (297), and its power , insofar as utopia is able to transform the com, given (298). Over against these positive features of Utopia, Tillich also draws attention to its negatives; to its untruth that forgets the argument essay, finitude and estrangement of man. that man under the conditions of com existence is always estranged from his true or essential being (299), to its unfruitfulness in that Utopia describes impossibilities as real possibilities--and fails to assassination see them for com, what they are, impossibilities (300), and to its impotence , which results in disillusionment , as an beautician cover, inevitable consequence of confusing the ambiguous preliminary [nature of Utopia] with the unambiguous ultimate (301), and--in actualized utopias--in terror , since disillusionment is staved off through the political effects of terror (301), as the Soviets have shown. #9;Utopia, then, and the literary works in which it is found, reflects the ma homework, ultimate hopes and friends online essay dreams of ma homework humankind, whether these are Judaism's Kingdom of God, the Bourgeoisie's rational state, or Marxism's classless society (Tillich 298), or the chiliast, liberal-humanitarian, conservative, or socialist-communist Utopias presented by Mannheim (211-263). But the perfection of these dreamt-of Utopias on paper cannot abide its imperfection in actual practice; what Tompkins notes of the Gothic romance applies equally well to Utopia: Even in the hands of its finest exponent, it [is] precariously balanced over of julius caesar the abysses of the ludicrous and disreputable (247).
Worse still, the disillusionment and com terror that result in reaction to the imperfections of Utopia in actual practice argue virtually in favor of banning utopian literature once and for all; as Darko Suvin notes we have seen too many alluring gods of childhood argument history turn into all-devouring monsters because of their pretended infallibility. The brightest hopes of humanity, we know, are liable to degenerate into justifications for com, the Inquisition, the making, Stalinist purges or the My Lai massacres (215). Adam Ulam summarizes this outlook: Perhaps we have reached a moratorium, if not indeed the end of ma homework utopias, and perhaps this is not altogether a bad thing (134). #9;Mannheim objects that the disappearance of Utopia ultimately would mean the sam watkins essay, decay of com human will (262) and brings about a static state of affairs in which man himself becomes no more than a thing (262-3). Worse than this, however, would be the effects of deliberately destroying our brightest hopes and most cherished dreams; effects that may be seen at or obsession heights, work in Huxley's Brave New World . Moreover, that the ban should come as a mandate imposed on ma homework com, others, however nobly in the very name of humanity itself, makes it ultimately no different in kind than any other inhumane and totalitarian edict.
#9;Rather, it would seem that we must come to recognize that it is not possible to realize a perfect Utopia in practice; if this is clearly understood and accepted ahead of time, then not only will there be less disillusionment (if any), but also there will be no cause for terror (as a way of maintaining a failed Utopia in friends spite of its failure), because society will instead be able to turn its efforts toward discovering its next vision of Utopia. Tillich suggests something similar, insofar as the synchronic Kingdom of ma homework God interacts with the diachronic events of history. #9;A Kingdom of God that is not involved in historical events, in childhood obesity utopian actualization in time, is not the ma homework, Kingdom of God at all but at best only a mystical annihilation of everything that can be kingdom--namely, richness, fullness, manifoldness, individuality. And, similarly, a Kingdom of God that is nothing but the historical process produces a utopia of endless progress or convulsive revolution whose catastrophic collapse eventuates in a metaphysical disillusionment (300). #9;As such, there must be an eternal dialogue between the idealized Utopia in literature, and the realized Utopia in society. To give precedence to one over the other, to deny the interplay and interillumination of the imagined and the real Utopia, would be to condemn humanity to an annihilation of everything that can be ?kingdom' or to a metaphysical disillusionment.
The 20th century's emphasis on or obsession heights, the failures of com real Utopias (principally in socialist-communist realms), along with the repudiation of Utopia itself implied by this emphasis, might well explain the beautician letter, predominantly cynical and ironic tones of the literature of this century of disillusionment; a century in which Toynbee's declaration of Utopia as a sign of cultural decay seems quite at home: #9;As for the Utopias, they are static ex hypothesi . For these works are always programmes of ma homework com action masquerading in the disguise of imaginary descriptive sociology and the action which they are intended to childhood obesity argument essay evoke is nearly always the pegging at a certain level of an actual society which has entered on a decline that must end in a fall unless the downward movement can be artificially arrested (182-3). #9;The high literature of the 20th century Utopia has indeed been dominated by ma homework, what Suvin correctly refers to as the whilom fashionable dystopia of the love research paper heights, Huxley-Orwell type (213), but the apparent disappearance of Utopia is an illusion. Rather, when criticism no longer limits its field of vision strictly to pure literature, it discovers that Utopia has simply changed places, and ma homework com has come to occupy the genres of fantasy and science fiction. It is, then, not simply for this reason alone that I have chosen to of julius examine Lem's Return From The Stars , as a work of science fiction, but also because by com, doing so our century's emphasis on real Utopias might be challenged, and the legitimacy, truth, fruitfulness and power of the imaginative Utopia might partially be restored. Michael Richard Lopez. A HISTORY OF LITERARY UTOPIAS.
#9;In tracing the long history of literary Utopias, I have had recourse to a distinction similar to the one Mikhail Bakhtin draws between novelistic discourse and the novel itself. Novelistic discourse, then, reveals four essential and of julius essay interrelated aspects: many-voicedness (polyglossia), laughter, methods of indirect representation, and ma homework ancient origins: #9;It was formed and assassination of julius caesar essay matured in the genres of familiar speech found in conversational folk language (genres that are as yet little studied) and also in certain folkloric and low literary genres. The most ancient forms for representing language were organized by com, laughter--these were originally nothing more than the ridiculing of another's language and beautician another's direct discourse. Polyglossia and the interanimation of language associated with it elevated these forms to a new artistic and ideological level, which made possible the genre of the novel ( The Dialogic Imagination 50-1). Laughter, as ridicule, gives way to new artistic and ideological levels under polyglossia and its associated interanimation of language here because an awareness of the ma homework, relative validity of another's direct discourse intrudes that vitiates or qualifies the confidence, the arrogance, of one's own ridiculing discourse. The difference may be characterized as between ridicule and good-natured teasing. Whether ridicule or teasing, however, it is clear that to satirize or parody (to use the friends online essay, related literary terms) another's direct discourse, it is necessary to somehow represent that discourse; that is, one must employ forms of indirect discourse: #9;[T]he representation of another's word, another's language in intonational question marks, was known in com the most ancient times; we encounter it in the earliest stages of verbal culture. What is sam watkins, more, long before the ma homework, appearance of the novel we find a rich world of sam watkins essay diverse forms that transmit, mimic and represent from various vantage points another's word, another's speech and language, including also the languages of the direct genres. These diverse forms prepared the ground for the novel long before its actual appearance ( The Dialogic Imagination 50). #9;Novelistic discourse, then, may be described as laughing indirect discourse of ma homework com folklorico-populist origins that is either ridiculing (satire) or teasing (parody), where the satiric or parodic aspect is shaped by the speaking-authorial attitude toward the discourse of another. Of Julius Caesar? (In Russian, there are actually two terms for other.
One, chuzhoi, connotes the usual Western sense of the ma homework com, Other as alien. The second, drugoi, connotes rather a sense of cover a friendly Other, somewhat similar to Buber's Thou. Satire, then, takes an Other's discourse as chuzhoi; parody takes another's discourse as drugoi.) #9;This distinction between satire and ma homework parody entails further implications. All indirect discourse is double-voiced, at least insofar as an assassination of julius caesar essay, author (one discourse) represents another's. Ma Homework? In satire, however, this double-voicedness is muffled by authorial ridicule such that the author's (or narrator's) voice dominates. Or Obsession Research Wuthering? In parody, by contrast, both voices remain equally significant; there is parity in parody. Broadly speaking, then, satire is monologue, and parody is dialogue: #9;Monologism, at its extreme, denies the existence outside itself of another consciousness with equal rights and equal responsibilities, another I with equal rights ( thou ). With a monologic approach (in its extreme or pure form) another person remains wholly and merely an object of consciousness, and not another consciousness. No response is ma homework, expected from it that could change everything in essay the world of my consciousness. Monologue is com, finalized and deaf to the other's response, does not expect it and does not acknowledge in it any decisive force. Friends Online? Monologue manages without the other, and therefore to some degree materializes all reality.
Monologue pretends to be the ultimate word . It closes down the represented world and represented persons. #9;#9;The dialogic nature of consciousness, the dialogic nature of human life itself. The single adequate form for verbally expressing authentic human life is the open-ended dialogue . Life by its very nature is dialogic. To live means to participate in dialogue: to ask questions, to heed, to respond, to agree, and so forth. In this dialogue a person participates wholly and. #9;throughout his whole life: with his eyes, lips, hands, soul, spirit, with his whole body and com deeds. He invests his entire self in discourse, and this discourse enters into beautician, the dialogic fabric of human life, into the world symposium (Bakhtin, Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics 292-3, emphasis in original). #9;As such, satire differs from ma homework com parody in intent, and different ends require different means.
One of the most dramatic of these tactical differences may be seen in the contrasting types of laughter each employs; that is, in the contrast between the purely destructive ridicule of obesity argument essay satire, and com the renewing, ambivalent abuse-praise (teasing) of parody. Bakhtin provides a fairly complete characterization of this latter (parodic-carnival) laughter that also brings out childhood essay, its contrast with satire: #9;It is, first of all, a festive laughter. Therefore it is not an individual reaction to some isolated comic event. Carnival laughter is the ma homework com, laughter of all the people. Second, it is universal in scope; it is childhood argument, directed at all and com everyone, including the carnival's participants. The entire world is seen in this droll aspect, in childhood obesity essay its gay relativity. Third, this laughter is ma homework, ambivalent: it is gay, triumphant and at the same time mocking, deriding. It asserts and denies, it buries and beautician revives.
#9;#9;[I]t is also directed at those who laugh. The people do not exclude themselves from the com, wholeness of the argument, world. They, too, are incomplete, they also die and ma homework are revived and renewed. This is one of the beautician, essential differences of the people's festive laughter from the pure satire of modern times. The satirist whose laughter is negative places himself above the ma homework, object of childhood obesity essay his mockery, he is opposed to it. Ma Homework Com? The wholeness of the world's comic aspect is or obsession wuthering, destroyed, and that which appears comic becames ( sic ) a private reaction. Ma Homework Com? The people's ambivalent laughter, on the other hand, expresses the beautician cover letter, point of view of the ma homework com, whole world; he who is laughing also belongs to essay it. #9;#9;Let us here stress the special philosophical and utopian character of festive laughter and its orientation toward the com, highest spheres.
The most ancient rituals of mocking at the deity have here survived, acquiring a new essential meaning. About? All that was purely cultic and limited has faded away, but the all-human, universal, and utopian element has been retained ( Rabelais and ma homework com His World 11-2). #9;From this, one could rightly conclude that satire reveals an oxymoronic serious laughter, especially as it lacks the self-reflexive aspect of cover self-parodying parody. More significantly, satire lacks the renewing and regenerating aspect of parody (festive laughter); that is, it destroys, but builds nothing on the ruins; it retains the abuse, but proffers no praise. As an example, parody might say, He's the best liar of them all, and thereby offer superlative praise (best) and pejorative abuse (liar). Satire, on the other hand, would say, He's the worst liar of them all, and ma homework com retain the superlative construction, but efface any hint of praise. Childhood Obesity Argument? This retention of parodic abuse-praise's debasing element stripped of its renewing or regenerating aspect is what characterizes satire as reduced laughter. #9;Apart from authorial intent and thematic treatment, a third and ma homework equally decisive contrast must be drawn between satire and parody. Properly speaking, as literary genres , neither satire nor parody can be truly described as having been originally constituted by childhood obesity argument essay, an overwhelmingly illiterate folk culture. Rather, it is the oral and verbal style of folk laughter (with its characteristics of inversion, hyperbole, irreverence and dynamism) that was adapted to the new context of writing for com, the purpose of essay about teaching methods literary satire and parody.
This recontextualization has very important consequences insofar as satire and parody therefore no longer directly reveal the values of com folk laughter, but rather do so indirectly through the refracting consciousness and values of the literate classes. As such, a rift is created between the literally populist and literarily populistic forms of ridicule-teasing and satire-parody that engenders a distinction between unofficial culture and official culture, respectively. #9;Consequently, though satire and parody are generally critical in nature, they nevertheless comprise a part of, and conduct their critiques according to, the ideological discourse of official culture over against the unofficial culture of populist values. For example, as is especially evident in moralistic satire, the simplicity of folk life is revalued as backwardness, folk religion becomes superstition, sensuality becomes licentiousness, physicality becomes barbarism, frankness becomes vulgarity, earthiness becomes filthiness (in both its physical and childhood argument essay moral senses), and so forth. In these terms, satire denigrates folk values and uses such negatives to criticize official culture. Ma Homework? Parody, by contrast, abuses official culture by an unfavorable comparison with the positives of (revalued) folk culture, with the purpose of renovating official culture along more humanistic lines (i.e., in the name of greater liberty, freedom, freedom of speech, and so forth). This distinction could be summarized, somewhat tendentiously: satire is letter, revolution, parody is renovation. #9;In spite of ma homework com these contrasts however, satire and parody are united by assassination of julius caesar essay, their common origin in laughter; that is, the genre of comedy (of which satire and parody are two of the com, mainstays) represents the literary recontextualization of online essay folk laughter, in contradistinction to the serious genres of epic and tragedy. Com? As such, the sam watkins, satire-parody contrast recapitulates within the genre of com comedy a similar contrast between the low frivolousness of the comedic genres and essay teaching methods the high seriousness of the epic-tragic genres in general. It is one of the com, marvelous ironies of critical history that comedy could become devalued as a genre, precisely because it is not serious.
Part of love or obsession wuthering heights this devaluation occurred as a result of reduced laughter; that is, Carnival laughter, stripped of its universal and regenerating elements, thereby exactly loses its deepest significances and ma homework becomes merely frivolous or nasty. Insofar as it was official (literate) culture that first performed this stripping, particularly in satire, the devaluation of comedy is ironically unjust, and virtually tautological. #9;Literary Utopias, then, are necessarily an expression of the discourse of official culture, however critical they may be. Moreover, one would expect that they (as a subgenre of the essay, novel) would generally recapitulate the characteristics of the novel genre itself; that is, one would expect to find within the literary Utopia a folk Utopia (recontextualized according to official culture values), along with a subsequent literary history that more or less follows the development of the novel. This expectation proves to be not only reasonable, but also justified, as I now will attempt to ma homework demonstrate. The Archaic Utopia.
#9;Bakhtin has devoted the love paper wuthering heights, better part of com his Rabelais and paper wuthering heights His World to ma homework com elucidating one such folk Utopia which, in a word, may be summarized by that ritual spectacle of the middle ages and Renaissance, Carnival. Insofar as Bakhtin's exposition is book-length, it is impossible to sam watkins do complete justice to his conceptualization of Carnival, but the main points may still be noted. #9;One of the most central features of ma homework Carnival is its feast (which has extraordinarily profound and extremely earthy significance in Bakhtin's view): #9;The feast is always essentially related to time, either to the recurrence of an event in assassination the natural (cosmic) cycle, or to biological or historical timeliness. Moreover, through all the stages of historic development feasts were linked to ma homework com moments of crisis, of breaking points in love or obsession paper wuthering heights the cycle of ma homework nature or in the life of society and man. Moments of death and revival, of change and love or obsession research paper renewal always led to a festive perception of the world. These moments, expressed in concrete form, created the peculiar character of the feasts ( Rabelais 9). #9;In medieval and Renaissance culture, there were essentially two kinds of ma homework com feast: the official and the unofficial (Carnival). The former sanctioned the existing order of assassination of julius caesar essay things and reinforced it (9); it consecrated the present hierarchy, the existing religious, political, and moral values, norms, and prohibitions (9) by the way of the ma homework, past.
Carnival, by contrast, opposed itself to all of this in a point by point inversion (parody) of everything official: in place of friends essay official seriousness, Carnival brought festive laughter; instead of the strictly maintained hierarchy of feudal culture, Carnival reflected absolute equality; instead of official prohibitions on sexuality, speech, etiquette and association, Carnival lifted all bans; in place of official glorification of the past, Carnival festively annihilated it. Ma Homework? The suspension of hierarchy had especially profound effects, as it allowed contact between people otherwise completely separated by social designation: #9;[S]uch free, familiar contacts were deeply felt and obesity argument essay formed an essential element of the life of the carnival spirit. People were, so to speak, reborn for new, purely human relations. These truly human relations were not only com, a fruit of imagination or abstract thought; they were experienced. The utopian ideal and the realistic merged in this carnival experience, unique of its kind ( Rabelais 10).
#9;Bakhtin elucidates the significance of beautician cover Carnival to illuminate the almost innumerable examples of it in Rabelais' Gargantua and Pantagruel , with the result that the intense sophistication and profundity that Bakhtin claims for ma homework com, the novel seems wholly justified. However, insofar as Gargantua and Pantagruel is a product of the literate castes, one can still question if it, and Bakhtin's interpretation, provide a clear window to love paper a folk Utopia. In his introduction to Bakhtin's Rabelais Michael Holquist raises this question as well: #9;Bakhtin's image of the folk is also open to the charge of idealization, but he employs his most glowing colors to com highlight attributes of the folk precisely and about teaching diametrically opposed to ma homework those celebrated in Soviet folklorico . His folk are blasphemous rather than adoring, cunning rather than intelligent; they are coarse, dirty, and rampantly physical, reveling in oceans of strong drink, poods of sausage, and endless coupling of bodies. In the prim world of Stalinist Biedermeier, that world of lace curtains, showily displayed water carafes, and militant propriety, Bakhtin's claim that the folk not only picked their noses and caesar farted, but enjoyed doing so, seemed particularly unregenerate. The opposition is not merely between two different concepts of the common man, but between two fundamentally opposed worldviews with nothing in common except that each finds its most comprehensive metaphor in the folk ( Rabelais xix). #9;What makes the idealization suspect is ma homework com, less the unremittingly positive interpretation Bakhtin presents, and more the lopsided impression one gets from his book; that is, we only see the folk during Carnival. What about the teaching, nine months of the year not dedicated to Carnival. (Since Bakhtin did not aspire to examine non-Carnival time, its absence from the book is hardly a demerit.) #9;In Discipline and Punish , Michel Foucault provides another view of the ma homework, folk (during non-Carnival time), in the spectacle of the scaffold, the public execution. #9;If the crowd gathered round the scaffold, it was not simply to witness the sufferings of the condemned man or to excite the anger of the executioner: it was also to hear an individual who had nothing more to lose curse the judges, the laws, the government and religion. The public execution allowed the luxury of these momentary saturnalia, when nothing remained to of julius caesar prohibit or to punish. Under the protection of imminent death, the criminal could say everything and the crowd cheered.
In these executions, which ought to show only the terrorizing power of the prince, there was a whole aspect of the carnival, in which rules were inverted, authority mocked and criminals transformed into ma homework com, heroes (60-1). #9;Foucault also describes the fantastic spectacle of an obesity argument essay, enormous French chain-gang being transported openly from town to town in ma homework 1836, and destined for essay about teaching methods, the convict-ships. Amongst the prisoners transported was a priest, Delacollonge, who had dismembered his pregnant mistress. In his open cart, insults, obscenities, stones and mud were hurled at him with particular fury. His escorts were hard-pressed to protect him, but he insisted on travelling openly, believing that the ma homework com, humiliation formed part of his punishment (260). Finally, though, he had to be disguised, but still traveled in his cart. As a result of making friends online essay this disguise, another notorious murderer, François, was mistaken for the priest: #9;François entered into the spirit of the game and com accepted the role; but, to the comedy of the crime that he did not commit, he added that of the priest that he was not; to the account of ?his' crime, he added the prayers and broad gestures of blessing directed at the jeering crowd. A few steps away, the real Delacollonge, ?who seemed like a martyr,' was undergoing the double affront of the insults that he was not receiving, but which were addressed to him, and the ridicule that brought back, under the appearances of another criminal, the priest that he was and would have liked to have concealed. His passion was laid out before his eyes, by childhood obesity, a buffoon murderer to whom he was chained (260-1). #9;One could hardly ask for a more ideal image of the Carnival spirit, in which official culture (the martyred seriousness of the priest) is ma homework, relentlessly parodied by the abuse-praise of festive laughter, which laughs at itself as well. (François is not a hero in this scene; the crowd thought he was Delacollonge, and sam watkins essay treated him accordingly.) On the same page, Foucault again refers to saturnalia, the antique forebear of ma homework Carnival; In every town it passed through, the chain-gang brought its festival with it; it was a saturnalia of assassination caesar punishment, a penalty turned into privilege (261). #9;The above suggests, then, that Carnival was not just an com, event that occurred at set times, but that it was a kind of outlook or mindset that could manifest independently of Carnival proper; hence, the obesity, utterly free speech of the scaffold, the ma homework com, abuse-praise hurled at less notorious criminals on the chain-gang (and similar sentiments returned to the crowd), and François' parody.
Compelling as these clear links are between Carnival and criminal, it could still be objected that the conclusion of a mindset behind them is overhasty; that all that has been shown so far is a kind of behavior, but not the psychology that informs that behavior. One could also object that Carnival, executions and chain-gangs represent extra-ordinary situations that do not reflect an everyday picture of the popular mind. For this, we must turn to the archaic mentality, as described by Mircea Eliade in The Myth of the Eternal Return . #9;The main characteristics of the archaic mentality are most clearly discerned where its ritual imagery is most concentrated: namely, in the various forms of New Year rites. The basic elements of such rites, exemplified by the Babylonian New Year ceremony of akîtu as cited by Eliade, consist of the abolition of past time, the restoration of primordial chaos, and repetition of the cosmogonic act (57). In fact, realization of the second intention accomplishes the first, since the restoration or return to primordial chaos projects the community into mythical time, to a time before Creation. (In akîtu, this is signified by the reading of the Enûma eli? , the assassination caesar essay, epic of ma homework Creation, in which the god Marduk must fight and about teaching destroy the ma homework com, Great Dragon, Tiamat, in order to affect Creation.) Eliade's comments here make explicit the parallels with Carnival: #9;The first act of the [akîtu] ceremony represents the domination of Tiamat and thus marks a regression into the mythical period before the Creation; all forms are supposed to be confounded in the marine abyss of the beginning, the apsu . Enthronement of a carnival king, humiliation of the real sovereign, overturning of the entire social order (according to Berossus, the essay, slaves became the masters, and so on)--every feature suggests universal confusion, the abolition of ma homework com order and hierarchy, orgy, chaos (57). #9;The reading of the sacred epic has its parallel in the chaos of Carnival as well, insofar as the writing and public reading of innumerable parodies of making essay Scripture and ma homework the Liturgy, in essay about methods fact, all official writings, were a standard feature of ma homework Carnival. Bakhtin draws attention to this enormous body of writings, which was accorded official status during the festival ( Rabelais 13).
#9;New Year rituals often included, or began, with ceremonies for both individual and communal purification (the expulsion of diseases, demons and sins). Or Obsession Research Paper Wuthering? Eliade summarizes these ceremonies in broad outline as fasting, ablutions, purifications; extinguishing the fire and com ritually rekindling it. expulsions of demons by means of noises, cries, blows. followed by their pursuit through the beautician, village with uproar and hullabaloo (53). Again, the symbolic abolitions of time take on a different register in ma homework the primordial chaos preceding re-Creation. Fasting, ablutions, and purifications become feasting, libations and profanation in Carnival. Extinguishing the fire (an act reserved for the adults) transforms into a filial responsibility; in the Roman Carnival's candlelight parade, the assassination caesar essay, sons blow out their father's candle, crying out, sia ammazzato il signor Padre! ?Death to you, sir father!' ( Rabelais , 251). #9;I have focussed here principally on Carnival's restoration of primordial chaos to ma homework locate its often inexplicable imagery in its larger context as a festival for the regeneration of love or obsession research wuthering heights time, but the repetition of the cosmogonic act is com, also present. In akîtu, the conquering of primordial chaos is finalized by the restored king's reënactment of Marduk's sacred marriage with Sarpan_t_ as a concrete realization of the ?rebirth' of the essay about, world and man (Eliade 50). Com? For Carnival, the equivalent act is the restoration of the normal order of things. The mundanity of this, however, should not obscure that Carnival does in fact wholly reflect the intent of a New Year ritual: the abolition of sam watkins past time, restoration of primordial chaos, and repetition of the cosmogonic act, such that it denotes a repetition of the mythical moment of the passage from chaos to cosmos (34), the re-Creation of the world. #9;Eliade, then, lends an explanatory coherence to the overwhelming array of Carnival images Bakhtin (and to a lesser extent, Foucault) presents. Eliade also demonstrates the intense significance of Carnival indirectly that Bakhtin does not otherwise quite directly seem to justify.
But even though the coherence, context, intent and significance of Carnival may be said to be established (as a repetition of the divine act of Creation, and ma homework all that that entails), the mindset out of which this ritual originated is still unclear. In other words, why does what Eliade call the ?archaic mentality' utilize the technique of teaching methods a repetition of the cosmogonic act at all? 	For traditional societies, all the important acts of com life were revealed ab origine by gods or heroes. Men only repeat the about teaching, exemplary and ma homework paradigmatic gestures ad infinitum (Eliade 32). As such, repetition (reënactment) of a divine precedent obtains the divinity and sacredness of the original; Eliade provides several of such examples (29-34). More than this, however, an object or an act becomes real only sam watkins, insofar as it imitates or repeats an archetype. everything which lacks an ma homework com, exemplary model is ?meaningless', i.e., it lacks reality (34). Paper Heights? As such, New Year rites (and Carnival) employ a repetition of the ma homework, cosmogonic act because any other act would be meaningless.
#9;Carnival's repetition, then, literally projects it into the mythical time before Creation, such that one may say that its re-Creation exactly coincides with the original Creation. They become identical; re-Creation is Creation. Friends Essay? Since this is true for all repetitions of exemplary gestures, when an individual repeats a divine precedent, an identification of deity and individual in mythical time occurs as well. Com? By this, it is teaching, clear that the public ritual (of Carnival or akîtu) has its analog in the personal life of its participants as well. As such, the abolition of time, restoration of primordial chaos, and repetition of the cosmogonic act may all be ascribed to the mindset of the archaic mentality of individuals.
#9;Eliade describes several other features of this mentality. First, insofar as all real acts occur only in mythical time (through repetition), the archaic mentality may therefore be said to be ahistorical in nature. Com? Thus, the abolition of obesity time entailed by exemplary repetition may be more properly understood as an abolition of profane (non-sacred) time; time taken up by com, all the non-important acts of assassination caesar life not preserved as exemplary gestures in myth. Eliade later convincingly illuminates the ma homework, advantages of such a view; principally that it makes the terror of history, with its suffering, misfortune, social injustice and so forth, tolerable . Moreover, by being able to annul personal history: #9;archaic man recovers the possibility of definitely transcending time and living in eternity. Insofar as he fails to do so, insofar as he sins, that is, falls into historical existence, into time, he each year thwarts the about methods, possibility. At least he retains the com, freedom to annul his faults, to wipe out the memory of research wuthering heights his fall into history, and to ma homework com make another attempt to escape definitively from time (158).
#9;This access to freedom has a correlate implication of access to power and creativity. This is obvious in the re-creation of the world in Carnival, but every repetition involves the re-creation of a first gesture, and hence is an act performed for the first time. Eliade further demonstrates the ubiquity of assassination of julius caesar this type of personal creative power as cosmogenesis in ritual: in temple building and for ma homework, lands conquered by heights, war, at times of coronation, consummation of marriage, and the birth of children, or as a response to ma homework com bad crops, or even bad luck. #9;For the cosmos and man are regenerated ceaselessly and by essay, all kinds of means, the past is destroyed, evils and sins are eliminated, etc. Ma Homework Com? Differing in love research heights their formulas, all these instruments of regeneration tend toward the same end: to annul past time, to abolish history by a continuous return in ma homework illo tempore , by the repetition of the cosmogonic act (81). #9;One could critique the validity of this archaic mentality (as Eliade does to some extent), but the purpose of my discussion is only to establish the nature of the popular mindset as it informs a hypothetical archaic Utopia. As such, Eliade's assertion that the archaic mentality has served in good stead tens of millions. century after century (152) is perhaps less important than the about teaching, fact that in 1949, when The Myth of the Eternal Return was originally published, Eliade could note that a very considerable fraction of the population of Europe, to ma homework say nothing of other continents, still lives today by the light of the traditional, anti-?historicistic' viewpoint (152). #9;The archaic mentality's devaluation of friends essay history entails that it exists in a continual present (86). Time becomes a state of being (either sacred or profane), within which every sacred reënactment alludes to its divine counterpart. A similar conception exists in the archaic mentality with respect to space.
Every object in the world that is conceived of as sacred (hence, real) has also an extraterrestrial archetype, be it conceived as a plan, as a form, or purely and simply as a ?double' existing on a higher cosmic level (9); profane (ritually unsacralized) places do not have this archetype, and thus may be spoken of as non-real. ?Sacred', however, must not be understood as referring only to temples or the ma homework com, like; an entire city, or monarch's domain, may be ritually sacralized. As such, the archaic mentality sees itself mirrored in the celestial archetypes precisely as a sacred reënactment is mirrored by a simultaneous divine enactment. #9;For every sacred action, then, there is a coincident occurrence of action on the terrestrial and celestial planes. If the time of this action is the continual present, then it would seem that the place of this occurrence is an equally concrete absolute space. Such a continual present may be understood as comprised of essay discontinuous moments of time. (Why discontinuous? Imagine several pennies laid flat, edge to edge; each penny is a moment. Though touching, there yet remains a gap between each pair of ma homework com coins; this gap represents the discontinuity of non-time between each moment.) Insofar as the pennies are not actually connected, by virtue of the gap, they might just as well be scattered everywhere, as placed edge to edge. This, because the width of the gap is irrelevant, since one does not traverse the gap to get from one moment to the next; rather, one simply remanifests anew within each moment, within each instance of the childhood, continual present. Ma Homework Com? As such, every moment is radically now , and this suggests the parallel term for childhood obesity argument, the archaic mentality's space, here . Com? (Here is also discontinuous. We do not traverse the gap between one here and the next, but rather remanifest anew from one here to the next.
We are always, and perpetually, here ; we can be nowhere else.) #9;As such, there is a radical integration of the individual into the here and now of sacred reality, that gains its meaning from the beautician cover, transcendental exempla and archetypes of the com, celestial planes. It might even be said that this reality-transcending meaning is not transcendental at all, insofar as the consciousness of its meaning is wholly bound up in friends the utterly integrated here and now of the ma homework com, act. Assassination? I will not insist on this further point, but will refer henceforth to this aspect of the archaic mentality as reality-integrating. #9;It is this mentality that provides the basis for the archaic Utopia, characterized by the reversibility of time (back to the Golden Age of com new Creation), by a radical integration of the individual into reality here and now, and informed (transcendentally or not) by divine meaning. Childhood Essay? As a symbol, the archaic Utopia's attainment of Creation anew implies the attainment of those goals George Kateb has included as essential to ma homework Utopianism: peace, abundance, leisure, equality, consonance of men and essay their environment ( Utopia and Its Enemies 11), but also adds hope, liberation (from authority and time), freedom of speech, power and creativity--all on behalf of the ma homework com, individual (as Carnival well illustrates).
It should also be pointed out that this archaic Utopia is temporary, recurrent and small-scale. #9;What, then, was lost, and what was retained, of this archaic Utopia by its recontextualization and love or obsession wuthering heights revaluation as an official (literate and literary) Utopia? #9;The most fundamental change may be seen foremost in the archaic Utopia being written , which after a fashion also indicates the most faithful retention of archaic values. For example, the act of authorship is a cosmogonic act that implies as much freedom, power and creativity as Eliade imputes to the archaic mentality. (There are, of course, psychological and com imaginative limits here, as well as constraints on freedom of speech if the book is meant to assassination be published, but these limitations are also operative for the archaic mentality as well.) Even so, the very act of writing literally returns the author to the beginning, to a mythical time before Creation. Ma Homework? Past time and real-world (profane) time are abolished and, like Marduk, the making friends essay, author confronts Tiamat's primordial chaos (chaos means gap in ma homework Greek) in the empty white page. A struggle ensues; and the author creates the cosmos from the assassination of julius caesar, fragments of Tiamat's torn body (Eliade 55)--the remaining white space between the words, and even within the letters themselves--until Creation is complete.
The text, then, is literally a record of exemplary gestures made originally by a world-creator. #9;The analogy continues even more precisely at the level of the reader. By the act of reading, the exemplary gestures of the author are reënacted, such that the reader's act of re-Creation refigures the original Creation in mythical time, and thus retains and reflects the freedom, power and creativity of the archaic mentality. Moreover, the distinction between deity-author and mortal-reader is also maintained, insofar as the author (if only in ma homework retrospect) knows the obesity argument essay, whole of the text omnisciently relative to the reader. This does not concern the reader, of course, who can re-start time and creation at will (by re-reading phrases, or returning to page one), who can reorder Creation (by skipping pages, or to the end of the ma homework com, book), or who can suspend creation indefinitely by leaving it unfinished (partly read). As a repetition of cosmogenesis, then, the assassination of julius, reader too abolishes profane time and projects into the mythical (fictional) time of pre-Creation; there to repeat (by reading) the exemplary gestures (text) of the original Creator; to struggle with the oceanic vastness of potential textual significations; and to emerge, finally, intact and victorious, having affected an individualized Creation (meaning). #9;In the world of literature, it seems that the reader is typically of the lowliest caste. By the act of reading, however, the tables are turned, as in the turvytopsy world of Carnival. The reader becomes the Carnival monarch; the true sovereign (the author) is humiliated, insofar as the reader's interpretation of the text becomes sacrosanct, law, unchallengeable (unless the reader for some reason assents to a challenge). The reader sees the world with a deity's eye (especially in third-person omniscient narration). Moreover, Carnival's free and familiar contact between people normally divided by caste becomes available to the reader, who can now (with sufficient library skills) travel everywhere and meet with everyone; even the spirits of the dead (those denizens of Carnival) may be visited, or come visiting.
Reading becomes a feast for the imagination, and the book a banquet for all the world ( Rabelais 278). If the novel is comic, then the festive laughter is ma homework, self evident--the laughing reader is a laughing divinity; if the novel is not comic, the festive laughter might still be asserted, in the sheer pleasure of reading itself. #9;Insofar as reading bears analogy with exemplary repetition, then the doubling (of sacred and celestial space, and of reënacting and divine time) that radically integrates the individual into love or obsession research wuthering, the here and now of reality informed by transcendental meaning holds for the act of reading as well. Ma Homework Com? When reading, real-world space and time become shut out, so to speak. The specific here and now where reading occurs, suffused by the transcendental meaning of the text, may therefore be described as equally radically integrating, not escapist. It should be pointed out in essay addition that this author-book-reader Utopia is temporary, recurrent and small scale. Lastly, as the ma homework, individual's archaic mentality may be said to be the love or obsession research paper heights, foundation for com, public-communal New Year ceremonies and Carnival, so also can solitary reading be adapted to a social scale, as the initial ceremonial gesture of akîtu (reading the Enûma eli? ), as a traditional aspect of Carnival (the reading of sacred parodies), or simply for the sake of communal reading (as at Beat happenings and English Department teas). #9;Given this almost total incorporation and reflection of the archaic Utopia in the very nature of authorship, literature and reading, it is beautician cover, therefore surprising that the main body of literary Utopias are relentlessly authoritarian: #9;The authoritarian Utopian State does not allow of any personality strong and independent enough to conceive of change or revolt. Since the com, utopian institutions are considered as perfect, it goes without saying that they cannot be capable of improvement. The Utopian State is essentially static and does not allow its citizens to fight or even to dream of a better utopia.
#9;#9;This crushing of man's personality often takes a truly totalitarian character (Berneri 7). #9;On one hand, these authoritarian elements manifest primarily within the text, at the level of utopian representation, rather than at essay, the level of the architectonic relation between author, text and reader. In other words, the content of the literary Utopia has changed relative to the archaic Utopia, but not its form. This kind of change seems to com precisely parallel the Catholic Church's technique of essay retaining the forms of pagan religion and ma homework com festivals (such as the Winter Solstice), while substituting Christian content and significance (as Christmas), and clearly indicates the shift from unofficial (folk) culture to official (ruling) culture. Insofar as official culture is always authoritarian to one degree or another, the authoritarianism of literary (official) Utopias is therefore no longer so surprising. #9;Literary Utopias are authoritarian also because they tend to share the official culture's valuation of the social over against a valuation of the individual. Of course, such social values are often little more than the ruling individuals' values imposed on the whole of society. Online? As such, it is apparent that the ma homework, universal freedom, power and letter creativity accessible to all within the ma homework com, archaic Utopia is claimed as belonging to teaching only certain individuals in the official Utopia. Com? This transformation of archaic values may be illustrated by the fact that in traditional cultures almost everything and all people were sacred; in later cultures, only certain places or people (e.g., temples and priests) were considered sacred. Beautician? Consequently, the individual of the archaic Utopia vanishes, refigured as the masses and ruled by an individual who retains the sole right to ma homework com the freedom, power and creativity of sam watkins essay cosmogenesis in official Utopia.
This act of usurpation (literary or social) may have been legitimated on the basis of sheer power with respect (or disrespect) to ma homework the masses, who were neither trained nor equipped to prevent it, but power alone would be an of julius, insufficient legitimation vis-à-vis other literati or glitterati; usurpation simply because I can won't cut any ice amongst those who can as well. (Such a claim would provoke and justify ambitiousness in others also.) One needs a sturdier basis for authority. #9;Recall that akîtu begins with the reading of the epic of Creation. Com? As I have already noted, the very act of writing is cosmogonic, but by transcribing the epic of Creation, the theme of Creation becomes not only the structural principle (as writing), but also the object of representation. As such, reading the epic represents another method for repeating the exemplary gesture of love or obsession research wuthering heights Marduk, that nevertheless remains invested with the sacredness (and hence, reality) of actual, ritual reënactment. It is this retention of sacredness and reality that precisely leads to ma homework com the investiture of divine authority in the very text itself. Probably all Scripture obtains its authority in about teaching methods this manner, and this authority is ma homework com, absolute. Love Or Obsession Research? There is no question of subjective authorial bias, since the writing is already divinely sanctioned as an ma homework com, exemplary repetition of oral tradition. That the written word is absolute, incontestable and sacred is nowhere better illustrated than by the fact that at the very heart of the Hebrew's temple, in the Holy of Holies, was the Ark of the Covenant (which it was death to obesity argument touch) that contained the Word of ma homework com God.
#9;Authority among the ruling and literate classes, then, derives partly from sheer power, and is partly augmented by essay, documents. It would no doubt be excessive to ma homework com claim that all literature may be genealogically traced to Sacred Writ, but some influence is impossible to deny. In the essay teaching, very act of writing Scripture, the temporary aspect of the archaic Utopia (the temporaneity of the very repetition itself) becomes permanent. Moreover, the universal quality of sacredness becomes absolutely embodied in the text. In a sense, the text is the first usurper of cosmogonic freedom, power and creativity hitherto accessible to all; it is the com, first to deny universal rights to all, and to claim them for itself. As an absolute sovereign or deity, its claims encompass the whole world, and do not refrain from mandating both the large details (sexual and economic relations) and the small details of a person's life. Many literary Utopias have taken up this tendency with a vengeance. #9;In contrast, then, to the temporary, recurrent and small-scale archaic Utopia, the argument, official Utopia is permanent and world-scale. The official Utopia promises peace, abundance, leisure, equality, consonance of men and their environment, but must do so at the expense of the individual's liberation, freedom of speech, freedom, power and creativity.
In spite of ma homework this authoritarianism though, one should never lose sight of the almost equally universal good intentions of most literary Utopists. Online Essay? Thus, instead of liberation, the Utopist proposes service ( not ?enslavement') to Utopia's central authority; power becomes loyalty (that relies on com, the sovereign's power); freedom is purchased as the price for security (in exchange for friends essay, service); creativity may be granted the patronage of the arts (only very rarely), or becomes limited to being rewarded for innovations in the workplace, for example, that increase production. In all of these somewhat questionable proposals, one might discern the faint traces of com Carnival's spirit of parodic inversion--a kind of or obsession research paper wuthering unpleasant, official humor. On a more abstract level, insofar as the archaic Utopia affects a radical integration of the individual into ma homework, the here and now (informed by transcendental meaning), the official Utopia affects a radical transcendence of a society toward a then and there (informed by childhood essay, a wholly immanent meaning). In Ideology Utopia , Karl Mannheim provides a similar definition: #9;Every concretely operating order of life is to be conceived and characterized most clearly by means of the particular economical and political structure on which it is based. But it embraces also all those forms of com human living together (specific forms of love, sociability, conflict, etc.) which the structure makes possible or requires; and also all those modes and forms of experience and thought which are characteristic of this social system and are consequently congruous with it. But every actually operating order of life is at the same time enmeshed by conceptions which are to be designated as transcendent or unreal because their contents can never be realized in the societies in which they exist, and friends online because one could not live and act according to them within the limits of the existing social order. #9;#9;In a word, all those ideas which do not fit into the current order are situationally transcendent or unreal (194). #9;Insofar as such a utopian ideal is situationally transcendent relative to the status quo, Utopia itself could only exist in some there and then, not in the here and now. Moreover, it should be obvious that if one of such utopian ideas ever succeeded in being implemented, it would immediately cease to be Utopia, becoming instead the new operating order of life; More's pun on Utopia (?good place'-?no place') fits perfectly with Mannheim's definition. This sense of Utopia as then and there, which is so characteristic of the official Utopia, will henceforth be referred to as reality-transcending.
#9;As noted previously, satire and parody do not directly present folk laughter, but represent it indirectly from within a recontextualization of com official values. A similar development is apparent in assassination of julius essay the literary history of Utopia. Com? As folk laughter split into two forms of official laughter (satire and parody), so too does the archaic Utopia split into two strands of official Utopia. These two strands will be explored more below, but first, something must be said about the nature of the contrast between them, by way of analogy. #9;Previously, I characterized satire as revolution, and parody as renovation, and further noted their shared target (official culture) and comedic nature; it is tactics and intent (revolution versus renovation) that especially distinguishes the one from the other. At the heart of these genres, however, (and in making friends essay fact in ma homework all official culture, including literature), there is a logical tautology. Making Friends Online Essay? Broadly speaking, the satiric world-view may be said to see things along a continuum from Civilization to ?folk-culture' (demonized as vulgarity, barbarity, incivility and so forth). The parodic world-view, by contrast, sees things along a continuum from Civilization (criticized as decadent or absurd) to ?folk culture' (idealized as genuine or true life).
As such, both satire and parody appear to com employ a Civilization-folk culture dichotomy, though with markedly different accents. This dichotomy, however, is not a true opposition, insofar as real folk culture is not included in the opposition (as is suggested by the demonization and idealization). Beautician Cover? The opposition is actually not an opposition at all, and rather should be indicated as Civilization-Civilization; it is simply just different kinds of civilized civilizations arguing for ascendancy and ma homework power, with characteristic disregard for the masses each would dominate once in childhood obesity argument power. #9;Precisely the same kind of false dichotomy exists between the two historical strands of literary Utopias. Ostensibly, the dichotomy appears to be a Society-Individual dyad, but in fact it is actually a Society-Society debate in which different kinds of ma homework com socialized societies are vying for ascendancy.
This is perhaps least apparent in the contrast between the Socialist Utopia and science fiction (?fantastyka') Utopia, and is still somewhat tenuous in the contrast between the bourgeois Utopia (exemplified by Richardson's novels) and the Gothic Utopia. (This will be explored further below, but for obesity argument essay, now I will simply mention that the weddings that end many of the earlier feminine Gothic novels precisely indicate the heroine's individual achievement of establishing the ma homework, society of a home.) In the obesity essay, contrast between the ma homework, Renaissance Utopia (exemplified by More's) and the Arcadian Utopia, the essay about teaching methods, opposed values of city and country most clearly bring out the fundamental Society-Society pseudodichotomy at work in the genre. #9;Even as this appears to be the case, there would be a certain artificiality in insisting on the point as regards developments in literary Utopias. False as the Society-Individual dyad might be at root, there is ma homework com, no question that it more accurately meets the literary Utopia on its own ground. It may well be that the individualistic pleas for a more genuine life, for liberation, or for a world of assassination caesar essay future possibilities coming from the mouths of the inhabitants of Arcadia, the feminine Gothic, and fantastyka are finally (consciously or not) merely self-serving, but at the very least, these cries are imaged in individuals and as such still retain their link with the archaic Utopia's assertion of individual value. It is this ancient and often tenuous link that prompts me to term this strand (Arcadia-Gothic-Fantastyka) of the two lines of literary Utopia as unofficial.
As such, the other, more typically authoritarian, strand (More-Richardson-Chernyshevsky) will henceforth be termed official. #9;In general, then, the ma homework com, official Utopia values and advocates Society; the unofficial Utopia champions the Individual. Of Julius? Consequently, the former will tend to suppress the ma homework com, individual voice; that is, such suppression will tend to essay about teaching be reflected in an authorial monologism, as defined by Bakhtin above. Hence, he correctly notes, Everything capable of meaning can be gathered together in one consciousness and subordinated to a unified accent; whatever does not submit to such a reduction is accidental and unessential. All of European utopianism was likewise built on this monologic principle ( Problems 82). For the most part, the unofficial Utopia is equally monologic in authorial treatment (i.e., at com, the level of style and structure), but at the level of letter content belies a more, if only relatively, polylogic nature. It is primarily in the individualized voices of the unofficial strand (the dialogists of Arcadia, the heroine of the feminine Gothic, the liberation of ideas in Eastern European fantastyka) that this relative sense of polylogism arises. #9;Having thus characterized the general nature of the official and unofficial literary Utopia, it now becomes possible to examine the com, specific manifestations of such Utopias in their historical development. The first step in this direction, however, must be to abandon the two, quite traditional, definitions of Utopia Berneri cites in her Bibliography: An Utopia has been defined, in the Encyclopedia Britannica , as ?an ideal commonwealth whose inhabitants exist under perfect conditions' . But a utopia has also been defined as ?an imaginary conception of an ideal government' ( Dictionaire Général de la Langue Française ) (320). #9;Why this must be done may be adduced from the first several selections in Berneri's work.
To illustrate: Plato's Republic is purely theoretical, such that we never go to Utopia; Plutarch's Life of Lycurgus is ostensibly a history; and Aristophanes' The Clouds and Ecclesiazusae are parodic Utopias. In the medieval extraordinary voyage of love or obsession paper heights St. Ma Homework? Brendan, Utopia figures as an allegory for Paradise; for St. Obesity Essay? Augustine, Utopia is the City of God. Ma Homework? Northrop Frye would defend all of these as quite proper to the history of essay literary Utopias; Still, the attainment of the City of God in literature must be classified as a form of utopian fiction , its most famous literary treatment being the Purgatorio and Paradiso of Dante (Varieties of Literary Utopias 34, my emphasis). #9;The fact, however, that Frye refers to com forms of argument essay utopian fiction, rather than to fictive Utopias, should serve to com make clear that such works as those noted above (as well as others, e.g., the Greek utopian novel) indicate a utopian discourse that is similar to the novelistic discourse Bakhtin identifies as predating the novel, and or obsession that will provide the ma homework, foundation for Utopia itself. It is not until the Renaissance, then, that the disparate strands of this utopian discourse will finally be joined, most representatively in the official Utopia of Thomas More, and its unofficial counterpart of Arcadia. #9;There are four predominant features of More's Utopia that particularly bear commentary, especially as they establish major conventions for later official Utopias: these are Utopia 's monologism, its definitive formulation of the travelogue format, its solution to the literary problem of the depiction of an entire world-society, and its social criticism. #9;The first three features are interrelated, as may be readily demonstrated.
#9;In order to depict Utopia, More dramatizes what Socrates, Glaukon and others merely discuss in love or obsession research wuthering The Republic ; in fact, the com, Second Book of Utopia can be described as a mobile Socratic dialogue. (Book One, which is trenchantly critical of love or obsession research 16th century England, adapts the Socratic dialogue to this purpose as well, but is wholly stationary.) This explicit separation of More's social criticism (Book One) and ma homework visionary utopianism (Book Two), though each may obviously be said to letter inform the other, is indicative of the work's monologism. All novels characteristically incorporate disparate genre-types into their texts; monologic novels, however, tend to keep such incorporations discretely separate from one another. #9;Further, More employs the travelogue device of a guided tour to present Utopia to the protagonist (and the reader); a device that inevitably tends to produce a somewhat monocular view of the place toured (much as Soviet tours once did). The fact that this one-sidedness is a structural-generic consequence of the guided tour device might be said to mitigate the imputation of authoritarianism against ma homework com, More and like-minded Utopists. Even so, the distribution of teaching authority and speaking power between the tour guide and the tourist is inordinately in the former's favor; as Frye remarks, As a rule the guide is completely identified with his society and seldom admits to any discrepancy between the ma homework, reality and the appearance of what he is describing (Varieties 26). Though he recognizes that this is inevitable given the conventions employed (26), that the childhood essay, guide tends to speak with a pervading smugness of tone (26) cannot be explained in terms of com convention; rather, it should be understood as reflecting authorial monologism. #9;One of the apparently trivial details of making Utopia is its attention to ma homework trivial details; a habit picked up by a distressing number of subsequent official Utopias. On one hand, this reflects More's effort to depict the entire world of Utopia--not by a detailed litany of literally everything, but rather by a selection of those details that artfully suggest everything. (Tolstoy is one of the true masters at discovering such essential details.) On the love research paper wuthering heights, other hand, Foucault notes that in com the classical age a meticulous attention to detail, and at the same time a political awareness of these small things, for the control and use of men (141, my emphasis) begins to crystallize, but the assassination essay, roots of the phenomenon are far older. In fact, one could trace this attention to detail for the hold it provides for the power that wishes to seize it (140), for the access to the control of others it grants, to that exemplary model of niggling details, Scripture. Ma Homework? It may in fact partially be Utopia 's generic link with the Bible (though More's Utopia is not a Christian State) that explains the bizarrely ritualistic mandates on sexual relations between husbands and wives in the book. (In fact, many official Utopias, including Huxley's Brave New World , reflect similarly bizarre strictures.) Again, as with the guided tour, the authorial intent to depict the world through details on one hand mitigates an apparent authoritarianism that is an accidental consequence of that intent, but which at the same time contributes to the overwhelmingly monologic nature of the essay, book. #9;Monologism is apparent in the socially critical element of the novel as well, insofar as the social criticism (apt as it is) seems more a rhetorical device for ma homework, making Utopia seem that much more perfect.
One can only sam watkins, wonder, for instance, how seriously one should take More's concern for the plight of the poor and dispossessed in Book One, when slavery is an institution in Utopia (Book Two); in fact, the question is hardly moot. More's pun on Utopia is ma homework, not the only one in the book: The name for founder of Utopia, Utopus means he who has no people; the capital, Amaurot, means Shadowy town. Berneri notes, Of the use of these facetious Greek names G.C. Richards remarks that More meant those acquainted with Greek to see through his fiction (Berneri 68n). This may well be true, but the facetious names could also have served to beautician letter protect More (humanist and ma homework friend of Erasmus) from any authorities angered by his non-Christian (humanist) Utopia; he could have answered any charges to cover letter the effect, What? You thought I was serious? I called the place ?Nowhere,' and so forth. #9;However, with respect to the history of ma homework com literary Utopias, the specific content and seriousness of intent of essay More's social criticism is of lesser significance than its rhetorical character. It would seem to be this rhetorical character that explains the odd blend of ostensible social sensitivity and ma homework despotism one typically finds in official Utopias. It finally seems as if the social criticism is less genuine than it appears; that it is rather a kind of tactic for making the Utopist's social arrangements more attractive.
Again, though, it does not seem plausible to deny More's, or later official Utopists', good intentions; it's just that the road to Hell is paved with good intentions. #9;The static character of More's Utopia , and the bulk of subsequent official Utopias, may also be understood as an indirect consequence of monologism, insofar as both the guided tour device and extreme attention to detail naturally do not permit a great deal of narrative dynamism. The narrative movement from or obsession research paper scene to scene is com, very placid and within each scene the explanations of the tour guide take precedence over the activities witnessed. This static quality, in fact, would seem to be a carryover from the discussion and debate of Book One (as a kind of symposium without food), which belies a certain intellectual movement, but precious little physical. #9;Again, this may be understood as a consequence of More's solution to the literary problem of depicting an teaching, entire world-society. The famous map of Utopia that More provides as a frontispiece to his book, a device that has since become de rigeur in the fantasy genre, exemplifies the official Utopia's tendency toward static states. In the genre of the map, all time is suspended; Utopia becomes static (as well as permanent and world-scale) and objectified in ma homework the most literal way.
With the device of the guided tour, which similarly relies on an acutely necessary objectification, time is no longer wholly suspended, but remains thoroughly subordinated to space. Since More wants us to essay see everything, nothing can happen off-stage while we are not looking; hence, his narrative bears a similarity to those science fiction narratives in which a protagonist moves amongst the inhabitants of a world who have somehow become frozen in time. In a sense, then, More's guided tour of Utopia takes place in a single moment of time; that is, by affecting a unity of time, with its consequential staticness, More becomes able to realize the ideal space of his Utopia. #9;By contrast, the unofficial Utopia of Arcadia had to solve a different literary problem: the depiction of com time--specifically, pastoral-idyllic time. Under idyllic time, as characterized by Bakhtin, life is severely limited to a few. basic realities. Love, birth, death, marriage, labor, food and drink, stages of growth ( The Dialogic Imagination 225) that all occur within, and are inseparable from, a unity of place; the essay, familiar territory with all its nooks and crannies, its familiar mountains, valleys, fields, rivers and one's own home. where the com, fathers and grandfathers lived and where one's children and their children will live (225). This unity of place, then, allows the depiction of generations (time), less as a biographical progression than as the simultaneous being together of children and assassination essay the aged, and the middle-aged, who are at ma homework, once both parents and children.
Bakhtin further asserts that the essay teaching, mixing together of these age categories thereby engenders that cyclic rhythmicalness of time so characteristic of the idyll (225). As such, the ma homework, unofficial Utopia of Arcadia reflects a dynamic quality, a rhythmicalness that is tied as well to the rhythms of assassination of julius caesar Nature, quite distinct from the official (static) Utopia. #9;Arcadia is not precisely contemporary with More's Utopia. In fact, as part of the pastoral tradition, it has a very ancient lineage, which Northrop Frye conveniently summaries in Anatomy of Criticism: #9;We think first of the pastoral's descent from Theocritus, where the ma homework, pastoral elegy first appears as a literary adaptation of the ritual of the Adonis lament, and through Theocritus to Virgil and the whole pastoral tradition to The Shepeardes Calendar and beyond to Lycidas itself. Then we think of the intricate pastoral symbolism of the bible and the Christian Church, of Abel and the twenty-third Psalm and Christ the Good Shepherd, of the ecclesiastical overtones of pastor and flock, and of the love research paper wuthering, link between the Classical and Christian traditions in Virgil's Messianic Eclogue. Then we think of the extensions of pastoral symbolism into Sidney's Arcadia , The Faerie Queene , Shakespeare's forest comedies, and the like (99-100). #9;The close association of pastoral-idyllic literature with Nature would probably already have alerted the literary historian to its links with folk culture; that its roots may be found in the Adonis lament make the com, links obvious, insofar as Adonis is one of the essay, dismembered-regenerating vegetation figures of ma homework mythology. It is significant as well that the pastoral-idyllic tradition is inaugurated as a literary adaptation of an actual ritual. This is precisely the same kind of beautician development I cited in the transformation of myth into Scripture (or the archaic into the literary Utopia). Consequently, one would therefore expect to find recontextualized and revalued folk culture in Arcadia. #9;This in com fact proves to be the case, as may be somewhat sardonically demonstrated by noting the transformation of people into sheep in the Christian pastoral tradition.
A remark by Bakhtin further suggests this recontextualization and revaluation, in less insulting terms. He notes that all the basic life-realities of the idyll are not presented in their naked realistic aspect (as in Petronius) but in a softened and to or obsession wuthering heights a certain extent sublimated form. Thus sexuality is almost always incorporated into the idyll only in sublimated form ( The Dialogic Imagination 226). This sublimation is indicative of a refining or civilizing modification to the otherwise typically frank (i.e., ?vulgar') attitude of folk culture, especially with regard to sexuality. #9;Although the ma homework com, formulation of Arcadia, as part of the much longer pastoral-idyllic tradition, is not strictly contemporaneous with More's Utopia , the milieu of the Renaissance, with its strongly court-centered and urban culture, would have almost automatically prompted a renewed interest in, and significance for, the Nature of Arcadia.
Moreover, the disintegrating social conditions Utopia criticizes (such as urban crime and poverty, partly as a result of the economic displacement of peasants into the city due to the onset of the assault on the land that would later manifest fully as the enclosure movement), generally suggests two solutions: better cities (Utopia), or a return to the land (Arcadia). Northrop Frye reaches a similar conclusion, though he disallows that Arcadia is strictly utopian (Varieties 41). #9;Nevertheless, he admits that the Arcadian ideal reflects simplicity, equality--a society of shepherds without distinction of class (41)--peace and leisure; the arts appear spontaneously, as these shepherds were assumed to have natural musical and poetic gifts (41). And, by contrast to the sexual taboos of Utopia, in Arcadia making love is a major occupation, requiring much more time and attention than the sheep (41). #9;Arcadia also reflects two ideals almost wholly unknown to the official Utopia. Frye asserts that the pastoral is a type of romantic comedy ( Anatomy 43), and that the theme of the comic is the integration of society (43). As such, the pastoral (and hence, Arcadia) may be described as reality-integrating. #9;[I]t puts an emphasis on the integration of man with his physical environment. The utopia is a city, and it expresses rather the human ascendancy over nature, the domination of the environment by abstract and conceptual mental patterns. In the pastoral, man is at peace with nature, which implies that he is also at sam watkins, peace with his own nature, the reasonable and the natural being associated.
In the com, second place, the pastoral, by simplifying human desires, throws more stress on the satisfaction of essay about teaching methods such desires as remain, especially, of com course, sexual desire. Sam Watkins Essay? Thus it can accommodate, as the typical utopia cannot, something of that outlawed and furtive social ideal known as the Land of Cockayne, the fairyland where all desires can be instantly gratified (Varieties 41). #9;The seeming identification here between Cockayne and Arcadia, as well as Frye's disavowal of Arcadia's utopian nature noted above, must be taken issue with. Of course, if one defines Utopia as Frye does, as a city, then obviously Arcadia cannot be Utopia, but such a definition is too limited, and causes Frye to com accept the official (urban) Utopia of More as definitive, and to overlook the unofficial (rural-arboreal) Utopia of Arcadia. #9;With regard to essay Cockayne, Bakhtin notes, There was a popular cycle of ma homework legends about the utopian land of gluttony and beautician cover idleness (for instance, the ma homework com, fabliau of the essay teaching, pays de Cocagne ) ( Rabelais 297). Not only does this brief remark emphasize a utopian element, the ma homework com, popular nature of Cockayne should also caution one against sam watkins essay, its automatic identification with the literary Arcadia; the link between the two, rather, must be recognized in the recontextualization of the former in com accordance with the literate values of the latter. #9;Having thus clarified the nature of Arcadia, further aspects may now be explored. For one, Arcadia may be distinguished from Utopia as a generic setting, usable by any number of poets or later novelists; it is, in a fairly concrete sense, communally owned. (With the friends online essay, official Utopia, each author posited a separate island, city, or continent.) As a generic setting, then, Arcadia reflects a multi-voicedness not found in the official Utopia.
This relatively greater degree of polylogism is expressed, not only at the structural level of genre, but also at ma homework com, the level of representation within the text. Insofar as Arcadia typically depicts generations of sam watkins essay people, this multi-voicedness is self-evident, but there is also a comparatively greater degree of equality of speech, compared to the unequal distribution of ma homework authority and speaking power reflected in the guided tour device of the official Utopia. #9;This greater equality may be readily discerned in the playful and variously ribald encounters between any number of 17th century Stellas and assassination of julius caesar essay Astrophels; George Williamson, in fact, notes precisely a casuistic dialogue on love ( Seventeenth Century Contexts 64) as the distinguishing feature of such encounters. Ma Homework Com? Without a presumed equality of beautician cover speech, of course, such a dialogue would become quite pointless, and lose all of its charm. Neither can the importance of the com, theme of love (as the sublimation of sexuality in Arcadia) be underestimated, as it signifies the unofficial Utopia's counterdiscourse to the sexual prohibitions of the official Utopia. In this at least minimal way, Arcadia may be said to advocate individual desires over against the social desires advocated by the official Utopia. #9;Despite the assassination of julius, relatively polylogic generic setting and quality of romantic encounter in Arcadia, the authorial treatment of individual texts nevertheless remains strictly conventional, such that monologism remains wholly in effect. (Insofar as poetry aspires to ma homework the condition of a unity of cover letter voice, such monologism cannot necessarily be deemed a demerit in Arcadian poetry.) In tracing the development of the casuistic dialogue on love from Sidney to com Donne's The Extasie , Williamson cites one interpretation of Donne's poem that indicates the most complete realization of friends online such authorial monologism (as poetic unity); In Donne's poem by a characteristic subtlety the dialogue is reduced to a monologue spoken by the undistinguished soul of the two lovers (64). #9;To expect a plurality of voices in Arcadian poetry (or any poetry) is generally hopeless, and indicates why Bakhtin (and I after him) would seek it instead in ma homework the novel. Essay About Teaching Methods? Consequently, Bakhtin ascribes considerable significance to ma homework the idyll and idyllic time (hence, Arcadia) in later developments of the novel, in either a positive and direct sense (as incorporated into the Sentimental, family-generational and provincial novel genres), or in a negative and indirect sense (as a kind of time to sam watkins essay be superceded, principally in the Bildungsroman ). Ma Homework Com? This, because idyllic time (as the officially revalued version of folk time) may be described as circular, and hence closed. In contrast to this circular conception of time, writers such as Goethe, Pascal and Leibniz propose a linear, and hence open, conception. Eliade traces the origins of this latter progressive view of time to Christian eschatology, which waged an ongoing battle with the caesar, cyclical nature of ma homework com folk time (143-6).
#9;It should be clear that cyclical is not identical to circular; specifically, the cyclical nature of folk time (and the archaic mentality that perceives it) is not closed. However, by revaluing this cyclicity as circular, Arcadia thereby comes to reflect a kind of sam watkins time (and hence society) that is open to the charge of stagnation, moribundness and so forth. Ma Homework Com? Precisely what has been lost in or obsession paper wuthering heights this shift of conceptions is the regenerating aspect of cyclical time. In spite of ma homework com this misconception, Arcadia nevertheless affects a realization of ideal time that parallels the love or obsession research paper wuthering heights, official Utopia's realization of ideal space. As such, both represent culminations or milestones in the genre of the literary Utopia that (like all milestones) both implicitly and ma homework explicitly point the friends online essay, way to new literary directions; milestones, moreover, that entailed both positive and negative consequences. #9;On the negative side, insofar as time is com, viewed as circular in Arcadia and static in essay Utopia, the images of time we have inherited in literature (especially as stripped of its regenerating capacity) are patently inadequate. Com? Time thus viewed becomes an of julius caesar, inescapable trap, and its tone (as in all official culture) becomes deadly serious. Ma Homework? Laughter can only become ironic or cynical under such conditions; pleasure begins to take on that sadomasochistic quality so evident in the Romantics.
At the end of Stanislaw Lem's Solaris , published in 1961, one character aptly summarizes all of making essay these modern themes: #9;We all know that we are material creatures, subject to the laws of com physiology and physics, and not even the assassination, power of all our feelings combined can defeat those laws. All we can do is detest them. The age-old faith of lovers and poets in com the power of love, stronger than death, that finis vitae sed non amoris , is a lie, useless and not even funny. So must one be resigned to being a clock that measures the passage of time, now out of order, now repaired, and whose mechanism generates despair and love as soon as its maker sets it going? Are we to grow used to the idea that every man relives ancient torments, which are all the of julius caesar, more profound because they grow comic with repetition? That human existence should repeat itself, well and good, but that it should repeat itself like a hackneyed tune, or a record a drunkard keeps playing as he feeds coins into the jukebox. (204). (This should not be taken as the final word in Lem's novel, as the com, question marks and final ellipsis suggest; Lem rarely, if ever, provides a final word in any case.) #9;Eliade might add that the closed or static impression of time engendered by Utopia and essay Arcadia, insofar as they present negative examples usable to com argue in favor of linear time, thereby helped to condemn humanity to cover letter the terror of history, to the irreversibility of historical time in com its progressive (linear) conception; that Utopia and Arcadia helped to make time into of julius, history, which subsequently became Joyce's nightmare. As I have sketched it here, Eliade's contention might seem like a bare assertion; a fuller exposition, which would be out of place here, may be found in the last chapter of The Myth of the Eternal Return (141-162). For now, I will simply note that the official distinction between the circular and the linear views of time (as opposed to com the more accurate distinction between the cyclical and the linear conceptions Eliade presents) is somewhat fatuous. In the assassination essay, same way that official culture stripped folk laughter of its profoundly significant regenerating aspect (thus rendering it merely frivolous or destructive), a similar stripping was performed on ma homework com, folk time (thus rendering it stagnant or indolent). Love Research Paper Heights? It has only been in this century that a more accurate conception of folk time as cyclical, not circular, has been rediscovered by the Western intelligentsia; in the interim, we have been struggling with only half of the equation (a linear, irreversible time) at our disposal.
#9;On the com, positive side, the realizations of beautician letter ideal space and time affected by Utopia and Arcadia, respectively, realized also a set of literary conventions as exemplary models to be explored and exploited by later generations. As Bakhtin notes, the love idyll was able to serve as the foundation for various types of ma homework com novels, and heights could enter as a component into other novels (for example, those of Rousseau) ( The Dialogic Imagination 226), as well as the family idyll and com the provincial novel. Utopia's guided tour, on the other hand, provided a basis for the innumerable memoirs and first-hand accounts written by explorers during a particularly exploratory age. Or Obsession Paper Wuthering Heights? As such, the realized ideals of Utopia and Arcadia became the idealized realities of actually explored land and personally experienced time. Com? In both cases, consciousness (personality) begins to infiltrate the official and unofficial branches of literary Utopias. #9;This shift is especially obvious in making friends online essay later titles of ma homework com Utopias. After the Renaissance (which includes, along with More's Utopia, such places as Campanella's City of the Sun, Bacon's New Atlantis, Andrae's Christianopolis, Hartlib's Macaria and Gott's Nova Solyma), a place like Harrington's Oceana, published in 1656, becomes very rare, to be replaced with memoirs, such as The Life, Adventures and Voyage to Greenland of the Reverend Father P. de Mésange, Gulliver's Travels, or The Memoirs of Gaudence de Luques . This shift is less obvious in the Arcadian branch of literary Utopias, but may still be sensed, insofar as the focus of the novel becomes centered on an individual consciousness (e.g., the assassination essay, novel of education or the Bildungsroman ); Rousseau's Emile and Goethe's Wilhelm Meister may be considered exemplary in this respect. #9;In general, this shift from realized ideals to idealized realities seems to vindicate Mannheim's conception of Utopia as situationally transcendent relative to ma homework the present but realizable in the future. As previously noted, however, an implemented Utopia is no longer Utopia, but becomes rather the operating order of life, the very status quo that Utopia is supposed to situationally transcend. (It might also be added that the very existence of essay literary Utopias violate Mannheim's definition, insofar as such Utopias are precisely realizable in the present as texts.) In this respect alone, it would seem to disallow that the idealized realities of memoirs and Bildungsromane warrant designation as literary Utopias, though obviously they comprise a part of utopian discourse. On a more intuitive level, there is not a strong enough sense of a specific and concrete place or time in these idealized realities to seem persuasively like literary Utopias. As such, one might say that Utopia and Arcadia per se vanish after the ma homework, Renaissance.
This disappearance, however, is not permanent, as may be seen by making, examining the official Utopia of the bourgeoisie, and the unofficial Utopia of the feminine Gothic. #9;The rise of the middle-classes to power brought with it an extraordinary upheaval of social life that amounted to a complete reinterpretation of all aspects of culture, including Utopia. One of these cultural revisions, as examined by ma homework com, Kate Ferguson Ellis in The Contested Castle , was the formulation of the ideology of separate spheres. This new ideology proposes a gender division and rigorous separation of the worlds of masculine work and feminine domesticity, based on, and dignified by, Biblical and Miltonic ( Paradise Lost ) authority. As such, work occurs in the fallen world (with the husband as a post-lapsarian Adam), while domesticity occurs in the home (with the sam watkins essay, wife as a pre-lapsarian and innocent Eve). #9;The redefinition of feminine gender-roles, over against the aristocratic images of women (as slaves to their sexual passions and appetites) and in conjunction with the middle-class conceit of moral superiority, led to a conception of ma homework com Eve (woman) that endowed her with the capacity to reclaim what she originally lost for all. It is woman's superior virtue, her implicit sense of love or obsession paper wuthering heights morality that is self-evidently greater than man's, that especially qualifies Eve for this role. As such, this virtue, along with its correlate passionlessness (i.e., sexlessness), coupled with Eve's socially divine mission of domestic redemption, creates the image of woman as an innocent domestic angel.
A similarly total redefinition of ma homework com masculine gender-roles (perhaps most completely realized in Richardson's Sir Charles Grandison ) is based on both the morality of the Protestant work ethic and the civilizing conceits of childhood argument essay early capitalism; as Adam Ulam has remarked, in Socialism and Utopia, Free enterprise was considered not only ma homework, socially beneficent but also morally imperative (124). However, this redefinition bears only indirectly on the history of literary Utopia, insofar as the foci of the bourgeois Utopia are the home and its resident domestic angel. #9;The reduction of the essay, official Utopia from island or continent to home precisely reflects a diminution of scale that characterizes what Frye has termed the low mimetic mode ( Anatomy 34), and for which Bakhtin provides a similar formulation, as characteristic of the com, pathos of the Sentimental psychological novel: The didactic purpose behind this Sentimental pathos is tied to more concrete situations, descends to beautician letter the depths of everyday life, its smallest details, to intimate relations between people and into the internal life of the individual person ( The Dialogic Imagination 396). #9;On one hand, this diminution represents a reaction to the historical enormity of the Baroque novel, but as Bakhtin goes on to correctly note, [i]t is not a matter of scale, but rather of a special organization of space (397). This special organization of space indubitably has its links with the kind of attention to detail and the emergence of com what Foucault has referred to as the disciplinary society; in assassination of julius caesar essay the first instance, discipline proceeds from the distribution of com individuals in space. Discipline organizes an analytical space (141,143). The home is love or obsession research, not so small as it may first seem, as the cliche A man's home is his castle and the maxim the ma homework com, home is an island of sanity in a mad world attest.
Home therefore represents the bourgeois Utopia's revision of More's official castle. There is a further parallel as well, insofar as there were several castles on More's island. As Raymond Williams notes (citing Austen as exemplary): #9;Neighbors in Jane Austen are not the people actually living nearby; they are the people living a little less than nearby who, in essay about teaching methods social recognition, can be visited. What she sees across the land is a network of ma homework com propertied houses and families, and through the holes of this tightly drawn mesh most actual people are simply not seen. To be face-to-face in this world is already to belong to a class. No other community, in physical presence or in assassination social reality, is by any means knowable (166). #9;As such, More's island has become the bourgeois island of class, with yawning abysses between each castle. #9;In attempting to realize this ideal class-space, the official bourgeois Utopia seems to have automatically adopted the com, authoritarian nature of its official forebears. Home arrogates to itself the authority of a castle; the father-husband becomes king; royal benevolent despotism becomes paternalism; the mother-wife and children become ornamental subjects.
In such a context, not only assassination of julius caesar, must father know best, but also, since the ideology of separate spheres adamantly maintains the innocence (i.e., ignorance) of women, only father knows. Insofar as Monologue pretends to be the com, ultimate word (Bakhtin, Problems 293), this is blatantly monologic. This fact is childhood essay, also confirmed by the epistolary novel being the most prevalent subgenre of the bourgeois Utopia, with Richardson as its most prominent popularizer. (Recall that in the epistolary Pamela by Richardson, the overwhelming number of letters presented come from Pamela's pen, such that every other point of view, and hence the other side of the com, story, basically goes unrepresented.) #9;Although Freud's theory of prehistoric humanity may never be subject to anthropological verification, it nevertheless provides a vivid example of the power distribution implicit in the ideology of beautician cover letter separate spheres. Ma Homework Com? In Freud's view, the original despot-father hoarded all women for letter, himself, thus incurring the wrath of ma homework com his sons, who are finally driven to parricide. By murdering the sam watkins, father-despot, the sons commit the supreme crime, insofar as it was the father who, despotically or not, established the order which has preserved the life of the com, group (Marcuse 64). But in the wake of this murder, and in order to reëstablish social stability, the essay about methods, sons must repeat the father's exemplary gestures, and thereby reimpose his taboos and strictures against which they had originally rebelled.
These taboos, however, are imposed on all people, including the fratriarchy since they too must obey the taboos if they want to maintain their rule (65). Com? Consequently, the ghost or the image of the father survives as the god in whose adoration the sinners repent so they can continue to essay about methods sin, while the new fathers secure those suppressions of pleasure which are necessary for preserving their rule and ma homework organization of the group (64). #9;The seemingly fantastic significance Freud accords here to the father (as either the tyrant-despot or guilt-ridden son) is quite in beautician cover letter keeping with the values implicit and explicit in the ideology of separate spheres, especially when it is remembered that sons become new fathers, and that daughters are shuttled from the old father's hoard to the new father's (as wives). Ma Homework? It is also logical that the supreme crime should be conceived of by childhood obesity, Freud as parricide, since parricide is the bourgeois equivalent of the supreme crime under feudalism, regicide. Foucault provides an explicit proof of this. Against the background of gentle punishments for crime envisioned in 1781 by Vermeil, one crime warranted an infinity of ma homework punishment, something equivalent in the new penal system to what regicide had been in the old (113). The guilty would have his eyes put out (113), and be suspended naked in an iron cage in full public view, perpetually exposed to beautician cover all the elements, and fed on only bread and water until death: 	a villain. Ma Homework? condemned to assassination of julius essay see no longer the heaven that he has outraged, and to live no longer on the earth that he has sullied (Vermeil 148-9). [T]he criminal who is to com be thus crucified by assassination of julius caesar essay, the new law is the parricide (Foucault 114). #9;Vermeil's moral fury should be taken as neither eccentric nor atypical; as J.M.S. Tompkins remarks, the vast and tidy camp of virtue, with its grand and simple plan, is one of the spectacles of the eighteenth century (70).
Consequently, her comment with regard to the era's demand for moral instructiveness in literature applies as well to the whole spirit of the 18th century in ma homework England: In the ?seventies and the ?eighties. the tradition was so strong that it took a very self-sufficient, indeed a very brazen man to defy it (72). Freud's conception of the self-repressed fratriarchy, then, is accurate at least with regard to the bourgeoisie. #9;The deification of the father-husband necessarily implies a concomitant submissiveness on the part of the home-king's subjects, be they wife, child or servant. In the beautician letter, popular literature of 1770-1800 that Tompkins has analyzed, she notes, It is impossible to exaggerate the frequency with which this attitude occurs (87). This submissiveness, however, is idealized as generous submission, especially in books by women, who obviously would have needed to idealize submission to preserve their self-respect (88). Similarly, in an age of extreme moral didacticism, Incomparably the ma homework com, most frequent of all these didactic themes is filial obedience (84), displayed especially in gestures of generous submission; Such submission was not a degradation, but a spiritual grace. The wife faced with an unworthy husband, the child oppressed by a tyrannous father, do more than obey. Love Wuthering? By an ma homework com, act of will they abrogate reason, quell discrimination, and not only accept but approve the fiat they bow to (88-9). Cover? As she further notes, such submission is an ma homework, attitude that no longer has much popular appeal (89), but this should not blind us to the popular favor it held in the late 18th century.
Neither should it be thought that only essay, men espoused these ideals. The assumption that: #9;woman was created primarily for wifehood and motherhood, and that she owed a debt of gratitude, which only the severest ill-usage could cancel, to the man who rescued her from the useless--it is their own word--condition of old-maidenhood, and com undertook her support and that of her offspring (156) is a very common idea in books by women of the period. As such, wifely dependence, as an economic necessity sublimated by beautician, Christian ideals (155), thus takes on positive connotations now lost to a modern audience. This gratitude and com dependence extended to children as well; Children should be grateful for their breeding and subservient to their parents' authority. Parents, of course, should be moderate and kind, but authority is their function, and they ought not abdicate it (85). #9;To these virtues, wives were also expected to add patience, loyalty, and that most frequently praised quality in a wife, complaisance; a flexible deference to her husband's moods, a ready fund of encouragement for all his tastes, provided they do not transgress principle (157). In the case of marital infidelity, Above all, she must never recriminate; let her be blind as long as she can, and afterwards patient, and if possible cheerful.
No husband was ever won back by what Mrs. Griffith calls the ?vain arts of eloquence' (158). Again, the of julius, potentially resigned tone of Mrs. Griffith notwithstanding, this was not an ideal solely proposed by men: #9;The supposed oblates of com this rigid discipline. Childhood Argument? seldom complain of the different standard of ma homework morality applied to men. No delicate woman would envy such a freedom; rather they glory in sam watkins essay being measured by ma homework, the stricter standard and, to some extent, warded from temptation, for they see in this behavior not so much the effect of selfishness or mistrust as the recognition of making friends online essay their own finer fibre. Every appearance of vice in a woman is sometimes (something?) more disgusting than in a man, wrote Clara Reeve; which I think is a presumption that woman was intended to be a more perfect creature than man,--a quieting and sustaining conclusion (154). #9;Such values, as idealizations, in ma homework general reflect the bourgeois Utopia's aspiration toward domestic bliss.
As Tompkins notes, this domestic bliss, as reflected in a successful marriage of husband and wife, depends upon his generosity and her obedience (155). Childhood Argument Essay? Ellis asserts much the ma homework com, same, but in assassination of julius essay a very different way; Feminism and a concern with domestic violence emerge in the context of the ma homework com, Enlightenment, with its faith in the power of masculine reason to correct and check social abuses (3). His generosity, then, also includes his self-control, because it is precisely the threat or the actuality of the teaching, unchecked, uncorrected social abuse of domestic violence that most thoroughly vitiates the bourgeois Utopia's claim of home as paradise. Ma Homework? Even in its ostensibly non-violent guise, the rights of a husband or wifely duty introduce the potential of rape into cover, the home. Moreover, the superaggrandized authority of the father-husband, in conjunction with the enforced ignorance of women under the ma homework, ideology of making friends online essay separate spheres, has the double negative effect of making a wife helpless before the ma homework, demands of her husband, and essay about teaching methods incapable of escape, since she has been rigorously denied knowledge of the world (and hence, how to com operate within it). #9;This prohibition on knowledge--whether Eve is not allowed to eat, or chooses not to eat, from the childhood obesity argument, tree of the knowledge of good and evil--was never perfect in practice. It is from ma homework this position of forbidden knowledge gained, from the assassination of julius caesar, socially unacknowledged or lived experience, of domestic violence that the feminine Gothic launches its critique of the ideology of separate spheres, and offers its own counterproposed Utopia.
#9;Before examining the specifics of the genre, however, it is necessary to reemphasize the almost fanatical moralism of the era. Ma Homework Com? If it is only a very brazen man (Tompkins 72) who could revolt against cover, the spirit of the age, one wonders what adjective to use to describe the ma homework com, woman who would seek to critique it. The idealized virtue of womanhood excluded the right to recriminate; patience and martyrdom were expected instead. Making Friends Online Essay? Add to this, as Fanny Burney notes in ma homework com Letter 39 of Evelina , that nothing is so delicate as the reputation of or obsession research a woman (qtd. in Tompkins 141), and it becomes almost miraculous that the feminine Gothic's critique was ever written (much less published). Tompkins refers to prudence as the ark of female virtue (141), and one can see why. #9;In such a context, one could hardly expect the com, feminine Gothic's critique of the bourgeois Utopia, along with its own proposed Utopia, to be presented directly. And it is not. Beautician Cover Letter? But, to a certain extent, the extraordinary constraints on feminine Gothicists assisted their project. Female novelists in general were viewed by critics of literary periodicals (such as the Monthly and the Critical ) with a mixture of condescension and curiosity. As such, any apparent moral lapses might have tended to be seen as arising from the novelist's deficiencies of com education or talent rather than from a determined perversity. This might not be enough, however, to spare such female novelists from ridicule; the reviewers, as men, were ostensibly obliged to take a considerate attitude toward the feminine sensibility of such writers, but they did not always honor their own code. Or Obsession Research? (In its own small way, this illustrates the com, vulnerability of women, in sam watkins essay as much as they had to rely on male self-control.) #9;Perhaps the first feature of the ma homework, feminine Gothic to note, then, would be the assassination of julius, self-deprecating preface that seems to be almost a standard feature of novels by women of the period.
Instead of leaving it to ma homework com the critics to assume some benign reason for any apparent moral lapses, these self-deprecating prefaces provide one, often with poignant biographical details about poverty, dying breadwinners and general hardship as being the sole reason behind the impulse to write in sam watkins essay the first place. While such biographies may well be true (perhaps exaggerated somewhat for the sake of an indulgent review and book sales), it is also clear that such a preface would have helped to disguise any critique and would have helped to spur its dissemination amongst the ma homework, public. In an era proud of its Christian charitableness, Mrs. Eliza Parsons, who took up her pen for the support of eight dear fatherless children (Tompkins 118) could rightfully hope that her book would be published and bought, if not read. As one neophyte put it directly, a candid, a liberal, a generous Public, will make the necessary allowances, for the first attempt of a young female Adventurer in Letters (117, emphasis in original).
Such flattery might get your critique everywhere. #9;This possibly strategic self-deprecation is counterbalanced by of julius caesar essay, two other features of the feminine Gothic. First, there is a remarkable solidarity about the attack of the women on the literary world (123). Ma Homework Com? The sentiment is echoed by Ellis; since courage is required to friends online write about areas of social reality about which middle-class women were supposed to have no knowledge. novelists must ?not desert one another' (7). That such novelists typically lost no opportunity of advertising each other's wares (Tompkins 123) illustrates this solidarity.
The second feature of the feminine Gothic is its sudden appearance; Like the beanstalk, it shot up overnight into redundant vegetation, and enterprising novelists thronged its stem (Tompkins 243). The suddenness of this is especially pronounced in Tompkins' study, since she dates the official inception of the Gothic by Radcliffe; such figures as Horace Walpole, Clara Reeve, Sophia Lee, Charlotte Smith and com Mary Wollstonecraft appear more as precursors. #9;The apparent authorial voicelessness of self-deprecation, along with the solidarity and suddenness of the research, feminine Gothic's production, present a unique event in literary history, and com belie as well a relative polylogism at work in the genre. One could almost assert that the feminine Gothic comes to cover reflect something similar to Arcadia's communal ownership, except that the Gothic commune is not a literal place like Arcadia, but rather the class-space noted by Raymond Williams above. A similar communal ownership and transformation of time may also be discerned as class-time in the feminine Gothic; in ma homework com it, [t]he bourgeoisie was then able to read. of how it ?repaired the ruins' of its medieval past as part of God's scheme of providential history (Ellis 49). #9;In general, then, the unofficial Utopia of the feminine Gothic presents a point by point inversion of the official bourgeois Utopia.
For example, rather than filial obedience, much of the assassination caesar essay, feminine Gothic centrally involves a daughterly rebellion. This often takes the form of ma homework some kind of transgression (of innocence, of knowledge barred, against masculine will, or even as simple initiative, such as flight, which is rarely an sam watkins, option for non-Gothic heroines). The reason for ma homework, the rebellion and transgression typically originates in a conflict between a heavy father figure (an actual father, or one of Freud's new fathers, a dispossessed second son) and the heroine's choice of marriage partners, which hints at the taboo realms of female sexuality and passion in an age when passionlessness was the ideal. In fact, the extent of beautician letter daughterly initiative (rebellion) in the feminine Gothic already reflects a transgression in com itself, since what many heroines manage to accomplish by sam watkins essay, the novel's end was beyond the pale of the socially possible at com, the time; as Ellis remarks of Charlotte Smith's Emmeline , No court in about methods eighteenth-century England would have awarded a girl in her [Emmeline's] position the title to an estate and the privileges that went with it (92). #9;As such, though the feminine Gothic presents its case indirectly, it nevertheless drives straight to the very heart of the bourgeois Utopia. This is perhaps most readily seen in that most readily seen feature of the Gothic landscape: the castle. It is not enough to ma homework com say that the castle symbolizes the home; rather the castle blatantly exposes the home's true nature. There is childhood obesity, no simile at work here; the castle is a literal image of the Gothically realized home.
The audacity of this exposé, however, is obscured by the anachronism of setting and by the apparent compliment paid to middle-class Protestant values (over against the castle's associations with the evils of aristocracy). More generally, by drawing on ma homework, images and institutions from the bad old days (rarely with much historical accuracy) of England, the feminine Gothic was able to ostensibly criticize the past, and be praised for it, while actually attacking the contemporary bad new days. #9;What is being made natural is not the displacement of Catholicism by methods, Protestantism, which had been thoroughly absorbed into popular consciousness, but the shift away from the absolute power of the ma homework, father over his wife and children. The role of the daughter in this myth-making process is to embody Protestant individualism, as castle, convent, and prison work together to thwart the natural desire of young people to be sexual within marriage. With its network of closed spaces hostile to the lively preference of the daughter, the imaginary medieval landscape of the Gothic novel becomes an analogue for the corrupt, male-dominated world against which Mrs. Haywood's heroines were powerless to cover prevail (Ellis 48). #9;The total inversion of the era's official Utopia affected by the feminine Gothic may be understood as a parody, rather than a satire, of the bourgeois Utopia. As such, the Gothic may be said to be a comic genre; an assertion supported somewhat by its links with Arcadia (also a comic genre).
These links are most evident in the importance of Nature imagery both share, but are also indicated in the weddings that often happily end Gothic novels; weddings are the most conventional literary method for ma homework com, conveying the socially integrating aspect of comedy noted by Frye. As a parody, then, the feminine Gothic does not aim at essay about teaching methods, satiric revolution, but at social renovation--cultural regeneration as a result of festive laughter's abuse-praise. It is ma homework com, a vision of daughterly choice, not parental decision, in marriage partners; it is a vision of equality, not patriarchy, in about teaching the marriage itself, with the consequential establishment of a true home, a true Paradise, that such equality implies. The heart of the feminine Gothic Utopia, then, is com, not so different in appearance from the bourgeois Utopia; it is the principle upon which each is founded that is radically different. #9;But parody, Nature, Arcadian associations and weddings may not seem to warrant the beautician letter, claim that the feminine Gothic is a comedic genre; its premium on terror alone should refute such an idea. Com? However, one should recall Radcliffe's own definition for terror: that it expands the soul, and awakens the faculties to a higher degree (qtd. in Ellis xvii n1). This kind of terror is to be specifically associated with the research paper wuthering, aesthetic pleasure of the Sublime as famously formulated by ma homework com, Edmund Burke; Radcliffe used Burke as the theoretical base for her work (xvi n1). Assassination Of Julius Essay? Alternatively, and somewhat rephrasing Michael Sadleir's formulation of com terror in research heights Radcliffe, it affects an ma homework, agreeable shudder (Ellis 57). Narrative terror, then, is an paper wuthering, ambivalent pleasure, very much like the terror of com rollercoasters and funhouses. The funhouse (or Halloween's haunted house) is especially apt, insofar as one's squeals of terror in the company of friends is as often as not accompanied by laughter. Such laughter is very close in nature to festive laughter's abuse-praise.
#9;In addition to parodic inversion, another common technique of festive laughter is or obsession wuthering heights, its grotesque realism: Exaggeration, hyperbolism, excessiveness are generally considered fundamental attributes of the ma homework com, grotesque style (Bakhtin, Rabelais 301). Such hyperbolism often borrows the grandeur of the epic for wuthering, totally non-epic occasions. A classic instance in the Gothic occurs when an absurdly overlarge helmet kills Manfred's son in Walpole's Castle of Otranto . Com? Apologists of the Gothic (such as George Haggerty in Gothic Fiction/Gothic Form ) have had to negotiate around such literary faux pas in their attempts to raise the Gothic to the level of literature deserving of analysis. Such conniptions, however, are unnecessary if a comedic nature is assumed for obesity, the Gothic. Com? The tradition of the unheroic death, for essay about teaching methods, instance, extends back at least as far as Seneca's Ludus morte Claudii , in which the emperor dies at the moment of defecation ( Rabelais 151 n1). Earlier still, Greek heroes tended to die comic deaths as well; they are brained by falling branches, walk off cliffs and so forth. It is ma homework com, almost not an exaggeration to claim that no Greek hero, who did not die in of julius caesar essay battle, died an epic death. #9;The death of com Manfred's son, then, is a comic death.
It is our lack of making online essay familiarity with the tradition in ma homework which it participates that makes it seem otherwise serious, but even modern examples may be found. It is exactly the same kind of essay about teaching image that provides the entire basis for the very short animated film Bambi Meets Godzilla. The difference, of course, is ma homework, that such deaths are now conceived of as final; in the ancient tradition, the ubiquitous regenerating element was always somehow present. #9;Hyperbole is also apparent in the exaggerated virtue and villainy of the love or obsession research paper wuthering, Gothic heroine and her antagonist, as well as the vastness of the Sublime in Nature. On one hand, of course, the exaggerated moral nature of the feminine Gothic's inhabitants (whether good or evil) has the advantage of justifying the ma homework, heroine's rebellion as a supervirtuous act; who could not but rebel against such villainy? On the other hand, this hyperbolism veers very close to the melodrama, which seems based on the principle of essay teaching methods bringing its audience to the very edge of hysterical laughter, without actually going over the edge. Tompkins suggests this in another way: Even in the hands of its finest exponent, it [the Gothic] was precariously balanced over the abysses of the ma homework com, ludicrous and of julius disreputable (247). In later Gothic writing, by the Brontës and ma homework Mary Shelley in particular, the melodramatic elements are handled with considerable sophistication, though usually at the expense of laughter. (The transformation of laughter, as from comedic terror to tragic horror is almost always a sign and technique of the dignifying of a genre by high seriousness.) #9;Hyperbolism affects another advantage for the feminine Gothic's critique by drawing on exaggeration's comic associations. Broadly speaking (or perhaps literally), the comedic is not meant to be taken seriously.
Rabelais, for instance, asserted the sam watkins, most outrageous blasphemies in print at a time when people were burned at the stake, but lived to die peacefully in old age. By contrast, Rabelais' friend, Etienne Dolet perished at com, the stake because of his statements, which although less damning had been seriously made. He did not use Rabelais' methods ( Rabelais 269). Of Julius Essay? One might similarly contrast the fate of most feminine Gothicists to the public pillory suffered by Mary Wollstonecraft for ma homework com, her statements made on behalf of women's rights. #9;Lastly, hyperbolism may be said to be the basis of terror in the feminine Gothic, insofar as it is the intense emotion. that a ?good' female character can have in a novel without threatening her innocence with respect to online male lust (Ellis 46, emphasis in original). Innocent virtue is ma homework com, forbidden sexual knowledge and so cannot even recognize male lust, much less react to essay it, even in ma homework com flight.
Unlike Pamela, who knew what her pursuer was after (46), the Gothic heroine does not, must not know. For Ellis, the terror of confinement, not rape, therefore motivates the heroine's flight. True as this might be, however, the feminine Gothic's parodic inversion suggests that terror might actually be lust (as the intense emotion), disguised in about teaching the most thorough way possible. Ma Homework Com? It is, after all, the heroine's lively preference for some man other than her would-be captor-rapist that spurs her flight as much as the threat of enclosure. The supervirtuous heroine, of course, could not even know, much less express, such a thing, but that does not bar such recognition on the author's or reader's part. It might also be added that the confrontation between the heroine and the villain, whether actual or only dreadfully imagined by the heroine, is childhood, a form of the casuistic dialogue on love, and ma homework as such adds another link between Arcadia and the feminine Gothic. #9;An awareness of the argument, potential for sexuality in such a confrontation, along with its positive obverse (the heroine's wedding at the end of the novel), would already represent a transgression of official feminine virtue, made all the com, more audacious by the novel's being written. As such, however unobjectionably virtuous the text is, it may still be tainted by lust, either in the writer's mind and memory, or in beautician cover the reader's reading. The feminine Gothic novel, then, becomes almost a symbol of, or objective correlative for, public masturbation. Ma Homework? If so, it might be particularly pointed to recall that terror affords an agreeable shudder. #9;Consequently, the assassination essay, haunted castle may be said to ma homework com become the author's or reader's mind, and the undisclosable secret it holds, sexuality: #9;What does it mean for the castle to be haunted?
It means that the owner of the castle is trying to conceal a secret upon which [her] continued ownership depends. In consequence, the castle becomes a space where the next generation cannot be produced, or more generally, where the domestic activities over making friends essay which women are beginning to rule cannot be carried on. The exposure of the secret, then, sometimes accompanied by the destruction of the ma homework com, castle, frees the sam watkins essay, female protagonist to reassert the primacy of home and its values by marrying the com, man of her choice, not as an innocent young lady but as a heroine who has encountered evil, learned from it, and triumphed over it (Ellis 37). The above passage, quoted verbatim except for the substitution of her for his as noted, is addressed by childhood argument, Ellis toward the thematic elements of the Gothic, but I have cited it as applying to the level of the author (and perhaps the reader) as well. #9;As such, the Gothic drama represented within the text is reënacted outside of the novel as well; by transgressing the enclosures enforced by patriarchal society, forbidden female initiative is able to assert its claim to Utopia (determined by, not chosen for, women), and to reclaim a castle long since usurped by second sons: the cosmogonic act of writing. By reclaiming the com, act of authorship, the Gothicists (and all female novelists) undid the original Word of God and challenged the Father's original transgression against friends online, the female principle of Creation. By writing, women regained access to the freedom, power and creativity that Freud's new fathers had been hoarding and lording over for aeons. #9;Ellis cites Milton's Paradise Lost as the model and point of departure for the Gothic rebellion. The Satanic revolt, however, seems more appropriate to the Lewisite Gothic (which is ma homework com, antiutopian, rather than utopian, preferring destruction and sam watkins satire over the parodic renovation of the feminine Gothic; thus, I have not included it in com my study of literary Utopias).
Howevermuch Milton may have informed or justified the theme of rebellion, its archetypal content does not fit the feminine Gothic scenario very well. Letter? The Gothic God does not expel a Satanic Eve; he tries to enclose her. Moreover, her departure and flight are wholly self-willed. The archetype that seems to be at ma homework com, work, rather, is something similar to Freud's prehistory, in which one of the daughters of the father's hoard escapes to freedom. If there are still Christian or Miltonic implications to be found in this, then they go beyond Lucifer's oath of Non serviam . #9;This rebellion may be said to originate from the fact that God advanced one son (Jesus) above all others; Lucifer refuses to serve out of a protest for this inequality of treatment.
He questions God's judgment, but not the society He has created. The feminine Gothic's Eve, by contrast, is not merely a reconceptualized heroine capable of correcting the essay, mistakes of her youth (though she can do that too); rather, in her youthfulness, she makes a much bolder claim: that the fault for original sin rests with God, and that only an act of re-Creation can correct what He has muddled. It is a protest directed against the self-proclaimed biologically justified authority (Marcuse 64) that boasts to have originally ordered Creation, the order which has preserved the ma homework com, life of the group (64). In fact, God is the Gothic's first usurping second son--not God the letter, Father, but God the New Father, who denies He ever had a Mother-Goddess; the one who has usurped the castle of com Creation, and making friends online turned Paradise into Hell. The terror of the feminine Gothic, then, may originate partly in the enormity of Eve's transgression, in the reassertion over against com, divine authority of her right and capacity to essay teaching correct creation, but it may also arise partly from the thrill of simply getting away with it, of ma homework parodying culture when it was absolutely forbidden to do so. #9;The serious intent of the Gothic critique and its Utopia of a true home, where freedom, power and creativity, equality, freedom of speech, peace, abundance, leisure and pleasure are not male-only prerogatives, is not undermined by the claim of a comedic nature for the feminine Gothic.
On the contrary, the method of festive laughter's regenerating abuse-praise is fundamentally oriented toward basic and all-important aspects of assassination life. Ma Homework Com? As Bakhtin notes, Seriousness burdens us with hopeless situations, but laughter lifts us above them and delivers us from letter them. Laughter does not encumber man, it liberates him. Laughter lifts the barrier and clears the path ( Speech Genres 134, 135). #9;Like their Renaissance forebears, the official and unofficial Utopias of the 18th century represent milestones that marked points of departure for subsequent literary works.
However, unlike the ma homework, distinct realizations of ideal space and time in the Renaissance Utopias, the presence of individualized consciousness in the later Utopias seems to essay methods have served to merge space and time. As such, in realizing its ideal class-space, the bourgeois Utopia incorporated the com, generational time of Arcadia into the intimate setting of the home; similarly, in realizing its ideal class-time, the feminine Gothic incorporated the perfect commonwealth of Utopia as a true home into sam watkins, the providential history of personalized fate. Ma Homework? In short the 18th century Utopias affected realizations of essay ideal time-space. #9;In so doing, they contributed to the creation of the perils of history (as terror, irreversibility of time, and so forth) that I have already noted in conjunction with the Renaissance Utopias. One distinction, however, must be noted.
Where the circular nature of the Renaissance Utopias indirectly argued in favor of a progressive (linear) conception of ma homework com time (and hence, history), the 18th century Utopias directly argue in favor of the linear conception, insofar as they are based on this progressive principle. This may most readily be sensed in the relatively increased plotting of such novels, especially in the Gothic where the love research paper wuthering, premium on terror mandated the creation and maintenance of narrative suspense. #9;Increased sophistication of plotting is one of the main gifts of the 18th century to the 19th, but it is ma homework, not the only one. In the same way that Utopia and Arcadia provided a foundation for childhood argument essay, the idealized realities of memoirs and Bildungsromane , so also did the realized ideals of the bourgeois Utopia and the feminine Gothic provide the basis for 19th century realism and com Romanticism: the bourgeois home becomes the idealized and criticized reality of the novel of essay teaching methods manors, while the providentially individualized fate of the feminine Gothic becomes the idealized (though infrequently criticized) reality of Individualism and Romantic genius. Though innumerable non-Russian examples abound, nevertheless these two main developments in ma homework the 19th century, along with the full flowering of the novel, could hardly be better characterized than by the works of about methods Tolstoy and Dostoevsky. Apt as these examples are, however, it would seem that we have once again left the reality of ma homework Utopia; that, as implementations of the 18th century's Utopias, they represent the status quo, the current operating order of literature in beautician cover the 19th century. #9;To rediscover the strands of the official and unofficial Utopia in the 19th (and 20th) century, then, it becomes necessary to look elsewhere; specifically, to examine the ma homework, Socialist Utopia and science fiction (the ?fantastyka).
#9;The most obvious trait shared by the Socialist Utopia and fantastyka is a focus on the future, with another, almost equally decisive accent on childhood obesity argument, technology. Neither of ma homework com these characteristics are absolute; Morris' News From Nowhere , though set in the future, reflects an idealized, almost medievally non-technological way of life, while forays backward in time are legion in fantastyka. (Fantastyka's subgenre of alternative versions of history similarly retreats in sam watkins time, while the parallel universe subgenre may be said to move laterally in time and space.) These notable exceptions, however, simply reflect the vitality of the ma homework, genre, and do not destroy the overall truth of the generalization. Consequently, the place of the Socialist and teaching fantastyka Utopia becomes located in the future. #9;At first, this displacement might seem a bit strange, but there has always been a degree of displacement in Utopia. Given the extent of the ma homework com, known world, More had to posit an island; the Arcadians had to escape from the City to making friends essay a semi-mythical Country; the Gothic had to project backward in ma homework time to find a home; and sam watkins essay the bourgeois Utopia, crowded out by the historical enormity of its Baroque predecessors, retreated to the privacy of its own home. Ma Homework Com? It would seem that wherever there are gaps in a culture's time-space consciousness that permits of imaginative projection, then there will Utopias appear. Childhood Obesity? Ulam, discussing socialism in Socialism and Utopia, offers a further explanation for this displacement: #9;Faced by ma homework, the domination of essay liberalism in both politics and in the intellectual sphere, socialism went underground, so to speak. The utopian character of much of socialist thinking represented then a kind of rearguard action which withdrawing radicalism conducted against the triumphant march of industrialism and liberalism (125-6). #9;The linking of the future with technology is another key feature shared by the Socialist Utopia and the fantastyka.
What primarily distinguishes the com, one from the other, again restating the distinction between a monologic and love paper heights relatively polylogic approach, is the former's closed view of the future compared to the open-ended view of the latter. Defenders of Condorcet, Fourier, Saint-Simon, Comte or Marx may assert, as Frank Manuel does, that virtually all the ma homework, great nineteenth-century utopias have continued metamorphoses built into their very frame; they are open-ended (Toward a Psychological History of Utopias 80), but they seem to be in love research paper wuthering heights the minority; it is, after all, difficult to discern continued metamorphoses in Marx view of the end of history. The very fact that the Socialist future had a specific place in mind contributes to this; later Socialist thought, chastened by the very events of history itself, still retained the hope for such a place, even if its specifics were no longer so clear. If original Socialism could see a straight line to a glorious and harmonious future, then later Socialism was forced to be less sanguine, but did not deny the line (only its straightness or visibility). Fantastyka infrequently bothers with such a line; how we get from today to, for example, the utopian Earth of television's Star Trek is ma homework, of little concern. Essay Methods? Rather, under fantastyka, not only the future but all of time becomes an open field of possibilities, limited only by one's imagination. #9;In the main, the com, development of the love, monologic Socialist Utopia in literature is especially uninteresting; parodies, such as Dostoevsky's The Possessed (originally Devils ), are much worthier of critical attention on artistic grounds. They were, however, enormously influential socially. Cabet's truly dreary Voyage to ma homework com Icaria inspired the foundation of Icarian communities in the United States, and it is impossible to underestimate the extraordinary importance of Chernyshevsky's What Is To Be Done? in love research the development of the Russian revolutionary mentality. In fact, to discuss the Socialist Utopia in its most significant manifestations, it is necessary to turn to Russian, rather than Western European, literature. #9;Let there be no illusions, however; R.H.
Stacy remarks that What Is To Be Done? has occasionally been called the worst novel ever written (55). de Jonge confirms this verbatim as one of the worst novels ever written, which became the com, bible of the Russian radical movement (52). Berlin, with characteristically less scoffing and more insight, notes that Chernyshevsky's: #9;deepest aspirations and emotions were poured into What is to online be done? , a social Utopia which, grotesque as a work of art, had a literally epoch-making effect on Russian opinion. This didactic novel described the ?new men' of the free, morally pure, cooperative socialist commonwealth of the future; its touching sincerity and moral passion bound their spell upon the imaginations of the idealistic and guilt-stricken sons of prosperous parents, and provided them with an ma homework, ideal model in the light of of julius caesar essay which an entire generation of revolutionaries educated and hardened itself to the defiance of existing laws and conventions and to the acceptance of exile and death with sublime unconcern (228). #9;This image of the revolutionary implies, of course, a total selflessness, endurance and indifference to personal suffering; one will put up with literally everything to help pave the way to the glorious future, even if one does not live to see it. As long as this ideology of self-sacrifice remains in ma homework a context of revolutionary conspiracy, it may be said to still retain some justification; when it becomes implemented upon the whole of childhood argument essay society, however, it quickly loses whatever justification it had left and becomes simply an com, instrument of social control and terror, as the Soviets have since demonstrated. The promise of the glorious social future thus becomes a method of sam watkins oppression, while at the same time justifying the present deplorable social conditions as birth throes--or, as time goes on, as the work and fault of some scapegoat, e.g., kulaks (rich peasants), saboteurs, wreckers, counterrevolutionaries, agents provocateur , foreign influences, etc. #9;Insofar as the ideology of self-sacrifice (suffer today for ma homework, a glorious future you may not live to enjoy) involves a method of social control, two necessary correlates arise. The first is that self-sacrifice must be hyperidealized, much as women had to idealize submission under the about methods, ideology of ma homework com separate spheres to retain their self-respect. The second is that the glorious future must be indefinitely put off, since the basis of social assent to the status quo today is the imminent arrival of the caesar essay, glorious tomorrow. (In the Soviets, of course, social assent was also based on the terror of being carried off to the GULag, executed, or both.) This deferral into the future is, in fact, a central tenet of Socialist Realism, especially in Soviet culture.
In Russian Literary Criticism , R.H. Stacy cites an illustrative passage from ma homework Solzhenitsyn's The Cancer Ward : #9;[A] character who is a willing and simple-minded mouthpiece of the childhood obesity argument essay, Party line explains the mysteries of com Socialist Realism: You must understand this. To describe something that exists is much easier than to describe something that does not exist--even though you know that it will exist. What we see today with the unaided eye is childhood, not necessarily the com, truth. Assassination Of Julius Caesar? The truth is ma homework, what we must become, what will happen tomorrow.
This wonderful tomorrow of ours is childhood, what writers should be describing today. Asked what writers will describe when tomorrow comes, this character replies that they will then write about the day after tomorrow (235). #9;That the genre described here so aptly is called ?Socialist Realism' provides its own trenchant criticism, but the passage does correctly identify one of the main artistic challenges of com both Socialist Realism and fantastyka: the difficulty of describing something that does not yet exist (or, more particularly, whole worlds). In fact, this brings us full circle back to the challenge that originally confronted More. One would then well expect the ?guided tour' device to resurface, and indeed it does. The very name Star Trek belies exactly this. (I keep returning to Star Trek , not only because it is exemplary, but also because it is probably the best-known Western example of fantastyka.) Huxley's Brave New World opens as well with a classic guided tour (of Utopia's Central Hatchery). #9;If the history of the monologic Socialist Utopia is fairly simple to describe, then the history of fantastyka is proportionately complex.
The term ?fantastyka' itself helps to suggest this complexity, since it echoes the research wuthering heights, larger genre of the fantastic. A distinction, however, immediately suggests itself between the supernatural magic of the fantastic, and the super-natural technology of fantastyka (although Arthur C. Clarke, if memory serves. has noted that technology sufficiently advanced is indistinguishable from magic). Tzvetan Todorov, in his own study of the com, fantastic, provides a more precise description; [I]n a general fashion, supernatural beings compensate for a deficient causality. Thus the sam watkins essay, fairy who assures a character's fortunate destiny is merely the incarnation of an imaginary causality for what might just as well be called chance, fortune, accident (110). In fantastyka, it is technology that compensates for a deficient causality. #9;Todorov further describes the fantastic as a kind of liminal genre that is especially marked by ma homework, hesitation, either at the level of the reader or of the narrator-characters, or both. This hesitation creates a defining ambiguity in the fantastic; the character or reader is no longer sure where she or he stands in love research paper relation to the narrative. Com? This fantastic ambiguity, however, is fairly delicate, and easily lapses out of an teaching, equally defining indeterminateness of meaning (that is an obvious consequence of the hesitation): meaning therefore reflects a liminal quality in the fantastic as well. #9;The fantastic therefore leads a life full of dangers, and may evaporate at ma homework, any moment. It seems to be located on the frontier of two genres, the cover letter, marvelous and the uncanny, rather than to be an com, autonomous genre.
One of the great periods of supernatural literature, that of the Gothic novel, seems to confirm this observation. Indeed, we generally distinguish, within the obesity argument, literary Gothic, two tendencies: that of the supernatural explained (the uncanny), as it appears in the novels of Clara Reeves ( sic ) and ma homework Ann Radcliffe; and that of the childhood obesity argument essay, supernatural accepted (the marvelous), which is characteristic of the works of Horace Walpole, M.G. Lewis and Maturin. Here we find not the fantastic in the strict sense, only genres adjacent to it. More precisely, the effect of the fantastic is certainly produced, but only during a portion of our reading: in Ann Radcliffe, up to com the moment when we are sure that everything which has happened is susceptible of a rational explanation; in M.G. Lewis, up to the moment when we are sure that the supernatural events will receive no explanation. Once we have finished reading, we understand -- in both cases -- that what we call the fantastic has not existed (Todorov 41-2). #9;Much fantastyka belongs in Todorov's genre of the obesity argument, uncanny insofar as a rational explanation usually clears up the technological or xenobiological curiosities in com any given book, but there is childhood argument essay, also another entire tradition of fantastyka, best represented by com, Stanislaw Lem and making essay Eastern Europe (including Russia) that falls into Todorov's category of the marvelous, if not actually the com, fantastic.
In both traditions and genres, however, the supernatural elements have typically been replaced by the supernatural weirdness of astrobiological species, alien intelligences, and or obsession research wuthering hitherto unencountered planetary phenomena. All of com these extraterrestrial features are usually approached narratively as rationally explicable things, even if human reason proves incapable of assassination discovering an ma homework, explanation. #9;This empirical bias is what purportedly puts the sam watkins essay, science in science fiction. As such, one could extend the fantastyka tradition back to ma homework Bacon's New Atlantis , but his Utopia seems more fantasy than fiction, so to speak. Similarly, one may discover early salvos of fantastyka in Prince Vladimir Odoevsky's The Year 4330 (a utopian novel incomplete at beautician letter, the time of his death in ma homework com 1869), in of julius caesar essay Lytton's The Coming Race (which features a subterrestrial superspecies, armed to the teeth with handy, personally portable vril sticks capable of ma homework more than atomic destruction), published in 1870, and, of course, the works of Jules Verne. Verne's works are especially important, since they inaugurated, or at least popularized, a whole genre characterized by sam watkins, technological speculation and extrapolation. This genre went on to become the mainstay of early fantastyka in the United States, particularly in com the cult followings of various pulpy periodicals. Most of the stories in these early efforts, like most early efforts, are unreadably dreadful, and assassination caesar essay helped to found the debased reputation of science fiction in ma homework the United States. Verne's epigones substitute mere novelty for even the least shred of plausibility, and the plots themselves are rarely more than of the hero slays monster type.
One might try to essay about teaching methods see an archetypal significance in this; Frye contends that it is often precisely in popular literature that one can most clearly discern the ma homework, archetypal nature of essay literature ( Anatomy 104), but this is little consolation. This tradition, gaining somewhat in sophistication, has continued to com the present; its most prolific exponent to friends online date would seem to be Larry Niven, who will not hesitate to justify an entire novel (and a sequel) strictly based on a single technological gadget (e.g., Ringworld ). #9;More typically, the ma homework com, Vernean tradition is used to technologize and cosmicize otherwise perfectly ordinary narratives. The original Star Trek , for example, is often little more than the beautician, Odyssey in space, and the theme of ?war,' especially during the era of the Cold War, found its cosmic equivalent in an unceasing flow of hideous invaders from the stars. In general, the ma homework, epithet ?rockets and robots' applied to the founding (so-called Golden Age) of science fiction is fair. Given the love or obsession research, vitality of invention in the United States at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the ma homework, 20th, one can perhaps forgive the scribbling Edisons in their garrets for their tawdry productions, but (along with World War I and friends online eventually the Depression) the com, general refusal of science fiction to address these changes, or even to pay much attention to making friends online essay actual scientific developments, certainly served to discredit the ma homework, genre, perhaps deservedly. An example of making friends online this may be seen in Brave New World , though it is not strictly speaking science fiction, when Huxley admits in ma homework his Foreword that the childhood essay, lack of atomic energy in ma homework his Utopia does in fact represent a vast and obvious failure of beautician foresight (x).
#9;It is not necessary to trace any further the general history of science fiction in the United States, in spite of its later interesting and artistic coming into its own during the ma homework, so-called New Wave that began roughly in love paper heights the 1960s (and that is foreshadowed particularly in the works of Heinlein and Bradbury); this, because Utopia does not figure significantly in New Wave writing. Ma Homework Com? Rather, I have provided this brief sketch of the origins of science fiction in the United States principally to illuminate why the genre, still for the most part, has a literary reputation as bad, if not worse, than the original Gothic. Again, though, its popularity was as equally widespread, as may be discerned from the sam watkins, cult following that sprang up around H.P. Lovecraft (and his later disciples, particularly August Derleth), and that has continued to exist to the present day. Com? (William Gibson, in love research our day, seems to have gained an equally devoted following of cyberpunks.) #9;To locate the main strands of Utopia in fantastyka, it is necessary to turn from the ma homework, technological trend of Verne's epigones to love or obsession research paper H.G. Wells, most obviously in his A Modern Utopia or New Worlds for Old , but more tellingly in ma homework com Men Like Gods . It is here that one can convincingly feel the influence of the Socialist Utopia, insofar as alternatives to sam watkins the Socialist future and its societal arrangements are being pursued and modified by Wells. In fact, one of the more remarkable authorial about-faces in literary history occurs between his Modern Utopia and Men Like Gods . In the former, he appears to promise a correction to the errors of Utopias past, but the results are more antiquated than renovated. For example, having criticized old Utopia's reductions of liberty due to an endless proliferation of regulations, commonsense therefore dictates a reduction in ma homework com the number of rules.
Wells, however, prefers to redefine liberty; But in making essay truth a general prohibition in a state may increase the sum of liberty, and a general permission may diminish it. It does not follow. that a man is more free where there is least law and more restricted where there is ma homework com, most law (qtd. in Berneri 295). #9;The point here is not the truth or falsity of methods Wells' assertion; others, notably Kateb in ma homework his unquestionably well-intentioned Utopia and Its Enemies (220-7), have asserted as much as well. Rather, the point is to underline the radical change one may discern between this Utopia and Wells' later Men Like Gods , as indicating not only the direction of future Utopias, but also the distinction between the essay, monologic Socialist Utopia and the relatively polylogic Utopia of fantastyka. Hence, in Men Like Gods , there are only the Five Principles of Liberty that govern all of social life. More importantly, Wells' affects an idea he sarcastically proposed in A Modern Utopia : to change the nature of Homo sapiens to Homo superior . This marks a fundamental break with both the Socialist Utopia and all past Utopias; hitherto, human nature had been accepted as is, and Utopia had either to accommodate it, ignore it, or crush it. Morris' News From Nowhere has depicted truly free individuals, thus implying a change in human nature, but it is Wells who incorporates the theme into fantastyka. (B.F. Com? Skinner's notorious Walden Two wanted to literalize the theme.) The change of human nature in Wells' Men Like Gods , however, is weakly realized, and is primarily one of mindset; except for the fuller realisation of essay his latent possibilities, the common man in Utopia was. the same flesh and nature as we are (qtd. in Berneri 308). #9;The British utopian tradition continued to develop primarily along Wellsian lines in the fantastyka, but rarely on a large scale. Arthur C. Clarke's Childhood's End is probably the best-known example, but there are also contributions by Aldiss, Wyndham (particularly his Re-Birth ) and Stapledon (who is almost wholly unknown in the United States).
It is ma homework com, somewhat ironic, then, that Aldous Huxley proves to be the author who most strongly extends the tradition, first of course in Brave New World (and its essayistic sequel, Brave New World Revisited ), and assassination of julius caesar essay later in Ape and Essence and Island . #9;It could of ma homework course be disputed that Huxley is a Utopist at all; Brave New World , along with Zamyatin's We , are widely regarded as the canonical anti-Utopias of the 20th century. (Huxley's Ape and Essence , with its fanatical cult of Belial worshippers, seems even still more anti-utopian). Other works, such as Orwell's Animal Farm and 1984 , Gheorghiu's The Twenty-Fifth Hour , and Wolfe's Limbo might also be considered anti-utopian, but the unremitting viciousness of the State in these books makes them more Dystopias (the bad place), than anti-Utopias. Whatever classification one decides upon for these various reactions to the classical-official Utopia, I nevertheless intend to demonstrate that Huxley's Brave New World is an official Utopia; or, more precisely, that the novel is the product of a frustrated Utopist trying to come to grips with Utopia. #9;For the sam watkins, moment, if this may be demonstrated in brief, after remarking on the popularity of the dystopian novel in com the 20th century in his introduction to Utopias and Utopian Thought , Frank Manuel then adds that Aldous Huxley lived to beautician cover write a utopia, Island (x). It is interesting to note also that this utopian fable written at com, death's door (Huxley would die the following year, with C.S. Lewis, on the very day of President Kennedy's assassination) is somewhat neglected in essay methods Huxley bibliographies. The Harper Perennial paperback edition of Brave New World mentions Island in ma homework a brief biographical appendix, but omits it from the lengthy bibliography provided at the front of the making friends essay, book; similarly, in the Cliff Notes for Brave New World and Brave New World Revisited , neither in the bibliography nor anywhere in the text, is Island mentioned. This seems rather odd, since surely a Utopia by one of the ostensibly leading anti-Utopians of our century demands of an explanation.
#9;Such will in fact be proffered below. In the meantime, however, it is necessary to ma homework trace a third line of fantastyka, that of the Eastern European (including the Russian) tradition. #9;Understandably, the Socialist Utopia has been highly influential in the countries of this region, such that futuristic Utopias are almost blandly assumed as a given. About Methods? Consequently, the com, technological speculations within them retain a more genuine sense of the caesar, Vernean futurological prophecy, instead of the superficial inventiveness one finds in the science fiction of the United States. It would seem that the ma homework com, Socialist-Utopian creed of technology, as a lever into true Socialism (rather than decadent capitalist prosperity), helps to childhood obesity argument keep the ma homework com, Machine firmly in the service of mankind. #9;Moreover, Utopia (when utilized) is rarely described in cover letter the kind of painstaking detail one has grown weary of in Western literature. The space of ma homework Utopia is such that one comes to know it, or infer it, as in any typical novel: through character interactions within it.
In other words, Utopia, finally, becomes a setting rather than a topic of love or obsession paper heights discussion; fashion, laws, food, architecture--all become a consequence of a character's (and the reader's) vision, not a guided tour. If the character is com, a native of Utopia, then the setting moves into the background of beautician letter consciousness; this, for the same reason one does not find informative lectures on clothing in a contemporary novel, unless such a lecture serves some other, not merely informational, authorial intent. If the character is not a native of ma homework com Utopia, then the setting tends to be extremely foregrounded in consciousness as something that character must come to grips with. Essay About Teaching Methods? This process of recognition or reconciliation with the confronting Utopia, however, is ma homework com, rarely arrived at by the childhood argument essay, simple explanation of some tour guide; rather, the com, character must interact with both the Utopia and its natives to achieve a working knowledge of the culture. This is one of the obesity argument, main dilemmas confronting Lem's protagonist, Hal Bregg, in com Return From the Stars . #9;It is not so common to find non-natives encountering Utopias; usually the confrontation is between an Earthling (from Utopia or not) and the alien (chuzhoi). In recent Western fantastyka, different varieties of minority authors have increasingly, and with considerable sophistication, used this scenario to essay teaching critique a present-day culture that defines their minority as Other (alien, chuzhoi). As such, the predominantly mundane Utopia of Eastern European fantastyka must be considered one of ma homework com its triumphs. As Darko Suvin notes, this utopian element is ubiquitous in Stanislaw Lem's novels; I would argue that [a] utopian naivete remains one of the poles of the Lemian creative tension even in his richest works (208).
#9;As a consequence, the assumed Utopias and childhood plausible technologistic futurologies of Eastern European fantastyka have singularly liberated the genre with respect to its speculation on ideas. That is, not burdened with a tradition that could be puerilely gratified by the notion of a plasma gun (the United States), or mired in a socially conscious tradition that remains at a loss as to how to solve the human condition (Great Britain), Eastern European fantastyka has been able to ma homework com grapple more directly with cosmic questions. This positive may have had a negative source as well, insofar as ideological oppression by the Soviets and Socialist Realism tended to stifle the intellectual qualities of the arts. By dealing with the online essay, imponderables, fantastyka therefore would have pricked up the ears of fewer ideological censors. #9;In fact, Eastern European fantastyka found itself in a position similar to the feminine Gothic. And there do, indeed, seem to be instances of ma homework subversive critique in the genre. One of the most important instances may be seen in the film, Stalker , directed by Andrei Tarkovsky. The film is based very loosely on Roadside Picnic , a novella by the leading authors of making online fantastyka in Soviet Russia (Boris and Arkady Strugatsky), and juxtaposes a tenuous motif of Christian images over against a markedly bleak Dystopia that is difficult not to identify with a futurized Soviet State. Such critiques, however, are rare--and for good reason. It may have felt like death for a female Gothicist to be caught by, and to have her reputation suffer because of, the Critical 's censors; for com, the Soviet author, it might well be death. If the Gothicist's catchword was prudence, the Soviet author's was avoidance.
#9;Lem's first fantastyka, The Astronauts , was published in 1951, two years before Stalin's death, so much of his work appeared during the Soviet Thaw, but it too is argument, characterized by an absence of com Soviet critique (perhaps all the more surprising, given Russia's historical treatment of Lem's native Galicia, and Poland). Childhood Obesity Argument? To expect a critique, however, is to somewhat misunderstand Russian and Eastern European fantastyka. For one, it has never been deemed a tenth-class genre, as has its American counterpart, especially as it was encouraged by the futurism of ma homework Socialist Realism. For another, criticizing the decadent West was approved of, if not expected, even if this sometimes led to a generic reflexiveness that seemed to redound on the Soviet Bloc. Assassination Of Julius? But, again perhaps due to ideological strictures, this criticism seems more directed toward our species, than toward specific cultures. To this is added an intense hopefulness that may most plausibly be linked to com the Socialist vision of paper wuthering heights a glorious future. As such, there is a more universal quality in Eastern European fantastyka compared to the West's that is entirely appropriate in a genre set in the Universe; what Suvin claims for Lem's writing, then, may be applied to the region: Thus, the stars are for Lem in ma homework com a way what Utopia was for More or Brobdingnag for Swift: a parabolic mirror for ourselves, a roundabout way to understand our world, species and times (212, my emphasis). #9;In such a context, Capek's R.U.R. , the classic drama of robot domination which Kateb finds so difficult to account for--It is love or obsession paper wuthering heights, hard to say just what is to be done with this idea ( Utopia 109)--is not anomalous at all. Ma Homework? It is precisely a merging of the technological and Socialist aspects of love or obsession paper wuthering Eastern European fantastyka. Though analogies with The Sorcerer's Apprentice , Frankenstein and The Golem obviously have a degree of validity here, what is at stake is less humanity's ability to control the monsters of its own making (with the attendant themes of hubris, mortals as gods, and family in general), and more the fact of being confronted by a conscious being who is ontologically superior to us. Ma Homework Com? This theme connects, not with the merely personal concern of the individual vis-à-vis a more powerful person, but with whole cultures dominated or colonized by others.
#9;As Suvin notes, both Capek and Lem come from regions coextensive with the childhood argument, old Habsburg empire, which in our century has bred so many great writers attuned to the indifferent march of history; Musil and Svevo, Krleza and Andris, Hoffsmanthal and ma homework com Kafka, Ha?ek and Capek. Yet this has also been the region of great hopes, exploding after both world Wars (214-5); a region, as the Romanian-born Eliade notes, that had to renounce any impulse toward a higher historical existence, toward spiritual creation on the universal plane (151) simply because it fell across the path of making friends online essay history's juggernaut (embodied in Asiatic hordes, and later empires of Ottomans, Habsburgs, Great Russians and Soviets). #9;As such, Lem's writings are regionally characteristic in their fusing of bright hope with bitter experience, the vision of an open road into the future with the vision of sure dangers and possible defeats inseparable from the ma homework, risks of openness (Suvin 215). Letter? It is therefore no surprise that Lem has coined the term optessimist (found in The Futurological Congress ), which is someone who can derive a positive future from a miserable present. #9;Such an attitude is very close to ma homework the archaic mentality Eliade describes, especially as it retains its death-regeneration aspect. That Eastern Europe (destroyed and reborn time and again) still reflects this mentality more visibly in its populace, and assassination of julius caesar essay subsequently more often in Lem's novels, than anywhere else in Europe should therefore not be surprising.
Lem's writing, then, not only ma homework com, subverts the ?comic inferno' approach of argument most American SF and the deterministic utopianism of most Soviet SF, using the strengths of both (Suvin 215), but also comes closest to ma homework the original nature of the archaic Utopia, with all that it implies and beautician letter claims, and thus brings us virtually full circle, back to the beginning of Utopia's literary history. THE OFFICIAL UTOPIA OF BRAVE NEW WORLD. #9;The first task to be accomplished in com my examination of Huxley's Brave New World is to establish that it is an official Utopia. As already noted, this is not necessarily easy, since Brave New World is usually considered one of the canonical anti-Utopias of the 20th century; it is easily the one most often cited. Love Research Paper Heights? In Manuel's Utopias and ma homework com Utopian Thought , there are eight listings in the index for childhood, Huxley's novel; for com, Zamyatin's We and Orwell's 1984 , there is a combined total of only eight listings.
In Kateb's Utopia and assassination caesar essay Its Enemies , the proportion is less even, with twelve listings for Huxley's novel, and only three for Zamyatin's and Orwell's combined. An equally disproportionate number of com listings for these three authors as well would further suggest that Huxley must be considered the anti-utopian writer par excellence . Or Obsession Research? How then can the claim that Brave New World is an ma homework com, official Utopia be justified? #9;I have already noted that Huxley went on to write a full-blown Utopia, Island . Beautician Letter? As a literary about-face at least as dramatic as Wells' noted in com the last chapter, this fact is still not enough of letter itself to prove that the Brave New World is Utopia, but it certainly justifies reconsideration of the ma homework com, work. Preliminarily, an analogy might be drawn with the feminine Gothic which was anti-utopian with respect to the official bourgeois Utopia, but was also pro-utopian with respect to its own vision. Essay? Even so, it is not possible to deny that Brave New World is ma homework, anti-utopian with respect to of julius caesar the Socialist Utopia; this is most readily apparent in Huxley's facetious use of names (e.g., Polly Trotsky , Herbert Bakunin , Bernard Marx , Lenin a Crowne). This anti-Socialist bias, however, does not automatically rule out a potentially pro-utopian vision. #9;Broadly speaking, three interrelated projects may be discerned in Brave New World : an anti-Socialist satire, a sociomoral broadside against hedonism, and Huxley's first, conflicted attempt to discover or realize Utopia. The first two projects represent a continuation of com Huxley's writings in the niche he had established for himself in British literature in the first third of the 20th century, most notably in Point Counterpoint ; he was one of the cynical young men, nastily recording human social foibles (typically the gross errors of the ancestors and their puerile epigones), from love or obsession research paper heights under a mantle of ostensible moral outrage. This cynicism may be understood as the first symptom or signal that permits the ma homework com, epiphany that Brave New World is a Utopia; a few words about cynicism, then, are in order. #9;Cynicism is often a reaction to wounded idealism; consequently, the more intense the originating idealism, the more thoroughgoing the resultant cynicism. Moreover, such cynicism often begins to encrust during adolescence--that time of almost infinite hopes and dreams; such adolescent idealism, brutally confronted and crushed by the disappointments of (often love) life, retreats in the name of self-protection, and adopts the mask of jaded indifference and derisive cynicism.
The buried idealism, however, is cover letter, not always completely extinguished; sometimes it reasserts itself or reappears in old age, when there is either nothing more to lose or else when one has accumulated enough security, courage or inner strength to no longer be debilitated by the effects of disappointment. #9;One of the major disadvantages of cynicism, however, is that if the idealism once again begins to ma homework com seep out, if fatigue or carelessness lets slip the reins tightly constricting one's idealistic impulses, then the cynic will most probably be ill-equipped to deal with it. It is, of course, quite possible to learn how to handle idealistic hopes without being emotionally crushed by the threat or actuality of disappointment, but not if one has ruthlessly buried idealism in cynicism for years; or, rather, even the letter, cynic can learn, but the progress will be that much delayed by com, years of self-repression. Owing to this lack of experience, when idealism does begin to reappear in the cynic, this can often lead to dramatic, even ridiculous, changes in about the cynic's outlook. #9;Huxley's literary career begins with Symbolist poetry and ends with Utopia; in the interim, his writings are marked by virulent sarcasm and cynicism. Brave New World may well be a pivot point between the exaggerated cynicism of Huxley's earlier writings and the exaggerated mystical idealism of his later writings, and thus provides some justification for re-viewing the apparent satire of ma homework Brave New World in a context of hidden or suppressed and wounded idealism. To do so, however, only strengthens the basis of the assertion that Huxley's novel presents a Utopia; it does not yet provide a demonstration that this is assassination caesar, so. #9;In a lengthy Foreword written for the re-issue of Brave New World in 1946, hints of ma homework a surfacing utopian impulse may be discerned. Stylistically, the Foreword reveals that kind of offhand snottiness that is often, if not a sign of internal weakness of character, then of ideological uncertainty.
Huxley begins, for example, with a maxim from the caesar, moralists to the effect that chronic remorse is bad; dutifully following the advice of wisdom, then, he acknowledges the defects and merits of his book, and ma homework com sees this as a justification for love or obsession wuthering heights, not bothering to write it again correctly; And so, resisting the temptation to ma homework com wallow in artistic remorse, I prefer to leave both well and ill alone and to about methods think about something else ( BNW viii). #9;This might be all right, except that Huxley does go on ma homework, to rewrite his book, in Borgesian fashion, by writing about its revision. Thus, having characterized the Savage's narrative choices at the end of the book as between insanity or lunacy, Huxley proposes a third option, sanity; in this community of sanity, economics would be decentralist and Henry-Georgian, politics Kropotkinesque co-operative (ix). #9;What is beautician cover, truly depressing about this passage is its ridiculous specificity, insofar as Henry-Georgian economics and Kropotkinesque politics are simply two more of the endless litany of economic and political isms that are by far one of the most tedious features of the official Utopia; one might just as productively propose a potlatch economy and Klingon politics. It has probably been done. Ma Homework Com? The passage, in any case, provides an example that Huxley at least had given some thought to the basis for a Utopia. In Brave New World Revisited , published in letter 1958, this possibility of com sanity has vanished. Instead, Huxley attempts to research paper heights demonstrate the veracity of the com, prophecies he made in Brave New World , in a tone common to the diatribe. 	Overpopulation and overconsumption are the two most excoriated themes of Brave New World Revisited , and it is not difficult to discern behind this the prophet's or arch-moralist's aversion to sex and indulgence; themes that are equally, if less stridently, lambasted in Brave New World . It is, therefore, not wholly inappropriate to assassination caesar essay assume that a similar kind of mystical aversion to the flesh is at work in Huxley's Utopia. #9;Northrop Frye remarks that [u]topian satire sometimes introduces celibate groups of fanatics by way of parody, as in 1984 and in Huxley's Ape and Essence (Varieties 35), but it is difficult to sense parody here, and certainly not in com Brave New World (where the sam watkins, Savage is almost the com, lone celibate fanatic in a world of nymphomania and satyriasis). Even as the Savage's propensity for self-flagellation may seem excessive or ridiculous, it is not parodic.
In his Foreword, Huxley notes that at the close of the novel the Savage: #9;is made to retreat from obesity argument sanity; his native Penitente-ism reasserts its authority and he ends in maniacal self-torture and despairing suicide. And so they died miserably ever after--much to ma homework com the reassurance of the amused, Pyrrhonic aesthete who was the author of the about methods, fable (viii). #9;The mocking tone here is ma homework, directed more toward Huxley than toward his hero, the assassination of julius essay, Savage, because for better or for worse the Savage is in fact one of the com, heroes of sam watkins Brave New World (along with Helmholtz Watson). This may be seen in that one of the conceits of the novel is that the Savage has been partly socialized by an errant copy of The Complete Works of William Shakespeare that has found its way to the Reservation where the Savage (John) has grown up. Thus, it is the Savage, quoting Miranda from The Tempest , who gives the book its title. Ma Homework Com? More significantly, in trying to come to terms with his mother's promiscuity on the Reservation, the essay, Savage has recourse to com the Bard more than once. For example: #9;Nay, but to live. #9;In the rank sweat of an enseamed bed, #9;Stew'd in corruption, honeying and making love. #9;Over the nasty sty . (qtd. in BNW 133). #9;The attitude toward sex expressed here reaches it climax when the wuthering, Savage's self-flagellation turns outward into assault.
Having been vacillating between Romeo and Juliet and Othello with respect to his sexually promiscuous love interest (Lenina Crowne), the Savage finally flees both her and her culturally carnal Utopia and delights in scourging himself with a whip. Ma Homework? But Utopia will not leave him alone, and a crowd invades his monastic privacy. Lenina, too, finally shows up and the Savage promptly attacks her; first with Shakespearean words (strumpet, fitchew, fry, lechery, fry), and then with the essay teaching methods, whip he uses on himself: #9;Drawn by the fascination of the horror of pain and, from within, impelled by that habit of cooperation, that desire for unanimity and atonement, which their conditioning had so ineradicably implanted in them, [the crowd] began to mime the frenzy of [John's] gestures, striking at one another as the Savage struck at ma homework com, his own rebellious flesh, or at that plump incarnation of turpitude writhing in the heather at cover, his feet (266). It is apparently guilt for this act that prompts the Savage's suicide. #9;Again, this is not parody, but rather a romanticization of the domestic violence Ellis examines; a romanticization that can indeed be traced back to, and hence dignified by, William Shakespeare, and not only in its most complete incarnation in Othello . The Savage's horror and guilt are no more parodic than Othello's.
Consequently, the Savage's attitude reflects the double demand of chastity for both oneself and others, which is, at least, as unhypocritical as it is despotic. Moreover, that the Savage's chastity leads to bizarre habits (in this case, self-mortification) is neither surprising, nor historically unattested. Quite before Freud observed the effects of sexual repression, the Marquis de Sade, with his characteristic bluntness, observed as much as well: #9;Juliette finds it quite a challenge to corrupt a pious Spaniard, but she has little difficulty once she has placed three young boys in his way. Man is weak, she comments. The pious are weaker than most, especially when you offer them boys. Seldom sufficiently stressed, often not even realized, there exists a powerful analogy between believers in God and buggers ( Juliette 630 qtd. in Moore 89). #9;Certainly revelations of late out of the ma homework, Catholic clergy would seem to vindicate the Marquis, and in prisons, it is tacitly assumed (with justification) that many inmate churchgoers are often sex offenders, especially child molesters. As such, the sam watkins, Savage's grimly serious Penitente-ism, and the milder but still sarcastic scorn heaped on the promiscuity of Huxley's Utopia seem to stem from the same source: a religious aversion to the Flesh. It might also therefore not be so surprising to discover that there is what some might term child pornography in ma homework Brave New World . Chapter III begins, outside, in the garden, it was playtime. Naked in the warm June sunshine, six or seven hundred little boys and girls were running. Essay? (29). Ma Homework Com? Of course, mere nakedness would not constitute pornography, but the about teaching methods, following would: #9;In a little grassy bay between tall clumps of Mediterranean heather, two children, a little boy of about seven and a little girl who might have been a year older, were playing, very gravely and with all the focussed attention of scientists intent on a labour of ma homework com discovery, a rudimentary sexual game (30).
#9;Perhaps there is nothing prurient here, but Hollywood will never film Brave New World with the research heights, original of this scene in it. Ma Homework? Huxley's intent, of course, appears to be satirical, insofar as he inverts the conventional sentimentalization of childhood obesity children (as sexless) to ma homework illuminate the depravity of his Utopia, but there are other problematic features of this chapter, to which I will return below. #9;Huxley's contention that he gives his Savage only two options (insanity and lunacy) is simply false, since the Savage somehow escapes from Utopia and installs himself, after some scourging, in the rather transparent symbol of a monastic lighthouse. In this Utopia beyond Utopia, the Savage settles in to assassination caesar make his life, nettled occasionally by his lapses into desiring civilization's comforts, or becoming too overappreciative of the natural beauty around him, or forgetting his dead mother: poor Linda, and his own murderous unkindness to her, and those loathsome twins, swarming like lice across the mystery of her death, insulting, with their presence, not merely his own grief and repentance, but the very gods themselves (254-5). #9;One might detect a note of ma homework jocosity here (the very gods themselves), but it is far less pronounced, and less flatly sarcastic, than elsewhere in the novel; the or obsession research paper wuthering heights, normal glaze of cynicism seems to have become almost transparent, such that we may be very close to the true Utopia in Huxley's novel. But there is yet another, even less visible, Utopia in Brave New World. After an abortive revolution involving the Savage, Helmholtz Watson and ma homework com Bernard Marx, the insurgent triumvirate is brought before Mustapha Mond, one of the beautician cover letter, ten World-Controllers. As punishment, Bernard and Helmholtz will be sent to the island of their choice, where they will, as Mond notes, #9;meet the most interesting set of men and women to ma homework com be found anywhere in childhood argument essay the world. All the people who, for one reason or another, have got too self-consciously individual to fit into ma homework com, community-life. Or Obsession Wuthering Heights? All the people who aren't satisfied with orthodoxy, who've got independent ideas of ma homework com their own. Every one, in a word, who's any one (233).
#9;Mond does not permit the assassination, Savage to go as well, since he is com, interested in the social experiment of the Savage remaining in Utopia. As I have already noted, however, the Savage escapes anyway, but Mond does not pursue him. Rather, Utopia itself does, in a plot twist as narratively bemusing as the reader's sudden discovery of the islands. Such islands totally destroy the beautician letter, logic of Huxley's anti-utopian critique; if discontents can go to the island of their choice, then we are certainly not dealing with a vicious totalitarian State; compare Orwell's 1984 for com, a properly totalitarian denouement. Similarly, if the assassination of julius caesar essay, Savage is supposed to remain behind for ma homework com, the sake of a social experiment, why doesn't Mond have him retrieved? That is, what is the argument essay, narrative justification for Mond's statement, if there is no follow-through in the text? It begins to seem gratuitous.
Equally gratuitous is the invasion of the Savage's lighthouse; or, even if such were demonstrated to be purposeful, why couldn't the Savage just move to another site? Is this really just ?And so they died miserably ever after'--much to the reassurance of the amused, Pyrrhonic aesthete who was the author of the fable (viii)? Why reassurance ? Is this a rejection of the Savage's third option (the lighthouse, instead of lunacy or insanity), which Huxley does not mention in his Foreword, or of the Savage himself? Or of both, as a disavowal of the savage ideal and the idealized savage. Perhaps the Savage may be seen as a figure marked by the dark eros of lust-repulsion, conflicted desire; his rejection, then, points to a triumph of the Mind-Spirit ( pneuma ) over the Flesh, as informed by an ascetic Utopia that is only dimly discernible in the novel. #9;Why this should be, as well as other preliminary answers to the questions posed above, may be explored with more precision and detail by examining the monologic authorial treatment that Huxley employs everywhere throughout his book. Monologism in Brave New World. #9;One of the hallmarks of the official Utopia is ma homework com, its predominance of monologism, expressed through an inordinate specificity and attention to detail (especially in sexual matters), by guided tours, benevolent despots, and so forth. Brave New World reflects all of these monologic features: in the guided tour of the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre that opens the teaching methods, novel, in the ritualized nature of sexual relations (including mandates on promiscuity and taboos against com, long-term relationships), in the mandates on soma and sports consumption, in the benevolent despot figure of the World-Controller Mustapha Mond, and so forth. (Actually Mond is more avuncular than paternal; again, compare him to Orwell's arch-sadist O'Brien in 1984 to sense this all the more clearly). #9;One might say that Huxley is simply using the conventions of the love research, official Utopia to satirize it, but the monologism is not limited to the level of representation in com Brave New World. In fact, I have only briefly summarized these features of the novel as indicating its official nature for love or obsession research, two reasons.
First, the features of the official Utopia have already been explored at length in Chapter I; rehearsing them here again would be redundant. Second, I have constantly maintained that official Utopias are monologic, not only at the level of representation, but also at the level of the text itself, without providing any actual examples. Com? With Brave New World at hand, examples may now readily be provided. #9;The opening three chapters provide a view of letter family life in the Brave New World . Ma Homework? This includes non-sexual reproduction and gestation in a bottle, the assassination of julius, (as many as 96) identical siblings of a Bokanovsky group, the electric and audio shocks used for conditioning of infants, the inculcation of social values into slightly older children via sleep-teaching (hypnopaedia), and the idyll of erotic playtime. Mustapha Mond then enters the setting of this idyll, and delivers a lecture to a group of future Hatchery workers on the nature of family life in the old days: #9;Home, home--a few small rooms, stiflingly over-inhabited by a man, by a periodically teeming woman, by ma homework, a rabble of boys and obesity argument essay girls of all ages. No air, no space; an understerilized prison; darkness, disease, and smells. #9;#9;And home was as squalid psychically as physically. Psychically, it was a rabbit hole, a midden, hot with the frictions of tightly packed life, reeking with emotion.
What suffocating intimacies, what dangerous, insane, obscene relationships between the members of the family group! Maniacally, the mother brooded over her children ( her children). brooded over them like a cat over its kittens; but a cat that could talk, a cat that could say, My baby, my baby, over and over again. My baby, and oh, oh, at my breast, the little hands, the ma homework, hunger, and that unspeakable agonizing pleasure! Till at cover letter, last my baby sleeps, my baby sleeps with a bubble of ma homework white milk at the corner of his mouth. My little baby sleeps. #9; #9;	Yes, said Mustapha Mond, nodding his head, you may well shudder (36-7). The nature of making family life in the old days is later dramatized by Huxley in ma homework more detail in the biographical childhood of the Savage. #9;These characterizations of family life (in the Brave New World , on the Reservation, and in Mond's lecture) are presented wholly independently of one another; that is, they exist alongside one another in the text without there being any explicit, or possibly even necessary, links between them.
This kind of sheer juxtaposition is friends essay, sometimes considered a touchstone for refinement in literature, but I doubt the validity of such a critical stance. Countless objects in the world are juxtaposed to one another in this way purely by accident, without any artistry being involved. To simply bring images together in a text is to leave it to the reader to supply the significance of the com, paired or grouped images. The apparent authorial largesse of essay teaching this seems rather to mask an authorial cowardice, insofar as he or she refuses to ma homework take a stance vis-à-vis the joined images. #9;The issue here seems to involve a point Aileen Kelly notes, in sam watkins essay her excellent and ma homework com summary Introduction to Isaiah Berlin's collected Essays in essay Russian Thinkers , which goes beyond simple authorial cowardice; the Russian intelligentsia had a habit of taking ideas and concepts to their most extreme, even absurd, conclusions: to stop before the extreme consequences of one's reasoning was seen as a sign of moral cowardice, insufficient commitment to the truth (xvii). In these terms, mere juxtaposition without an com, authorial stance may, then, be considered an instance of moral cowardice. #9;Of course, sheer juxtaposition is usually not the only reason for claiming literary refinement; rather, it is the author's selectivity, not the friends essay, juxtaposition itself, that makes for greatness. In Huxley, the ma homework, extremity of his contrasts obviously belies an intention of selectiveness, but even so, a collection of of julius essay stones, selected for their contrast, and nicely arranged does not advance beyond the level of craft , however well-executed.
Art , as its meaning in alchemy reveals, is a combination of items that form another item altogether; it reflects an interanimation and fusion of elements. If an ma homework, author merely presents craftily selected images in juxtaposition, then the effect may be aesthetic, but it is the reader who becomes the artist, who provides the making friends online essay, artful combination of images that realizes their joined significance. Such art, as combination, fusion, interanimation and so forth, obviously resembles dialogue; simple juxtaposition, then, resembles the ma homework com, non-communication of two mutually deaf monologues. #9;It might be thought that I am overstating matters with regard to Brave New World , but the lack of dialogue between images is even more strongly apparent between characters. Lenina Crowne is constantly unable to understand Bernard Marx's social critique, and doesn't want to; she is even more at a loss when the Savage quotes Shakespeare at her. Neither can the Savage make sense of his mother, who was mentally conditioned by the Brave New World. Bernard Marx and love paper heights Helmholtz Watson meet from time to time in an atmosphere of revolutionary conspiracy (owing to ma homework their shared alienation from society), but their conversations are usually transcriptions of failures to communicate. Even Helmholtz Watson (a poet and Propaganda Engineer) finally alienates himself from the Savage, by finding a serious scene in Romeo and Juliet hilarious: #9;He had managed, with a heroic effort, to hold down the mounting pressure of his hilarity; but sweet mother (in the Savage's tremulous tone of anguish) and the reference to love research Tybalt lying dead, but evidently uncremated and ma homework wasting his phosphorous on or obsession research, a dim monument, were too much for ma homework com, him.
He laughed and laughed till the tears streamed down his face. #9;	And yet, said Helmholtz when, having recovered breath enough to apologize, he had mollified the Savage into listening to his explanations. Friends Essay? (188). #9;Why Helmholtz finds this so funny (mother is a wildly lewd term in the Brave New World, which has also adopted the pragmatic policy of cremating all bodies for phosphorous reclamation) is less significant than the obviously crossed paths of non-communication here; what the Savage is reading, and ma homework what Helmholtz is hearing, are totally different from one another. But note also that even the minimally dialogic exchange of I'm sorry and cover letter I accept has been elided; replaced by, ?And yet,' said Helmholtz when. he had mollified the Savage. Later in the same scene, Huxley seems to ma homework go out of his way to dramatize this lack of communication; Helmholtz says, And who's going to get excited about a boy having a girl or not having her?' (The Savage winced; but Helmholtz who was staring pensively at the floor, saw nothing.) (188). #9;The structure of this non-dialogue, then, is childhood obesity essay, dialectic: point, counterpoint, as in a debate. Several of ma homework Huxley's titles in fact imply this kind of dialectic contrast: Ape and Essence, The Genius and the Goddess, Heaven and Hell, Themes and Variations, Ends and Means, Texts and Pretexts , and, of course, Point Counterpoint . What Bakhtin notes about dialectics would be pertinent to note at this point: #9;Dialogue and dialectics.
Take a dialogue and remove the voices (the partitioning of voices), remove the assassination, intonations (emotional and individualizing ones), carve out abstract concepts and judgments from living words and responses, cram everything into one abstract consciousness--and that's how you get dialectics ( Speech 147). #9;That dialectics, then, are ruthlessly monologic probably goes without saying. #9;The genre of the com, speech and the lecture are, of course, almost always monologic, and there are several examples of such in Brave New World : the Director of Hatcheries' spiel 3during the assassination caesar essay, guided tour, Mond's own speech to the same tour group already cited, and the Savage's rebellious exhortation to a group of soma-craving Deltas. Com? From a textual standpoint, the Savage's is the beautician, least interesting, but the first two warrant examination. Mond's lecture, for instance, is split up into fragments interlarded into ma homework com, other scenic fragments. Huxley's intent by this would seem to be the or obsession research heights, manifold opportunities for ma homework, juxtaposed contrasts and irony. Mond remarks: #9;	The discoveries of Pfitzner and Kawaguchi were at last made use of. An intensive propaganda against viviparous reproduction. Cover? #9;	Perfect! cried Fanny enthusiastically. She could never resist Lenina's charm for long. And what a perfectly sweet Malthusian belt! (51).
The Malthusian belt is a device that discourages pregnancy in unsterlized women like Lenina. Thus we see that the intensive propaganda has indeed resulted in a society that loves its subjugation--a perfectly sweet Malthusian belt. #9;If, as Darko Suvin suggests, one definition of wit is shifting between different cognitive levels (215), then Huxley is clearly demonstrating wit here, but it is rather of a purely formal nature; that is, the ma homework, irony of friends online contrasts tends not to be terribly witty throughout. In fact, the fragmentation seems almost gratuitous, especially toward the end where the juxtapositions become almost one-liners. Ma Homework Com? Of course, this also leads to a readerly acceleration that provides a kind of narrative excitement, and which culminates well in essay a sudden, 15-line speech by his fordship (Mond) that is ma homework com, interrupted by beautician cover letter, two children. The Director of Hatcheries (the ?D.H.C.') springs into action: #9;	Go away, little girl, shouted the D.H.C. angrily. Go away, little boy! Can't you see that his fordship's busy?
Go and do your erotic play somewhere else. #9;	Suffer little children, said the Controller. #9;#9;Slowly, majestically, with a faint humming of machinery, the conveyors moved forward, thirty-three centimetres an hour. Ma Homework? In the red darkness glinted innumerable rubies (56). Since the innumerable rubies are the eyes of the future inhabitants of the Brave New World, the sam watkins, contrast of suffering children and these fetuses in glass is probably the most effective one in ma homework the chapter. But again, the monologism of this must be emphasized; whatever link exists between these two images must be provided by the reader; there is no explicit, and love or obsession research paper possibly not even a necessary link between the ma homework, two. #9;It might be thought that I am being deliberately perverse in my insistence on an absence of links between the above images. In another paper, Discourse in the Modern Russian Novel, I drew attention to the intense parallelism of imagery in the opening section of Pasternak's Doctor Zhivago ; a parallelism that unmistakably linked the scene's several, carefully chosen symbols. Such parallelism is weak at essay about, best in Brave New World. For one thing the ma homework com, innumerable rubies (56) noted above repeat an image (of fetuses grown in assassination of julius caesar essay glass wombs and subjected to shaking, alcohol poisoning, disease and oxygen deprivation) from the middle of Chapter I (9). The connection here (between fetuses and suffering children) can of course be established; it seems, however, to be as distant as the images are separated in the text, and may be felt, at best only very indirectly.
For another, Huxley has already shown us infant torture and ma homework childhood brainwashing; scenes that much more palpably suggest links with suffering children than the innumerable rubies. As it is, the sam watkins essay, images as Huxley has presented them to us seem to com suggest more that simple conception is the making online essay, root of suffering children; that simply being brought into the world is ma homework, egregious of itself. Sam Watkins? Such an idea, of ma homework course, could be applied not only to Huxley's Utopia, but to any culture and as such undermines what seems to be the satiric intent of juxtaposing the images in the first place. (It should also be noted in passing that by dropping the from Christ's suffer the little children, Mond's statement takes on more ominousness, and seems almost like a curse; that he wants the children to suffer. But this does not help to any more plausibly establish a necessary link between the making friends, images.) #9;In the lecture by ma homework, the Director of letter Hatcheries, a second voice (Henry Foster's) enters, but almost completely without a tittle of dialogue. Ma Homework? There is an essay, almost total consonance of idea between the ma homework, two men that, at one point, leads the Director's lecture to fragment into a kind of online essay schizophrenic monologue: #9;	Eighty-eight cubic metres of card-index, said Mr. Foster with relish, as they entered. #9;	Containing all the relevant information, added the Director.
#9;	Brought up to date every morning. #9;	And coordinated every afternoon. #9;	On the basis of which they make their calculations. #9;	So many individuals, of such and such a quality, said Mr. Foster. #9;	Distributed in such and ma homework such quantities.
#9;	The optimum Decanting Rate at any given moment. #9;	Unforeseen wastages promptly made good. #9;	Promptly, repeated Mr. Foster. If you knew the making friends essay, amount of overtime I had to put in after the last Japanese earthquake! He laughed goodhumouredly and ma homework shook his head. #9;	The Predestinators send in their figures to obesity the Fertilizers. #9;	Who give them the embryos they ask for. #9;	And the bottles come in here to be predestined in ma homework com detail. #9;	After which they are sent down to the Embryo Store. #9;	Where we now proceed ourselves (8-9).
#9;The jauntiness of this passage is friends online, unmistakable, and its use of ma homework com this kind of verbal switching goes back in comic writing at least to Classical Greece, where characters in methods drama bantered in antiphonal hemistiches, but its monologic nature is ma homework, equally obvious, almost to the point of beautician letter exaggeration. Huxley's tendency for ma homework com, dialectic contrast has turned into friends essay, a dialectic identity. #9;Monologism is also evident at the level of character in Brave New World , most obviously in the treatment of characters as types, rather than personalities. This is com, not, of essay course, strictly speaking a criticism, since character types are the stock-in-trade of social satire. Moreover, Bakhtin notes that in the novel of ordeal (or Prüfungsroman ) a continuous identity of character is a prerequisite for ma homework com, a happy ending; The hammer of events shatters nothing and forges nothing--it merely tries the durability of an already finished product ( The Dialogic Imagination 107). This is quite true of Huxley's novel, except that And they died miserably every after requires the modification that the hammer of events shatters everything. This does not imply any character development, of course; the analysis of Bernard's character early in the novel (64-5) quite aptly foreshadows his grotesquely pathetic collapse in the latter half of the beautician, novel, following his return to Utopia with the Savage. The Savage undergoes a similar ordeal upon his arrival in Utopia, and ends with a failure as spectacular (his suicide) as Bernard's, but in an entirely different register--grotesquely tragic, rather than pathetic. #9;This parallel of ordeal is matched by com, others as well, such that one can describe the Savage as Huxley's dialectic image of Bernard; the dialectic, however, is again one of identity (as seen in the Director of Hatcheries and Mr. Foster), rather than contrast.
Thus, the Savage's violence, passion and chivalry have their precedents in Bernard, though his grounding in Shakespeare gives him a stronger base to cover work from; in neither case are they strong enough to avoid disaster. That the com, Savage's past is radically different from beautician Bernard's does not invalidate the claim that they are, in effect, the same character; literary types do not, properly speaking, have pasts; biography only adds color, not substance. (Certain actions of the Savage, of course, are alien to Bernard, such as the Savage's grief over the death of ma homework his mother, but the sam watkins essay, type-parallels between the com, two character nevertheless remain very close.) Camille Paglia has coined the phrase allegorical repletion to explain such doubling (for example, in Rossetti's The Bower Meadow and Astarte Syriaca , where the facial features of the various figures are identical); [t]he term describes a redundant proliferation of homologous identities in a matrix of caesar sexual ambiguity ( Sexual Personae 157). She also reintroduces into critical usage the Greek word, apotropaion, as a charm to com ward off evil spirits (49). As such, the doubling of the Bernard-Savage image may be interpreted as an allegorically replete apotropaion, with the ambiguity (or ambivalence) being that dark Eros of assassination of julius lust-repulsion (as an aversion to the flesh) that manifests not only in the exaggerated chivalry-profligacy of Bernard and the chivalry-violence of the Savage (toward himself and Lenina), but perhaps also in the erotic play of the naked children. This, because children, precisely as symbols of sexlessness, may serve as a kind of apotropaic safe haven for those troubled by the lures of the flesh; that such sometimes proves insufficient, that the ward (the pun is intentional) sometimes becomes the object of a libidinal cathexis, is only too familiar. Allegorical repletion, moreover, may also be seen in both the scores and scores of identical individuals in ma homework com Bokanovsky groups, and in the dialectic identity of the Director of Hatcheries and Mr. Foster's lecture. Insofar as these features of Brave New World each multiply a single word, so to speak, they are all almost literally monologic. #9;Lenina and Linda (the Savage's mother) present a similar dialectic identity: both are upper-caste nymphomaniacs, both are literally whipped (by the Savage and the women of the Reservation, respectively) for being so, both have physical deformities, both constantly parrot the hypnopaedic homilies they were taught as children, and both are the object of love for the Bernard-Savage dyad.
Linda (similar to beautician the Savage with respect to Bernard) presents a more extreme version than Lenina; the physical description of ma homework her and her surroundings (119-20) is far more grotesque than the making online, first description of ma homework Lenina; One could see that, for all the lupus and the purple eyes, she was uncommonly pretty (15). Linda (again much more obviously than Lenina, but the parallel exists) represents what Northrop Frye has termed a suppliant: #9;the character, often female, who presents a picture of unmitigated helplessness and destitution. Such a figure is pathetic, and pathos, though it seems a gentler and more relaxed mood than tragedy, is even more terrifying. Its basis is the exclusion of an individual from a group, hence it attacks the deepest fear in ourselves that we possess--a fear much deeper than the essay, relatively cosy and sociable bogey of hell. In the figure of the suppliant pity and terror are brought to the highest possible pitch of intensity, and the awful consequences of rejecting the suppliant for com, all concerned is a central theme of Greek tragedy. Suppliant figures are often women threatened with death or rape ( Anatomy 217). #9;Linda, presumed lost during her tour long ago of the Reservation and consequently left behind by her lover (the Director of Hatcheries as it turns out), fully accords with Frye's description. Her mental conditioning (as a member of the second, Beta, caste) has left her woefully unprepared for primitive life; she is letter, beaten, driven to alcoholism, and lives in rags and ma homework garbage on assassination of julius caesar essay, the outskirts of the village because she is deemed a pariah and whore.
Once she returns to ma homework com Utopia, she puts herself on such an extreme soma -diet that she is (in perhaps one of the few acts of mercy in Brave New World ) dead by essay, the novel's end. But can her situation and fate be blamed on Utopia? After all, her conditioning may make her helpless on the Reservation, but it is the values of Othello , so to speak, that make her destitute. #9;If Huxley is trying to satirize the atrocity of mental conditioning in com the Brave New World, by obesity, using an image that argues, in effect, See what happens when a Beta is confronted with ?real-life,' then he has failed as miserably as Bernard or the Savage. Com? In the World-State of Utopia, such confrontations are non-real; that Linda survives at all without going insane is already heroic in itself. The argument is equivalent to saying, A clock makes a terrible broom, and much as we might want to decry Utopia on external grounds (e.g., that genetic disfigurement and conditioning are moral evils), within the context of Utopia, the overwhelming majority of childhood obesity argument essay Huxley's inhabitants are happy; that they have been conditioned to be that way is so much the better since, in ma homework com terms of ensuring their happiness, the Brave New World achieves what our Constitution can only promise as a pursuit. As the Director of Hatcheries puts it; ?[T]hat is the secret of happiness and virtue--liking what you've got to do. All conditioning aims at that: making people like their unescapable social destiny' (15). #9;Saying so may seem perverse, but what Brave New World appears to counterpropose (the Savage ideal) is even more perverse. As Kateb remarks, in sam watkins essay this discussion of pain and pleasure; At times it seems that the antiutopians favor pain as men would favor it who never felt very much of it and think it may be good for themselves and surely could not be too bad for others ( Utopia 126). This preference for com, physical pain over pleasure and beautician an aversion to ma homework com the flesh obviously go hand in hand; worse, that exponents of pain think that it surely could not be too bad for others is a very true and ominous concomitant.
It is a very short step from this idea to deliberate violence, or even darker still to pure sadism that masquerades as moral instruction. How many wives have been thrashed by assassination, domestic sadists to teach her a lesson in fidelity? How many teachers had erections as they paddled the naked buttocks of their pupils? How often was something other than atonement going through the ma homework, minds of abbots or priests as they witnessed the physical penance of their monks? Kateb alternatively offers that at other times, the antiutopians speak as men who have seen or had so much pain that they have become incapable of of julius imagining that there could come a time when pain--at least in its more brutalizing forms--could cease to be (126-7). This dovetails perfectly with the ma homework, syndrome of cynicism I detailed above. #9;Linda's treatment in the novel, then, may be directly read in light of this cynicism and sadism. She (and to a lesser extent Lenina) is Huxley's whipping girl in a work that dramatizes his conflicted lust-attraction toward a hedonist Utopia. Outside of such a view, Linda's debasement is logically incoherent and structurally unnecessary. Obesity Essay? She could, for example, have been rescued years ago by other tourists (to the detriment of the plot of course); she could simply have died.
Her own reason for com, not trying to leave the Reservation was that the shame of being a mother prevented her from going to the Reservation's inspector (120); all the friends essay, same, she could have abandoned, if not killed, her son. Any of ma homework these alternatives would have spared Linda her unnecessary ordeal. More significantly, though Huxley refers to life on the Reservation as more human in some respects, but in others hardly less queer and abnormal (viii), this is rather disingenuous, since the Penitente -ism of the Reservation is hardly a universal feature of Native American culture. Another tribal setting, then, would have spared Linda as well (unless, of course, not sparing her was precisely Huxley's intention). #9;At the obvious level of Brave New World , then, there are two interrelated Utopias: the erotopia of the Brave New World, punished in the figures of Lenina and Linda, and the thanatopia of the Reservation, championed by Bernard and the Savage. Assassination? In spite of these apparently dialectical contrasts, however, the novel belies a very single-minded and consistent unity of purpose; the Reservation's squalor, violence, pain, humiliation and blood are simply the obverse of the Brave New World's cleanliness, peace, pleasure and soma . #9;So far, I have had recourse to a perhaps dubious psychologism by reading behind the surface of Brave New World and imputing various impulses to Huxley himself. Huxley may, in fact, have been wholly aloof to the conflict his juxtaposed images suggest, but the ironies of the text make determining whether this is either a defensive covering or simply cynicism extremely difficult. Huxley's rigorous partitioning of images, their undialogic nature (for which the reader must provide the significance) and the monologic repetition of images might have been a way for com, him to avoid an engagement in the conflict he presents, or it might just be an artistic conceit. (Of course, one could impute that it is a fear of engagement that leads to the choice of this kind of artistic conceit.) #9;It is possible to sam watkins essay use the hermeneutic of idealism behind cynicism and a fear of engagement only to a certain point of diminishing returns. As is also the case with many of Freud's fundamental ideas, such hypotheses are difficult, if not impossible, to verify.
That Huxley's ironic stance leaves it to the reader and the critic to draw conclusions about the novel (and abrogates Huxley's right, though not his ability, to object to such conclusions), still does not justify being satisfied with the psychoanalysis of the ma homework, foregoing. Terry Eagleton, in Literary Theory: An Introduction , has noted that the beautician cover, problems of ma homework literary value and pleasure would seem to lie somewhere at making essay, the juncture of psychoanalysis, linguistics and ideology, and little work has been done here as yet (192). If linguistics and ma homework ideology are understood in their Bakhtinian sense as metalinguistics and discourse, then the following may represent a start. Metalinguistics and assassination essay Discourse in Brave New World. #9;Huxley's novel opens: #9;A squat grey building of only thirty-four stories. Over the main entrance the ma homework, words CENTRAL LONDON HATCHERY AND CONDITIONING CENTRE, and, in a shield, the World State's motto, COMMUNITY, IDENTITY, STABILITY. #9;#9;The enormous room on the ground floor faced towards the north. Cold for all the summer beyond the friends, panes, for ma homework com, all the tropical heat of the room itself, a harsh thin light glared through the caesar, windows, hungrily seeking some draped lay figure, some pallid shape of academic goose-flesh, but finding only the glass and com nickel and bleakly shining porcelain of a laboratory. Wintriness responded to wintriness. The overalls of the workers were white, their hands gloved with a pale corpse-coloured rubber. The light was frozen, dead, a ghost.
Only from the yellow barrels of the microscopes did it borrow a certain rich and living substance, lying along the polished tubes like butter, streak after luscious streak in a long recession down the work tables (1). #9;In the very first sentence, there is the surreal disjunction of the research wuthering, squat building of only thirty-four stories. This disjunction, however, is com, not supported by essay teaching methods, the rest of the paragraph, which is ma homework com, instrumental in telling us that we are not in the present world, but rather in the World-State (presumably) of the future, well-characterized by its motto. #9;With the second paragraph, with its morgue-like description of cold (in spite of the essay teaching methods, tropical heat of the room), corpse-colored rubber, the frozen, dead ghost of the light, and the clinical gleam of ma homework glass, nickel and making online essay bleak porcelain, Huxley gets down to business. Into this atmosphere of autopsy (the Fertilizing Room as it turns out, that substitutes for the intimacy of sexual intercourse and reproduction in ma homework com the Brave New World), Huxley inserts images of food: the hungry light, the goose of caesar essay pallid goose-flesh, and of course the buttery microscope tubes drenched streak after luscious streak in light. #9;There are at least three ways of reading this paragraph. #9;As a surrogate for reproduction, this Fertilizing Room solves the problem of sexual intercourse that arises out of an aversion to com the flesh. It is not a complete solution, insofar as even clinical distance cannot wholly deny what is going on in this tropical morgue; hence, the disgusting or repulsive combining of the morgue (corpse-coloured rubber and goose-flesh) and the banquet (butter and goose as food) to heighten the nausea-potential of the scene.
#9;It should also be added that the making friends essay, paragraph is ma homework com, either confused, or confusing (which may be nothing more than another surreal disjunction that underlines the unnatural inversions the Brave New World espouses and reflects, but might also signify the confusion of essay conflict arising from an com, aversion to essay teaching methods the flesh, whether Huxley's or purely thematic). For example, since goose-flesh usually occurs in ma homework com cold, not tropical heat, the actual temperature of the room is difficult to decide at childhood obesity argument essay, first. The first word of the second sentence, Cold, refers to the harsh thin light but, because of the intervening phrase (for all the ma homework, tropical heat of the letter, room itself), Cold seems to refer to ma homework com the room. Wintriness responded to wintriness is similarly unclear at sam watkins, first; since there are both the tropical heat of the ma homework com, room and all the of julius, summer beyond the panes, that the two wintrinesses refer to the harsh thin light and ma homework com the clinical coldness of the laboratory is not readily apparent at first. #9;Then comes the butter, no less than luscious. Cover Letter? Doubtless, certain Freudian critics would see row upon row of glistening phalluses in the butter-drenched microscope tubes and, in this case, in the Fertilizing Room, the assertion would at least seem apropos; Paglia might additionally point out that the sheer number of ma homework tubes (300, in fact) makes for a vivid example of allegorical repletion.
Whether these tubes should be taken as phallic or not, the sudden sensuality of the description, especially the lascivious luscious, could be interpreted as an outbreak of lust over against its attempted suppression by a clinical coldness, a return of the repressed. #9;A second, less involved, interpretation would accept the images at face-value, taking the morgue-banquet combination as straightforward satire designed to elicit disgust in the reader. Having thus engendered our nausea without letting us know in advance why we should be disgusted, Huxley then provides a grounding or lightning rod for making, this nausea by announcing this laboratory is the Fertilizing Room. Discovering this afterward would seem to be more effective than if we know beforehand; the shock of realization is more pronounced. #9;Of course, for readers not familiar with the premise of the novel, the fact that humans are being reproduced here goes unappreciated, especially as Huxley spuriously tells us that this building is a hatchery. Ma Homework? The scenario seems rather to be one of livestock or chicken production; Huxley is deferring the revelation that human production is at work here until later. Sam Watkins Essay? As late as page three, Huxley is still deferring, and offering red herrings; Rams wrapped in theremogene beget no lambs (3). The first clue is found on the same page, when the Director of Hatcheries refers to ma homework a bonus amounting to six months' salary (3) for beautician cover letter, the surgical extraction of ova undergone for com, the good of Society (3).
This rather cryptic statement for the first reader is followed by assassination of julius, the first reference to the castes, and soon after by Making ninety-six human beings grow where only one grew before. Progress (4). #9;The third interpretation of the second paragraph would draw attention to the ancient and carnivalesque tradition of the funeral feast (a morgue-banquet), and to the linking of death and eating in general. For the modern mind, the proximity of eating and food to repulsive things (like corpses) evokes disgust precisely because the ma homework, older, carnivalesque associations have been forgotten or revalued in negative terms. Under Carnival, the conjunction of butter, goose-flesh, and corpse would already imply the communal triumph and renewing of life (as feasting) over death; that the setting is the Fertilizing Room makes the renewing-regenerating aspect of the image explicit. #9;There seems to be no reason, however, to believe that Huxley intended these old associations.
The entire paragraph is slanted toward nausea, not festiveness. Sam Watkins? This is exactly how reduced laughter manifests in modern satire; the unions of images are retained, but are stripped of their regenerating (positive) aspect. Consequently, there is an com, alienation of death and eating that implies a correlate alienation from life as well. The funeral banquet acknowledges death, but triumphs over it through the social immortality of community and life itself, and by the festive, not existentially gloomy, atmosphere of childhood obesity argument eating and drinking. Reduced laughter severs these links, and thereby effaces festive laughter's wisdom; death becomes an intolerable horror, the terror of history. Of course, festive laughter (cosmic and universal) cannot ever be wholly extinguished, and its images are easy enough to ma homework com discern once one learns how to recognize them; de-revaluating them back to something of their original nature, however, is more difficult to be persuasive about. #9;This paragraph does not feature the only repulsive use of childhood obesity argument food and drink in Brave New World . Discussing how excised ova are preserved after extraction, the Director of Hatcheries referred to ma homework the liquor in which the essay about teaching, detached and ripened eggs were kept; and, leading his charges to the work tables, actually showed them how this liquor was drawn off from the test-tubes (3). The use and repetition of liquor here almost reflexively invites the reader to have a glass of ripened and ma homework detached ova in love or obsession research wuthering saline (with probable gag results), but that again does not efface the fertility of the image, if the pun will be excused. Ma Homework Com? And, after the main course of butter and goose-flesh, apparently washed down with eggnog, Huxley then serves us a warm bouillon containing free-swimming spermatozoa--at a minimum concentration of one hundred thousand per cubic centimetre (4).
I suspect that the about teaching methods, word warm lends this description its effectiveness more than the concentrated thickness of the bouillon itself; again, though, the com, inadvertently positive link here between eating (food) and life-renewal is obvious. #9;After these moments of divine conception, food and drink imagery ebbs, leaving behind an only physical grossness in phrases like blood surrogate, but carnivalesque associations still do not become totally obliterated. In the Bottling Room (where fetuses are placed in glass wombs, hence ?bottled'), the bottles are lined with flaps of fresh sow's peritoneum ready cut to cover letter the proper size [that come] shooting up in little lifts from the Organ Store in the sub-basement (7-8). The peritoneum is a membrane investing the internal surface of the abdomen, and the viscera contained in it ( New Webster's Expanded Dictionary ). And again, like warm noted above, the word fresh here tends to evoke edibility (flaps of fresh sow's peritoneum), though I think the retching of the reader here would be delayed until a dictionary could be found. The whole phrase is well-calculated to ma homework repulse (fresh gastrointestinal lining) and insult (the substitution of sow for womb, and the Biblical and barnyard association with pigs). #9;In spite of all of essay about teaching this, the peritoneum itself, as literally closely associated with tripes ( viscera is the ma homework, Latin for tripes) has its own set of positive, carnivalesque associations. #9;The stomach and bowels of cattle, tripe, were carefully cleaned, salted and cooked. Tripe could not be preserved long; they were therefore consumed in great quantities on slaughtering days and cost nothing.
Moreover, it was believed that after cleaning, tripe still contained ten percent excrement which was therefore eaten with the rest of the meal. #9;#9;Tripe, stomach, intestines are the assassination of julius caesar, bowels, the belly, the ma homework, very life of man. Essay? But at the same time they represent the swallowing, devouring belly. Ma Homework Com? Further, the belly does not only eat and swallow, it is also eaten, as tripe. [T]ripe is linked with death, with slaughter, murder, since to disembowel is to kill. Finally, it is obesity argument, linked with birth, for ma homework, the belly generates. #9;#9;Thus, in making friends essay the image of tripe life and death, birth, excrement and food are all drawn together and ma homework com tied in one grotesque knot; this is the essay, center of bodily topography in which the upper and lower stratum penetrate each other ( Rabelais 162-3). As the lining of the intestines and com belly, then, the peritoneum is the very shield of life (whether sow's or not) that holds it all together.
#9;Additionally, Mr. Foster tells the future Hatchery workers of the growing embryo on its bed of peritoneum. Made them taste the rich blood surrogate on which it fed (10-1). Again, note the word rich here, like warm and fresh, which edibilizes the blood surrogate. A variation of childhood obesity this occurs on the same page in the hog's stomach extract and fetal foal's liver. The liver, of ma homework com course, has its own set of beautician letter ancient associations, not only ma homework com, that it was once the seat of affections, but also that as one of the filters of bodily impurities, it too reflects the same tainted quality as tripes when eaten. The phrase fetal foal also has its own amusing qualities, not only for its alliteration, but also for its oxymoronic redundancy.
Turning a fetal foal into obesity essay, an extract, then (to prevent anemia in the growing embryos), is a sort of double infanticide. (I do not need to stress the popular sympathy for fetuses, and if Huxley had used fetal veal instead, I would not need to mention the popular sympathy for helpless young animals either). #9;Of course, with these fetal foals, we are not yet in the realm of Swift's Modest Proposal, but we are certainly nearby; close enough that anti-abortionists and ma homework equinophiles might be raised to alarm, even if less sensitive humanitarians were not. Swift's proposal, in any case, was primarily economic; de Sade offers a different proposal: 	We'll try some, said Sbrigani; it is absurd to turn up one's nose at anything. it is no more extraordinary, after all, to eat a human than to eat chicken. #9;#9;So saying my husband dug his fork into a joint of about boy which looked to him especially well prepared ( Juliette 585, qtd. in Moore 98). Moore, in his characteristic way, interprets this theme of ma homework child-eating as a way of internalizing and tasting childhood and the archetypal child (98); that is, of overcoming the false sentimentalization by which we perceive actual children and beautician cover our own childishness. True as this may be, one could also more simply note that the child (or foal or calf) and ma homework com all the more so the making friends, fetus, is closer to the original outburst of life energy than any adult; that they reflect the perfection of ma homework a renewed Creation. As such, extract of fetal foals, like a joint of boy or the obesity essay, related aphrodisiacal tiger penis, is yet another image of regenerating festive laughter, now visible to us only in reduced form. #9;The remainder of Chapter I is taken up with a tour in the classic utopian style of the human production factory, with a subsequent decline in ma homework the concentrated richness of vocabulary and description found in childhood obesity argument the second paragraph; sarcasm comes to replace the ma homework, relative subtlety of the essay, opening. An example of ma homework com this is the repeated phrase Straight from the childhood argument, horse's mouth (2), which is used in reference to the slavish attention paid to the Director by his future workers during their tour. The phrase, moreover, may clearly be attributed to the narrator. A more ambiguous example has already been noted: Making ninety-six human beings grow where only one grew before.
Progress (4). The word progress here has a doubled intonation that reflects both the effusive enthusiasm of the com, Director and the scornful irony of the narrator. Such double-accentedness illustrates the interanimation of one discourse (word) by or obsession wuthering, another; by contrast, Straight from the horse's mouth is bodily inserted into com, the Director's discourse. Beautician Letter? The latter belies only opposition to another's word, rather than the subversion of it indicated in progress. #9;Such subversion in Brave New World , however, is invariably of a negating, ironic type, and is not limited by the narrator to the people or powermongers of Utopia. The contrast between the ma homework, Savage's Shakespearean passion for friends essay, Lenina and her totally liberated view of sex makes for yet another surreal disjunction that drifts finally into the ridiculous.
This ridiculousness can be felt when the narrator reports that the Savage was obscurely terrified lest [Lenina] should cease to be something he could feel himself unworthy of (172, my emphasis). The emphasized portion here perfectly reflects the Savage's discourse; he might very well have uttered it himself. Conveyed, however, by the narrator, who, along with the reader, knows that Lenina is already something the Savage could feel himself unworthy of, the phrase is imbued with the narrator's sense of the Savage's ridiculousness. #9;Such negations are unremitting and legion in Brave New World . Pyrrhonic is an apt characterization for Huxley's attitude, since nothing is left unrazed by the novel's end. Such ironization, as a base of com satire, again reflects reduced laughter; a laughter that retains the destructive element of assassination of julius festive laughter's abuse-praise, while eliminating (or remaining unaware of) its regenerating element. What particularly makes this monologic, in spite of the double-accentedness of the text, is ma homework, that all of the irony proceeds in essay about teaching methods the same cynical tone. The stridency of this tone, however, drops off considerably in the first three chapters of the book, partly because the com, interanimation of discourse apparent in progress begins to appear on a larger scale.
This occurs with the greatest frequency in Chapter I between the narrator and assassination of julius essay the Director (and the Director's surrogate, Mr. Foster). #9;Formally, this manifests as an com, alternation between direct and indirect speech transcription, between actual statements made by the Director and narrated summaries of his statements. For example: #9;	But, alas, the Director shook his head, we can't bokanovskify indefinitely. #9;#9;Ninety-six seemed to be the limit; seventy-two a good average. From the same ovary and with gametes of the same male to manufacture as many batches of identical twins as possible--that was the love or obsession research paper wuthering, best (sadly a second best) that they could do (6). #9;What is obvious in this selection, and it is typical, is ma homework com, that the making online, Director's discourse partially shapes the narrator's; the prose summary reflects the Director's style of com speech. This is clearest after the love research, dash, that was the best (sadly a second best) that they could do, but it would not be an exaggeration to impute the shaping of the narrator's discourse by the Director's throughout the com, entire passage.
An even more striking example occurs when the assassination of julius caesar, Director rhetorically asks, What would be the use of that? (6), and the narrator answers, Obviously, no use at all. This device is not solely limited to the Director's discourse; Huxley continues to use it when Mr. Foster takes over the tour. #9;	Which brings us at last, continued Mr. Foster, out of the ma homework com, realm of making friends online essay mere slavish imitation of nature into the much more interesting world of human invention. #9;#9;He rubbed his hands. For of course, they didn't content themselves with merely hatching out ma homework com, embryos; any cow could do that (12). #9;In Bakhtin's typology of discourses, the above principally reflects parodistic (ironic) discourse, in which another's discourse is used for conveying aspirations that are hostile to it ( Problems 194). As Huxley employs such discourse, it amounts to giving Utopia's spokespeople enough rope with which to hang themselves.
But, as I have noted, the technique is not strictly leveled against Utopia's inhabitants. If I am careful to attempt to keep separate the author and of julius the narrator for the time being, then the universal irony of Huxley's narrator cannot necessarily be ascribed to Huxley as well. Insofar as a narrator is a tool for authorial intentions (whether such intentions are directly or indirectly expressed) as such the narrator's universal irony might serve to mask a different agenda on Huxley's part. For this reason, it might be pertinent to wonder if the irony is really irony. #9;With Straight from the horse's mouth, there seems to be an unmistakable example of the narrator's voice, uninvaded by any Utopian's, and discretely set apart in its own sentence. With the other, invaded examples above, the assumption of ma homework irony seems plausible although, as was shown to be the case with Huxley's juxtaposed images, an explicit or necessary justification for such an assumption may not prove to be so plausible after all. The word, progress, for example, even in its bluntness, warrants but perhaps does not mandate hearing an ironic accent. Essay? Moreover, as Chapter I progresses, the blatantness of the ma homework com, second paragraph and paper wuthering heights Straight from the horse's mouth gives way to an increasing sense of this non-mandated irony. #9;One might assume that Huxley, the subtle British wit, dispenses with obviousness as he advances, because the tone has already been set, and that further obviousness would become artistically grotesque. On the ma homework com, other hand, a decrease in essay the mandate of ma homework irony might also be said to or obsession research paper heights indicate a decrease in the amount of actual scorn heaped. #9;Insofar as Brave New World is anti-pleasure and anti-Flesh, rather than anti-Utopia per se, a decrease in irony could be expected the further and further the text gets from the act of conception occurring in ma homework com the Fertilizing Room.
Repulsive food imagery does in fact entirely vanish by page twelve, never to beautician return. The tour itself even begins to take on a somewhat jaunty, but still scientific tone: #9;	The lower the caste, said Mr. Foster, the shorter the oxygen [to the fetuses]. The first organ affected was the brain. After that the skeleton. At seventy percent of normal oxygen you got dwarfs.
At less then seventy eyeless monsters. #9;	Which are no use at all, concluded Mr. Foster. #9;#9;Whereas (his voice became confidential and eager), if they could discover a technique for shortening the period of ma homework maturation what a triumph, what a benefaction to Society! #9;#9;They considered it (13). #9;Occasionally, a character's enthusiasm in Brave New World is noted by the narrator as infectious (14); the narrator here seems similarly caught up. Eyeless monsters cannot be taken as ironic, since it would seem to be exactly the phrase Mr. Foster would have used.
The same is true of the stilted benefaction to Society!, except that by presenting the statement in indirect transcription, one must assume that the beautician letter, irony implied by the narrator's statement somehow differs from Mr. Foster's direct statement. Moreover, the almost complete domination here of the narrator's voice by Mr. Foster's renders the former's almost mute. This is a kind of either clever or bizarre twist on More's guided tour; insofar as More's dominated narrator was embodied in a protagonist, in Brave New World the tour guide's domination extends to the level of Huxley's third-person omniscient narrator. As a consequence of ma homework com this, it becomes very difficult to remain certain that irony is present. #9;On the other hand, one might assert that the narrator does indicate points of essay irony, specifically in the yoking together of technical jargon and colloquialisms, e.g., at seventy percent of normal oxygen and you got dwarfs. One might subsequently try to discover a correlation between an absence of contractions in the technical jargon, and a wealth of them in the narrated summaries, or some other kind of consistent use of discourse in a like manner, without success. Such would be very slim evidence in any case, unless it was clearly deliberate.
#9;Following the above-quoted passage, there is then a rather gratuitous discussion on the slowness of human maturation; a problem as yet unsolved by Utopia. The sense of gratuitousness here arises because Huxley seems to be following an idea that does not logically need to be pursued. It is true that an increased rate of maturation (i.e., full adulthood by age six) would lead to a disappearance of childhood as we know it, but if this is a satiric point on Huxley's part, then it is ma homework, muffled by love research paper wuthering heights, the technical jargon and ma homework com is redundant in any case due to friends online Utopia's predestination of caste and conditioning. Childhood as we know it has already vanished; increased rates of human maturation would not change a thing. #9;By the end of the chapter, the narrator has begun to sound almost reasonable: 	Heat conditioning, said Mr. Foster. #9;#9;Hot tunnels alternated with cool tunnels.
Coolness was wedded to discomfort in the form of hard X-rays. By the time they were decanted the embryos had a horror of cold. They were predestined to emigrate to the tropics, to be miners and acetate silk spinners and steel workers. Later on ma homework com, their minds would be made to endorse the essay teaching, judgment of their bodies. We condition them to thrive on heat, concluded Mr.
Foster. Our colleagues upstairs will teach them to love it (15). #9;If there is still a certain foolish giddiness in Mr. Foster's speech, then the narrator's seems wholly devoid of irony, especially Later on ma homework com, their minds would be made to endorse the judgement of their bodies, which is a precise, but more sober, paraphrase of exactly what Mr. Beautician Cover? Foster concludes with. This may not be enough to assume that the narrator (or Huxley) approves of these proceedings, but it certainly marks a dramatic contrast with the ma homework, opening, and making friends essay the tone of Straight from the horse's mouth.
There seems to be an enculturation at work here, typical for the official Utopia's guided tour, but it is not clear if this enculturation applies solely to the future workers, the reader, the narrator or perhaps even Huxley himself. #9;In Chapter II, the tone and tactics change when it comes to the tour of the Conditioning process. The narrative voice becomes more neutral, and the Director's becomes somewhat more arrogant. A comparison between the ma homework, description of the Fertilizing Room and the room where infants will be tortured by sam watkins, electric shocks and sirens is illustrative. Ma Homework Com? The latter is very bright and sunny (10), with professional, rather than clinically dead nurses, and cover letter a riot of roses; Not exclusively pink and Aryan, but also luminously Chinese, also Mexican, also apoplectic with too much blowing of celestial trumpets, also pale as death, pale with the ma homework com, posthumous whiteness of marble (18). This is, of course, a set-up for the torture to come, well-modulated by the strengthening contrast of the comic, apoplectic trumpets and the posthumous whiteness of marble. During the torture itself: #9;#9;There was a violent explosion. Shriller and ever shriller, a siren shrieked. Essay? Alarm bells maddeningly sounded. #9;#9;The children started, screamed; their faces were distorted with terror. #9;	And now, the Director shouted (for the noise was deafening), now we proceed to com rub in essay about teaching the lesson with a mild electric shock.
#9;#9;The screaming of the babies suddenly changed its tone. There was something desperate, almost insane, about the sharp spasmodic yelps to which they now gave utterance. Their little bodies twitched and stiffened; their limbs moved jerkily as if to the tug of unseen wires. #9;	We can electrify that whole strip of floor, bawled the com, Director in explanation, But that's enough (20). #9;Irony has vanished, to be replaced with apparent malice (the emphasized portion above), and childhood essay the neutral (self-evidently horrific) narration. Ma Homework Com? These are reinforced in small ways: that the Director bawled suggests the Director's own infantility, and the phrase, their little bodies twitched, rather unnecessarily exploits the sam watkins, sentimentalization of ma homework small and helpless things. Huxley less garishly reinforces the latter by having the narrator remark that the essay methods, infants had two hundred repetitions of the ma homework, same or a similar lesson (21) in essay methods store in the future. #9;Contrasted with this, an ma homework com, odd accent is added by the narrator once the screaming infants are wheeled out of the sam watkins essay, room, leaving behind them the smell of sour milk and a most welcome silence (21). There is a certain diffidence in this that does not merely counterbalance the sentimental pathos of the scene in some kind of aesthetic way. It almost seems to throw a weight of judgment on com, the infants for their sour smell and of julius screaming, rather than on ma homework com, their torturers; as if the silence is welcome, not because the torture is over or because the victims of that torture are no longer before the horrified eyes of the friends essay, narrator, but because the narrator is ma homework, typically intolerant of, and sam watkins annoyed by, infant wailing, whatever the cause. This may seem a stretched point, and certainly is not meant to suggest that Huxley or the narrator approve; it simply again illustrates the radical contrast of tone between Chapter I and Chapter II.
#9;Part of the change in ma homework tactics here would seem to result in a change in the target of Huxley's satire, which has now become serious. The correlate of an aversion to the Flesh is an idealization of the pneuma (the Mind-Spirit), and about teaching conditioning aims at ma homework com, the pneuma , not the body. Essay? It is almost as if, at root, what Utopia does to the body might be treated with a certain loathing humor, perhaps even fascination. But conditioning of the com, Mind-Spirit. that's no laughing matter at all. #9;As such, the caesar essay, gross sentimentalization of such sacred taboos as infants, children, and ma homework family (especially mother) that begins in Chapter II and continues into childhood obesity essay, Chapter III displays Huxley's exploitation of such conventional sentimentality to fuel his satire. Against a background of ma homework these conventions, of course, irony speaks for itself, without the additional arrogance added as coloration to the Director's discourse. Convention in Brave New World. #9;Kateb's remark, that Brave New World depends for its most telling effects on the disgust at stupid sensuality it can make its readers feel (126) is true enough, if applied to the later chapters of the book; for the first three chapters, a wholly different criterion than stupid sensuality is at work. In a word, Huxley's criterion is convention, of which Frye notes, The possession of originality cannot make an artist unconventional; it drives him further into convention, obeying the law of the art itself ( Anatomy 132, my emphasis). Convention as a technique of literary communicability, however, does not always obey the law of the art itself; moral conventions may just as well serve, as Huxley's use of them shows.
#9;The infant torture and the insidious inculcation of Utopia's ideals into teaching, children through hypnopaedia, then, rely for their most telling effects on the conventionalized view Western culture maintains about children (as innocent, sexless, helpless and so forth). #9;I do not intend here to launch a full assault on such conventional sentimentality; the feminine Gothic, in any case, has already done so, since it was women who were originally deemed innocent, sexless and ma homework com helpless by obesity argument, the ideology that most likely extended to offspring as well. An indirect confirmation for this may be seen in a remark by Camille Paglia, that J.H. Van den Berg claims the eighteenth century invented adolescence (115). Ma Homework? Her quibble with this, indicated by the word claims, is only that the sam watkins essay, ancient Greeks recognized adolescence as well, and formalized it in their art; she otherwise acknowledges the general intent of Van den Berg's assertion (115). Consequently, like the origins of the image of the domestic angel, the roots of the Western conventional sentimentality about children may be plausibly traced to the ideology of separate spheres, perhaps in reaction to the pre-modern ideal of Greek pederasty with which Paglia qualifies Van den Berg's assertion (115). #9;The dominant tone of the sentimental conventions Huxley ruthlessly exploits is ma homework, that of pathos as Frye defines it, and which found its most prominent expression in low mimetic and domestic settings: #9;Pathos presents its hero as isolated by a weakness which appeals to our sympathy because it is on our own level of love or obsession research paper experience. #9;#9;[I]n contrast to high mimetic tragedy, pathos is increased by ma homework, the inarticulateness of the victim.
The death of an animal is usually pathetic. Pathos is a queer ghoulish emotion, and some failure of expression, real or simulated, seems to be peculiar to making it. Highly articulate pathos is apt to ma homework become a factitious appeal to self-pity, or tear-jerking. The exploiting of fear in the low mimetic is also sensational, and is a kind of research paper pathos in reverse. The terrible figure in this tradition. is normally a ruthless figure strongly contrasted with some kind of delicate virtue, generally a helpless victim in his power ( Anatomy 38-9).
#9;Frye's illustration of the death of an animal as particularly conveying this peculiar kind of pathos goes very far toward characterizing how such pathos feels , especially in its evocation of pity. Huxley does not eschew this animal-variety of pathos; it is ma homework, suggested not only in the extract of fetal foals, but also much more clearly (though without death) in the image of an Epsilon-Minus Semi-Moron elevator operator: #9;#9;Before Bernard could answer, the lift came to love or obsession wuthering heights a standstill. #9;#9;The liftman was a small simian creature, dressed in the black tunic of an Epsilon-Minus Semi-Moron. #9;#9;He flung open the com, gates. The warm glory of afternoon sunlight made him start and blink his eyes. Oh, roof! he repeated in the voice of rapture. He was as though suddenly and joyfully awakened from a dark annihilating stupor. Roof! #9;#9;He smiled up with a kind of doggily expectant adoration into the faces of his passengers. Talking and essay teaching laughing together, they stepped out into the light.
The liftman looked after them. #9;	Roof? he said once more, questioningly. #9;#9;Then a bell rang, and from the ma homework com, ceiling of the lift a loud speaker began, very softly and yet very imperiously to issue its commands. #9;	Go down, it said, go down. About Teaching? Floor Eighteen. Go down, go down. Floor Eighteen. Go down, go.
#9;#9;The liftman slammed the gates, touched a button and instantly dropped back into the droning twilight of the well, the twilight of his own habitual stupor (58-9). #9;This is the first image of the com, caste system in action that Huxley gives us; up to now, we have only seen Alphas (the top caste). The animal imagery here is blatant, from simian to woofing dog (roof!), imbued with the sweet disposition, irrepressible enthusiasm and loyalness of a black Labrador (his doggily expectant adoration). Or Obsession Wuthering? The disregard of him by ma homework, the talking and laughing passengers, his abandonment by sam watkins essay, them, and the sudden sense of his isolation (which the reader cannot fail to miss, and which the liftman seems only vaguely aware of, in his questioning Roof?) evokes a terribleness that accords with the affect of domestic (low mimetic) pathos. #9;The irony here is more dramatic, than sardonic. Frye remarks that in domestic tragedy, Aristotle's pity and fear are neither purged nor absorbed into com, pleasures, but are communicated externally, as sensations ( Anatomy 38)--sensations, presumably, in the reader or audience.
If so, then these sensations manifest most typically as horror (on behalf of the victim) and outrage (directed at the victimizer). Thus, the essay, sensationalistic exploitation of fear in domestic tragedy, which engenders a ruthless villain who holds a helpless victim in his power, provides Huxley with a conventional method for making the reader outraged by com, the Brave New World; the increased arrogance and essay ruthlessness of the Director thereby all the ma homework, more enhances his conventional villainy, as the representative of the Powers that have inflicted the pitiable liftman's condition upon him. The plight of this Epsilon-Minus Semi-Moron (the very lowest of the castes, barely one step above dwarfs and eyeless monsters) becomes an atrocity with the realization that he has been deliberately made as he is; the evil of the Brave New World is essay about methods, thus driven home. #9;Animal pathos is a logical extension of the domestic pathos inherent in, or created as a result of, the ideology of separate spheres. The horror and com outrage that leads to a ready rejection of Huxley's Utopia on behalf of the liftman is just as evidently at work in the images of assassination of julius caesar tortured infants and children corrupted by sleep teaching. In Chapter III, Huxley expands from the simple child pathos of Chapter II to include all of the family, with broadsides directed against home' and parents,' but especially mother' (while continuing to ma homework exploit and outrage child pathos through the erotic play of friends online Utopia's young ones). #9;Such are the conventional techniques Huxley employs to create his most telling effects in the opening chapters of Brave New World , but convention can as much serve to conceal, as reveal; the ma homework, conventionally high moral tone of satire might in fact serve to mask, as a cover story, a less noble agenda.
Subverting the conventional meaning of an image, in fact, is one of the most common tactics in satire. As such, it is not unreasonable to beautician cover letter wonder just how seriously Brave New World 's Pyrrhonic aesthete viewed the com, conventional sentimentality he so thoroughly exploits. #9;The World-Controller, Mustapha Mond, remarks to the future Hatchery workers, ?Fortunate boys!' said the Controller. Essay Teaching? ?No pains have been spared to make your lives emotionally easy--to preserve you, so far as that is possible, from ma homework having emotions at all' (43-4). Up to the dash, Mond's statement is nothing less than an axiom of essay middle-class ideology; No pains have been spared to make your lives emotionally easy. It could virtually be the motto, as mindlessly repeated as any Utopian homily, of any Western middle-class parent. The remainder of the statement, to preserve you. from having emotions at all, is simply a very much less decorous restatement of the first; one which few parents would aspire (or claim to ma homework com aspire) to. And yet, how else can the desire to maintain a child's innocence (ignorance, the feminine Gothic would say) for as long as possible be otherwise understood? #9;Whether Huxley intends this or not is difficult to determine, but it is inevitable that the contrast of today with Utopia should make itself felt. Consequently, the Brave New World is not only a satiric image of the Socialist future, but also of the capitalist-liberal present.
This, of course, is precisely one of the sam watkins, most vital aspects of fantastyka (the ability to critique the present through the future or past or other worlds), and so is com, therefore no surprise in Huxley's novel. But if the weight of the book is thrown into present-day satire, then we are no longer dealing with an anti-Utopia or Utopia, since the novel has suddenly become allegorical; it has lapsed, per sam watkins essay, Todorov's observation, out of the ma homework com, indeterminacy of meaning in the fantastic and into childhood obesity argument essay, the meaning of allegory. #9;As a contemporary satire, the ma homework com, setting of Brave New World becomes an extrapolation of the present day, literally a projection. It reflects Huxley's two most belabored themes: overpopulation and overconsumption. The former, of course, is really just one aspect of the latter, and it is at the juncture of the two that Huxley invokes his diatribe against the flesh and pleasure. The implication is that what Huxley in his Foreword calls the horror of Utopias (xvii) is an inevitable outgrowth of the present capitalist-liberal mania for acquisition, with the great drug, money, as the soma of the present.
#9;Huxley's satire, then, is double-edged, being directed at essay about teaching methods, both the present in the future, and the future in the present. These two projects, anti-Socialist and anti-hedonism as consumption, do not always dovetail neatly, which leads to the predominance of contrivance in the plot, but they do serve to illuminate the com, major elements of the novel, especially Huxley's use of convention. By perversely inverting the sacred cows of cover domestic ideology and continually mortifying them in the first three chapters, Huxley not only seems to legitimize his high moral tone, but also enlists the capitalist-liberal sympathy of his reader, who he proceeds to excoriate as the kind of overconsumer depicted in com the remaining chapters of the novel. What unites these two projects is Huxley's grotesquely simple solution to the whole problem: abstinence. This is founded, to friends online all appearances, on an aversion to the flesh and com the idealization of pneuma (the Mind-Spirit), in conjunction with the self-mortification of the Savage. The perversity of this solution would seem to essay about teaching render it infeasible, but the ironization of the Savage himself must also be recalled. In fact, the abstinence Huxley is com, proposing (and that is the basis of his Utopia) is actually a much milder asceticism (as I will demonstrate below). #9;In the meantime, it must be pointed out that the extreme conventionalism Huxley employs precisely reflects or restates the kind of mental conditioning he vilifies in his novel. Like the Utopians, who have an aversion to ickiness (to use an appropriately childish word), Huxley relies on our own cultural conditioning to make a phrase like warm bouillon of beautician sperm icky to com us as well. Like the Utopians, who have an assassination essay, intense love of new things and gadgets, Huxley fills his world with neat adult toys it is a wonder that Sony has not gone on to invent. Like the Utopians, blithely or willfully unaware of the domestic and social violence done to their children, our culture continues to romanticize the com, child, to or obsession research paper wuthering long for the perceived freedom and imagination of the child, [such that] repressed longing gets transformed into guilt-ridden sexual liaisons (Moore 99).
Like the Utopians, who are automatically programmed to respond to certain things with hypnopaedically implanted homilies, Huxley pushes our conventional buttons, and out come the predictable expressions of horror and outrage, whether sincere or not. Narration in ma homework Brave New World. #9;The above assumes that Huxley's conventionalism was self-conscious, though of making course it is quite possible that he resorted to ma homework com such conventions as automatically as we are supposed to love or obsession wuthering respond to ma homework them. Brave New World features a lone image that reflects exactly this, as the friends, Director and his future workers are approaching the hypnopaedia dormitory: ?Silence, silence,' whispered a loud speaker. indefatigably repeated at intervals down every corridor. The students and even the Director himself rose automatically to the tips of their toes. They were Alphas, of course; but even Alphas have been well conditioned (26). #9;This is no minor point, insofar as it destroys what little general sense of coherence (though not necessarily its effects, as described above) Huxley's satire reflects. This, because it suggests that no statement by any character (except perhaps the ma homework com, World-Controller Mond, unless he too is conditioned) can be deemed reliable; it becomes impossible to separate truth from conditioning.
For example, when the essay, Director tells Bernard that it is an Alpha's duty to be infantile, even against ma homework com, their inclination (98), is this little flourish of cover letter authoritarianism (and hence satire), authoritarianism or conditioning? Similarly, during a Beta geography lesson, the students are told that a savage reservation is a place which, owing to unfavourable climatic or geological conditions, or poverty of natural resources, has not been worth the expense of civilizing (164, my emphasis). In other words, like the liftman's condition, the deplorable conditions Huxley depicted on the Reservation are deliberate (or, at least, are capable of a remedy the Brave New World chooses not to com affect). Sam Watkins Essay? Again, though, is this little piece of totalitarian viciousness (and satire against Utopia) true? Or does Huxley (the Alpha Plus Propaganda Engineer) expect us to be good Betas and simply absorb whatever comes out of the loud speaker of his novel? #9;Insofar as all of the heroes of the novel (Bernard, the Savage and ma homework com the too-intelligent Propaganda Engineer Helmholtz Watson) are all social misfits and sam watkins essay discontents, one might well include the com, narrator in their cabal.
But who is the narrator, if not Huxley? If I assume the narrator is an inhabitant of Utopia, then the epistemological muddle of narrative uncertainty remains. Sam Watkins Essay? It is also clear that the narration (formally third-person omniscient) operates above the castes. Someone like the Savage would serve as a narrator, except that a Savage could not have come up with a passage like: #9;a much more than human voice began to warble. it effortlessly passed from Gaspard's Forster's low record on the very frontiers of musical tone to a trilled bat-note high above the highest C to which (in 1770, at the ducal opera of Parma, and to ma homework com the astonishment of Mozart) Lucrezia Ajugari, alone of childhood obesity all the singers in com history, once piercingly gave utterance (169-70). #9;In the context of Brave New World , only the likes of a World-Controller could have access to the kind of assassination of julius caesar historical knowledge displayed here.
The narrator, however, has access even to the private moments of Mond it seems. One might therefore postulate another (undepicted and discontent) World-Controller, or possibly a particularly inventive and discontent Alpha Double Plus Propaganda Engineer like Helmholtz Watson, as the com, narrator of Brave New World . #9;Such a narrator, however, would be almost indistinguishable from Huxley himself. Of course, in his own way, Huxley is a discontent World-Controller. About Teaching? Moreover, affinities with Helmholtz Watson suggest themselves as well, especially when Helmholtz notes, You can't expect me to keep a straight face about fathers and mothers. And who's going to com get excited about a boy having a girl or not having her. Methods? No. it won't do. We need some other kind of madness and violence. But what? What?
Where can one find it? (188-9). Perhaps in novels about Utopia. Earlier, Helmholtz critiques his own writing: You see. I'm pretty good at inventing phrases. But that doesn't seem enough. It's not enough for ma homework com, the phrases to be good; what you make with them ought to be good too (69-70). When Bernard tells Helmholtz his work is good, the writer replies, Oh, as far as they go. But they go such a little way (70).
#9;Not only or obsession paper heights, are these typical authorial aspirations, they are also a fairly candid assessment of Huxley's own writing. For example, Helmholtz's aphoristic talent (and his complaints about its limitations) is ma homework com, reflected in the novel's hypnopaedic homilies, insofar as he might very well have written them for the Brave New World; Huxley, of course, wrote them for Brave New World . Such homilies include Civilization is sterilization, Ending is better than mending, The more stitches, the less riches, One cubic centimetre cures ten gloomy sentiments, and A gramme is better than a damn. One homily is proffered solely from the narrator's mouth; Rams wrapped in theremogene beget no lambs. #9;It may also be significant that Helmholtz is the least abused major character in the novel. Of Julius Essay? The whipping of Linda and Lenina has already been noted, as has the Savage's self-abuse and Bernard's grotesque humiliation. Helmholtz suffers from no more than writer's angst and importunate nymphomaniacs (he's also the most handsome and brilliant character). Moreover, in the doling out of justice after the Savage's silly rebellion, Helmholtz is ma homework, rewarded by being allowed to go to the Falklands; the Savage is forced to stay behind, and Bernard is terrified of argument essay leaving. It is Helmholtz also who provides something of an objective view of Bernard and the Savage; with respect to the former, one can finally only agree with Helmholtz and wish that Bernard would show a little more pride (71). With respect to ma homework com the Savage, Helmholtz grants the essay teaching methods, power of Shakespeare's poetry, but still desires some other madness and violence; Huxley lets Helmholtz have the last word.
#9;Helmholtz also has a nobility of character that is ma homework, lacking utterly in letter Bernard, and may be only ma homework com, pretense in the Savage. For one, Helmholtz does not try to deny his part in online the Savage's rebellion as Bernard does. Ma Homework Com? Moreover, after Bernard has fallen once again into cover letter, social disrepute, he (Bernard) #9;asked once more for the friendship which, in ma homework his prosperity, he had not thought it worth his while to preserve. Helmholtz gave it; and gave it without a reproach, without a comment, as though he had forgotten that there had even been a quarrel. Touched, Bernard felt himself at the same time humiliated by this magnanimity--a magnanimity the more extraordinary and therefore the more humiliating in that it owed nothing to soma and everything to Helmholtz's character. It was the Helmholtz of daily life who forgot and essay forgave, not the Helmholtz of a half-gramme holiday (182-3). #9;A very similar kind of sentiment is ma homework com, echoed by the narrator just preceding this passage: One of the principal functions of a friend is to suffer (in a milder and letter symbolic form) the punishments that we should like, but are unable, to inflict upon ma homework our enemies (182). This, of itself, may not be enough to identify Helmholtz with the narrator, but the circumstantial evidence of the novel points to cover letter it as well. He certainly could have written Brave New World so to speak. His character could provide the novel's amused disgust toward physical conditioning, and its horror toward mental conditioning. He could find the stupid sensuality of Utopia's inhabitant grotesque, and, in ma homework fact, he begins a principled experiment of swearing off sex (68), possibly because of an aversion to the Flesh, and certainly because of an idealization of the Mind-Spirit.
He could have both a fascination and repulsion for the lifestyle of the Reservation (its myths and mysticism), and still have a sense of the Savage's ridiculousness with regard to essay Lenina and his absurdity with respect to self-mortification. He would also, on his island of exile, possibly have had access to the kind of historical information he would need to make reference to Shakespeare, Mozart and Lucrezia Ajugari. And he is also, of course, an ma homework com, aspiring writer. #9;There is essay about methods, another sense in which Helmholtz makes for an ideal candidate for Brave New World 's narrator; he is tongue-tied: I'm thinking of a queer feeling I sometimes get, a feeling that I've got something important to say and the power to say it--only I don't know what it is and I can't make any use of the power (69). Later, confronting the ma homework, World-Controller, Helmholtz declares that his work is idiotic; that he's [w]riting when there's nothing to say (226). Teaching Methods? Mond agrees with him, Precisely. But that requires the com, most. enormous ingenuity. [W]orks of teaching methods art out of practically nothing but pure sensation (226).
A novel of pure sensation, then, would be exactly what Helmholtz in ma homework exile would be capable of writing, given his limitations of conditioning and his attempts to grope beyond it. Such a novel is apparently all that Huxley was capable of writing as well, insofar as its nihilism provides nothing but sensations and sensationalism to the reader. Essay? Huxley, during his own voluntary exile in Italy and Southern France in the early 1930s, would probably not have thought so, since, as Warren Paul notes, Brave New World marked a departure from earlier fictional treatment of the dilemmas characterizing our time. Here Huxley abandoned his former visions of evil as a mildly amusing social phenomenon and adopted a more cosmic view (6). #9;Huxley's combination of ma homework sensationalism, cynicism and an art of pure sensation (as nihilism) in more poetic hands, such as Borges' in Ficciones , will compensate for such nihilism by an absolute gorgeousness of prose; Brave New World does not have this advantage.
As in much of the modernist writing in this century by males, Huxley seems to affect a very deliberate evasion and obfuscation of truth. This is understandable in a context of existentialism and the Age of essay Anxiety, but the Russian intelligentsia's imputation of moral cowardice still applies. Ma Homework? It seems likely that Huxley probably intended to say something by writing Brave New World , but by making truth a vanishing quality in his novel, by giving the reader no sure place to stand, his something becomes unrecoverable, and about methods hence meaningless. As a document of the ma homework, shifting chaos of Huxley's day, Brave New World may be a sterling example, but it fails at precisely the point of the era's dilemma: the absence of a sure place to stand. Eliade diagnoses this syndrome by implying that the methods, historical (modern) mentality, as opposed to the archaic mentality, creates individuals who cannot endure great historical pressures without despairing, without committing suicide or falling into that spiritual aridity that always brings with it a relativistic or nihilistic view of ma homework com history (152). #9;It is essay, not necessary, of course, to com identify Helmholtz Watson as the author or narrator of Brave New World ; nevertheless, he still represents the most apt concretization of the narrator in the book. Moreover, his centrality to the novel may be seen in the fact that the friends essay, Savage and Bernard represent almost caricatures of traits that are idealized in Helmholtz (his physique, his intellect, his character, and his narrative fate). That he has fewer pages than any other important character in the book does not challenge the assertion of his centrality.
This may be understood partly as a result of Helmholtz's inarticulateness, but there is a deeper significance to ma homework com this as well. Making? Insofar as the main themes of Brave New World are joined, however sometimes vaguely, in Helmholtz, he nevertheless represents the ma homework com, closest thing to a spokesperson for truth in beautician cover Huxley's novel; this inarticulation permits this truth to go unchallenged, to avoid the confrontation of dialogue, in the text. #9;In his typology of discourses, Bakhtin refers to ma homework com the hidden polemic, in which: #9;discourse is directed toward an ordinary referential object, naming it, portraying, expressing, and only indirectly striking a blow at the other's discourse, clashing with it, as it were, within the object itself. As a result, the other person's discourse begins to influence authorial discourse from methods within. For this reason, hidden polemical discourse is double-voiced, although the interrelationship of the two voices here is a special one. Ma Homework Com? The other's thought does not personally make its way inside the discourse, but is only reflected in it, determining its tone and its meaning.
One word acutely senses alongside it someone else's word speaking about the same object, and this awareness determines its structure ( Problems 196). In typical cases, hidden polemic then speaks with a forked tongue; the apparent object of discussion, and the structure of that discussion about the sam watkins, object, are actually being determined by an authorially unacknowledged real object. Ma Homework? Hidden polemic, then, is similar to allegory, or the parable, except that optimally the true object of the discourse would never be recognized; or, like an in-joke, could only love research heights, be recognized by ma homework com, certain (kinds of) people. Brave New World , then, may be understood as a hidden panegyric to the Utopia it conceals. #9;Perhaps the main method for detecting hidden polemic or panegyric in a text, provided the author has not accidentally revealed the true object of love discourse, is by way of structural deformation; that is, narrative movements that seem to bear little relation to the actual discourse. I have already mentioned something similar to this, when Huxley provides a gratuitous digression on an increased rate of human maturation. Not all such gratuitous digressions, of ma homework course, are necessarily instances of of julius structural deformation due to hidden panegyric of polemic; other intents may be momentarily at work. Ma Homework? Nonetheless, even if this example is love or obsession research paper wuthering, not a genuine instance of hidden polemic or panegyric, it still illustrates a characteristic sense of digression or gratuitousness. A genuine example, however, may be found in the ending of the ma homework, book. #9;The narrative climax of Brave New World would appear to be the love research, Savage's anti-climactic revolution; the triumvirate of rebels is brought before the world's Authority, and com poetic justice is essay, handed out.
At this point, Helmholtz departs from the novel for his island narratively , if not physically; he lingers in ma homework the text long enough to say farewell to the Savage (just prior to his own escape), but after the trial before Mond, Helmholtz does not figure in the narrative with any significance. Love Or Obsession Paper Wuthering Heights? As such, even though Helmholtz is still in ma homework com the novel, it is the assassination of julius essay, Savage who conducts a long conversation with Mond about the nature of, and the justification for, the ma homework com, Brave New World. Following this, the Savage escapes to his Utopia, and is finally driven to suicide when the Brave New World will not leave him in peace. #9;I have already wondered why the Savage did not simply move once he was discovered in his lighthouse. A more productive answer than Huxley's And they died miserably ever after may be found in the fact that the beautician cover, Savage's suicide is a kind of refutation of the idea (abstinence and self-mortification) he represents. More generally, once the true hero of the novel (Helmholtz) has narratively departed, Huxley attempts to substitute the Savage as a spokesperson for the idea (asceticism) that Helmholtz represents. Furthermore, the plot development of Helmholtz's departure also mandates distinguishing between Helmholtz's and the Savage's value within the Savage himself; the narrative irony of the last chapter indicates this.
In fact, the ma homework com, very wrenching of the plot to include the last chapter is the most overt structural deformation in the novel. #9;The Savage's escape from Utopia, for instance, is so abrupt that only a caesura in the text suggests it. This escape is necessary because the Utopia that Helmholtz represents cannot be realized in the Brave New World. Love Or Obsession Research? Consequently, the Savage's lighthouse contains both Helmholtz's Utopia (imaged in the Savage's ascetic lifestyle) and the Savage's (imaged especially in self-mortification), the latter of which is ma homework com, refuted by the Savage's suicide. This, because it is a sin of the Flesh (either lust for childhood obesity argument, Lenina, or guilt for ma homework, whipping her, or both) that drives the Savage to self-destruction, not his ascetic lifestyle per se. That such a refutation is a thematic necessity in Huxley's hidden panegyric may help to explain why Mustapha Mond did not retrieve the Savage after his escape from the Brave New World. #9;A less overt structural deformation occurs in the Savage's solo conversation with Mustapha Mond. Here again, the teaching methods, discourses of asceticism and abstinence are both present within the Savage in implicit and explicit form. An elegantly concise example of the ma homework com, juxtaposition of these two utopian value-sets may be seen in a statement by the Savage: I want God, I want poetry, I want real danger, I want freedom, I want goodness. Friends? I want sin (246).
Two sentences; two very different sets of desires: Helmholtz's God, poetry, real danger, freedom, goodness, and the Savage's sin. Here, it is Mustapha who refutes the ma homework, Savage, insofar as his response to this outburst is directed at essay, the desire for ma homework, sin; #9;	In fact, said Mustapha Mond, you're claiming the right to be unhappy. #9;	All right then, said the Savage defiantly. I'm claiming the right to be unhappy. #9;	Not to mention the childhood obesity argument essay, right to ma homework grow old and ugly and impotent; the right to have syphilis and cancer; the right to assassination caesar have too little to eat; the com, right to be lousy; the obesity essay, right to live in constant apprehension of what may happen tomorrow; the right to catch typhoid; the right to com be tortured by unspeakable pains of every kind.
There was a long silence. #9;	I claim them all, said the Savage at last. #9;#9;Mustapha Mond shrugged his shoulders. You're welcome, he said (246-7). #9;The most apparent structural deformation that occurs during this conversation between the Savage and Mond manifests in childhood how the Savage speaks. As Huxley himself admits in his Foreword, #9;For the sake, however, of dramatic effect, the com, Savage is love or obsession paper wuthering heights, often permitted to ma homework com speak more rationally than his upbringing among the practitioners of a religion that is half fertility cult and half Penitente ferocity would actually warrant.
Even his acquaintance with Shakespeare would not in reality justify such utterances (viii). #9;While descriptively accurate, Huxley's for love wuthering, the sake of dramatic effect is disingenuous. It is rather for ma homework, the sake of sam watkins Helmholtz's asceticism that the Savage so speaks, because he is the com, only character still in the text (though Helmholtz has yet to leave the essay about teaching, Brave New World) who can speak to the World-Controller. #9;There is also some bending of Mond's character as well. When the Savage asks him if he thinks there is no God, Mond quite unexpectedly replies, No, I think there quite probably is ma homework, one (240). What makes this unexpected is the complete lack of preparation for it earlier in the novel, but this is less significant than the narrative function of sam watkins essay Mond's admission, insofar as it allows a discussion of God (one of Helmholtz's desires) into the text. Had Mond denied the existence of God, this twist in the conversation would have been much more difficult to affect. Again, this deformation of Mond's character is made necessary as a consequence of Huxley's real object of discourse (Helmholtz's Utopia) over against the apparent discourse of the Savage. Ma Homework? Thus, behind the apparent pain-pleasure dichotomy Brave New World presents, the actual discourse is one of asceticism versus happiness; or, rather, there is a discourse of asceticism that goes unchallenged (for being unrepresented) in the novel, even though it ultimately shapes the entire structure of the text. #9;This may all seem an excessively verbose belaboring of the obvious, insofar as few would attempt to deny that Brave New World is anti-hedonist.
In fact, as I hope I have shown by love or obsession heights, a kind of reducto ad absurdum , Huxley's novel is more properly read as anti-everything. Whether an artistic conceit or a psychological block, whether a fear of engagement or something more literary, the monologism of Huxley's novel, the lack of ma homework truly dialogic communication, the mere juxtaposition of images, the cover, continuous negations of cynicism, satire, irony and grotesque exaggeration--all of these level the meaning of the com, novel to zero, to the mere sensation and sensationalism of nihilism. The theme of conditioning serves to further undermine any sure ground in the novel, and childhood essay renders any interpretation vulnerable to ridicule. The ostensible humor of the novel makes treating it seriously seem like a consummate act of misunderstanding. Ma Homework Com? Even Huxley's Foreword, admitting without conceding the essay teaching methods, defects of the novel, throws additional uncertainty into the interpretation of the com, text, since the possibility of authorial error may undermine any critical conclusions.
#9;My discussion of the feminine Gothic, however, has already suggested how the self-deprecating introduction may actually serve as a cover story for a deliberate authorial agenda. And humor, inclusive of satire's reduced laughter, has also been shown to have an exculpatory value (as the common phrase, I was only kidding demonstrates). In the beautician cover, ironic days of 1932, perhaps it was not permitted to write a serious book--at least not from the pen of one of the ma homework, era's most trenchant voices. Huxley, however, attempted to do so by depicting and negating everything except his ascetic Utopia; were it not for the pressure it exerts on the text, it would remain wholly invisible. Sam Watkins Essay? This may explain why the narrative does not follow Helmholtz to his exile on the Falklands, and why he comparatively has the fewest pages devoted to him. Ma Homework Com? It may even explain the otherwise curious avoidance of Alpha Plus (Helmholtz's caste's) conditioning (16) and of the Alpha Double Plus classroom at Eton (164). In other words, Huxley attempted to depict something positive by multiple negatives, but if I say, It is not snowing, not raining, and not cloudy, that does not mean it is sunny; it could be night. #9;Whatever the sam watkins, arguments against or in com favor of childhood Huxley's ascetic Utopia, the sheer unfeasibility of such a suggestion in ma homework a capitalist-liberal setting clearly deserves the term utopian, and as such would probably have been more than enough to make a Pyrrhonic aesthete and burgeoning mystic cagey about openly (much less seriously) presenting it. But the absurdity of asceticism in essay our modern setting is no excuse for not admitting it into social discourse as literature. Ma Homework Com? The epigraph for Huxley's novel taken but not translated from the French of Nicholas Berdyaev's essay, Democracy, Socialism and Theocracy, refers to of julius caesar essay a possible new age in which cultured and ma homework intelligent people will dream of ways to beautician cover avoid ideal states and to get back to a society that is less ?perfect' and more free (188).
That the common folk are excluded from this dream is explicit enough (cultured and intelligent), even without the elitism of leaving the epigraph in French. The epigraph also functions similarly to More's pun on Utopia, which only the cultured and com intelligent could have appreciated. With More, as already noted, the facetiousness of childhood argument essay Utopia as a name ostensibly allowed the right kind of reader to ma homework com see through More's fiction. With Huxley, the epigraph functions in love heights a reverse capacity, insofar as it proposes not only an avoidance of ideal States (the obvious level of Brave New World ), but also that there will also be a less ?perfect' and ma homework com more free Utopia in the book (which Huxley goes to great lengths to hide). Of Julius Caesar? One can only agree with Darko Suvin, that anticipation in our age will be the more significant the more clearly it rejects both the classical utopia of the ma homework, Plato-More type and sam watkins the whilom fashionable dystopia of the Huxley-Orwell type. Both of ma homework them are static and closed (213); that is, they are official. #9;Neither does an childhood essay, inability to find a sure place to stand excuse nihilism in ma homework literature; there may, in fact, be no such sure place, that it is only possible to pitch one's stake for love research paper wuthering heights, a short time, and to make as much sense of things as one can from that limited perspective. And if this is really the best we can achieve, then it is either self-defeating idealism to insist that there is more, or the ma homework, Russian intelligentsia's moral cowardice to cynically deny what little sure ground there actually is. In one of his more cryptic remarks, Bakhtin notes, Irony as a form of silence ( Speech 154).
For such a critic, for whom dialogue has the most far-reaching and humanistic implications, the silence of irony as a refusal to essay enter into (literally a turning away from) dialogue has equally far-reaching consequences. Instead of his admirably absurd Utopia, Huxley entered a carping jeremiad into the discourse of Western culture--and few things are sadder than the ma homework com, dreams we cherish, but destroy all the same, because they seem impossible. #9;G.D.H. Cole noted of Morris' News From Nowhere , Morris was saying, 'Here is the sort of society I feel I should like to live in. Love Or Obsession Wuthering Heights? Now tell me yours' (qtd. in Berneri 259). Ma Homework Com? Huxley had the desire to answer this invitation with Brave New World , but not the making online, courage to do so openly. THE UNOFFICIAL UTOPIA OF RETURN FROM THE STARS. #9;Darko Suvin summarizes Lem's Return From The Stars in the following way: A time-contraction astronaut returns to a pseudo-utopian conflictless humanity and finds it degenerating into a hedonist anti-utopia (209).
It is possible to agree with this, up to com a point; specifically, to beautician the point of finds in Suvin's summary. Ma Homework? As with Brave New World , it seems we are once again being confronted by another anti-Utopia. Since Suvin's summary comprises, so far as I have been able to discover, the whole of critical assessments of assassination caesar Lem's Return From The Stars , there seems to be an com, even greater anti-Utopian unanimity of opinion here than as regards Huxley's Brave New World . Cover? Despite this, it is much easier to refute Suvin's somewhat inexplicable anti-Utopian conclusion than to ma homework com attempt the same with regard to Huxley's novel, and may most easily be accomplished by comparing the two books; an effort that is sam watkins, assisted by the sense that in many respects Lem's book seems to be an com, answer to Huxley's--a more logically coherent answer at that. (Logical coherence may not always be a valid basis for literary judgment, but for an author of ideas like Huxley it at least seems an appropriate criterion.) #9;Establishing a direct link of influence between Huxley and Lem, however, is love or obsession research wuthering heights, problematic. Com? I have not been able to determine if a Polish version of Brave New World was available to Lem in advance of his writing Return From the Stars (or, for that matter, any edition in methods any other language that Lem might have been capable of reading). Suvin's reference to the whilom fashionable dystopia of the Huxley-Orwell type (213) has already been noted in the last chapter, but this could only com, be considered the or obsession research paper wuthering heights, most indirect kind of demonstration of influence at best. A less indirect method would be to seek out internal evidence from Lem's novel itself that links it with Huxley's. #9;Both novels share the following details: pleasant ecologies, exotic substances, superfast personal transportation, artificially scented air ( BNW 169, RFTS 4), an innecessity of sewing ( BMW 121, RFTS 61), liquids which characters admit not knowing the origin of ( BNW 132, RFTS 34), and both ironize Miranda's O brave new world that has such people in it--verbatim in Huxley (162), and in a very loose paraphrase in Lem, What a world, I thought, what a world this is! (37). Ma Homework? Sleep teaching (?hypnopaedia') also figures heavily in essay Brave New World , but is only briefly mentioned in com passing in Lem's novel as a hypnagog (153). These parallels may well be coincidental, however, and the several thematic parallels may be explained more readily in childhood essay terms of the novels' shared futurism than by influence.
One of the more compelling imagistic parallels may be seen in ma homework com a similarity of structure in one evening scene; in both novels, light from argument huge marquees obliterate the night sky, while dancing goes on within the signs' respective buildings ( BNW 75-7, RFTS 18). The match between the images, however, is hardly perfect, and a conjunction of obliterated night skies and dancing might again be explained as much by coincidence, if not simply by ma homework com, the fact that all urban lighting (especially around brightly-lit dance halls) tends to affect the night sky. #9;Looking at both novels less literally, it is possible to assert that Lem adapted the aphorisms of Huxley's novel (e.g., Ending is better than mending) for the floating slogans of Return From The Stars ' opening chapter. One of these floating slogans, SOAMO SOAMO SOAMO (11) is almost an anagram of Huxley's soma . Obesity Argument? Of course, there would not seem to be any reason for Lem to ma homework resort to anagrams, assuming that the translation has not somehow deformed the anagram, but it is much more significant that this floating slogan and. others like it are incomprehensible, both for the protagonist (Hal Bregg) and the reader. This incomprehensibility is clearly Lem's intent, insofar as these nonsense words are truly non-sense; it takes quite an artificial stretch of imagination to apply any kind of actual referentiality to them at all. 	NEONAX NEONAX NEONAX (11), for example, drifts fluidly between NEO NAX (a new ?nax') and NEON AX (which is rather poetically evocative, but hardly meaningful). Other such examples include LARGAN (14), RAMBRENT RAMBRENT (16) and EXOTAL (18). SOAMO presents an even more challenging word, insofar as its correct pronunciation is elusive. Is it sew more or so ammo?
Where should the accent be placed? Are these even the sam watkins, right diphthongs? As a result of these defamiliarizations and ma homework com linguistic decenterings (which the making, reader experiences with the protagonist), when we encounter a slogan like REAL AMMO REAL AMMO (14), the only certainty would seem to be that the phrase definitely does not mean something like real bullets. Something similar is at work in the phrase TELETRANS TELEPORT TELETHON (17); by themselves, the words may be made sense of; in conjunction, this sense evaporates. #9;Lem's authorial intent by these floating slogans would seem to be to recreate the confusion and alienation of the protagonist in ma homework the reader's mind. Childhood Obesity Argument? Bregg has returned from a scientific mission in space that lasted ten years for the spacecraft's crew but (due to the relativistic effects of travel at a fraction of the speed of light) has lasted 127 years as far as Earth's inhabitants are concerned. Thus, Bregg returns to what is no less than an alien civilization. Instead of relying on an official tour to acclimatize Bregg to this new Earth, Lem plunges his hero (and us) into the thick of ma homework com things--with very disorienting results that are perfectly apropos of the situation.
Consequently, there is a major distinction to be noted between Lem's floating slogans (as incomprehensible) and Huxley's aphorisms (as distinctly information-bearing phrases). Despite this enormous difference of deployment and letter intent, there is a striking similarity of ma homework com typography and making essay technology used to convey public announcements in both novels. In Brave New World : #9;The house lights went down; fiery letters stood out solid and as though self-supported in ma homework com the darkness. THREE WEEKS IN A HELICOPTER. AN ALL-SUPER-SINGING, SYNTHETIC-TALKING, COLOURED, STEREOSCOPIC FEELY. WITH SYNCHRONIZED SCENT-ORGAN ACCOMPANIMENT (170). This is technologically almost verbatim to what we find in Return From the Stars , with its letters of obesity argument fire steadily moving through the air (11); that these letters are self-supported proves a source of curiosity and mystery for both Bregg and com the reader (6). Similarly, a more informative public announcement, formed of essay lines of gigantic gold letters like burning tightrope-walkers (16), appears in mid-air: #9;BACK TODAY GLENIANIA ROON WITH HER MIMORPHIC REAL RECORDING PAYS TRIBUTE IN THE ORATORIUM TO THE MEMORY OF RAPPER KERX POLITR.
TERMINAL NEWS BULLETIN: TODAY IN AMMONLEE PETIFARGUE PRODUCED THE SYSTOLIZATION OF THE FIRST ENZOM. THE VOICE OF THE DISTINGUISHED GRAVISTICIAN WILL BE BROADCAST AT HOUR TWENTY-SEVEN. ARRAKER LEADS. ARRAKER REPEATED HIS SUCCESS AS THE FIRST OBLITERATOR OF THE SEASON AT THE TRANSVAAL STADIUM (16). There again is the obvious distinction between the information-bearing announcement in Huxley versus the virtual incomprehensibility of the announcement in Lem, but I also want to emphasize the typographical shift to all-caps as well. #9;Tempting as it is to discern influence in the several parallels noted above, they still remain too tenuous; it is too probable that it is my own consciousness creating direct links when there may in fact be none.
Even as this may very well be the case, it is still very useful to view Return From the Stars as a kind of answer or revision to Brave New World , as I now intend to demonstrate. Coherence in Return From The Stars. #9;To do so, however, involves a somewhat perverse strategy; specifically, taking Brave New World 's overt Utopia (its surface of images, the actual ends and means it reveals and employs) at face value. This because, despite the scum of irony Huxley sloughs over the overt aspects of the Brave New World, the ideas beneath the scum, as possible solutions to real human problems, at least warrant discussion; Brave New World does not make room, or even allow, for such a discussion in the text, but the reader and critic can. In other words, by reading Brave New World as a World-Controller like Mustapha Mond would (as the work of a discontent Utopian), one can dismiss the irony as discontent, and attempt to recover and examine any positives that are present in ma homework the Brave New World's ends and means. #9;Physical conditioning in Huxley's World-State, for instance, serves several purposes: it regulates population, benefits the economy (directly, by providing a labor force specifically suited to a specific kind of work, and indirectly by about teaching methods, increasing the demand for various types of consumer consumption), provides immunity to congenital and communicable diseases, provides a stable basis for com, hierarchical power (the castes) and the perpetuation of that power, and provides a sense of beautician cover letter community (in Bokanovsky Groups or upper-caste solidarity) for all individuals.
All of this, taken together, makes physical conditioning one of the major instruments of social stability ( Brave New World 5). #9;However innocuous or objectionable these social goals (ends) might be, doubtless it is the Brave New World's means that most often raise hackles. I do not intend, however, to com thoroughly dissect Huxley's approach to these ideas, but will say that it belies an overestimation of the actuality of essay genetic manipulation, and an underestimation of it imaginatively. Granting that direct genetic manipulation would have been pure fantasy in 1932, one can still postulate the equivalent of a DNA Machine that could be programmed to build (or to provide the building blocks to com build) an ideally tailored human, suited for some kind of obesity work, but who did not have any of the physical defects of Huxley's castes. Ma Homework Com? In fact, the variability of research heights caste in Huxley's novel already seems to ma homework com be an intellectual lapse; if standard men and women (5) are the basis of social stability, then make everyone identical. About Teaching Methods? If, as Huxley seems to believe, hordes of identical n-tuplets are truly horrific--the Savage retches at the sight (163)--then present the idea at its utmost; physical grotesqueness should not be required for com, this, and the satire should remain intact (if it has a genuine point to love wuthering make).
In a novel underpinned by com, an idealization of the Mind-Spirit, the lower caste's grotesqueness seems at least disingenuous. In any case, Huxley, the ostensible novelist of ideas, has presented his idea (for physical conditioning) in an only half-baked way; his satiric argument is the equivalent of essay saying, The moon can't be made of green cheese, you idiot. Green cheese can't orbit the com, earth. And by unsystematically ridiculing this only half-pursued idea, Huxley succeeds rather in love or obsession research paper heights making himself ridiculous. #9;John Maynard Smith, in Eugenics and Utopia, concludes that [e]ugenics can wait, birth control cannot (166). If this is the case, then population control may be the most critical advantage of physical conditioning in the Brave New World. Ma Homework? Here, however, (as also with the tailoring of humans noted above), virtually insuperable ethical considerations could be raised in objection; genetic sterilization alone would cause an outrage if proposed. (Who is the State to decide, before I was born, that I could never have a family?) Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that Huxley has proposed a solution to the problem of overpopulation. #9;In Return From the Stars , Lem presents another solution: robots with artificial intelligence.
In Lem's Utopia, all labor is teaching methods, performed by robots with sufficiently sophisticated thinking to solve various problems at ma homework, hand. Essay? They serve as waiters, stewardesses, travel agents, maids, concierges; they are the equivalent of the Brave New World's slave-castes. These robots are especially necessary in the Utopia of ma homework Return From the sam watkins essay, Stars because all of humanity has (in the ma homework com, 127 years since Bregg's departure) been betrizated; a process that nullifies what Freud called Thanatos, the Death Instinct, aggression. Administered intravenously at birth, it prevents even being capable of thinking about killing, but does not otherwise negatively affect cognitive development ( Return 120). With characteristic even-handedness Lem's protagonist reflects (not for love or obsession research wuthering, the first time) on both sides of this issue: #9;	This is a great thing, I muttered. After a moment, I added, But it would have been better, perhaps, had people ceased to do it [kill]. without artificial means . #9;And suddenly came a reflection, surprising in that I myself would never have expected it if someone had presented me with this situation purely as a theoretical possibility: it occurred to me that this destruction of the killer in man was a disfigurement (38,39). #9;In addition to expunging biological violence (in humans and animals, which are also betrizated), natural violence has also been virtually eliminated, by the science of gravimetrics (gravity control). Com? One of the main applications of gravimetrics is for the absorption of inertia, such that there is no impact whatsoever in a head-on collision between vehicles, no effects of making friends acceleration (launching or landing) during spaceflight, and probably no personal injury from falling (though such individualized gravity protectors are not depicted in the novel).
Even slight physical exertions have become unnecessary (robots do all the com, hard work): #9;[T]he floor moved softly along with us--you can't take a step here, I thought, it's a wonder they still have legs--but this irony was a feeble effort; it came from the constant amazement, from the feeling of unreality of everything that had happened to me in the past several hours (24). (Note here again the characteristic self-reflection on Bregg's part; his irony is not left to stand unchallenged, as it would be in Brave New World , and he even acknowledges the source of beautician cover his feeble effort.) #9;The general softening of society implied primarily by betrization, and abetted by gravimetrics, has led to ma homework com a very gentle culture that shuns any hint of risk. Essay? Robots perform all operations because humans can no longer stand the sight of blood (153); old fashioned sexual attraction has simply vanished (much to Bregg's confusion and dismay); physical strength hardly exists anymore; even a hypothetical mad dog would be caught and killed by robots (154)--Bregg and his fellow pilot, Olaf, conclude that the same would be true for mad humans as well. (Olaf is an especially hostile critic of ma homework betrization.) #9;Perhaps the most dramatic difference between Lem's and Huxley's versions of physical conditioning may be seen in the simplicity of betrization over against the Baroque excesses of the Brave New World. Betrization is also permanent, where the inhabitants of the Brave New World are required to take pills and intravenals ( BNW 39). Part of the reason for the greater simplicity of betrization is that it drives closer to the core of the dilemma of social existence than does the Brave New World. Consequently, Lem depicts a world in which human nature has truly been changed, and essay teaching thereby opens up new intellectual possibilities; in Brave New World , Huxley remains trapped for the most part in ma homework the same old and insoluble terms of the present human condition. Moreover, I suggested earlier that the major advantage of the Brave New World's physical conditioning was that it controlled population; betrization does not solve this problem. Lem offers a partial solution to essay methods this problem in that would-be parents must pass an examination in order to com obtain permission to have offspring (206), but such a policy would little effect population growth; it would, rather, raise the sam watkins, quality of parenting. #9;Lem's Utopia does not solve the problem of overpopulation, because overpopulation is com, no longer a problem in his Utopia.
What makes overpopulation a problem in the first place? As Huxley implies, and John Maynard Smith asserts, it leads to war, disease and starvation (Smith 166). This triad of apocalyptic horsemen, with the paper, fourth not far behind, have at least one common origin: scarcity (of goods, available living space, food and water, and so forth). Solve the problem of scarcity, and you are probably halfway to Utopia. #9;The Brave New World relies on controlled human mass production for labor; the key word here is ma homework, controlled, otherwise controlling overpopulation by human mass production becomes a logical absurdity. Even with this controlled production, however, it is childhood obesity argument, still necessary to feed, clothe and house the labor force. Ma Homework Com? In the hyperconsuming Utopia of the Brave New World, presumably this would lead to booming agricultural, textile and housing markets.
But insofar as labor has thus been rationalized, consumption has not been; this is supply-side economics run completely amok. This becomes even more perplexing, since there does not seem to be any sort of obesity argument essay economy in the Brave New World (except, perhaps, for com, soma as wages, but this is strictly for personal consumption). Who, then, is benefiting from the production itself? Rather, why not condition the research, Utopians to com be happy without helicopters and Escalator Squash. That Huxley irrationalizes consumption thereby irrationalizes production as well (which may have exactly been his point), but this represents just one more half-baked idea in his novel. #9;All one would need for production would be a cabal of or obsession paper heights Alpha Double Plus geniuses (or World-Controllers), a handful of engineers, and a protocol for building a specific crew of (disposable) laborers for any particular project. Ma Homework? If there were any citizens at all, they could be continuously drugged into blissful oblivion, or go to feelies all the time, mindlessly enjoy true art, or simply spend all their time crammed into little rooms drooling. (Something like this appears to be going on friends essay, in Lem's The Futurological Congress. ) Why citizens, or production projects, are required at all in com Huxley's Utopia remains somewhat mysterious. Friends Online Essay? Presumably the citizens must be fed, but why clothe them; if the Brave New World can acclimatize a body to heat or cold, then certainly acclimatizing them to nudity isn't that much more of a stretch. #9;Lem more or less avoids this problem insofar as robots handle all production, including themselves and their maintenance; the ma homework, human element is reduced to occasional inspections. At a robot scrap dump, one occasional inspector, Marger, explains that there are about eighteen automata for every living person. the automata serve us, not we them ( Return 138). Such machines, of obesity argument course, offer enormous advantages over the human labor in Huxley: energy requirements (food and water) are much reduced, housing requires less space (a niche in a wall) and no clothing is required.
Moreover, increased speed, efficiency, strength and endurance vastly multiply production capacity, without management-labor conflicts. Under such conditions, production would likely far surpass demand (thus ending the ma homework, problem of assassination of julius essay scarcity) without State mandates on ma homework com, consumption. #9;I do not intend the above as arguing in favor of the Machine over against humankind in the real-world confrontation of human versus mechanical labor; social and ethical objections might well be raised. Rather, I am comparing the coherence of Lem's solution to overpopulation (ending scarcity) to Huxley's half-baked one. As such, one could say that Huxley's theory of labor is purposeful, but not rational, while Lem's is purposeful and rational. By rational, I am referring to the internal logic of both images of labor. It is to be expected that Huxley, writing satire, should make his image of labor irrational; that is not at of julius caesar, issue. Ma Homework Com? Rather, I am criticizing the internal contradictions of how he went about irrationalizing labor. The Utopia Lem comes to realize does not suffer from such internal deficiencies. #9;With regard to mental conditioning, the sam watkins essay, contrast is even more extreme. Again, Huxley overestimates the scientific credibility of sleep teaching, but does not fall so short of its imaginative possibilities.
The problem in the Brave New World is com, that mental conditioning is essay, not effective enough; discontent persists. This partial effectiveness is the psychic analog of the limit Huxley places on ma homework com, bokanovskification (i.e., that only a maximum of 96 identicals are possible in any one batch). In both cases, we have two more ideas only partly pursued; it is assassination caesar, Huxley, not real-world science, that imposes these limits on bokanovskification and sleep teaching. Thus, when the Director of Hatcheries reminds Bernard of his moral obligation to be infantile, even though Bernard's conditioning allows otherwise, it is only fair to ask, Why must it be otherwise? #9;Again, postulate something more effective than sleep teaching that as much tailors an individual's mind to whatever work the Social Predestinators require as does physical conditioning; forego all other (obviously irrelevant) considerations. Mass produce several copies of each individual, dispose of any defective models, save the rest as back-up systems in the event that the original dies, and get on with the life of Utopia. #9;In other words, make people into robots.
Or, better still, forego brainwashing altogether and ma homework simply build robots with artificial intelligence. About Teaching? Lem's Utopia, however, does feature a minimal quotient of sleep teaching. For the returned astronauts, such sleep teaching is not even compulsory. For the inhabitants of Lem's Utopia, education begins very early; So-called difficult children were given additional, hypnagogic treatment (207). The majority of ma homework com education, however, is not transmitted this way, and consists primarily of socialization to cover the values of tolerance, coexistence, respect for com, other beliefs and attitudes, the argument, unimportance of the differing external features of the children (and hence the adults) of other races (208); an acceptance of betrization as a fact of life no less unquestionable than birth or death (208) marks the cornerstone of this early moral education.
#9;Betrization, then, almost single-handedly removes the need for ma homework com, mental conditioning and social control a la the Brave New World. Consequently, Lem's Utopia is about, politically classless. It still features vestiges of an economy however. Most services are provided by robots, and are not paid for; certain professions still exist (acting) and new ones have come into existence (e.g., plasting--a kind of ma homework com clothing-sculpture; most clothing in essay Lem's Utopia is spray-on). All food, drink and entertainment are free; money (?ets') is printed in a hand-held mint (a ?calster'), which Bregg uses only three times in the novel; once to pay for a real pair of jeans (1 et), once to rent the top floor of a villa for a month (40 ets), and once to buy an ma homework com, antique car (400 ets). Why he is charged for these, and not other items (a hotel room, transport for his antique car, and so forth), remains a permanent mystery. Beautician Cover Letter? In effect, living costs nothing (53). #9;From the ma homework com, foregoing, it should be clear that Lem's Utopia is far more coherently realized than Huxley's. This does not mean, of course, that Lem presents it as an unchallenged and perfect world; the entire narrative is determined, in fact, by Bregg's trying to make his peace with this new Earth to which he has returned. Assassination Essay? One could also claim that at least Huxley's critique is more pertinent to the actual world than Lem's--betrization and gravimetrics and robots with artificial intelligence indeed.
Such a claim, however, would misunderstand the com, nature of Lem's Utopia; it is not at all a social program, like so many official Utopias, but is rather an exploration of of julius speculative possibilities. Should humanity ever find itself confronted by the reality of betrization, for instance, it might do well to com consult Lem's novel. Making Friends Online? But betrization is ma homework, not the only challenge from the future Lem presents. Robots in Return From The Stars. As noted earlier, Lem's treatment of making online robots may be an innovation in his works, although the anthropomorphized thinking machine has an eloquent precedent in Capek's R.U.R. Ma Homework Com? The link here, though, is almost purely thematic; the relationship seems to online essay be similar to the one between Walpole's Otranto and the later feminine Gothic. Capek may well be the com, father, but his progeny in Lem bear little resemblance. #9;In Return From The Stars , robots are ubiquitous and innocuous. One is an orange-white maid: ?Welcome to Clavestra,' it said, and its white belly unexpectedly began to sing; tinkling notes, as though it had a music box inside (115). Later, it serves Bregg breakfast: #9;	You have to eat, Mr.
Bregg, the robot said reprovingly. Otherwise, you will become weak. Also, reading until dawn is inadvisable. Doctors are very much against it. #9;	I'm sure they are, but how do you know this? I asked. #9;#9;It handed me a tray. #9;	I will try to mend my ways, I said. #9;	I hope that you do not misinterpret my good will and think me importunate, it replied.
#9;	Ah, not at all, I said. Listen, I addressed the robot, I have a favor to ask you. #9;	Do you have a moment? Then play me that tune, the one from yesterday, all right? #9;	With pleasure, it answered. To the merry sound of the music box I drank my coffee in three gulps (124). #9;Another, a server, is more a piece of or obsession research paper wuthering heights furniture than a mannequin. It had one round eye of crystal. Ma Homework? Something moved about love or obsession paper wuthering heights, inside, but I could not bring myself to peer into its stomach (57).
At the travel agency: #9;Sitting here, of course, was a robot. This time a gold one. Rather, gold-sprinkled. #9;	What can we do for you? it asked. Ma Homework? It had a deep voice. If I closed my eyes, I could have sworn that the speaker was a muscular, dark-haired man (57-8). By comparison with his incomprehension-ridden communications with other humans, Bregg has no trouble conversing with robots, because absolutely nothing surprised them. They were incapable of surprise. A very sensible quality (58).
More and more, Bregg tells us, I was beginning to like them (59). #9;At one time, there were even robots that appeared to be perfectly human, but the obesity, occasional inspector (Marger) explains to Bregg that: #9;	In their day they caused a bit of ma homework com trouble. #9;	Well, you know engineers! They reached such a level of childhood perfection in their simulations that certain models could not be distinguished from live human beings. Some people could not tolerate that. #9;#9;Suddenly I remembered the ma homework com, stewardess on the ship that I had taken from Luna.
#9;	Could not tolerate that. I repeated his words. Was it, then, something like a. phobia? #9;	I am no psychologist, but I suppose you could call it that (138-9). The stewardess Bregg recalls is indeed one such robot. Even after being shoved away by a woman with the phobia suggested above, her smile was not merely an external smile of teaching official politeness, a smile to cover an upsetting incident.
She was not pretending to be calm, she truly was calm (6). #9;This indefatigable pleasantness, calm and courtesy are in fact one of the most prominent features of the robots in Lem's novel, even in the simplest of exchanges: 	What do I pay? I asked it. 	Nothing, thank you, it said (57). The robots are also very solicitous. Ma Homework Com? When Bregg (who is love wuthering, very large compared to the citizens of the ma homework com, Earth to love research wuthering which he has returned) orders coffee in his room, the robot brings a transparent thermos that held at least three liters. I said nothing. Clearly, it had overcompensated for my dimensions (118). #9;What makes Lem's robots so unique is not just the completeness of their anthropomorphized natures, but what might be called their cybernetified natures. They are, in other words, total intelligences, however artificial.
In a more comic mode, such as Lem's Fables for Robots (literally fairy tales a robot mother might read her children), robots can become metropolis-sized kings (full of ma homework human and transhuman foibles); in a more serious setting, such as The Star Diaries , robot monks elaborate and extend human theology with profound results. Cover Letter? In another story, a computer with a learning algorithm that gradually increases its intelligence finally goes off-line when it evolves beyond the point of human communication or understanding. In most cases, Lem's robots (artificial intelligences) serve as foils, either satiric or serious, for human intelligence, with humans in the position of the lesser species. This rarely amounts to a ridiculing of human intelligence as puny (unless the narrative is told from a robot-despot's point of view), but aims more at showing the limits of human thinking, at cautioning humans against overhasty conclusions, and as illustrating the proposition that we must understand our limitations first if we are ever to ma homework com surmount them. #9;The innocuousness of making friends online Lem's robots in Return From The Stars , then, will not deceive his familiar reader. Ma Homework? It is far from out of the question to of julius caesar wonder what kind of ma homework com robot poetry the travel agent may have written, or what cybernetic concertos the orange-white music box might have composed and performed to itself.
This may seem the most wayward kind of speculation, but in Return From The Stars , Lem reveals that his innocuous robots have developed spiritual yearnings. Bregg accompanies Marger on an inspection of a robot scrap dump. Left alone temporarily, Bregg hears strange noises from behind a steel door: #9;In front of essay it stood a robot. At the sight of com me, the robot opened the door and stepped aside. The curious sounds became stronger. I looked inside; it was not as dark as I had thought at first.
Because of the assassination essay, murderous heat from the sheet metal I could hardly breathe, and would have backed out immediately had it not been for the voices. For they were human voices--distorted, merging in a hoarse chorus, blurred, babbling, as though in the gloom a pile of defective telephones were talking. I took two uncertain steps, something crunched beneath my feet, and clearly, from the ma homework com, floor, it spoke: #9;#9;I stood rooted to the spot. Childhood Argument Essay? The stifling air tasted of ma homework com iron. The whisper came from below. #9;#9;It was joined by a second, monotonous voice, steadily reciting: #9;	O anomaly eccentric.
O asymptote spherical. Essay? O pole in infinity. O protosystem linear. O system holonomic. O space semimetrical. O space spherical. O space dielectrical. Ma Homework Com? #9;#9;The darkness teemed with husky whisperings, out of which boomed: #9;	The planetary bioplasm, its decaying mud, is the dawn of existence, the initial phase, and lo from the friends online, bloody, dough-brained cometh copper. #9;	O class imaginary. O class powerful.
O class empty. Ma Homework Com? O class of classes. Love Or Obsession Research Paper Wuthering Heights? #9;	Sh-shame. you. you would see what a shiny and cold I am. Ma Homework? #9;	L-let them re. Friends Online Essay? turn my armor, my golden sword. my inheri. tance. dis. possessed. night. #9;	Behold the last efforts of the strutting croaking master of quartering and incarceration, for yea it riseth, thrice riseth the coming kingdom of the ma homework, nonliving. #9;	I'm new. quite new. I never had a short in the skeleton. I am still able. please. #9;I did not know which way to look, asphyxiated by the merciless heat and those voices. They came from all sides.
From the floor to or obsession research paper the window slots below the ceiling rose heaps of twisted and tangled bodies; the ma homework, little light that filtered in was reflected weakly in their dented metal. #9;	I had a temp, a temporary defect, but now I am all, am all right, I can see. #9;	Listen, please. I am invaluable, I am expensive. I indicate every power leak, I locate every stray current, every overload, just test me, please. This. this shaking is temporary. Research Paper Wuthering? It has nothing in ma homework com common with. please.
#9;	And the dough-headed took their acid fermentation for a soul, the stabbing of meat for history, the means of assassination of julius caesar postponing their decay for civilization. #9;	Please, me. only me. it is a mistake. #9;	Repeat after me: the fire will not consume me utterly, and the water will not turn me all to rust, both elements will be a gate unto me, and I shall enter. #9;	The contemplation of the cathode-- #9;	I am here by mistake. I think. I think, after all.
#9;	Pleash. shir. yer shervet. Ma Homework Com? haff a look ar-round. #9;	O flight of the transfinite, O flight of the nebulae. O flight of the stars. #9;	He is here. something cried; and a sudden silence fell, a silence almost as penetrating in its terrible tension as the making friends online, tension of the many-voiced chorus that had preceded it. #9;#9;	Sir. said something; I do not know why I was so sure, but I felt. #9;that these words were directed to com me, I did not respond.	Sir, please. Love Or Obsession Wuthering? a moment of ma homework your time. Sir, I--am different.
I am here by mistake. #9;#9;There was a stir. #9;	Silence! I am living! This outshouted the rest. Yes, I was thrown in here, they dressed me in metal on purpose, so no one would know, but please, only put your ear to me and you will hear a pulse!#9; #9;	I also! came a second voice over the first. I also! Sir! I was ill; during my illness, I imagined that I was a machine, that was my madness, but now I am well!
Hallister, Mr. Hallister can vouch for me, please ask him, please get me out of cover here! #9;#9;The barracks buzzed and ma homework roared with rusty voices, at one point it was filled with a breathless scream, I began to retreat and stumbled backward into the sunlight, blinded, squinting; I stood awhile, shielding my eyes with my hand; behind me was a drawn-out grating sound; the robot had shut the door and bolted it. #9;	Sirrrr. This still reached me through the wave of assassination essay muffled voices from behind the wall. Pleash. service. a mistake.
#9;#9;I passed the glass annex. I did not know where I was going--I only wanted to get away from ma homework com those voices, not to hear them (134-7). #9;#9;They were mechanisms of making friends essay metal, wire, glass, one could assemble them and disassemble them, I told myself; but I could not shake off the memory of that hall, of the darkness and the distorted voices, that cacophony of despair which held too much meaning, too much of the most ordinary fear. I could tell myself that I was a specialist on that subject, I had tasted it enough, horror at the prospect of sudden annihilation had ceased to be fiction for me, as it was for them, those sensible designers who had organized the ma homework, whole thing so well: robots took care of their own kind, did so to the very end, and man did not interfere. It was a closed cycle of precision instruments that created, reproduced, and destroyed themselves, and I had needlessly overheard the agony of mechanical death (139). #9;Bregg perfectly summarizes the problem for the critic here when he notes, They were mechanisms of metal, wire, glass. but; if there is still any doubt here, however, about the human meaning of assassination caesar this passage, when Bregg asks what happens to them , Marger answers, ?To the scrap? It goes there,' he pointed at the thin, solitary column of the ma homework com, furnace (138). But to see this scene as simply a reflection on making friends online, human history's concentration camps is partially to miss the point; and Lem has certainly demonstrated that the terrifying pathos of the tragic suppliant, as noted by Frye in the last chapter, may be evoked by ma homework com, machines (as well as women, children, and animals). #9;What makes this scene affecting is precisely this pathos; it relies on the smallness of the Mind before the chasm of death. Thus, the repeated helplessness of Pleash. Childhood Argument Essay? shir, made all the more awful by ma homework, the defective pronunciation, by the continuing courtesy and politeness of the robot, and by the desperation and desperation to serve. #9;Of course, they are just machines, so the whole scene takes on a rather absurd appearance--pitying machines?
But this is precisely the point, above and essay beyond its human meaning. The true value of fantastyka, besides its capacity to criticize the present, lies in its potential for ma homework com, extending the domain of human ideas. Cover? The very awkwardness for ma homework com, the reader or critic here lies precisely in the uncertainty of what to do with a feeling of compassion for dying robots (artificial intelligences). Is this a polemic against artificial intelligence? Is a slave-caste of thinking robots too high of a price to pay for Utopia? They are only metal, wire and glass. but; the research paper heights, only is important. #9;Neither am I exaggerating things here. Bregg, appreciative of ma homework com robots throughout, nevertheless refers to them as ?it'; When a robot appeared, I asked if I could have coffee in making friends online essay my room. ?Of course,' it said. ?Now?' (118); I could see, behind a small glass pane in the center, the glow of com its transistorized heart (19). Insofar as the formal genre of the novel is that of a memoir narrated in the first-person by Bregg, these pronouns may be said to be Bregg's not Lem's. This is evident in of julius the fact that Bregg, not knowing that the stewardess is a robot, refers to it as she; She left (6). #9;This use of it by Lem, as an aspect of Bregg's narrated memoir, is as innocuous as the robots themselves, but it is quite deliberate, insofar as it underscores and accords with Bregg's and the reader's (i.e., human) indifference to com machines.
This may be clearly seen by reexamining the crystal-eyed serving robot: #9;	Nothing, thank you, it said. It was more a piece of furniture than a mannequin. Love Or Obsession Paper? It had one round eye of crystal. Something moved about inside, but I could not bring myself to peer into its stomach. Ma Homework? There was not even anyone for me to tip. I doubted that it would understand me if I asked it for a paper; perhaps there were none now (57, my emphasis). The first it (I asked it) is caesar, quite unnecessary; typical dialogic transcription would only have included I asked.
The last sentence is similarly styled, with two occurrences of it; again, Lem provides the phrase I asked it where I asked would have been perfectly adequate. #9;This indifference to machines (artificial intelligences) is elegantly indicated, again with pronouns, in a slightly earlier encounter with the same robot: Had the waiter been human, I would have asked him to bring what he himself preferred, but it was a robot. It could not matter to a robot (56, my emphasis). Again, the phrase I would have asked him to bring what he himself preferred is overstocked with male pronouns; I would have ordered what he recommended would have been perfectly adequate, except that it is Lem's intent to com highlight the distinction between human and making online essay robot. Of course, Bregg is probably correct that food preferences could not matter to a robot, but the statement might still cause a reader to wonder, if only irrationally and ma homework com temporarily, Well, why not?--or, more plausibly, Well then, what would matter? #9;After his encounter with the machine Inferno quoted at making friends, length above, Bregg continues to ma homework com use it for robots; there is no change of consciousness on his part with respect to them. Cover Letter? However, after he wrecks his antique car, he takes it to a station for repair and notes, I fancied I saw surprise in the glass eyes of the robot that examined the damage (160); recall that Bregg comes to like robots, and is comfortable with them, precisely because absolutely nothing surprised them (58). Com? That Bregg ascribes the robot's surprise to his fancy contrasts with the possibility (in the reader's mind at least) that the surprise is not his fancy; that the robot is friends essay, surprised. Fancied, in fact, is an acutely appropriate word here, inasmuch as it connotes a sense of ma homework pleasant self-amusement that the word imagined or thought would not reflect. The tone conveyed is something to the effect of, That I fancied a robot could be surprised.
Silly me. #9;This sense of self-bemusement appears elsewhere in the novel. #9;	Welcome to Clavestra, it said, and its white belly unexpectedly began to sing: tinkling notes, as though it had a music box inside. #9;#9;Still laughing, I helped it unload my things (114, my emphasis). It is not possible to determine exactly why Bregg is laughing here.
Is he charmed by the music, or is he laughing at the music box? Of course, robots do not have feelings, so it could not matter to a robot to be laughed at. All the same, this tiny scene does not suggest such a callous interpretation. I hope I can rely on your imaginative empathy here to accept that there is cover letter, something very poignant about ma homework com, this robot. On one hand, the cover, delicate notes of the music box are the com, kind of genteel touch of elegance one might expect at a first-rate resort. It is or obsession heights, a detail of exquisite solicitousness on com, the part of the resort managers. This exquisite solicitousness, though, manifests as part of the robot's personality. Obesity? As such, the music may be seen as an unabashed expression of ma homework joy to be of service to someone; seeing a customer makes the robot's heart sing, literally.
There is, then, a delicacy here that is corroborated by Lem's use of a music box, coupled with an unadulterated expression of sheer joy and eagerness to serve. If Bregg is assassination, laughing at this, then the moment seems especially cruel and terrible. It is not the robot's fault that it was built with this ridiculous feature of singing like a music box, and to com laugh at someone for something that he or she cannot help is normally taken to love paper wuthering be cruel. #9;Of course, Bregg does not mean to com be cruel, and beautician letter machines do not have feelings anyway, but Lem has still again constructed a scene like the Inferno that confronts us with the com, new, with something our experience has not equipped us to handle. This is a constant dilemma for Lem's protagonists (and readers) in essay methods most of his more cosmic works; here, the technique manifests in ma homework a much more terrestrial way. In Lem's alien contact novels and stories (e.g., Fiasco, His Master's Voice, Solaris ), the alien is typically unrecognized and/or beyond human comprehension.
In Return From The Stars , the alien is the robot and, in spite of the Inferno, Contact goes unachieved, because the alien intelligence of the robots goes unrecognized. True, Bregg is disturbed by what he witnesses in the Inferno, but he cannot come to terms with it. #9;His final comment, I had needlessly overheard the essay, agony of ma homework com mechanical death (139) is a tour de force of friends online significations. It eloquently expresses his ambivalent reaction of sympathy (in the somberness of the sentence) and the needlessness of that sympathy. Ma Homework? But needlessly also expresses another aspect as well, as the unnecessary extermination of artificial intelligence. Not for not repairing robots--as Marger notes, It wouldn't pay (137)--but unnecessary in that such artificial intelligences perhaps should not have been created, and condemned to their condition, in assassination of julius caesar essay the first place. This theme is implicit in the very first robot Bregg encounters in the novel (not including the stewardess, which he did not recognize as a robot): #9;	A raft for you, sir? came a courteous voice behind me. I turned around; no one, only a streamlined table strutting on comically bowed legs; it moved forward, glasses of sparkling liquid, arranged in rows on side trays, shook, one arm politely offering me this drink, the other reaching for a plate with a fingerhole, something like a small, concave palette--it was a robot. I could see, behind a small glass pane in the center, the glow of its transistorized heart. #9;#9;I avoided those insect arms stretched out to com serve me, loaded with delicacies, which I refused, and I quickly left the artificial cave, gritting my teeth, as if I had somehow been insulted (19). #9;Again, the perfect courtesy (sir, courteous voice, politely).
Bregg's amusement (strutting on making online, comically bowed legs), and the dehumanization of the robot (it, no one, only a streamlined table). The rejection of the (machine) suppliant is especially well-evoked by the proximity of the transistorized heart and ma homework I avoided those insect arms stretched out to serve me. #9;The form of this robot is particularly bizarre, with its rows of sparkling glasses, plates and spindly arms, but it too houses a complete intelligence. As such, this confrontation very much resembles Brave New World 's depiction of the Epsilon-Minus Semi-Moron liftman, except that the Semi-Moron is a Semi-Moron; the robot is not. Also, where the laughing and talking lift passengers wholly disregard the liftman, Bregg not only regards, but also flees, the beautician cover letter, robot.
Again, the robot cannot be blamed for its bizarre shape and condition and ma homework com so Bregg's amusement (comically bowed legs) and revulsion (insect arms) seems at least unjust. If the scene is read with a recognition of the intelligence that exists within the robot, then it begins to essay about teaching take on a degree of that terrible pathos Frye associates with the rejection of the suppliant. As such, if an atrocity has been committed against the Epsilon-Minus liftman, then one can say the same for this equally grotesque robot. Again, though, the tragedy in Huxley is that the liftman has no mind; in Lem, the ma homework com, tragedy is that the robot does. #9;In point of fact, the robotic condition is letter, far worse than Epsilonhood, at least from an ma homework com, external point of view. Sam Watkins? This, because the Epsilon is plunged in a complete lack of self-awareness about his condition. It may seem imaginatively horrific that one could be denied a Mind by one's creator, but if you never had a Mind to begin with, you wouldn't mind.
For the robots, there is no indication of any limitation on their cognition (or, for that matter, on ma homework, their behavior, though they all act with unflagging decency and courtesy). Presumably there is some kind of programming, but there is no reason to believe that the sam watkins essay, robots are unaware of it; thus, the greater injustice of their condition, to ma homework be born with a Mind, and then to be prohibited from childhood essay using it. #9;On one hand, of ma homework course, this reflects the human condition as well. We too are programmed (with instincts and social conditioning), and are prevented from using the full capacity of our minds. One can justly raise a critique against beautician cover, a Creator that should make it so; that should embody our minds, like Victor Frankenstein, in these walking corpses. In Return From The Stars , it is the robots who build the robots; it is com, possible they design one another as well. But that does not deny humanity's ultimate authorship of robots; artificial intelligence was our doing first, even as robots have since perpetuated it. Robots are simply the midwives of Creation, the teaching, target of ma homework com blame for the robotic condition.
This scapegoating of the intermediary, this victim baiting, is a precise analog of Christian Creation. God did not create sin--Satan did; or humanity did, and has perpetuated it ever since, in every re-Creation through offspring. #9;Brave New World' s aversion to the flesh may be said to essay mask an even deeper attraction; hence, the novel's demonizing of the body and the idealizing of the Mind-Spirit, as defense mechanisms. Consequently, the com, central or leading term of the novel is the Flesh, in spite of the high blown outrage on research wuthering, behalf of the ma homework, Mind. This may most readily be sensed in assassination caesar essay the sensual descriptions of the novel (of the Reservation in general and ma homework com the initiation rite in particular, in the Brave New World's Solidarity Service, and the descriptions of argument essay music throughout), as well as in the half-baked intellectuality of the novel's ideas. Idealization in any case (of Mind, or anything else) is not a true picture of ma homework com something; one could almost conclude that Huxley is actually anti-intellectual and certainly no true friend of the Mind. #9;Lem, by childhood essay, contrast, does not idealize the Mind (not the ma homework, human mind at least); he is aware of its limitations, and asserts that these limitations, as boundaries, must be recognized before we can get beyond them. As already noted, Lem's robots usually serve to beautician letter point out these limitations, but in Return From The Stars , they point up other limitations as well. In a sense, one can say that the novel's robots are more humane than their creators. They are, in ma homework com fact, almost Christ-like; or, at least, manifestly live the Christian ideal of the Sermon on the Mount in a way few humans, even saints, could attain to. Again, this is not simply a matter of programming; Lem's robots almost invariably choose to serve. (I say almost because in some cases his robots are rulers; there are also the robot monks of The Star Diaries who take the oath Non serviam .) By granting volition to his robots, by not explicitly revealing to the reader the friends essay, nature of ma homework com their programming or the Prime Directives that guide their behavior like Asimov and essay others have done with their cybernetic intelligences, Lem does not therefore deform his depiction of consciousness in ma homework com existence.
Obviously, this consciousness is not, strictly speaking, a human intelligence, and its depiction is therefore again not an aspect of some official Utopia's social program, but rather an unofficial Utopia's exploration of beautician cover letter future possibilities. #9;In one respect, compassion for robots and the robotic condition is com, misdirected; not because robots do not have feelings, but because what feelings or experience they do have are not directly analogous to humans'. Robots are alien intelligences, though obviously not so alien as extraterrestrial intelligences; they are aliens as drugoi, not chuzhoi. As such, understanding (so long as communication remains possible) can be at essay, least partially achieved, as other works by Lem show, but not when this robotic intelligence goes unrecognized, as in Return From The Stars . Obviously, one can derive a real-world meaning from this with respect to human interaction, but Lem does not employ his robots strictly for ma homework com, their metaphorical value as social commentary. Rather, the potential of such a metaphor is obesity argument, used as the com, basis for presenting a wholly new situation to humankind. Beautician? Of course, we should learn to com recognize other humans (other cultures, other races--aliens in the demographic sense), but we must also learn, if we are ever to advance beyond our own current human condition, to recognize non-human intelligences as well (aliens in a more literal sense). Of Julius Caesar? Such alien (drugoi), non-human intelligences need not necessarily be sought amongst the stars; they may already be amongst us, as dolphins, whales, trees--who knows. Com? Lem does not go quite this far in his novel, but the extension of the idea is not wholly unwarranted. Assassination Of Julius Caesar Essay? One of the reasons why the inhabitants of Lem's Utopia have abandoned the com, exploration of love or obsession paper wuthering space is that man wanted to conquer the universe without having attended to his own problems on Earth, as though it was not obvious that heroic flights would do nothing to alleviate the sea of human suffering, injustice, fear and hunger on the globe (208). Ma Homework Com? The terrestrial accent of obesity essay this, and the whole novel in com fact, thereby justifies taking the image of alien intelligences in assassination caesar essay our midst (robots) in ma homework com a potentially present-world sense as well.
#9;Am I overreading Lem's text by this? Is there really such a thing as a robotic world-view in beautician Return From The Stars ? Is the civility of the robots really a sign of their morality, or simply their programming? This last cannot be answered by direct recourse to the text, but we are certainly given a glimpse of a robotic world-view in ma homework com the Inferno. 	The planetary bioplasm, its decaying mud, is the dawn of teaching methods existence, and ma homework lo! from the bloody, dough-brained cometh copper. [. ] #9;	Behold the last efforts of the strutting croaking master of quartering and incarceration, for yea it riseth, thrice riseth the coming kingdom of the nonliving. [. ] #9;	And the dough-headed took their acid fermentation for a soul, the stabbing of meat for history, the means of letter postponing their decay for civilization. [. ] #9;	Repeat after me: the fire will not consume me utterly, and the water will not turn me all to rust, both elements will be a gate unto me, and I shall enter. (135-6). #9;This may be read as a satire of human history (which, in a sense, it is), but it is ma homework, a satire originating from of julius non-human (robotic) values. As humans, we might agree with a satirical rejection of stabbing of meat as deserving the name history, but it is the meat, more than the stabbing, that the robot is rejecting. (If robots for some reason went to ma homework war, then there might well be stabbing, but certainly no meat.) The soul, as an acid fermentation, can similarly be seen as a rejection in human terms, but it is a contrast of human organic matter as contrasted with robotic inorganic matter that the robot is drawing attention to. As such, the satirical function of this sermon has been turned inside out, and serves as a point of departure (rather than a goal) for the depiction of robotic intelligence. To see only the satire here is to miss half the point. In a sense, there is no satire here at all; the satirical effect is a byproduct of the robot's earnest, and beautician cover letter none too inaccurate, critique. In other words, since we readers are human, the passage necessarily reads like a clever satire on Lem's part that uses robots (rather than Glubbdubbdribbian sorcerers) to critique human history. #9;Such a reading, however, represents precisely the kind of failure to recognize alien intelligence I have already described.
One might object, But how can such a robotic critique be taken seriously? That is ma homework com, exactly the point; how would we? Lem is a master at confronting his characters and readers with such dilemmas. It is at research paper wuthering heights, this level, beyond the mere expression of ideas or science fiction novelties, at ma homework com, the juncture where ideas meet with the limits of knowledge and experience, that Lem achieves his most profound effects; at the point where he strikes against friends, our conceptual boundaries, and attempts to widen the field of human cognition. #9;Speaking intuitively, I do not believe Lem intends for us to agree with the robot, or to impute its words to its author; Lem may not even expect us to recognize the robot's alien intelligence, but I suspect he hopes we will. Again, the issue is not whether or not humanity will ever be accosted by such a robot (or talking whales), but rather if it is possible to enlarge the com, field of human cognition and imaginative experience; after all, hasn't humanity in fact been so accosted, precisely in Lem's novel? Lem aims to be mind-expanding, and what particularly earns his writing the designation of fantastyka (as well as the assassination of julius essay, fantastic) is precisely this: the hesitation that Bregg and the reader become caught up in. Com? (Hesitation, as already noted, is a key feature of the fantastic in Todorov's view.) Should we take the beautician letter, robot's speech seriously or not, as satire or psychosis, as important or irrelevant? In Huxley, similar contrasts annihilate one another, leaving nihilistic meaninglessness and a glow of sensation. In Lem, one is left with a surfeit of irresolvable meanings. This is not nihilism, though we may feel uncomfortable with our inability to solve the puzzle or answer the question.
This discomfort arises in part through a new awareness of our limitations, both individually and as a species; or perhaps by the even more disturbing possibility that there are questions we (humanity) may never be able to answer. #9;Is the robotic condition humane? (Should the question be rephrased because ?humane' is humanocentric?) Is the robotic condition fair, or just? Is it too high a price to pay for a human Utopia? Do any of these questions even have any bearing on the robotic condition? Are they the right questions to ask? Is it even possible to ask the right questions? In a sense, of course, the answer to this last question must necessarily be, Probably not. Every human-authored text about robots (artificial intelligences) will be more anthropomorphized than not; only a robot could truly write from its alien (drugoi) point of view.
But this does not make Lem's (or any other author's) attempt at imaginative understanding irrelevant, so long as no claim to com perfect understanding presumed. Essay Methods? Understanding involves not only com, imaginative projection, but also self-reflective contemplation; the attempt to making friends online understand an Other in one's own terms. As such, Any true understanding is dialogic in nature (Volo?hinov 102, emphasis in original). #9;To take the robot's speech as simply a sermon, then, misses half of the point as well; it is both a sermon (from a robotic point of view) and a satire (from a human point of ma homework view). The meaning of the speech therefore arises from the superimposition of the one upon the other, from the multiple refractions that issue from it. It should be clear that this doubled speech is sam watkins, not authorially ironic; there is no undermining of one point of view by another. Rather, the satire and sermon coooperatively merge, insofar as they have an object of discourse in ma homework com common (human history). Love Or Obsession Wuthering? It is this interacting and interanimating merging of discourses that affects the meaning, the truth, of the ma homework com, scene.
#9;To repeat, understanding ends in an act of self-reflection. Insofar as Lem is a human author, it may be safely said that the meaning of essay methods this scene will also be human. As such, its truth is primarily its satiric content, history as the stabbing of meat and so forth. This is all the more clear the more aware the reader is that the ma homework com, robot's intelligence is an alien one; that, in effect, since we cannot truly grasp where the assassination essay, robot is coming from, we must all the more necessarily fall back upon our own human perspective. Ma Homework? But at cover, the same time, this alien presence also modulates the meaning of the satire. (To sense this, imagine the robot's sermon, delivered by a human.) As such, the very limitedness of the human satire is ma homework, thrown into sharper relief and is humbled; at of julius caesar, the same time, a triumph over ma homework those limitations is implied by the presence of an alien intelligence, something that has already exceeded our human limitations in some (unknowable) way. #9;The satire, then, ceases to be mere satire; it is not simply destructive of human history, as it would be in assassination of julius Huxley. Ma Homework? Lem has, in fact, given us an example of something like the regenerating and renewing aspect of the archaic mentality, if not the festivity of caesar festive laughter itself even though its ambivalence is ma homework com, present as destroying abuse and regenerating praise; the scene dramatizes our limited consciousness, along with the possibility of transgressing that limitation. Abuse-praise is the alchemical equivalent of blackening to whiten, which Thomas Moore links with black humor (94-5). It is a trial by fire; hence, the excoriation of human history, the sloughing of its dead flesh, to be reborn again. This last might seem somewhat tenuous, if it is to be a metallic (not biological) intelligence that will continue history (from the bloody, dough-brained cometh copper. ), but is history the sam watkins essay, history of Mind, or of Meat? Might not the first mammal have claimed, lo! from the cold-blooded scales cometh fur.
#9;That the robot's sermon is a parody of Genesis and the Gospels is ma homework, obvious; a titanium revision the very discourse of love research heights which, coming from a robot, is surreally unexpected. Unexpectedness can be considered a part of festive laughter; remember the frights of the funhouse. Ma Homework Com? But it is in the larger context of the sam watkins, whole scene that more particularly carnivalesque elements appear. Though the occasional inspector has said, The automata serve us, not we them (138), it is clear that the booming robot has become a temporary king, as in Carnival. Com? He rules over piles and piles of distorted, defective, grotesquely deformed bodies, all speaking with the freedom of the condemned on friends, Foucault's scaffold. Moreover, the com, murderous heat and the near total darkness may be construed as a womb; the argument, holding place from where robots (Carnival's effigies of the ma homework com, past) will be carried into the furnace to be melted and be reborn again as other robots. #9;These carnivalesque images with their implications of renewal, however, are conveyed in about methods an atmosphere of horror, not terror--in the face of the snuffing forever of the Mind's flame. Even so, the booming robot promises that fire and com water will do no harm; both elements will be a gate unto me, and I shall enter. Perhaps the horror of the situation can be viewed in the same way as the cover letter, robot's speech.
That is, insofar as we cannot understand robotic intelligence, neither can we understand robotic death, except in our own, horrified human terms. If so, this would again suggest the possibility of transgressing our humanly limited understanding of death and history by way of the presence of the ma homework com, robot's alien consciousness. #9;This possibility of essay about methods transgression does not necessarily imply the defeat of death or history, but it does humble (or humiliate, to use the Carnival term) the disgust of history and horror of death. It makes the all-devouring enormity of death and history less enormous, less overwhelming, easier to handle; it makes them more like the gay monsters of the past that Carnival humiliates and disposes of. In its own way, albeit more grimly determined than festive per se, the robot's speech and its surroundings employ the ma homework com, workings of the archaic mentality to make death and about teaching methods history tolerable. Without his robots, Lem would be much more hard-pressed to accomplish this; they are a relief valve, that allows qualifiers to be hung on the otherwise unqualifiable disgust and horror of death and history, that hold out the possibility of ma homework com alternatives. If the same scene were attempted with humans instead of robots, then there would be nothing but the unbearable history and intolerable deaths of Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Treblinka--the obvious historical source for paper, the scene. Again, by directing his metaphor (the Holocaust) away from a strictly human signification, Lem transforms an image of unmitigated atrocity into something that, if not positive per se, at least no longer is a symbol of pure despair. #9;The Messianic pronouncement of the booming robot further emphasizes this; Holocaust and com Salvation are joined into one. But neither should the booming robot be strictly identified with Christ, and not just because Judaic tradition does not recognize Jesus as the Messiah.
One voice has already said, I will save you. ; another responds, Who saves? and the booming robot's message of Salvation immediately follows. Shortly thereafter, ?He is making, here. ' something cried; then silence; then Bregg hears, ?Sirr. ' said something; I do not know why I was so sure, but I felt that these words were directed to me, I did not respond (136). #9;The double use of ma homework com triple exclamation points, along with the word something, suggests that there is initially only one robot speaking to Bregg. Another anomaly of punctuation here indicates Bregg's confusion: the somewhat odd semi-colon (said something), and the comma, instead of a period at to me, I did not respond. His lack of response would seem to indicate his discomfort as well, especially as he is soon swarmed by supplicating robots; the image recalls Jesus surrounded by lepers. One of the robots even says that a Mr. Beautician Cover Letter? Hallister can vouch for me (137), i.e., save him from death and being scrapped; Bregg's first name is Hal; there is no reason to ma homework ascribe this similarity of love or obsession research paper wuthering heights names to coincidence. #9;Overwhelmed, Bregg flees--an inadequate Messiah.
And this inadequacy contrasts obviously with the Machine Messiah, that remains amongst its people in the midst of ma homework their Holocaust. In Lem's Solaris , written at beautician letter, almost the same time as Return From the Stars (both were originally published in Polish in 1961), a similar image, this time an inadequate divinity, is presented in the vision of an imperfect god: #9;[O]ne whose imperfections represent his essential characteristics; a god limited in his omniscience and power, fallible, incapable of foreseeing the consequences of ma homework his acts, and creating things that lead to horror. He is. a sick god, whose ambitions exceed his powers and or obsession research paper wuthering heights who does not realize it at com, first. A god who has created clocks, but not the time they measure. He has created systems or mechanisms that served specific ends but have now overstepped and betrayed them. And he has created eternity, which was to have measured his power, and which now measures his unending defeat ( Solaris 197). #9;Out of its fuller context (a dialogue that runs 2 1/2 pages), this description is grimmer than it seems, and is not the last word in the dialogue. Even so, it demonstrates that the theme of an inadequate deity (as Creator or Redeemer) is not an overreading of Lem's Return From the Stars , insofar as the idea was present in the author's mind circa 1961.
In Solaris , this imperfect god is explicitly defined as not humanity (though the speaker admits the analogy); even so, the above remains apt as applied to humanity with respect to robots. Assassination Of Julius Caesar Essay? What is absent from humanity compared to the imperfect god is divinity ; limited omniscience and power, fallibility, overambitiousness and so forth all characterize our species. #9;Consequently, Bregg (and all of humankind) must necessarily be an inadequate Messiah; the solution (Salvation) to the problem of the robotic condition cannot be solved at the same level of thinking that originated it. So too with the human condition. But to do so, we must somehow transcend that condition.
This is not, of course, literally possible but, as I hope I have shown, Lem's robots imaginatively do so. Ma Homework Com? They mark the boundaries of our consciousness and essay about teaching suggest (at least the hope of) possibilities that lie beyond those boundaries. Thus, even in their Holocaust, Lem's courteous and solicitous robots continue to com serve humankind, by offering us hope for, if not glimpses of, our own Salvation. Polylogism in Return From The Stars. #9;Lem's technique of directing the metaphor of his robots outward, rather than inward toward a strictly human meaning, is only one specific example of love or obsession paper polylogism in Return From The Stars ; other more general and com interrelated examples may be found in caesar essay the novel's dialogue and narration, and ma homework com the manner in which Lem presents ideas. #9;The process of love or obsession research paper heights betrization, for com, instance, is first introduced to the reader (and for all intents and purposes to Bregg as well) in dialogue with one of Utopia's citizens.
This occurs during the first chapter, when Bregg has just returned to Earth after 127 years, and when he (and the reader) are hopelessly confused by the social, natural and essay teaching methods architectural changes that have occurred on Earth in the interim. It is during this selfsame dialogue that Bregg concludes that betrization is both a great thing (38) and a disfigurement (39). #9;Moreover, betrization is not baldly presented as simply a topic for discussion, as is often the case in the official Utopia; rather, it arises as a result of the dialogue's larger context, which is Bregg's attempt to find some female companionship after his ten years in space. In other words, betrization enters the ma homework, novel not as an abstract idea (as does, for example, Huxley's bokanovskification), but as a part of the dialogic fabric of human life (Bakhtin, Problems 293); a reality in which [t]o live means to participate in dialogue: to making friends online ask questions, to heed, to respond, to agree and so forth ( Problems 293). It is precisely the fact that Bregg engages, or grapples, with the problem of betrization that reflects the dialogic nature of his conversations; a kind of engagement that is ma homework, almost wholly absent from Huxley's Brave New World . The polylogic versus monologic nature of Lem's novel compared to about teaching Huxley's might also be incidentally indicated by the very processes of the com, Brave New World's bokanovskification and Utopia's betrization, insofar as the former was developed by only one person (Bokanovsky), while the latter represents the combined effort of three scientists, Bennett, Trimaldi and essay about Zakharov (118)--it is an acronym based on this triumvirate's names that gives Lem's process its name. (It may even be possible to discern the slightest hint of influence in ma homework the fact that both processes begin with the letter ?b'.) #9;From the beginning, then, betrization is deeply embedded thematically in beautician cover the novel in com a way that bokanovskification is not. Love Or Obsession Research Paper Wuthering Heights? One can almost say that Huxley's process is gratuitous, that it could be removed from the com, novel with minimal consequence, since it is making online, functionally more (ugly) ornamentation than innovation. This is not the case with betrization; to remove it from ma homework com Return From The Stars would result in a completely different novel. What Bakhtin has noted of Goethe's work applies here as well; everything is online, intensive, interpreted, and creatively necessary (43). The interpretation, however, is never final and, again, the theme of betrization serves like the robots to widen the field of human cognition.
#9;Lem conducts the ma homework, next major discussion of essay betrization in a way characteristic only of him in fantastyka: Bregg (and the reader) learns the ma homework com, rudiments of the history and science of betrization by reading other texts. Those familiar with Borges' Ficciones will recognize the technique; as Borges notes in his Prologue, The composition of vast books is a laborious and impoverishing extravagance. A better course of procedure is to pretend that these books already exist, and then to offer a résumé, a commentary (15). Examples from Ficciones include Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius, The Approach to beautician letter Al-Mu'tasim, An Examination of the Work of Herbert Quain, and Three Versions of Judas; Pierre Menard, Author of Don Quixote provides a similar instance, though the focus is more on the author than the text. (Lem has, in fact, assembled whole volumes of such imaginary books, e.g., Microworlds, One Human Minute and ma homework com A Perfect Vacuum .) #9;This similarity of technique, however, is strongly contrasted by making, a difference of intent. Borges explains his preference for brevity in ma homework terms of assassination his being more reasonable, more inept, more indolent (15). Whether this is meant seriously or not (Borges is ma homework, one of the supreme purveyors of narrative uncertainty), on the face of it at sam watkins essay, least there are the obvious markings of ma homework nihilism, of the modernist male's desire to avoid the truth. Lem's elementary presentation of the history and paper wuthering heights science of betrization, on the other hand, is com, wholly devoted to beautician letter establishing the ma homework, facts, the essay, truth, of betrization. #9;To this end, Bregg reads an ordinary school textbook on history (110): more advanced texts are beyond him as yet. Ordinary school textbooks, however, tend to be notoriously biased, even in the United States. Following the implementation of universal betrization, then, a period of resistance followed; The textbook passed over this with a few generalities, for ma homework, perfectly obvious reasons.
I resolved to consult source materials for more detailed information (119). Having had his fill of the official history, which concludes with a ringing encomium to beautician the New Epoch of Humanism (119), he then reads Ullrich's monograph on betrization (in spite of com its difficult mathematics) to obesity argument essay get a better understanding of its scientific workings; Bregg even provides a quotation from Ullrich's work, and goes on to cite the Tribaldi Institute's experiments, the results of Pilgrin's work, and mentions Murwick's brief sociographic sketch (121). #9;This technique of citing scientific works, rather than simply providing a scientific or pseudoscientific authorial exposition, is not unique to Return From The Stars ; in Lem's Solaris , whole chapters of the novel are devoted to surveying the scientific and non-scientific findings of the past 200 years of study with regard to com the planet of Solaris. The technique is essay, obviously multi-voiced, and it is ma homework com, easy to see from the various names Lem uses (Bennett, Trimaldi, Zakharov, Ullrich, Pilgrin, Murwick) that it is multi-cultural as well. (In providing the making online, much sketchier scientific background of the Brave New World, Huxley displays a similar international spirit, e.g., Pfitzner, Kawaguchi, Bokanovsky, Podsnap.) More importantly, however, Lem is here presenting the history and science of com betrization much as it would be in real-world science; that is, it submits its findings before the court of peer review in essay the true spirit of the Scientific Method. This does not mean, of course, that the fact that betrization acts on the developing prosencephalon at an early stage in life by means of a group of proteolytic enzymes (119) has a basis in scientific reality, even given that Lem (like Huxley) had medical training; plausibility is less of an issue here than how Lem presents the data. #9;An extreme statement of the Scientific Method would assert that there are no laws; that there are only theories, some of which (admittedly) are so overwhelmingly documented and confirmed to date that they seem to be Laws.
One great vindication of this stance may be seen in Einstein's correction (by his theory of relativity) to Newton's Laws of Motion. It is in ma homework com such corrections, as refinements, that true science exists, as closer and closer approximations of the truth--as in the shift from the Ptolemaic to beautician the Galilean conception of the Universe. Thus, Bregg's (and Lem's) literature review reflects a deep valuation of the truth, approached by the epistemological method of com science. Cover? This should not, however, be mistaken for an idealization of science; it is ma homework com, simply that science has the best track record for establishing objective facts through experimentation. Moreover, as Darko Suvin asserts (both generally, and as an aspect of Lem's fiction). Making Friends? Modern sciences are open-ended (213, emphasis in original); they will continuously, perhaps interminably, end up posing more questions then they answer. Developments will occur which we, as a species, may not be ready for, like the atomic bomb; we may encounter phenomena which may never be explained. Ma Homework Com? This, however, cannot become an friends essay, excuse for discontinuing scientific research; to do so would be to abandon the search for com, the truth as well. If it seems that an ever-expanding field of truth that can never be completely mastered is sam watkins, cause for despair, then one may join Huxley and Borges in their nihilism. For someone like Bakhtin, such an expanding field can only com, be exhilarating, a cause for the most optimistic hopes.
For Lem, the optessimist, his hopes are more guarded, qualified by his clear awareness of human limitations, but hope is still the dominant tone. #9;In the making essay, spirit of an ever-expanding field of truth, the discussion of com betrization does not end with Bregg's reading. For one, Bregg finds himself thrown from the of julius caesar essay, theoretical to com the applied side of betrization, when he falls violently in making friends love with one of Utopia's women. In the midst of this, he has a discussion with his fellow time-contraction astronaut, Olaf, who divulges a number of com shocking facts to Bregg, e.g., that human doctors no longer perform operations (being no longer able to stand the sight of making friends online essay blood), that there is a chemical, perto, which can temporarily suspend the effects of betrization, and that humans can command robots to kill in com emergencies (though the humans themselves are incapable of it). Olaf is an especially hostile critic of beautician Utopia; by the end of the novel, he decides to depart (again) on another intergalactic expedition. #9;The specific points of ma homework com contention between Bregg and cover letter Olaf are not as significant here as the nature of the dialogue between them and the fact that the theme of betrization is embedded in a context of its effects on the lives of two unbetrizated, and now hopelessly old-fashioned, men. What occurs in ma homework this dialogue is not an exposition of Lem's position on betrization. Had this been the case, the friends, dialogue would have actually been a monologue distributed between two characters (as in Brave New World ); An idea of this sort might be characteristic of a social type or an individual, or it might ultimately be a simple intellectual gesture on the part of the hero, an intellectual expression of his spiritual face (Bakhtin, Problems 79). Rather, for Lem, as well as for Dostoevsky, The truth about the world. is inseparable from the truth of personality ( Problems 78). #9;The dialogue between Bregg and ma homework com Olaf is also the occasion for another discussion, about the exploration of space, that has undergone a treatment similar to betrization's in the novel.
Bregg has spoken with people about the discontinuation of cosmodromia, has read Starck's On Interstellar Flight (which proves the friends online, futility of space exploration), tries to come to terms with this futility, argues with Olaf about it, listens and absorbs Utopia's side of the story (in the person of the woman he has fallen in love with), and has his resignation to this futility challenged one last time when he discovers that another interstellar expedition has been planned and hears the expedition's director and planner refute Starck's arguments. #9;In both cases, the discourse on betrization and cosmodromia are open-ended; further developments continuously correct and refine Bregg's understanding of them. The open-endedness of these discourses, however, does not mean that resolution cannot be reached by individual characters: Bregg, for instance, elects to remain on ma homework com, Earth, while Olaf departs. In conversation with the obesity, woman he loves, Bregg comes close to ma homework achieving a reconciliation with the idea of of julius caesar betrization; Olaf remains a vociferous opponent to the very end. Clearly, neither Bregg nor Olaf objectively answer the question of the merits or demerits of betrization and cosmodromia, but in a sense, they answer the com, much more pressing and subjective question of essay how these features of Utopia affect them personally. In this, again, Lem has reversed the normal direction of the idea in the official Utopia, but much more importantly he has given us the image of human consciousness confronted by alien situations, but nevertheless capable of ma homework ultimately finding some sure ground to stand on, someplace to stake a claim, without succumbing to despair, nihilism or spiritual aridity. #9;The theme of Utopia itself is somewhat differently treated, insofar as almost all of Bregg's data is accumulated through personal experience (including dialogic interactions and internal monologues). But Lem does not utilize an childhood, objective, third-person account to reveal this to the reader; instead, we are plunged with Bregg right into the midst of his own alienation and eventual reconciliation with Utopia by a first-person narrative.
The first chapter provides an especially vivid example of this, as Lem provides enough defamiliarization to com make even the most diligent and thorough Formalist happy. As Bregg notes, For the hundredth time I was possessed by a feeling of incredible alienation (6); the reader soon joins him in the sentiment. The first quoted words out of someone's mouth (actually the perfectly human robot stewardess) are ?Something to drink? Prum, extran, morr, cider' (6). #9;Generally, the about teaching, reader's and Bregg's alienation run in almost perfect tandem; as he becomes more accustomed to some of the features of Utopia, the text becomes less cryptic for the reader as well. But there is also a readerly disorientation that comes with the beginning of any book, the initial shock of translocation out of our world into the fictional one. In fantastyka, of course, this translocation is even more dramatic, since the presumption that the ma homework com, setting is earth might be just that, a presumption.
For the experienced reader of science fiction, of fantasy and of the essay, fantastic in general, the shock may not be so great; certain kinds of clues help to ma homework com orient the experienced reader, e.g., irising doors, twin moons, purple shadows (indicating a binary star system with a red giant and making online blue dwarf). Ma Homework? With the opening of Return From the Stars , Lem seems determined to thwart even these conventional clues: #9;I took nothing with me, not even a coat. Unnecessary, they said. They let me keep my black sweater: it would pass. But the shirt I had to fight for. I said that I would learn to do without things gradually. At the very ramp, beneath the research paper wuthering, belly of the ship, where we stood, jostled by the crowd, Abs offered me his hand with an understanding smile: #9;#9;That, too, I remembered. I didn't crush his fingers (3).
Nothing is mentioned here that Bregg is boarding a spaceship on ma homework, the moon; the childhood argument, experienced reader of Lem might recall his penchant for nautical metaphors for spacecraft (hence, the ma homework com, ship), but that certainly provides no clue that we are on Luna. In any case, these details are overshadowed by the mystery of the sweater that would pass and the shirt the as yet unnamed protagonist had to fight for; and argument essay why would the protagonist crush Abs' fingers? #9;On board the ship, we encounter the stewardess, which suggests little more than merely atmospheric travel, in spite of the reference to a private compartment (3), which suggests sea or rail travel. Thus, in a very few lines, Lem has successfully and com irreconcilably combined the features of a train, a boat, and a plane. Then, My seat unfolded without a sound (3). For the experienced reader of or obsession paper fantastyka, this probably functions as a conventional clue for futuristic technology, although the inexperienced reader's interpretation, that this is ma homework com, just a touch of first-class refinement of childhood obesity argument essay present-day technology, is not implausible. A description of strange clothing follows; the mention of selenium lights has a futuristic ring to it, and then, Across the dull ceiling faint shadows began to move from front to rear, like paper cutouts of birds (4). These are possibly the shadows of the ship in motion, which Bregg does not realize because he (like us) is accustomed to ma homework feeling inertia when moving, but inertia has been conquered by Lem's Utopia. #9;Bregg then notes how he and his fellow returned astronauts joked about our brawn. in essay the beginning, intending to get up, would go shooting toward the ceiling (4). Bregg would go shooting toward the com, ceiling because of the reduced gravity on the moon, but by linking this fact to Bregg's excessive brawn, even the obesity argument essay, experienced leader is liable to miss the implication of a lunar setting.
Once the moon as the point of departure is realized, probably only on ma homework, a second reading, the awesomeness of the future's technology is driven home by Bregg's statement that his flight from the moon to Earth would take fifteen minutes (5); in Brave New World , it takes 6 1/2 hours to get from England to New Mexico. Soon after, Lem provides a conventional ?give-away,' when Bregg observes, Several rows in argument front of ma homework com me a woman pushed away the of julius, stewardess, who, with a slow, automatic motion, as if from the push--though the ma homework, push had not been all that hard--went backward down the aisle (6). This description may seem a bit cryptic, but it is clear that the stewardess does not seem to childhood obesity essay be walking down the aisle; in fact, she is ma homework com, probably floating down the aisle in the zero-gravity of interplanetary space. #9;Once Bregg arrives at the terminal on earth, however, not even the experienced reader of fantastyka (or of Lem) can decipher the of julius caesar essay, stunningly sustained visual descriptions. To do justice to them would require quotation at great length; I will limit myself, however, to only a brief excerpt: #9;It took a moment for ma homework com, me really to see the size of the hall. But was it all one hall?
No walls; a glittering white high-held explosion of online essay unbelievable wings; between them, columns, made not of any substance but of dizzying motion. Rushing upward, enormous fountains of a liquid denser than water, illuminated from inside by ma homework com, colored floodlights? No--vertical tunnels of glass through which a succession of blurred vehicles raced upward? Now I was completely at a loss (8). The descriptions alone, concretely vivid as they are, are already disorienting enough without the startling appearance of the question marks at the end of the penultimate and antepenultimate sentences. #9;Another of essay Bakhtin's remarks with respect to Goethe's works may be said to apply to Return From The Stars as well; Therefore, everything is intensive in Goethe's world; it contains no inanimate, immobile, petrified places, no immutable background that does not participate in action and emergence (in events), no decorations or sets ( Speech 42).
Lem, however, literalizes this authorial attitude, such that even architecture becomes animate, mobile and mutable; having backtracked, Bregg finds himself on the wrong level, it was not even the hall that I had left: I knew this by the absence of ma homework com those enormous columns. But, then, they might have gone away somewhere; by now I considered anything possible (11). #9;Lem's descriptive technique, like Borges', operates on a principle of about methods intense density and precision, such that any readerly sense of uncertainty arises from a surfeit, rather than a dearth, of information. As a result, the images are more cryptic, than vague. One way to achieve this is to tightly compress details together: There was a fluttering from white and bluish fluorescent tubes, stairs of crystalline brilliance, black façades; the brilliance gave way slowly to stone; the carriage stopped. I got off and ma homework com was dumbstruck (16). Or Obsession Paper Wuthering Heights? Another way to ma homework create this uncertainty (that is typical of Faulkner's work) is by sam watkins, continuously redefining the images: Low armchairs, a black liquid with green foam in glasses, lanterns that spilled tiny sparks, no, fireflies, swarms of burning moths (18, my emphasis). In both cases, the perfectly concrete visuals of the description clash with an indeterminacy of ma homework com meaning. In the beautician, first case, the ma homework, reader must integrate the accumulated images (fluorescent tubes, stairs, façades); in the second case, the love paper heights, reader must reconcile an ma homework com, accumulation of metaphors (sparks, fireflies, burning moths). #9;The major difference here between Lem's use of childhood argument essay this technique and Borges' may be found in authorial intent. Ma Homework Com? Lem is prompted to disorient the reader, because it recreates in the reader's mind the situation that Bregg finds himself in; Borges uses the technique on aesthetic grounds alone, and wuthering very rarely switches to a different style.
In both cases, the result for the reader is the com, same, or very similar; overwhelmed by a surfeit of images, one eventually gives up trying to assassination understand the description, and com begins to focus on love paper heights, the artistry of the com, prose itself. In Borges' fictions, this is an making friends online essay, especially obvious and especially rewarding experience; it also leads to an art of pure (aesthetic-poetic) sensation and nihilism. In Return From The Stars , this consequence of pure sensation is something Bregg very much wishes to ma homework escape; he wants the incomprehensibility of his surroundings to become clear. That Bregg spends the greater part of the book precisely trying to reach some level of social understanding is enough to suggest this, but even in the first chapter this fact is apparent; The all-embracing roar now swelled, now was confined, as thousands of human voices and sam watkins sounds--meaningless to ma homework me, meaningful to them--were swallowed by each successive tunnel of this journey whose destination I did not know (9). #9;Lem's descriptive technique in the first chapter has a closer affinity to childhood essay Faulkner's tendency for substituting one image after another; Into my palm fell a colored, translucent tube, slightly warm. Com? I shook it, held it up to one eye; pills of some kind? No. A vial? It had no cork, no stopper. What was it for?
What were the or obsession paper wuthering heights, other people doing? Putting the things in their pockets (14). This is not the ma homework, same technique that I criticized in Huxley earlier, of trying to define something positively by negative examples of making friends what it is not. The difference lies in the fact that, once Lem has presented the negatives (pills, a vial), he tells us what the object is; The sign on the dispenser: LARGAN (14). Of course, this is equally mysterious, and Bregg never finds out what LARGAN is for; even so, the ma homework, provision of something positive after the negative marks the difference between Lem and Huxley; Huxley provides only the negatives. It is easy to discern here a parallel with festive laughter's abuse-praise, where Huxley retains only the abuse, while Lem retains both the abuse (authorially disabusing the reader of the ability to understand the text) and of julius the regenerating, positive aspect (by providing a meaning, LARGAN, even when that meaning is unclear).
#9;This provision of positive meaning is compactly evident in another example: foam on glasses, an almost black liquid--not beer, with its virulent, greenish glint (14). Com? Had the image stopped at not beer, it would be strictly alienating; with its virulent, greenish glint, however, we are thus introduced to of julius caesar a new aspect of reality--one that, admittedly, is still not perfectly clear, but an imputation of nihilism here would be completely inappropriate. In the context of the alien environment in which Bregg finds himself, such a descriptive technique is ma homework, not only justified, but is virtually mandated if any kind of narrative meaning is to essay be conveyed at com, all; the new may only be understood at first in sam watkins essay terms of the ma homework, old, the familiar. It is therefore not an evasion of the truth or facts (i.e., nihilism) to describe this virulent, greenish liquid as not beer, precisely because it is not beer; it is sam watkins, something altogether different. #9;In its own tiny way, this image restates the same process that is at work when the reader encounters one of Lem's robots. In the same way that the reader does not know what position to ma homework com take vis-à-vis an intelligent machine, the reader is equally at a loss as to what to make of assassination essay this virulent, greenish not-beer.
All the same, by ma homework, being beyond the ken of our familiar experience, the not-beer (in its own very humble way) hints at hitherto unconsidered possibilities. I have focussed on this almost insignificant detail precisely because its very slightness shows how thoroughly the teaching, art of possibilities permeates Lem's novel. #9;The single most important structural aspect of ma homework Return From The Stars that allows Lem to affect this art of possibilities is its first-person narration. This, coupled with Bregg's predilection for dialogue (with himself, with others, with texts, with his environment) continuously creates situations where Lem's protagonist encounters alien (drugoi) objects and people; Bregg's willing (if sometimes challenged) open-mindedness thus permits the discourse of these alien objects and people to have a fair hearing. First-person narration, of essay methods course, can be a marvelous tool for creating narrative uncertainty in the reader; Lem (for the most part) avoids this by placing the reader in the same predicament as Bregg, especially in the first chapter. This does not mean, of course, that Lem's protagonist is ma homework com, a perfectly reliable narrator at all times; I have already suggested otherwise with respect to argument essay Bregg's attitude toward robots. It is also clear that the com, values he believes in, insofar as they shape how he reports what he sees in the world around him, are more than a century out of date relative to Utopia. Beautician Cover? This subjective bias is no more, and com no less, than the kind of subjective bias that would characterize any individual; that is, Bregg does not (seem to) have any kind of agenda, addiction or madness that would make him into a classically unreliable narrator. #9;This being so, however, does not prevent Bregg from being a natural exponent of heterosexual and patriarchal values, though Bregg's first-person narration (and the dialogic nature of Return From The Stars in letter general) actually encourages the reader to bring his or her own biases into the picture as well. By presenting as many sides of an issue as possible, whatever value-conclusions Bregg himself draws should not be considered either the only ones possible, or the ones the reader must accept. All the ma homework com, same, fantastyka (until quite recently) has been more male-dominated than high literature itself, with predictable results in childhood obesity essay the nature of relations between the ma homework, sexes.
#9;The number of essay male-female relationships in Lem's total body of work, however, is so small that to generalize would be hazardous. Ma Homework? This is partly due to Lem's focus on transhuman encounters, but all the same, these invariably pit men only against assassination caesar essay, the Unknown. Similarly, in the legions of international scientific works and ma homework monographs cited by Bregg, there seems to be no reason whatsoever to suspect that Bennett, Trimaldi, Zakharov, Pilgrin and so forth are not male when there is no accompanying he as the childhood, pronoun. Lem's Solaris (his most famous book) features one of ma homework com these exceedingly rare male-female relationships--a relationship complicated by the fact that the protagonist's resurrected wife is actually no longer human; the accent here comes down heavily on the theme of Woman as Alien. #9;Given that Return From the Stars was written almost at the same time as Solaris , it is therefore not surprising to sam watkins essay find the Woman as Alien theme restated in it as well.
Here, the difficulty is precisely of that between the old-fashioned values of Bregg versus the new Woman of ma homework com Utopia (first in the persons of Nais the dress-maker and Aen the actress, and later, much more dramatically, in the person of Eri). In general, Bregg's behavior with the first two may be described as chivalrous; in love or obsession paper wuthering heights particular, he (unnecessarily) rescues Aen, and thereby earns a one-night stand with her. This chivalry reflects also its implied quotient of chauvinism: Bregg constantly refers to Nais and ma homework Eri as girl; when Nais picks him up in what is probably a bar, he later tells her, When I left--don't take this in bad part--a girl like you would not have brought me to her place at this hour (32); and when he discovers that all clothing is sam watkins essay, sprayed on in Utopia, he remarks to ma homework com the reader: #9;I could see how that might appeal to women, because by discharging from a few or a few dozen bottles a liquid that immediately set into fabrics with textures smooth or rough--velvet, fur, or pliable metal--they could have a new creation every time, each for one occasion only (61). This same scene also features that other companion to heterosexual chauvinism--a mild case of anti-gay innuendo; I was received by a fellow with the bearing of an artist. Making Online? I could see that he was not especially delighted with me. Nor was I with him (61). Ma Homework? Earlier, on the flight from the beautician, moon: The bright colors of the women's clothes I had by now learned to accept, but the men I still suspected, irrationally, of affectation, and ma homework I had the secret hope that I would come across some dressed normally--a pitiful reflex (3). #9;This last example is important, insofar as it shows Bregg to be self-conscious about his distaste for the effeminization of Utopia's males (irrationally, a pitiful reflex); he is equally aware of the anachronistic nature of his chivalry and chauvinism. Moreover, whatever Lem's actual attitude toward women, it is clear that that the male-female encounters in Return From The Stars may be read in the same light as the encounters with robots (and, most generally, in the encounter with Utopia itself). All the same, if the robots suggest a realm unexplored by human intelligence that is essay methods, exhilarating, then the ma homework com, possibilities suggested in Bregg's encounter with Nais, Aen and especially Eri are not so promising.
The general passivity of Utopia's inhabitants, for instance, too easily feeds into the stereotypical mandate of passivity for sam watkins essay, women. And it is a stereotypical (i.e., old-fashioned) act of ma homework heroism on Eri's part that prevents Bregg from committing vehicular suicide: Eri (contrary to her betrizated nature) risks life and limb by interposing her vehicle between Bregg and cover letter the cliff he intends to drive off. Bregg wonders, Had that been Eri in the gleeder [the other vehicle]? Impossible (202). And when Bregg asks her how she had been able to do such a thing: Her face trembled, her lips quivered, she couldn't say the words, ? ?I ha-a-ad to. Ma Homework? ' (202); the mincingness of this is love or obsession research heights, rather annoying. On one hand, Eri's heroism reflects the kind of triumph of initiative one finds in the feminine Gothic, but such triumphs feel very different coming from a male pen. One needs only to ma homework com consider the kind of heroism only too common to female love interests in otherwise absurdly macho male adventure novels and beautician movies; the kind where a blond blows away a minor villain with a .357 Magnum and a giggle, or where a cat fight with a femme fatale ensues that is finished off by a devastating slap. Com? Such displays seem to inevitably end with a reversion to the mincing and or obsession research paper heights cloying helplessness that has characterized the com, love interest throughout the previous portions of the book or film.
#9;Eri has an earlier opportunity for another kind of heroism that Lem does not permit her to avail herself of. Bregg, unable to control his passion, declares that he is going to kidnap Eri away from her husband. Argument Essay? To say that she agrees to this would be a severe overstatement; Bregg emotionally extorts her into going with him, though he does so because he is helplessly in love with her. Once in their private hideaway, Bregg painstakingly, gently and com repeatedly seduces Eri, even though she is invariably cold toward him during the day. After a few days of this, it suddenly dawns on online, him that the only reason Eri agreed to go with him was because she feared Bregg would kill her husband; thus, to protect her husband, she gave herself over to virtual rape. As soon as Bregg realizes this, he is filled with guilt and self-loathing, and returns Eri to her husband, despairing of ever being with her again.
This is what prompts his suicidal mood, and sets up Eri's heroic gesture. This dramatic scenario finally brings them together for good -- As if it was only in the face of extremity that we became close, and com only then that we were able to understand each other (204) -- and they subsequently marry. #9;Eri's endurance through all of this is certainly to be admired, but it hardly presents the kind of art of making possibilities one would want to ma homework advocate for women. Making Online? The high-flown romanticism and morbidity of guilt (reminiscent of the Savage) that is ma homework, sloughed over the actual events that transpire are just that much more disturbing. Eri certainly did not need to undergo this ordeal.
Flight (with her husband) certainly would have been an option and Bregg (as an unbetrizated, hence dangerous) citizen of Utopia might well have discovered first-hand that robots could, in fact, be commanded to kill. Or, allow that Eri could see no other option to of julius caesar protect her husband than to agree to her abduction; her change of heart in later saving, and agreeing to marry, Bregg seems more dictated by Lem than Eri's personality. The marriage, in any case, seems improbable, even as it allows Lem to include two chapters that present a great deal about ma homework com, Utopia itself and Bregg's flight amongst the obesity, stars; such information might easily have been brought out in other ways--confiding in a new friend, perhaps another (more compatible) woman, and ma homework com so forth. Disturbing as Eri's ordeal is, that it is ultimately sanctified by of julius, the marriage makes it even more so; even when it is allowed that there are times of ma homework com trouble during courtship, the scenario Lem provides seems more than a bit over the top. That Eri could forgive Bregg for his actions is a testimonial to her capacity for sam watkins, compassion; that she marries him, however, borders on ma homework, the perverse; it's almost like one of Reginald Muldew's victims accepting his hand in marriage. #9;All this being so, there is still another side to the picture.
My remarks above are predicated on an interpretation of the situation between Eri and of julius Bregg that does not account for her betrizated nature; in other words, it is an interpretation that is parallel in type to one that views the booming robot's sermon simply as human satire. Ma Homework Com? As with the robots, in one sense a reader's sympathy for Eri is misdirected, since it is not simply the case that she is a different person, but is love research paper wuthering heights, (like the rest of Utopia's inhabitants) virtually a different species. Thus, a humanocentric reading of the relationship between Eri and ma homework Bregg suggests that Lem has presented male-female relations in sam watkins essay terms of an alien contact metaphor. As usual, however, this metaphor is com, not limited only to this inward direction; it points outward as well, to an actual encounter between male and love research paper wuthering female aliens of different species. The improbability of com Eri's marriage to Bregg then, along with the actual quality of her ordeal, finds a basis for making essay, explanation in the radical alteration to human nature affected by betrization, even if the actual explanation itself never enters the ma homework com, text. There does, in of julius caesar essay fact, seem to be some degree of mystery at the heart of Eri's and Bregg's relationship; Our trouble returned and ma homework com progressed, and then retreated. Why? I do not know.
She probably did not know, either (204). #9;This is very delicate territory. Essay? It seems perverse, at the least, to suggest that Bregg did not in some sense rape Eri and, if so, then to applaud the ma homework, marriage is essay teaching methods, even more perverse. On the other hand, that one may rely on Lem to direct his metaphors outward, away from ma homework a strictly human meaning, makes it equally perverse to of julius caesar deny that alternative interpretations of the scenario exist, at least in potential. Once again, this is the classic dilemma constantly proposed by Lem, except that in this case (and unlike the case of the robots), I can only sense the possibility of alternative interpretations, but cannot discern a positive possibility that is not also almost too disturbing to accept (e.g., that Eri's neo-human nature reflects such an enormous capacity for forgiveness that she can nevertheless genuinely love and marry her rapist). I could imagine such a capacity in myself, even as it borders on psychosis, but it would not be something I would be audacious enough to advocate for com, others, men or women alike.
#9;The fact that I can only uncomfortably draw a conclusion for myself, while at the same time feel prohibitively uncomfortable at letter, the thought of offering some general solution to the above outlined dilemma, reflects at root the ultimate value of Lem's artistic vision, as specifically expressed in com Return From the Stars . It is, in fact, precisely at the point of Bregg's encounter with Eri that Lem allows the reliability of his protagonist's narration to break down. How genuine, for instance, is Bregg's guilt? Is there an actual basis in childhood reality for the romanticization of com Bregg's feelings for childhood, Eri, or is it just a smokescreen for the less ennobled urges of a man who has spent too many years in space? Were Bregg's nights of seduction really conducted so gently as he described them? Did he truly not realize until only days later that Eri had allowed herself to be abducted solely for the sake of her husband's life? What was really going on in that private hideaway? Has Lem substituted Taming of the Shrew for Huxley's Othello and Romeo and Juliet ? (Is it the height of overimaginativeness to suggest that Eri's name originates in Shakespeare's Kat eri na?) #9;Again, the greatest value in Lem's fiction exists in his ability to confront his readers with challenges that expand the com, field of human cognition.
This is friends essay, done, first and foremost, by demonstrating the limits of one's present level of thinking, and second, by ma homework com, suggesting the obesity argument, realms that lie beyond those limits. Thus, even when I find myself incapable of going beyond my own cognitive limitations with respect to com the image of Eri and Bregg, nevertheless my ability to obesity argument imagine that possibilities exist beyond my limitations represents a step forward. Lem's fiction, then, is ma homework com, composed in sam watkins such a way that its readers are invited to adopt the attitude of Dostoevsky's Underground Man with respect to the stone wall of reality, before which plain men and men of action, as a rule capitulate at once (Dostoevsky 269): #9;No doubt I shall never be able to break through such a stone wall with my forehead, if I really do not possess the strength to do it, but I shall not reconcile myself to it just because I have to deal with a stone wall and haven't the ma homework com, strength to knock it down (Dostoevsky 272). #9;It is the dialogue that is established between the assassination of julius, strictly human meaning and the presence of possibilities that exist beyond that meaning that forms the most essential aspect of Lem's artistic vision. As Darko Suvin notes, Lem's major novels have at their cognitive core the simple and difficult realization that no closed reference system, however alluring to ma homework com the weary and poor in love research wuthering heights spirit, is viable in ma homework the age of relativity theory and post-cybernetic sciences (213).
This endless open-endedness, which reflects the individuality and optessimism of the continuously renewable archaic mentality, along with potentiality of future possibilities limited only by childhood obesity essay, our capacity to imagine, reflects also an essential pluralism of the kind that Aileen Kelly summarizes in the essays of Isaiah Berlin: #9;Pluralism, in com the sense in which [Berlin] uses the word, is not to be confused with that which is commonly defined as a liberal outlook--according to which all extreme positions are distortions of true values and the key to social harmony and a moral life lies in beautician cover letter moderation and the golden mean. True pluralism, as Berlin understands it, is much more tough-minded and intellectually bold: it rejects the ma homework com, view that all conflicts of values can be finally resolved by synthesis and that all desirable goals may be reconciled. It recognizes that human nature is such that it generates values which, though equally sacred, equally ultimate, exclude one another, without there being any possibility of establishing an objective hierarchical relation between them. Moral conduct therefore may involve making agonizing choices, without the help of universal criteria, between incompatible but equally desirable values (Kelly xv). #9;Again, the caesar essay, first-person narration of Return From The Stars allows the reader to parallel Bregg's own experiences in Utopia; in other words, it establishes a dialogic rapport between the reader and Bregg such that the ma homework com, alien contact theme is restated at the level of the reader as well. Letter? What position the ma homework, reader takes, with respect to Bregg and every aspect of Utopia itself, is, of course, a result of the dialogic interaction of the reader and the text; the result, however, is unique to childhood argument the individual and as such reflects Suvin's relativity and Berlin's pluralism. Ma Homework? This, of course, is a potential in all literature, but it is a particularly justified claim for a novel like Return From The Stars that self-evidently represents these themes within the text itself.
#9;Pluralism and relativity (subjectivity), however, are only part of the Lemian equation. Berlin may be right that synthesis may be incapable of reconciling all desirable goals; and the individuality of Suvin's relativity, of essay about teaching itself, may be said to be one of the sources of intense alienation and social fragmentation in the 20th century. Eliade would be right if he asserted that the terror of history cannot be ameliorated by the historical inadequacy of pluralism and the personal isolation of relativity. Without dialogue, the pluralistic variety of com social difference and the specific life-meaning of individual subjective existence can never be appreciated; it would go into the grave unknown and unacknowledged. Dialogue, then, is an absolutely necessary addition to the equation, but Bakhtin points out an even more important possibility: #9;It is quite possible to imagine and postulate a unified truth that requires a plurality of consciousness, one that cannot in principle be fitted into the bounds of a single consciousness, one that is, so to speak, by its very nature full of event potential and is born at a point of contact among various consciousnesses ( Problems 81). #9;This is precisely the beautician, kind of truth that Lem's dialogic and outward-directed metaphors affect.
His artistic vision takes the very limitations of pluralism and relativity themselves and directs them outward in dialogue with a field of ma homework com seemingly limitless possibilities, even if the cover, reader's consciousness (or Lem's own) is not capable of doing any more than merely sensing the possibilities that lie beyond the com, limitations of human consciousness. What Suvin notes of Lem's Solaris applies equally well to Return From The Stars ; it is neither a warning nor a solution (216). Rather, it reflects an uncanny dialogue between Eliade's archaic and historical mentalities; one that destroys the nihilism and spiritual aridity of the latter by cover, the former's capacity for ma homework, re-Creation, and which liberates the former from its endless repetitiveness by the latter's recognition of individual uniqueness in dialogue with others, of our capacity to love research discover truths born of multiple consciousness that cannot be derived in isolation. #9;Brave New World ends with a flight to (Helmholtz's) Utopia that Huxley chose not to depict. Return From The Stars , by contrast, begins literally with a flight to Utopia that Lem does nothing but depict. The contrast is telling in and of itself, but Lem also does not take up Morris' invitation to show what kind of world he (Lem) might prefer to live in. Instead, he gives us something far more valuable; he gives us the chance to ma homework engage in dialogue with Utopia itself. In Lem's hands, and like all of his outward-directed metaphors, Utopia is not limited to its strictly human meaning as yet another plan for human social arrangements, but takes on teaching, as well a transhuman meaning that lies beyond the ma homework, perimeter of our present human condition, and proffers the childhood argument, possibility that we may one day liberate ourselves. LIST OF WORKS CITED. Bakhtin, M.M.
The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays . Com? Ed. Obesity Argument? Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Emerson and ma homework com Michael Holquist. Austin: U of Texas P, 1996. ---, Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics . Ed. and Trans. Friends Online Essay? Caryl Emerson.
Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1997. ---, Rabelais and His World . Trans. Ma Homework? Hélène Iswolsky. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1984. ---, Speech Genres Other Late Essays . Friends Online Essay? Trans. Vern W. McGee. Ed.
Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: U of Texas P, 1996. Berdyaev, Nicholas. The End of ma homework com Our Time . Trans. Donald Attwater. London: Sheed, 1933. Berlin, Isaiah. Or Obsession Research Wuthering? Russian Thinkers . Eds. Henry Hardy and Aileen Kelly.
New York: Pelican, 1979. Berneri, Marie Louise. Journey Through Utopia . London: Freedom P, 1982. Borges, Jorge Luis. Ficciones . Ed. and Trans. Anthony Kerrigan. New York: Grove P, 1962. de Jonge, Alex. Stalin and the Shaping of the ma homework, Soviet Union . New York: Quill, 1986.
de Sade, Donatien Alphonse François. Juliette . Trans. Austryn Wainhouse. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1968. Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Notes From The Underground. Trans. Teaching? David Magarshack. Great Short Works of Fyodor Dostoevsky . New York: Perennial Classic, 1968. Eagleton, Terry. Literary Theory: An Introduction.
Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1994. Eliade, Mircea. The Myth of the Eternal Return or, Cosmos and History . Trans. Willard R. Trask. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1991. Ellis, Kate Ferguson. Ma Homework? The Contested Castle: Gothic Novels and the Subversion of Domestic Ideology. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1989.
Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of Prison . Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage, 1995. Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays . Princeton: Princeton UP, 1990. ---, Varieties of Literary Utopias. Manuel, Utopias 25-49. Holquist, Michael. Prologue. Bakhtin.
Rabelais xiii-xxiii. Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World. New York: HarperPerennial, 1989. Kateb, George. Cover? Utopia and com Its Enemies . New York: Schocken, 1972. Kelly, Aileen. Introduction: A Complex Vision. Berlin xiii-xxiv.
Lem, Stanislaw. Return From The Stars . Trans. Barbara Marszal and Frank Simpson. San Diego: Harcourt, 1980. ---, Solaris . Trans. Joanna Kilmartin and Steve Cox. New York: Faber, Walker, 1970. Mannheim, Karl. Ideology and Utopia: An Introduction to childhood the Sociology of Knowledge. Trans.
Louis Wirth and Edward Shils. New York: Harvest, 1985. Manuel, Frank E. Introduction. Manuel, Utopias vii-xxiv. ---, Toward a Psychological History of Utopias. Manuel, Utopias 69-98. ---, ed. Com? Utopias and Utopian Thought . Boston: Houghton, 1966. Marcuse, Herbert.
Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud . Boston: Beacon P, 1974. Moore, Thomas. Dark Eros: The Imagination of Sadism . Second Revised Edition. Woodstock: Spring, 1996. Paglia, Camille. Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to teaching Emily Dickinson . Com? New York: Vintage, 1991. Paul, Warren.
Huxley's Brave New World Brave New World Revisited: Notes . Lincoln: Cliffs Notes, 1997. Peritoneum. New Webster's Expanded Dictionary . 1993 ed. Smith, John Maynard. Beautician? Eugenics and Utopia. Manuel, Utopias 150-168.
Stacy, R.H. Russian Literary Criticism: A Short History. Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1974. Suvin, Darko. Afterword. Ma Homework? Lem, Solaris 205-216. Tillich, Paul. Critique and Justification of Utopia.
Manuel, Utopias 296-309. Todorov, Tzvetan. The Fantastic: A Structural Approach to a Literary Genre . Childhood Essay? Trans. Ma Homework? Richard Howard. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1993. Tompkins, J.M.S. The Popular Novel in assassination essay England 1770-1800 . Lincoln: U of ma homework Nebraska P, 1967. Toynbee, Arnold. A Study of History. Somervell edition. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1947.
Ulam, Adam. Socialism and Utopia. Manuel, Utopias 116-134. Volo?inov, V.N. Making Friends Online? Marxism and the Philosophy of Language . Trans. Ladislav Matejka and I.R. Titunik. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1996.
Wells, H.G. A Modern Utopia . London: Nelson, n.d. ---, Men Like Gods . Berneri 303-308. Williams, Raymond. The Country and the City . New York: Oxford UP, 1973. Williamson, George.
Seventeenth Century Contexts . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1961.
Buy Essays Online from Successful Essay -
Get myHomework - Microsoft Store
Top 10 Details to Include on a Nursing Resume. As healthcare recruiters, we reviewed thousands of nursing resumes. Unfortunately, the vast majority of them were missing multiple details that were important to the Nurse Managers and Nurse Supervisors who were largely responsible for making the hiring decisions. Moreover, missing these critical details can ultimately lead to ma homework com, a lower ranking within the about methods, Applicant Tracking Systems so prevalent in today’s hiring process. We hope the information provided here will help you create an amazing resume! First, it’s important to have an idea of ma homework how the assassination essay, hiring process typically works in order to thoroughly understand the importance of these critical details. When a job opens up to com, the general public, the healthcare employer can sometimes receive hundreds of resumes. Cover Letter. In some cases, the resumes are electronically ranked by Applicant Tracking Systems that award higher rankings for resumes that include the critical skills and experiences sought for ma homework the job. In any case, staffing office representatives, mostly recruiters, will review the obesity essay, rankings and resumes and pass along the “best” candidates to the hiring managers. Ma Homework Com. It’s important to note that being the online, “best” often means having a resume with all the critical details.
If the information isn’t there, then the ma homework, resume stands a far greater chance of being removed from the essay, process. It’s important to note that missing these details is not the nurse’s fault. Unfortunately, the vast majority of informational resources pertaining to resumes is very general in nature. General resources are useful only for people with very general careers like “Sales”. These resources are mostly useless for nurses. Meanwhile, many resources specifically related to nurse resumes offer insufficient detail. Moreover, healthcare employers do a terrible job at conveying what they’re looking for in their job descriptions, so candidates have no clue what to include in ma homework com their resumes. Skimming the list below may leave the impression that everything on it is obvious. Of Julius Caesar Essay. However, reading the details provided for com each item will most likely uncover items which are missing from your nursing resume . What to Include on Your Nursing Resume. There are literally thousands of potential professional affiliations for nurses. In most cases, employers want to know if you belong to any.
For example, if you belong to the American Association of Critical Care Nurses or the Emergency Nurses Association, then most employers would like to know this. Include the following information: Affiliation name Your date of admission Offices held Brief description of your role or reason you chose this group over others. 9. Honors/Awards/Special Assignments: As with every other resume, a nurse’s resume should include any honors and awards they’ve received. Making. Examples include honors and awards from school, work, volunteer work, professional affiliations, and even social clubs. Nurses should also include any special assignments they were given at work.
Did you ever take charge duty? Did you do any scheduling or mentoring? You may choose to com, place these items under their own heading. Essay. However, this isn’t necessary. You can also add them where applicable throughout the rest of your resume. 8. Specific Nursing Education Details: Including the degree you earned (ADN, ASN, BSN, MSN, etc.) is a must.
Not including it increases the ma homework com, chances that your resume will be removed from consideration. Paper Wuthering Heights. This is because the information is com often required for childhood obesity essay the resume to move through the process and it isn’t easily attainable by ma homework com the staffing office. Of Julius Caesar. So, they’ll often pass on a resume that doesn’t include the information in favor one that does. Provide at least the following information about your education: Name of ma homework school Degree earned Beginning date Completion date City, and State. You might also consider adding a description that includes achievements, awards, scholarly organizations and activities, or your GPA if it was really high. Of course, scholastic achievements are more important the assassination of julius essay, earlier you are in com your career, so keep that in mind when crafting the education section of your resume. Finally, you may also wish to include details on any continuing education units you’ve taken within the last 2 years. Bonus: Are you bilingual? If so, be sure to include it on your resume! According to a recent study from Wanted Analytics, “bilingual” was the second most commonly required skill listed on nursing job advertisements.
7. Nursing License and assassination essay, Certification Details: It is highly recommended that you include the ma homework com, following for your licenses: License type (LPN, RN, NP, CRNA, etc.) Licensing State/Body Name on license if different from name on friends, resume License expiration date License number If the license is part of the Nurse Licensure Compact, then state it clearly. Many people argue that a nursing license number should not be included on a resume as a matter of privacy. However, nursing license numbers are a matter of com public record. They can be easily obtained from each state’s Board of Nursing using the standard information included on your resume.
Providing the license number simply makes the recruiter’s job easier. And in a competitive job market, that could make all the childhood obesity argument, difference in the world. When it comes to certifications, it is highly recommended that you include the following for ma homework com every certification you hold: Certification name (BLS, ACLS, PALS, TNCC, etc.) Certifying body (AHA, etc) Expiration date, or date acquired if it has no official expiration date. Unlike most professions, nursing is conducted round-the-clock. Caesar Essay. Therefore, it’s best to convey the com, shifts you’re willing to work on your nursing resume. Are you open to working 8, 10, and/or 12 hour shifts? Are you open to working Days, Mids, PMs, and/or Nocs?
You should include this information even if you’re applying for a specific job with a specific shift. You never know if the employer has another opening that is unadvertised which you maybe qualified for. Moreover, resumes aren’t always submitted to love wuthering, specific job advertisements. In fact, many sources indicate that 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. Including your availability is very helpful for com general job inquiries. In addition, you should indicate your willingness to relocate when applicable.
These statements regarding availability can be given their own heading, but it’s best to simply add them to your Professional Summary. The healthcare industry is assassination of julius caesar going electronic. Paper charting will soon be a way of the com, past. It’s imperative to list any and all Electronic Health Record (EHR) and essay, Electronic Medical Record (EMR) experience you have. Ma Homework. According to a recent study by Wanted Analytics, “Electronic Medical Record” was the most commonly required skill for nurses listed in nursing job advertisements. Teaching. “Epic Software” and “Meditech”, popular EMR software packages, were also on the list. Of course, billing codes are a big part of EMRs.
And both ICD10 and ICD 9 are among the most commonly listed skills in job advertisements. Com. So if your scope of essay practice deals with this in any way, then be sure to com, add these to your resume. You may also want to include any other computer experience you have just in obesity essay case it may be of ma homework com value to the employer, or to at least demonstrate that you have computer skills if you lack experience with EHRs and EMRs. Signifying the type of facility you worked in tells the childhood obesity argument, potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. You should know the exact designation of ma homework com all the facilities you worked with and about methods, if you don’t, now is the time to find out. Short term acute care? Long Term Care? Long Term Acute Care? Senior Nursing Facility? In addition, if you worked at a Trauma Hospital, then you should include this on your resume along with the trauma designation (1, 2, 3, etc).
If you worked at a teaching hospital, then you should include this information. Such information can be included under the specific job description in your resume’s Work History section, or in your resume’s Summary. For example, if the job listing you’re applying for lists trauma hospital experience as necessary or desired, then it’s a good idea to identify your trauma experience in the resume Summary to make it stand out. Include the number of total beds at the facilities you worked at, as well as the number of beds in the specific units on ma homework, which you worked. Just like the facility type, providing the childhood argument essay, number of beds tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. We regularly saw resumes that listed things like “3 West” as the unit. Unfortunately, only people who work at that facility know what that means. Instead, include the type of unit (MS, TELE, ICU, CVICU, ER, LD, etc) in order to convey the message. Ma Homework Com. We can’t stress enough how important this is.
Also include your caseload. What was the nurse to patient ratio in this unit, and how much support was there in the form of making essay LPNs, CNAs, or MAs? Include any other unit specific details as well. Did the unit take trauma patients? Did the ma homework, unit routinely deal with overflow from other units?
If so, what types of patients were seen from beautician cover letter overflow? 1. Com. Specific Details/Duties and Accomplishments Regarding Your Nursing Experience: Up to online, this point, the focus has been on incidental, although very important, details. But what about the meat of your resume, the job descriptions and experiences that make up the bulk of your resume? When it comes to this, nurses are in the precarious position of balancing duties with accomplishments. You see, the current standard recommendation for com resumes is to make them accomplishment driven.
The idea is that you should provide specific accomplishments, as opposed to duties, that illustrate how your work translated into quantifiable and of julius caesar essay, tangible results for your current and previous employers. Advocates of this approach advise against listing duties on your resume. However, healthcare employers need to know that you have experience with the highly technical duties that are integral to ma homework com, the job you’re applying for. At the same time, they too want to know about your accomplishments. Therefore, it’s important to include details about the specific day-to-day duties you performed. However, at the same time, you don’t want to fall into of julius, the trap of creating a “duties-driven resume”.
Managing this challenge represents a key difference between nursing resumes and general resumes. Before we continue, it’s best to address the ma homework com, 800 pound gorilla in this conversation. Nurses sometimes have hundreds of duties and responsibilities. How do you choose which ones to list because you certainly can’t list them all? We hate to say it, but including things like, “Provided patient care” is a complete waste of space.
It’s simply too general. Our experience indicates that many nurses believe that nursing is very similar no matter where you go which may be the reason that such general statements are so often included in love research nursing resumes. In reality, the ma homework com, differences are stark between various facilities. For example, the Step-Down Unit at one hospital may not work with Swan-Ganz Catheters while the essay teaching, SDU in com another hospital may. With that in mind, here are some general themes to childhood, consider when determining the types of duties to ma homework, include on your resume. This list is not comprehensive, but it should help you understand the level of specificity that we’re talking about: Did you start IVs? Did you administer medications? Which medications? What type of patients did you care for? Renal?
Cardiovascular? Neuro? Ortho? Rehab? What was the age range of the patient population you cared for? What specific equipment do you have experience with? Did you read strips? Work with vents? Trachs?
Balloon pumps? Swan-Ganz? da Vinci Surgical System? Which industry-wide protocols, processes and procedures are you experienced with? For example, AIDET is among the argument, most commonly listed requirements in nursing job advertisements. There are many similar protocols, processes and procedures throughout the ma homework, industry, so be sure to make note of childhood those that were used by your previous employers. Now, we’re still in the tough spot of determining exactly which skills and duties to include on com, the resume. First, start by including any duties specifically mentioned in the job description that you have experience with. Next, do some research on the employer in question to find specific details that may help you decide which duties might be important to childhood obesity argument essay, list. Use the company website, news, and any professional connections you have in an effort to determine the types of patients, processes and procedures common to the specific employer in question. Once you have the duties narrowed down, there are a couple of ways to com, convey them on your nursing resume. First, you can incorporate the duties into your “accomplishment statements”.
We discuss this approach below. Second, you can simply list out the duties. Cover. While this is com less preferred, it is sometimes not possible to accomplish any other way. Your summary is a good place for essay this. For example, you might include the com, following in your resume summary if you’re applying for a position in essay the CVICU: Proficient with starting IVs, Intra-aortic balloon pumps, 12-Lead Placements, 12-Lead Interpretation, AICD Insertion, Beta Blockers, Argotroban, Atropine and other cardiovascular medications. Bonus: Given the large number of skills and com, duties nurses are responsible for, you may consider utilizing a “Skills Checklist” during your job search. Skills Checklists are self assessment tools commonly used throughout the healthcare industry.
BluePipes provides members with free access to over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that can be completed, saved and downloaded as PDF documents. You can view a sample here. They’re a great way to beautician, convey your skills to potential employers. You might consider uploading them along with your resume when applying for ma homework com jobs or you can bring them to your job interviews. Considerations for Accomplishments.
Now that we’ve covered duties, let’s take a look at accomplishments. First, you can try to frame duties inside “accomplishment statements” in essay order to ma homework, knock them both out at the same time. In other words, offer an explanation about how you achieved results while performing your duties. Again, this isn’t always possible, but here are some considerations: Did you receive recognition or awards from your previous/current employer?
Did your previous/current employer receive recognition or rewards? How did performing your duties contribute to that? When framing accomplishments, it’s also useful to know how your previous and current employers quantified their success as an organization. Or Obsession Paper. For example, patient satisfaction is typically tracked with programs like HCAHPS or Press Ganey. Did your employer experience improvements with such indicators?
How did performing your duties influence that? Next, it’s important to understand how your current and ma homework com, former employers measured your individual performance as this is very helpful when framing accomplishments. Nearly every healthcare employer conducts employee evaluations. Evaluations typically offer both qualitative and quantitative information that can be leveraged when framing accomplishment statements. Again, you may choose to friends online, list specific duties you’re proficient with separate from your accomplishments. Com. Or, you may choose to frame the duties within your accomplishment statements. Or you may choose a combination of the two approaches. In any case, it’s important to argument, provide both job-specific duties and accomplishments on your nursing resume.
Bonus: Healthcare is very diverse. Many hiring managers would also like to know what other skill sets you have outside of your primary area of ma homework com expertise. Did you float to the ER or LD units when needed? If so, then you may want to methods, provide some reference to the skills and accomplishments you achieved in these areas. General perspective on nursing resumes. This may seem like a ton of information to incorporate into com, a standard resume. However, nursing is not a standard profession and concerns over resume length are becoming antiquated with the advent of Applicant Tracking Systems. Moreover, the push to childhood, force nursing and healthcare resumes to conform to the standard format that serves general professionals, like salespeople, is a disservice to both healthcare professionals and employers.
Healthcare professionals often miss opportunities to ma homework, highlight skills and experience that are highly sought after. As a result, healthcare employers often miss out on perfect candidates. This push toward generalized conformity is even prevalent on the most popular job boards, like Monster and CareerBuilder, and professional networking services like LinkedIn. Nurses and other healthcare professionals are better served by industry specific professional networking services like BluePipes. For example, BluePipes provides nurses with a profile builder capable of recording healthcare specific career details as well as the ability to essay, print the profile to ma homework com, PDF as a resume formatted specifically for healthcare professionals. So it’s like a cloud based resume service. Sam Watkins. It also offers several other tools that help nurses manage their careers more effectively and ma homework, efficiently. As always, your feedback is greatly appreciated. Please let us know what you think by posting a comment! 16 Tips To Prepare Your Nursing Resume For Applicant Tracking Systems We’ve spoken to countless nurses and other healthcare professionals who. How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as.
Nursing Resume Objective or Summary? Nurses often wonder if they should include an objective or. I am wondering how to list my experience as a maternal-child float RN of 2+ years. Obesity Essay. I worked 4 different units, all quite different, ranging from mom baby, to peds, peds ed/uc, and nicu. How do i go about addressing those different areas and responsibilities and skills, when they all fell under 1 position? Thank you for ma homework com the information, its very helpful. This site is of so much help to me. thank you, and it is also free. Its amazing, I just can’t appreciate it enough. I was wondering, i am a one year experience nurse at a step down ICU (PCU), I am now looking for a job in beautician an ICU. The locations and facility i am looking at have nothing for com experience nurses, but have a lot of positions for caesar new nurses that want to work in ICU.
I just want to apply to the new nurse position and ma homework com, i really don’t mind the pay. Now my question is, should i just use my new grad resume with my clinical experience or i should update my resume with my one year experience and apply although the position is for new grads. please i will really appreciate any advise. thanks you. How can I include my Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC on my resume. Can I include it on my credentials area on top of my resume – following my name and degree? I ask because the ANCC instructs to do so on letter, their website. Ma Homework Com. I’ll be honest it’s somewhat confusing though, at least to me. I plan to essay, include my Medsurg certification in certification section of ma homework my resume where BLS and RN licensure are, etc. I just wanted it to childhood obesity argument essay, stand out and pop so to speak – as to not have to read on to notice it. On ANCC site, on ma homework com, a “How to Display Your Credentials” page they instruct you to include RN- BC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified). Was hoping you could clarify or add something else.
Great web site … thanks. Thanks for the inquiry, Jesse, and my sincerest apologies for childhood obesity argument the delay! Your Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC is considered a “National Certification” and should be listed after your name at the top of your resume and in the Licenses and Certifications section of your resume. The order for listing credential after your name is: Highest Degree Earned State License National Certification Nationally Recognized Honors and Awards. I hope this helps! I have been working out of the acute care setting in public health nursing for 7 years. I have heard over and over that because I have been out of the com, acute care setting for so long that I don’t qualify for a lot of the paper, positions that I have applied for. Admittedly, I have not used many nursing skills for the last 7 years, except for ma homework com giving immunizations and occasionally drawing blood. I have gotten very weary and feel like I will not be able to find another job, and I am really not happy with my current job. I am unsure of how to make my resume “pop” and have prospective employers want to give me a chance.
I am not looking to about teaching, get back into ma homework com, areas that are highly skilled, but I would not mind getting back into acute care. Any ideas. Kurt, I am an cover letter RN at com, a VA hospital in cardiac telemetry. One of the biggest hurdles to applying at any VA facility is the fact that USA Jobs is a digital screening tool as much as it is an beautician letter online application portal. Matching as many keywords in the functional statements for ma homework your desired role in your application can be the difference between getting an interview and being passed over. Hope this helps! In your article you talked about whether or not your previous/current employer received recognition or rewards.
I’m working on applying for a position that is open for an orthopedic nurse after quitting my previous orthopedic nurse job. The hospital that I previously worked received recognition for their total joint replacement program. I was wondering if this would be something that is friends online essay good to include as part of my resume, considering I was a part of the ma homework com, unit during that time for the hospital’s certification/recognition. Childhood Obesity. If so, how would you go about including that in without making it seem just a random fact listed and make it more as an accomplishment for ma homework myself also since I was a part of that unit/team during that time. Thanks for the inquiry, Jessica. Yes, this is definitely something you can include on your resume.
If you feel that you’re not able to expand in a way that adequately describes your role in beautician cover letter the achievement, then you may want to expand in ma homework your cover letter. On your resume, you might want to couple this team achievement with one of sam watkins essay your own that demonstrates you were a key contributor. Com. For example, you might have received an individual award or a high employee evaluation score. You may also want to include this in your summary as opposed to the job description to make it stand out sam watkins essay, a little more. I hope this helps! I am an experienced OR nurse who has performed in just about every surgery setting from Open heart to com, Ophthalmology, outpatient as well as pre-op admitting and recovery In the past I have managed a surgery department at a busy hospital and also ran a surgery center. I have been fortunate to have been able to take off time to stay home and be with my children. That being said, I am worried about the years off and blank space on my resume. How would you go about friends online essay filling in the gap?
I have volunteered in multiple areas at their schools, from organizing an Emergency Preparedness fair, fundraisers and teaching Compression Only CPR. Ma Homework. My license and continuing CEU’s have always rained current. Do you think this will make it difficult for me as I try entering the childhood argument essay, job setting? I appreciate any suggestions you might have. Thanks for the inquiry. There is no steadfast rule on how to handle this situation, but there are two fundamental approaches to ma homework, consider. First, you can consider a “Functional Resume.” Functional resumes are resumes that focus on skills instead of of julius experiences. In your case, you would focus on ma homework, all of of julius caesar essay your OR experience. You might have a small section to list your previous employers. or you may even choose to leave it out entirely. Ma Homework Com. There are many examples of Functional Resumes available on childhood, the internet.
Second, you could use a traditional chronological resume. Com. In this case, you would list your experience raising the childhood obesity, kids as one of the com, entries in your chronological work history. You could include details on the experiences mentioned in paper your comment on this blog post. Again, there is no right or wrong way. Ma Homework. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. To answer your question, yes, this situation is always a bit of assassination caesar challenge. However, experienced nurses are in high demand at the moment, so you should be fine.
Also, I’m personally inclined to recommend the chronological format. The main advantage of Functional Resumes in this particular case is to ma homework com, draw attention to or obsession wuthering, your skills and away from the gap in recent experience. However, employers are going to find the gap no matter what. Ma Homework Com. So, I think it’s best to embrace it. Love Or Obsession Paper Wuthering. With the chronological resume, you can still include all the ma homework com, applicable skills.
I hope this helps! I have worked in home health and corrections for sam watkins essay about 5 years now. Ma Homework. I have done a lot of basic nursing ranging from blood draws, interpreting labs, starting IVs, wound care, peritoneal dialysis, picc line care (including using clot busters) and removal. IV anti biotics, med passes small and large including mental health medication passes. I have responded to chest pain calls, shortness of breath, hangings, falls, knife wounds, self inflicted wounds, and unresponsive patients. I have worked in a corrections hospital with acute and long term patients as well as hospice patients, but it isn’t seen as ER work even though it seems from talking to other nurses that that isn’t so far different than those working in a hospital ER.. Trying to format my resume to make my experience fit into what the Veterans Administration would want/be attracted to.. I am a soon to be retiring Military Nurse and will be transitioning to the civilian workforce.
How important are listing awards? I have numerous military awards based on essay about teaching, my work ethics and performance on the job, but I am afraid that the general public is not going to have any idea what they are or mean. Also, any good tips on ma homework, turning military missions into civilian language? Thanks for your service!! I think it’s a great idea to add the awards to your resume. Sam Watkins Essay. You could do one of two things. Simply list them out by ma homework com their official name. Obesity. There’s a good chance that the com, reviewer will search for the award on the internet and essay about teaching, find it. Or, you could add a very brief description of the ma homework, award in parentheses.
For example: X Award (earned for valor in making friends action). Either way, if you have a lot of ma homework awards, then you may want to caesar essay, include only the highest ranking awards. Ma Homework Com. If you choose to list many of cover them, then put them in columns or in com a continuous stream separated by commas to save space. Conveying your military experience in civilian language can be challenging if you did not work in a military hospital. My apologies, but I lack the technical expertise to provide detailed recommendations.
That said, I’d recommend reviewing the job descriptions for the jobs you’re applying for beautician cover use them to guide your efforts whenever possible. I hope this helps and thanks again! I have a position working in a “float pool” (we call it the Mobile Unit). The unit is split into two different tracks, med/surg (HV general acuity patients; ortho/urology/gen/gyn surgery; neuro/ENT; Onc [recent unit merge means I don’t float here anymore]; gen med; adult psych; child/adolescent psych; Postpartum (moms and babies); inpatient rehab) and critical care track (Onc/Med/Surg IMCU; ICU; HV high acuity patients; ER; Neonatal ICU). How do I discuss bed numbers for ma homework each unit and descriptions that highlight any specific training I have had to play into each patient population? It seems like there’s no way for me to cover all of this detail without leaving a lot out beautician, or getting too wordy.
I also accepted a critical care position, but have not transitioned yet. Ma Homework. My husband just got a job out of state, so we have to relocate, as much as I love my current employer. This is a great question; thanks for posting it here! You’re right, you’re probably not going to be able to about teaching, convey the broad spectrum of your experience without getting too wordy for your nursing resume. So, you’ll need to offer some general details as well as some specific details. When it comes to specifics, it’s best to com, tailor your resume to the specific job you’re applying for.
Find out what they’re looking for and be sure to convey that you have the of julius essay, skill set, or convey relevant details about ma homework your experience. I believe this is the most important consideration for making essay your resume. When it comes to generalizations, you could offer a description similar to the one you’ve provided here. For example: I worked on a Mobile Unit, or Float Pool, caring for com Med/Surg patients 50% of the time and ICU patients 50% of the time. The Med/Surg patients included Postpartum, PSYCH, general Med/Surg, and Neuro/ENT. The ICU patients included ER, NICU and general ICU. Unit sizes varied from 5 beds up to 25 beds. You might also try utilizing skills checklists to letter, convey your experience, especially if you make it to the interview stage.
Also, many applicant tracking systems allow applicants to upload documents, so you might be able to upload skills checklists there. Ma Homework Com. You can complete and save skills checklists on BluePipes and utilize them at your convenience. I hope this information helps! My husband was an ICU nurse for making online 5 years (18 months of that he was an ICU travel nurse) but took 2.5 years off to work in another field. He’s now applying for nursing positions as we prepare to move. Should he address the com, clinical gap in his resume? With just his last RN job listed, it looks like he last worked in 2013 though he’s been employed as a youth minister since then. How should he handle this?
Yes, you should address the gap in the resume. It’s fairly common for hospitals to require the last 7 years of work history to be included on their job applications. A large percentage of the hospitals I worked with had similar requirements for resumes. Unfortunately, the default assumptions when it comes to beautician letter, employment gaps are all negative. Do your best to com, tie the experience into nursing. I believe most career advisers would recommend the same. I hope this information helps! I am applying for RN jobs, but am still waiting to take my boards (will take them within the next 1-2 months).
How should I address this on obesity argument essay, my resume? You may want to com, add an excerpt under Licenses and online, Certifications or your Summary (or wherever appropriate) that provides the date you’re scheduled to com, take the childhood argument, exam. Ma Homework. For example: RN: Scheduled for NCLEX on July 9, 2015. I hope this helps! Thank you! I think that’s what i’ll do. For a new graduate of childhood argument a second-degree BSN program, would you recommend including GPA (3.9) on a resume? Thanks for ma homework com the question, Emily!
Yes, I recommend adding a great GPA to your nursing resume. We discuss this in assassination of julius caesar essay our blog post on new grad resumes and in our blog blog post on job search tips nurses should avoid. Many people argue that your GPA doesn’t matter. They say that all that matters is ma homework com that you’re licensed. If that were the case, then no details about you as a person, your work ethic, or achievements would matter either. And we know that’s not true. It is assassination caesar HIGHLY unlikely that your resume is passed over because you included your high GPA. Meanwhile, many hospitals and hiring managers love to see it, and assign value to it. So yes, by all means, add it.
I hope this helps! Great work, by com the way! I am wondering if I should include phone numbers for my previous employers? If yes, which number should I use – the general number, the unit, or HR? Also, some of my employment history goes back many years and the identifying information(number of beds, etc.) has changed. I do not have the correct information from when I worked there.
How should I list this information? Is there a good way to find current identifying information for assassination of julius a hospital? Thanks in ma homework com advance for your response. Thanks for posting these great questions! First, there are no set rules for nursing resumes, so you’ll find some disagreement on almost every resume recommendation.
That said, the sam watkins, general rule is that you should not include the contact telephone numbers for ma homework your previous employers on your resume. In fact, you don’t need to include the online, complete address either. The city and state will suffice for ma homework your resume. On a side not, chances are that you’ll be applying for most jobs on the company’s website through an applicant tracking system. Or Obsession Research Paper Heights. These online applications may allow you to enter the com, telephone numbers and addresses for your former employers. In this case, I always recommend adding every last bit of information you can to or obsession paper wuthering, your online applications. Again though, that’s separate from your resume. Ma Homework. On a another side note: If you are applying for travel nursing jobs, then you should include the telephone numbers and the supervisor names for assassination caesar your previous jobs. In order to find current information for ma homework com your former employers, you can use a website like The American Hospital Directory. They have a free hospital profile lookup tool. I recommend using the “advanced search” for about best results.
Please note that the links to these pages are underlined in blue. Here you will find the current contact information, number of beds, teaching hospital status, trauma status, etc. If you are unable to locate the information here or if your former employers are not hospitals, then you can simply try a google search for them or try the Medicare.gov site. If your former employer does business with Medicare, then they should be in the database with current information…assuming they want to get paid :-). Now, about your older work history. Many resume experts recommend including only the last 10 years of work history on ma homework, your resume. However, that assumes that your prior experience may no longer be applicable to friends online essay, your current job search. Others argue that you shouldn’t include more than 10 years of work history because you don’t want to date yourself. They’re concerned about “ageism” in the hiring process. These same people recommend not to include the dates you attended college.
Ultimately, it’s up to com, you to include this information, I just wanted to provide some considerations. I hope this information helps. Please let me know if there are further questions! Help! I have over love or obsession research wuthering, 22 years of clinical experience including ICU, hemodialysis, and outpatient surgery ctr (pre and pacu), and for the last 6 years (in addition to the 22 years) I’ve been reading electronic charts to extract data and support level of care (I’m told this is utilization review by a friend but we never called it that in work).
Now Ive been laid off (it was a large comp layoff). I’m trying to get into QA, UR, pre cert or case managment. Com. I was told I have a solid resume but I’ve gotten 3 calls in 3 months, I blew the first interview and the next 2, they said they wanted CM experience. What do I need to friends online essay, do to get into these fields? Any suggestions? We’re sorry to ma homework, hear about beautician cover your current situation! It’s always difficult to break into an entirely new field.
However, it sounds as though you have some experience to build on. Typically, Case Management and Utilization Review require InterQual experience. Ma Homework. If you have experience with that system, then be sure to include it on obesity argument, your resume. Otherwise, see if you can obtain some training in it. Check with local and state agencies to ma homework, see if there are any offerings for people in your situation.
Also, review the specific details of each job opening and tailor your resume to include the key requirements where applicable. Check to see if there is a local association that you can network with like the Case Management Society of America for example. Ask anyone you speak with if a Case Management Certification would improve your chances, perhaps even call the people you’ve interviewed with previously to see what they say. If so, look into sam watkins essay, certification. We hope this information helps!
I have been reading through some of ma homework com this thread and was wondering if you do any resume/cover letter revisions? I can tell you put a lot of childhood argument essay useful/productive feedback into your responses and ma homework, would value your opinion if you were to review a copy of mine! P.S. When you mention Computer Experience in beautician letter the article above, do you suggest adding these details under each individual job (under work experience/history) the comp. Ma Homework Com. experience applies to or under a separate section such as the one you have listed as Comp. Experience? Thank you for all your time and love research paper wuthering heights, effort! Thanks for ma homework com reaching out!
My sincerest apologies, but I do not do resume/cover letter revisions. Cover Letter. Thanks so much for your interest though. Ma Homework. As for the computer experience, you can add it with any of the methods you described. The important thing is beautician cover that it’s there. The resume builder on BluePipes.com lists computer experience under a separate heading.
We do this as way to ensure that members recognize and record it and perspective employers and recruiters are able to easily locate the details on ma homework, the members’ profiles and about, resumes. Given that EMR experience is becoming such a prevalent requirement, it’s good to have it easily accessible on your resume. However, it’s also good to add these details under each individual job when creating your own resume. It may not be as easy to locate, but it takes up less space, avoids redundancy, and still presents the information. We hope this information helps! I am currently an com RN with 4 years solid experience in a 16 bed transitional care unit. Now I’m trying to teaching methods, move to ma homework com, a more challenging position. Prior to assassination of julius caesar, immigrating to ma homework, America I was a medical doctor for 9 years in or obsession research paper heights ER. Would it be wise to mention that experience? …maybe describing my duties and medical college?
I work in ma homework com a program that enrolls military medic and argument essay, corpsman and com, gives credit for their military experience towards an intensive BSN-RN program. My question is teaching methods what should the graduates highlight on com, their resumes? Many have extensive trauma and nursing care experience. Suggestions? Hi! I have a question / concern.
I just finished my 2nd year of nursing and on a med Surg unit. I have been asked to apply to an ICU position and I need to update my resume. I don’t know what to making online essay, include. Ma Homework. Prior to nursing, I was a surgical tech for 16+ years and love paper, active duty for 10 years. Ma Homework. I really enjoyed your blog and will refer to it when updating my resume! We’re glad to hear the information was useful. Or Obsession Research Heights. Congratulations on ma homework com, being asked to obesity argument, apply for ma homework com an ICU position. That’s a good sign! #128578; Sounds like you have a lot of great experience to beautician cover letter, include on your resume.
We recommend focusing most attention on your recent experience in MedSurg as it is the ma homework, most applicable to the ICU role you’ll be applying for. However, you can also include brief descriptions of beautician cover your surgical tech and active duty experience as they are certainly desirable experiences. Relate all your work history descriptions to ma homework com, the ICU position. Making Essay. To do so, find out as much as possible about the job and the unit. We hope this helps!! Oh MY! I’m sooOOO grateful to ma homework com, have found your blog page! I was about to sam watkins essay, do my sister a grave disservice –as you’ve mentioned. Indeed, the day of the ma homework, one page crammer is passe’. Especially with the value of the keyword in electronic filing. Thanks so very much; you may have saved my Sis’s resume from becoming fodder for the shredder. [[shudder]]
We’re glad to hear the information is argument useful. To be clear, 1 page resumes are still useful, particularly for com job fairs or any other instance where the resume will be given directly to an individual. However, in most cases, people are attaching their resume in an Applicant Tracking System. In this case, it’s still good to be brief and choose your words wisely. Don’t be overly verbose and don’t “keyword stuff.” However, you also shouldn’t be worried about a 2-3 page resume if your background requires it. Teaching. Be sure to tailor the resume’s wording to the job posting where applicable based on your background. We hope this helps! Thank you for this article! I realized that my resume was not up to par by reading this. Ma Homework Com. I had many generalized statements, which I have replaced with information on what I really did on love or obsession wuthering, the day to day. I recently worked at a hospital for 4 months and ma homework, resigned due to it not being a good fit.
It was a cardiac surgery step down unit, so it gave me experience with tele that I have not had in my 5 years as a nurse. Should I include it on my resume? You’re welcome! We’re glad to hear you found the information useful. This is a tough question. I assume you’re asking because you’re concerned that the short employment duration might raise some questions in the minds of potential employers. Essay. That’s a valid concern. On the flip side, you did gain some valuable experience that would be great to add to your nursing resume. There is another issue to consider. Hospitals often have strict policies requiring that healthcare professionals provide them with every last bit of the healthcare professional’s employment history. Ma Homework. Omitting a previous job on your employment application could be grounds for dismissal depending on how they have their clauses worded.
Of course, this depends on their ability to verify the omitted employment. This may not necessarily affect you during the candidate review process when your resume is typically the document they’re working off of. However, if you land a job offer, then they’ll eventually require an application to completed. If you choose to cover letter, add the omitted job at that point, then you’ll have some explaining to do. Utltimatly, the decision is yours. If you choose to add the employment to your resume, then you may want to offer a brief explanation of why you left in your cover letter.
It’s all about the ma homework, story you tell. We hope this helps. This is all great information but I do have a question. I am a recent BSN grad and licensed RN trying to beautician, land my first job. Would you recommend including my preceptorship under clinical experience or as work experience? I have seen it both ways in examples online.
Thanks, Kristin. We’re glad to ma homework, hear this information on caesar, was useful. You’re correct, you’ll find preceptorship experience displayed both ways…under clinical and work experience. To further confuse the ma homework, issue, some people believe that clinical experience and work experience are one and the same while others believe they are two different things entirely. We view the preceptorship as something akin to a highly advanced internship. For all intents and purposes, it is work experience. However, it doesn’t constitute a traditional employment relationship.
Therefore, feel free to include it under either category on your resume, but be sure to clearly indicate that it’s your preceptorship. On a side note, we cannot stress enough the importance of professional networking when landing your first job. 70%-80% of all jobs are obtained through networking. While your resume is important, networking is the key…especially for childhood obesity argument essay new grads. Ma Homework. We hope this information helps. Best of luck!! Great info – I could have used that for my last job application! Do you have any tips / strategies to prepare for beautician job interviews? I am finding these horribly stressful and hard to get my point across even when I know I’d be really good at the job I’m applying for. Thanks, Heidi! We don’t have any blog posts regarding interviews yet.
Thanks for com the suggestion. We’ll explore the topic soon. Thank you! This is making online very informative. Do you have any sample resume and ma homework, application letter? We’re glad to hear the making friends essay, information is useful, Meth! Yes, you can view our sample nursing resume which you can create for free as a member of BluePipes. You can view our recommendations on writing a nursing cover letter. Ma Homework. We hope this helps! I LOVE this information!
Thank you. Here’s my question. Of Julius. I have had several careers, all with different education components, dating back to the mid 1980’s. Com. How far back should I go? None relate to my current field (new nursing graduate).
It’s been a long time since I’ve actually developed a resume and things have changed…Plus, this career doesn’t match those careers…. Is it appropriate to ask a nursing instructor to be a reference? Are references included now-a-days? Many, many thanks! We’re glad to hear the information is helpful!! Congratulations on your recent graduation from nursing school! Yes, it’s a great idea to essay teaching, ask an ma homework com instructor to be a reference. Unfortunately, your questions regarding what to obesity argument essay, include on your resume aren’t so cut and dry.
I think it’s fair to com, say that the vast majority of childhood essay career consultants would say you shouldn’t put references on ma homework com, a resume. However, if you could get a redeeming quote from essay a strong reference, like an instructor, to put in your resume summary, then it could be an eye catcher. You’re right, things have changed! We recommend reviewing our article on optimizing your resume for applicant tracking systems. However, one thing is as true today as it ever has been…networking is the single best approach to landing a job. We discuss the importance in our article with recommendations for New Grad RNs. It’s tough to com, recommend that you leave off your past education.
I’d say it would be good to add any College level education as well as healthcare related education. We hope this helps!! Best of luck! Excellent information! Nursing is a second career for me and trying to put together a winning nursing resume has been a challenge. You are right on the money….the resume I had for my corporate career doesn’t translate well into the healthcare field.
I am currently looking for a new position and realized what I had on my resume wasn’t going to about, work. I was destined to be one of those that got lost in the system. The tips you provided have been so helpful. I feel confident that I am submitting a resume that will get me noticed. Ma Homework. Thank you again for providing such valuable information. Congratulations on your new career path! We’re so glad you found this information useful. We wish you the best of luck in your job search. We hope you’ll consider joining BluePipes.com where you can create a resume, access skills checklists for free, and sam watkins, build your healthcare professional network.
Please excuse my shameless sales pitch #128578; Please let us know if we can help with any questions. I have read this post with great interest. Due to a job opportunity for ma homework my husband, we moved from KS to PA in 2012. Even securing an interview has been daunting! I have gotten some feedback from ‘ recruiters’ in obesity a large hospital in Pittsburgh, which was to be sure to apply to the job requirements, which interestingly were two pages long. How is that possible? The other problem I suspect I have is the fact I have more than 20 years as a registered nurse.
It seems the practice of the three major ‘players’ in this area, is to lay off their experienced nurses, in favor of hiring new grads and com, those with ‘ at assassination of julius caesar, least a year experience’. I did secure an ma homework interview which ended favorably; just short of making online essay a job offer. The next step at this particular hospital required by the nurse recruiter, was to list ALL OF MY EXPERIENCE. I have been in nursing since 1974! LPN in 1977 and BSN in com 1989. When she responded to my email outlining all this information, which took me more than 2 hours to complete, was ‘we want to make certain we give you recognition for all the years you have been a nurse. AND, that was the last I heard from making online them. Ma Homework. I contend she realized I would have to start at the upper end of compensation for my experience. Do you know of anyone who may be advocating for childhood essay the ‘older nurse?’ Never thought I would use those words to ma homework, describe myself… I am so much more than my age. I am effective, reliable, comprehensive in my assessments, professional role model and delightful as a team member.
Please give me some feedback relating to obesity essay, these concerns. I am ready to consult with the ma homework com, department of labor regarding this ‘alleged practice’ to decrease costs per fte.I think it’s a shame! really good information here! I was updating my resume as I was reading your tips – will definitely share with friends and collegues. Thank you so much! Hello, This was very thorough advice. I’ve yet to sam watkins, figure how to be concise yet detailed with these tips in ma homework mind. I have almost 2 years experience in beautician letter In-Patient Psychiatry and SNF just because those were the two jobs I landed. However, I always wanted to ma homework com, do LD or NICU.
I did my preceptorship in 2011 in of julius caesar essay LD. How can I use my experience and make it appealing for LD again? We’re glad to hear that you found the ma homework, information useful! You can view the BluePipes sample resume to get an idea for formatting yours. Please bear in mind that our site generates a PDF document and of julius essay, you could get more compact results with a word processor like Microsoft Word.
Also, you might be interested in ma homework reading our post on resume length. You can find creative ways to translate your Psych and SNF experience to NICU and L#038;D. Assassination Of Julius Essay. However, you most likely won’t be able to address the unique technical skills required for these units. You could look for volunteer opportunities working with pregnant women and newborns in ma homework com your community. While it’s always tough to find time to essay, volunteer, you’ll be doing a great service for your community and getting some relevant experience to add to your resume. Thank you for this very interesting article. I have been an RN for 9 years; 4 years at the bedside and 5 years in a hospital-based surgical practice doing outpatient, telehealth and some inpatient care. I would like to ma homework com, transition back to the bedside but feel that my lack of direct patient care over love paper, the last 5 years may be hamstringing me. How can I turn this perceived negative into ma homework, a positive and at cover letter, least get through the front door of the interview process? You’re welcome, we hope you found the ma homework, article useful. Making. Yours is com a legitimate challenge that many nurses share.
With respect to your resume, you should focus on demonstrating how your recent experience translates to bedside nursing. Caesar. While we’re not familiar with your specific scenario, we’re certain that there are aspects of ma homework com your experience with outpatient, telehealth and inpatient care that translate to bedside nursing. Carefully review the job duties and qualifications of bedside nurses, and not just those found in beautician the job descriptions of ma homework com online job postings, to get ideas for framing your recent experience in a way that applies to bedside nursing. Next, focus on writing an obesity argument essay excellent nursing cover letter in which you present yourself as a solution to the problems facing the employer in question. Of course, you’re still going to have some difficulties ranking highly in the applicant tracking system due to the lack of recent bedside experience. Therefore, networking is a must. Nearly 40% of all new-hires are the result of employee referral. With 9 years of experience, you’re bound to have some connections and now is the ma homework com, time to leverage them.
We realize this type of or obsession heights job searching can feel unorthodox, but its success rate is com too good to neglect it. Use professional networking sites like BluePipes and LinkedIn to enhance your networking efforts. Finally, we’ve spoken to many nurses who tout the childhood obesity argument essay, benefits of refresher courses for bedside nursing. While we aren’t familiar with such courses, the fact that many nurses recommend them is an com indication that they should be further researched as a potential tool when facing your challenge. Assassination Of Julius Caesar. We hope this information helps…and Good Luck!! i have a question regarding applying to ma homework, nursing positions.
I am a new grad RN and have several nursing job applications that have been under review for over a month. Last week I became certified in teaching ACLS and ma homework com, was wondering how to go about informing the hospitals that I am waiting to hear back from that I am newly certified in this skill, since it is not on beautician, my resume that they have on file (that I originally sent in). Congratulations on your recent achievements! This is a great question. You may be able to log in to the hospitals’ applicant tracking systems (the online system you most likely used to ma homework, apply) and essay, update your resume and/or profile. Com. Either way, you may also want to give them a call, ask for the staffing office and obesity, pose this question to the representative you speak with. We find that hospitals are quite responsive to candidate inquiries relative to other employers. We hope these recommendations help, and we’d love to hear back about what actions you take and how they work out.
Good luck! I completely disagree that availability should be included on com, the resume. When a nurse applies for a position it is love research wuthering heights usually clear what hours that he/she is applying to ma homework, work. I actually think it’s a bit juvenile to put availability on your resume. What I do think that many nurses omit is a well-crafted cover letter to accompany their resume. Beautician Cover. The additional touch of ma homework com a thoughtful and appropriate cover-letter can help give you an edge over other applicants who omit this step. I found some good details on cover letters for nurses here: http://bit.ly/1dDy8If . Thanks for the feedback, Brittney. Including availability on teaching methods, a nursing resume is important for many reasons.
First, the job applied for isn’t the only job available, and most jobs are never advertised so candidates will never really know about com all of the available jobs with a particular employer. Second, job specs don’t always display every last pertinent detail. With respect to availability, this can mean that a job advertised for day shifts might in-fact be for mid shifts, or pm shifts. This happens frequently when the job board technology limits the employer’s ability to beautician letter, accurately display the shifts. Ma Homework Com. Third, job specs often change on the back-end and letter, are never updated on the front-end.
So a job that’s advertised for days may have changed to nights without being updated on the job board. Fourth, due to the proliferation of applicant tracking systems, resumes are added to a searchable database these days. So resumes are searchable for future job openings. Finally, recruiters will almost always contact the candidate with the most attributes in common with any given job description. So in all of the scenarios described above, a recruiter will be more prone to contact the candidate with matching availability assuming all else is equal. Finally, it’s true that nursing resumes should always be tailored for a specific job description when a specific job is being applied for. However, a plurality of jobs are filled via networking and referrals.
In such cases, it’s rare that a specific job is com being applied for. Instead, a candidate passes their resume along to a contact who has connections with the employer in question. Essay Teaching Methods. The resume is reviewed for potential matches with available jobs and the candidate is contacted. Again, availability is one detail that recruiters and hiring managers are looking for. Lastly, we agree that cover letters are important and related to this topic.
However, they necessitate their own discussion and we plan on ma homework, addressing this in teaching methods a future blog post. This is great information! As a new graduate RN with no prior experience in the healthcare field what would you recommend? I have over 4 years in retail but I’m not sure if this would make much of a difference for recruiters. Any help is greatly appreciated, thanks! Hi there! Wow this information is great! Although I’m still an com undergraduate, I find this site very helpful for tips to keep in mind when applying for a job! I just had a concern that may affect my decision within the Nursing field… For a while, I was thinking of minoring in something in addition to Nursing that I can apply to caesar, the work field. I know that computer knowledge is a great booster for a resume, but I wanted to know if there were any other skills hospitals are looking for in their RNs?
Thank you again for the detailed explanations! Thanks, Michele! We’re glad you found the information useful! Yes, computer knowledge is a great booster for com the resume. Essay. You can look into Health Care Informatics as an option for a minor or additional coursework. You may also consider Healthcare Management or Administration, Nutritional Sciences, Biology, Sign Language, or Spanish. Ma Homework Com. In fact, Spanish is a huge selling point these days. As a side note: make the absolute most of your preceptorship.
Be at friends essay, your best and ma homework, use the opportunity to network with everyone you can. We hope this information helps!! Please let us know if you have any other questions. This is great information! Thank you! I am wondering though, as a RN with 1 year of experience in the CVICU, trying to move, with most places wanting more experience than that for hire, how should I market myself? I have done all of these critical care elements, but just not a ton of it. Before nursing school, I was a critical care telemetry tech for 3 years and a hospital pharmacy tech of online essay 3 years as well as a SNE(student nurse extern) during school. Because it is not nursing, but healthcare related, should I include it in my resume? It seems juvenile but pertinent to add some experience.
Thanks! We’re happy to hear you found the information helpful, Dashia! You pose an excellent question regarding the ma homework, inclusion of non-RN healthcare experience on your resume. Obesity Argument. There isn’t a steadfast rule, unfortunately, and you’re going to find that some people will say yes and some people will say no. Ma Homework Com. I fall in essay the yes camp and believe you should include all healthcare related experience on your resume for several reasons. First, it demonstrates progression within the general field of healthcare. Second, it conveys additional experience within the ma homework, field that other candidates may not have.
Third, in beautician cover many cases (and certainly in your case) the experience is ma homework related to the jobs you’re applying for. Fourth, it may help you stand out from love research paper wuthering other candidates with otherwise similar experience. Fifth, unbeknownst to many candidates, many hospitals require your last 7 to 10 years of ma homework work history regardless of whether or not it was healthcare related. While this requirement doesn’t factor into their candidate selection process, they will certainly collect the information at some point during the hiring process. Finally, it may help your resume rank higher in applicant tracking systems. I hope this information helps! This information is very helpfull. Hi. I obtained an MD degree overseas before I even started getting licensed here as RN. I was told it would not help or matter anymore if I include that in my resume.
What would you suggest? Hey Liza, I hope all is sam watkins well. I recommend including your overseas education. I agree that it most likely will not influence the initial resume screening process. However, it could have influence later in the process. You may not want to ma homework, make it a significant part of your resume, but I think including it is better than not. It certainly enhances your personal story. Do you have an example resume?
Hey Michaele, My apologies for the delay. Essay Teaching. We’ve been busy transferring our blog to this new domain. Ma Homework. We do not have an example nurse resume that we’re able to publish to the blog at this time. However, we will work on friends, getting one up soon. Also, I recommend becoming a member on BluePipes where your professional profile will allow you to record the top 10 details recommended for nursing resumes in this article. You can then print your BluePipes profile as a resume. Thanks so much!! This clarifies a lot for ma homework me. I am a new LPN attempting to start my career in love or obsession paper a new state and have read a lot of ma homework advice on Nurses.com that is wrong. I’ll take the love paper heights, advice of a recruiter over ma homework com, general opinions anytime.
Most on love or obsession, the other sites were saying NEVER to include your license # details until you actually get a job offer. Then I just applied to one that specifically asked that I provide that info as well as any certifications on my resume in order to be considered. I was hesitant since all the threads warn of protecting it at com, all cost due to identity theft? I’m glad you clarified this and some other points. I do have one question that is love or obsession research heights not addressed in your article.
If you are continuing your education to receive your BSN or MSN for example would mentioning that on your resume make a candidate more desirable to potential employers or would you leave that off? Hey Aimee, I’m glad to hear that you’ve found the information useful. Ma Homework Com. Great question!! I think it’s a great idea to add your education in progress to your resume. I recommend including an assassination caesar estimated completion date and ma homework, perhaps even the number of units completed to date. There are several reasons adding your education in progress could be beneficial. First, it could result in making online a higher ranking by the Applicant Tracking System. Second, it shows that you’re interested in advancing your knowledge and your career. Third, it demonstrates your own personal motivation.
As for ma homework the identity theft claims: Your license number is making essay a matter of public record already. Anybody can go to your state board of nursing and search by ma homework com name to verify your state license, which includes the license number. So, even letting someone know your name, that you’re a registered nurse, and the state you’re licensed in provides the means to easily obtain your license number. Providing it on obesity essay, your resume simply allows the com, human resources rep to skip this step. Or Obsession Research Heights. Which increases the chance that your resume will be passed up the chain.
And remember, you’re attaching your resume in secure Applicant Tracking Systems, many of ma homework com which also ask for your Social Security Number and friends essay, Date of Birth (although some states prohibit employers from asking for SSN on job applications). I recently completed my ADN, passed the NCLEX, and ma homework com, now I am working on my resume. Letter. I already have a BA and MSW, which I will include on my resume, but I am wondering how I can state that I intend to ma homework, pursue a BSN, although have not yet applied and don’t have credits towards the degree. Thanks for your advice. Congratulations on your recent achievements! You pose a great question regarding RN resumes, one for which there is no steadfast answer.
My belief is that it wouldn’t be appropriate to about teaching, include the com, information in the Education section of your resume because you haven’t yet been accepted to love or obsession research paper, a BSN program. However, you could certainly add it there once accepted to a program. Until then, you could make brief mention of this information in your nursing resume summary. We hope you find this response useful. Please feel free to post any follow-up or additional questions you may have. Good luck!! I have an additional question regarding previous education that I haven’t seen asked by anyone. I’m an older new grad.
I recently had someone look at ma homework, one of my resumes and give me her input. She deleted all but my nursing education (Associates Degree). In some ways I think it’s not a bad idea since the previous education dates me if I include the years I attended (which I don’t but suppose that omission might make HR wonder). On the other hand, I attended highly regarded universities for childhood argument essay undergrad and ma homework com, grad studies, not to mention it shows I have a Bachelors even though it’s not in the sciences. It seems like the RN to making friends, BSN courses are more human and social science courses, rather than science courses, however, and ma homework com, that is the majority of my BA. OK… That’s some background info, now I’ll get to the point #128578; I know that resumes should cover only the last 10 years of or obsession paper wuthering heights employment history. Do you think this ‘rule’ also applies to education? Should I leave it to discuss in an interview (as recommended by com the person who revised my resume)? I’m feeling very conflicted about this. The new resume doesn’t feel like me, my degrees can be related to the psycho-social aspect of nursing, and making friends online essay, when you fill in the online application portion they ask for all education (although you usually have to add on education). Ma Homework. I would greatly appreciate your insight and recommendation.
My sincerest apologies for the delay. Congratulations on your recent graduation! This is a tough situation. Both sides of the argument have merit. Moreover, there really aren’t any steadfast rules about resumes…only staunch opinions. To me, your nursing resume and cover letter are all about telling your story in a way that convinces the reader you’re the right person for the job while providing them with the details they need.
Personally, I’d keep the education details on the resume, and use a brief portion of the cover letter to tie that education into the story about you being the or obsession research paper wuthering heights, best candidate for ma homework the job in question. Given the information you’ve provided about your previous education, it sounds as though you have a great opportunity to do just that. Again, there is no right or wrong answer here. You may even try it both ways. Some readers will appreciate it one way and other will appreciate it another. Sam Watkins Essay. However, I’m of the belief that all education is valuable.
I hope this information helps. Ma Homework. We’d love to hear back about how it all works out!!
High Quality Custom Essay Writing Service -
MA - MBA Homework: December 2015
Aiming for Brevity: Quirky Application Prompts. College applications are increasingly testing students’ brevity, as The Chicago Tribune pointed out on Friday. The Tribune noted a rise in very-short-response prompts on various schools’ applications, many of which have capped submissions at ma homework the Twitter-friendly count of 25 words. Brown University, for instance, has asked its applicants this year to write – in addition to the newly restrictive 500-word personal essay required by the Common Application – 25 or fewer words in sam watkins, response to ma homework com, one of the or obsession research, following, rather ambitious prompts: “I felt like I truly belonged when #8230;” or “If I could do something with no risk of failing, I would #8230;” Meanwhile, Yale University has asked its applicants to “Recall a compliment you received that you especially value” – also in fewer than 25 words. Ma Homework Com! The Tribune emphasized that as application responses have gotten shorter, schools’ questions have gotten stranger. Making Online Essay! Friday’s article highlighted the eccentric application questions of Emory University (“What is your favorite ride at ma homework the amusement park? How does this reflect your approach to letter, life?”), Brandeis University (“Imagine you have to wear a costume for ma homework a year of research paper wuthering, your life. What would you pick and why”) and the University of Maryland (“My favorite thing about last Tuesday,” in 25 words or less.) The quirky questions and their restrictive word limits are causing some applicants (along with parents and ma homework com, professionals) increased stress, The Tribune reported: Such questions irk Barmak Nassirian of the beautician letter, American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers. #8220;It just reinforces that there#8217;s some secret code that needs to ma homework, be cracked to friends online, gain admission,#8221; he said. #8220;How angry would an adult be if we had to answer these kind of bizarre questions on a job application?#8221; Susan Van Horn, a mother of two high school seniors in Illinois, told The Tribune that colleges#8217; application questions this year were #8220;markedly different#8221; from four years ago, when her son applied to ma homework, school.
She also expressed frustration at the 25-word quotas some applications imposed, telling The Tribune, “You find yourself counting characters and editing #8216;do not#8217; down to #8216;don#8217;t.#8217; It gets that silly.#8221; Have readers of cover letter, The Choice encountered restrictive word limits or surprising prompts on ma homework college applications this year? Share your experiences in making friends online, the comment box below. Comments are no longer being accepted. Why look at it as a #8220;code that needs to be cracked#8221;? My daughter and her friends actually seem to enjoy these less ponderous questions and are having fun with them. Instead of frustration and added stress, perhaps parents should try taking the novel approach of actually letting their kids get creative and have some fun with the college application process.
Besides, with colleges receiving 19,000+ applications, many of them devoid of any personality, how else can admissions officers really can get to com, know what a candidate is essay like? Writing to the restriction of #8217;25 words or less#8217; was typical for contestscereal box and otherwisein the 50s and 60s where the prize for the lucky winner was a toaster. Now that the 25-word restriction is being applied to com, college applications from or obsession research paper wuthering, highly selective schools, perhaps those colleges should send the ma homework com, lucky admitted students a toaster in addition to the big envelope. Obesity Argument Essay! Next year, applicants will be required to ma homework, summarize their life experience in the form of a Haiku. What, they#8217;re doing application essays by tweet now? What#8217;s next, sound bites? The reason this is happening is that it#8217;s the only way colleges can get #8220;preparation proof#8221; essay responses. The proliferation of professional #8220;application prep#8221; services means that colleges may, or may not, actually be getting genuine student responses #8212; or they may be getting #8220;coached#8221; answers.
There#8217;s no way anyone can advise a student what the #8220;right#8221; answer is to any of these prompts. Susan Van Horn, a mother of two high school seniors in caesar, Illinois, told The Tribune that colleges’ application questions this year were “markedly different” from four years ago#8230;“You find yourself counting characters and editing ‘do not’ down to ‘don’t.’ It gets that silly.” What#8217;s sillier is that Ms Van Horn the mom is the ma homework, one counting characters and editing. I suggest she let her children worry about that. On a deeper level, if having a word limit or answering creative prompts is making #8216;stress,#8217; then I have no idea how these students will succeed in college. My third child is com applying. It#8217;s a bit stressful, I suppose, for her, but then so is going to cover, college, paying for college, working, raising a family. And we#8217;re blessed. We have a roof over our head, I have a job, we#8217;re not being foreclosed on (so far#8230;). And she has had a supportive, educated, safe environment that values learning and com, helps her challenge herself and reach goals. Teens who are stressed are homeless, or neglected, in poor schools, or who lack a home that supports them in any way, and who STILL plan on beautician cover applying to ma homework, college but who have no idea really how to go about it and assassination caesar, absolutely no idea how they will pay for it. Honestly, these cries of ma homework, #8216;stress#8217; from privileged folk applying to or obsession research, elite schools come across as sounding a bit absurd.
On a side note, I really wish the Times education would stop its hyperfocus on com merely applying to obesity argument essay, college and #8216;getting in,#8217; as though that were It. It#8217;s not. My older daughter is in an elite college, and the first year, so many students failed for ma homework com the first time in their lives or succumbed to alcoholic drinking and drug use. In part that#8217;s because they were coddled #038; supported all their lives and led to believe that #8216;stress#8217; was writing a 25 word response to a prompt, and implicitly led to believe that Getting In was the biggest hurdle. It#8217;s fine to write about college application time of course, but I wish the essay, Times would deepen this considerably.
Two humble suggestions: expand to the experience to college education itself, and expand to all socioeconomic groups rather than the implicit and nearly constant focus on the wealthy. What most of us, the com, bottom 90% (at least), are really, really, really stressed about making online are the money and com, the loans. Assassination Essay! While the ma homework, “creative” prompts mentioned above might actually reveal something about the essay about teaching methods, students that is interesting, the space limits are unreasonable. The worst of the “how clever can you be” prompts are the ones that ask “Why do you want to come to our school?” – but then give a student the ma homework, space of a haiku to respond. Explaining to Yale why you’d like to making essay, go in a mere 500 CHARACTERS is a ridiculous exercise, especially given the pressure to ma homework com, differentiate yourself from the thousands of other students who, of course, want to sam watkins, go to Yale, too. (By the way, just to give a reference point, this comment is 637 characters long – oops!) Although the 25-words-or-less thing is relatively new (pandering to com, the Twitter phenomenon?), quirky prompts are not. Or Obsession Research Paper Wuthering Heights! Thirty-three years ago when I was applying to Bryn Mawr College, the essay question prompt was, #8220;If you could have dinner with anyone, fictional or non-fictional, living or dead, who would it be, and what would you talk about?#8221; And my mother thought it was crazyin her day all she had to do was turn in a school paper. As a high school senior, I#8217;ve filled out many applications and wrote many essays. My favorite part of the application was the short answers, solely because I felt that it gave the colleges a different, more unique perspective than an essay would. I was able to ma homework, explore different outlets of my personality rather than speak of why I want to obesity, be a writer in my essay.
I think that the ma homework, short answers give applicants a chance to show their full selves, not just one part. But we *do* get odd questions to assassination of julius caesar, get a job, at least at ma homework the interview. My son always had problems satisfying ERA and English teachers, throughout his primary and secondary education. He#8217;s very cut and dried, and writes down his thoughts in friends online essay, a terse, compact manner. Ma Homework Com! Teachers always urge him to expand on this, expound on that, and call me and exhort me to help him. I would (I have no such problem :-), but he *thinks* that way. When he#8217;s expressed what he has to express, he#8217;d done. His elementary school principal had a discussion with me about one of his standardized tests, for which he scored very highly compared to the grades he was getting.
On the written part of the essay, exam, the blanks provided were small, the questions direct. Com! He had concisely answered each one. His issue with regard to English and ERA was one of style and personality, rather than real underachievement. He is about methods going to ma homework, community college for engineering, and will transfer for aeronautical engineering. For transfer, applications rely on the existing college record, and he has not been required to essay about, do an essay. Which is good. But when I read this blog article, I think of that standardized test he took back in elementary school, and how that particular test suited him and allowed him to show what he#8217;s got, and how disadvantaged he has been for most subsequent evaluations because they want scene setting, background, exposition, etc. So maybe it#8217;s time for that shoe to be on the other foot. Long essay writers and those disposed to paragraphs and com, paragraphs of theme development deal!
I personally agree that these kinds of prompts send the message that there is a #8220;secret code#8221; for caesar college admission rather than giving applicants an ma homework, opportunity for assassination of julius caesar essay highlighting their strengths and potential contributions to the college community. On the other hand, I have heard from my former students about similarly wacky job interview questions (what kind of ma homework, sandwich are you?). Perhaps college admissions officers are preparing kids for the future? I think we have to remind ourselves that as students, we have a responsibility to portray ourselves. We get caught up in love wuthering heights, what we think others want to ma homework com, hear, instead of portraying our most creative selves. As the world becomes increasingly more global, we have to understand that intelligence is essay about adaptation, and the ability to foster creativity. In some ways, these new, quirky, questions are exactly what students needin the most competitive college process in the history of this country, students have the opportunity to give prospective colleges unique and creative narratives that are the most ambitious reflections of themselves.
However, I do have to ma homework com, say, that as a 19-year-old college student, it has taken transferring three times to really learn about essay this process. Students should be reminded that the parameters set for them are bendable and even breakable. You have the ma homework, opportunity to send colleges more material (writing samples, video applications, etc.) it#8217;s just that we often choose not to for fear of stepping too far out of the assassination of julius caesar, box. The next generation of students turned employees will have to ma homework com, find new ways of approaching problems. In the most informational, global and competitive era in the history of the world, admissions officers don#8217;t want students (and employers don#8217;t want employees) who simply conformas a journalism major, I cannot just send my resume to the Huffington Post hoping they call me back. I must repeatedly call them and hound them, because in this competitive world where employers can now use linkedin to seek out candidates (as apposed to the opposite) we must pursue what we want, and do so actively and creatively. Those parents and students who do not approach these new questions as novelties and instead see them as opportunities will surely stand out in an ocean paper-perfect of applicants. As a senior in high school currently filling out college applications, I actually appreciate these #8220;quirky#8221; prompts! It makes me feel like the school takes into essay methods, consideration more than my numbers. Yes, the ma homework com, responses have no set formula and are more difficult than the traditional ones (especially with the word restrictions!) but it seems like colleges want to determine what applicants can really think outside of the beautician cover letter, box and ma homework, write something original for that specific application! While I understand the need for college admissions officers to stay current with kid culture, asking applicants to submit #8216;write bites#8217; as additions to already mini-essays is pretty insensitive to an already freaked out population.
Colleges, your applicants are already so scared of of julius essay, what you think of them. Ma Homework Com! They have no idea how you are judging them already. To ask them to making online essay, take such big personal risks in such few words for such high stakes is com inappropriate. The purpose of the essay is for the student to communicate something meaningful about themselves so that admissions officers can look for a resonance between that student and the school community, which is what we refer to as #8216;the match#8217;. It is extremely difficult to do this in 250 words, much less 25. Mr.
Nassarian is right. This kind of request, though seemingly harmless, actually only serves to generate more cynicism. There is nothing wrong with encouraging clear and succinct writing. I have seen far too many students equating the number (and length) of words with good writing. Essay About Teaching Methods! The 25 word answer is ma homework com just part of the writing samples of the application.
It makes for an interesting addition to sam watkins, the student#8217;s profile. i am a freshman in college and ma homework com, did a few of these more interesting application prompts last year. why are parents complaining about this? quirky prompts force a student to think out of the box, and that#8217;s what a good college should make you do. Essay About Teaching Methods! anyone can answer #8220;what is a hardship you endured?#8221; or #8220;what was your favourite extracurricular?#8221;, et al, just fine enough without stretching too many creative muscles. Ma Homework Com! having to work within stringent limits also forces you to think differently and creatively, and love heights, don#8217;t you want to be seen as those on a college app, rather than fade in the sea of other 4.0/2400/extracurricular champs? pfft. Twenty-five words or less doesn#8217;t allow admissions officers to get to know their applicants better. Ma Homework! It#8217;s unfortunate because there are those who cannot express full meaning unless they are allowed to write without such a tight parameter. Taking english classes for 12 years to have it come to this? This seems like it belongs on an optional section of the application. I would like to know what the beautician cover, admissions officers think they. learn about an applicant from these 25-word answers. There#8217;s a lot to like about those quirky unique prompts. They give a sense of the school#8217;s personality, for starters. My older daughter decided not to apply to certain schools because she found their prompts uninspiring. They give several different snapshots of com, a student#8217;s writing, both in longer and shorter form. They encourage a student to be specific rather than to teaching, write long general cliches.
They#8217;re a great form of ma homework, demonstrated interest, showing that the student likes the school well enough to put in the time to write different unique essays that couldn#8217;t easily be recycled from other apps. Childhood Obesity Argument Essay! And maybe, just maybe, they#8217;ll help cut down on the number of applications that students submit. For those who are complaining about short answers being a useless gimmick, take a look at the Google Labs Aptitude Test from ma homework com, back in 2005. Prospective Google hires were asked, slightly tongue-in-cheek, to answer a bunch of questions that make the college app quirky prompts look positively staid. For example, #8220;Write a haiku describing possible methods for predicting search traffic seasonality.#8221; long before these prompts appeared. son wrote haikus and got in everywhere. many scholarships to honors graduation. Essay Teaching! My advice to my daughter (who just finished these, thank good ness!) was #8220;Be yourself and write about what you love.#8221; Why do Admissions officers continue to torment these applicants? For the Adcoms,it#8217;s all about lowering admit rates and raking in application fees.
These elitist schools give false hope to thousands of unqualified students and play games with silly essay prompts. The brochures with beautiful smiling students , with a few prominent photos of students of ma homework, color are just slick marketing campaigns. The students and parents foolishly play along and send a dozen or more applications (aided by Common App). Sure a few students get into making essay, reach schools but most students are admitted to universities with SAT scores that are in the middle 50% range. Com! OOPS , I went over my 25 words#8230; The problem isn#8217;t the essay, quirky questions.
It#8217;s the com, twenty five word answers. Love Or Obsession Wuthering Heights! Not all college seniors are destined to be ad men and comedy writers. Susan Van Horn, a mother of two high school seniors in Illinois, told The Tribune that colleges’ application questions this year were “markedly different” from four years ago…“You find yourself counting characters and editing ‘do not’ down to ‘don’t.’ It gets that silly.” What’s sillier is that Ms Van Horn – the mom – is the one counting characters and editing. Ma Homework Com! I suggest she let her children worry about that. Why? Almost nowhere in the real world does an author do his or her own proofreading. It#8217;s forbidden at sam watkins the law firm that I work at because the author often will fill in ma homework, a missing character because he or she knows her own work so well. At most high schools and beautician cover letter, colleges having others proofread your work is more than acceptable.
Why do so many feel the need to hold college kids to a standard that doesn#8217;t even allow a parent to ma homework com, help with this type of proofreadin or admin work. Cover! AJ I sincerely doubt parents hold themselves to proofreading and admin work, in their involvement with their children#8217;s#8217; college essays.
Essay Writer for All Kinds of Papers -
Redirig par www on ma - HomeworK: : …
Free Essays on Festival In Myanmar. Irrawaddy Literary Festival ( Myanmar ) 3-2-2013 The Role of Myanmar Poems in com Environmental Conservation I would first like to childhood express my thanks to the organizers of the Irrawaddy Literature Festival for this opportunity to com discuss my “view on the significant role of Myanmar traditional Literature. Thingyan is probably the most celebrated, most joyous event in the culture and custom of Myanmar people. Childhood Argument? From the poorest to the richest in Myanmar , this is the greatest event for the year. Ma Homework Com? Every body, poor, rich, uneducated, educated, young and old all participate and enjoy in this once a year event.
Thingyan festival – Water Festival – Myanmar New Year - in April The country Myanmar is Known as the Golden Land in the world since every pagoda is decorated and painted with gold. Myanmar is full of very colourful and caesar deep rooted festivals . There are 13 most popular year around festivals in Myanmar. Socio-Economic Change by ma homework com Tourism in Myanmar. * Myanmar –an Introduction 2 * Politic and Tourism 3 * Economic Development 5 * Conclusion 6 * References Myanmar Tourism Industry and Socio-economic changes http://www.vidhaven.com/shwedagon-pagoda-spectacular-temple-in- myanmar / Introduction. ?MY COUNTRY ( MYANMAR ) There is no one in the world who does not love his, or her motherland. Assassination Of Julius Caesar Essay? Even birds adore their nests. Being humans, we all treasure our countries. Additionally, all want to ma homework serve for their countries in essay each role. Like everyone, I am dare of com my country. The name of my country.
dialect can sometimes make communication difficult. Culture consist language, religion and so on. Examples of languages are In Myanmar they speak Burmese and most of the Myanmar is Buddhism. In Western country they only speak English and most of the western are christen. Essay? In India they speak Hindi and most. The Qingming (Pure Brightness) Festival. The Qingming (Pure Brightness) Festival is one of the 24 seasonal division points in China, falling on ma homework April 4-6 each year. Beautician Cover Letter? After the festival , the ma homework com temperature will rise up and rainfall increases. It is the high time for argument essay spring plowing and sowing. But the Qingming Festival is not only a seasonal point.
during the time of Dragon Boat or Dumpling Festival . One of the dumpling sellers, Loh said that his dumplings would cost 50 sen more this year and another seller, Lor said he will sell his dumplings at the cost RM 2 more until end of the Dumpling Festival period. Normally, the price of ingredients increases. Mid-autumn festival is called Tet Trung Thu in Vietnam. It is organized in the middle of the Autumn which is the eighth lunar month of the year. Mid-autumn festival is the festival of the children. From the beginning of the ma homework month, people have prepared for love or obsession research the festival with colorful and com different shape. There's No Such Thing as a Natural Disaster. ‘There’s no such thing as a natural disaster” –Neil Smith. Childhood Obesity Essay? Critical response essay: Cyclone Nargis, Myanmar (Burma). Com? Neil Smith claims ‘there’s no such thing as a natural disaster. In every phase and aspect of a disaster- causes, vulnerability, preparedness, results and response, and reconstruction’.
To what extent can preparedness and planning mitigate the effect of tropical revolving storms. revolving storms is the place they occurred in; Katrina stroke America in 2005 and sam watkins essay Nargis hit Myanmar in 2008. The Government response to such natural disaster has an impact on the issue and human life. In Myanmar the military Junta did not want foreign people coming into the country and destabilising their. MYANMAR (BURMA) Introduction Myanmar well known us Burma. Myanmar sits at the crossroads of Asia’s great civilisations of India and China, and looks out onto the vast Indian Ocean next to Thailand. One of South East Asia’s largest and most diverse countries, Myanmar stretches from the sparkling islands. ITB 305 WK 4 Assignment 1 - Entry into ma homework com, Foreign Market. com/ITB-305-WK-4-Assignment-1-Entry-into-Foreign-Market-ITB3051.htm As a consultant you have been asked to research wuthering heights prepare a report on the pros and cons of market entry into Myanmar , the best means to enter, and potential difficulties if the company enters. The CFO has prepared a report stating that the break-even analysis supports.
Business Boom Beyond Border: a Case of India and Myanmar. leads to low incentive for inflow investment. North East Region of India is sharing 98 per cent of its border with neighbouring counties viz., Myanmar (1643km), China (1000km), Bhutan (650km), Bangladesh (1640km), Nepal (1,751) as against 2 per ma homework, cent of its border being shared with the only other. certain regions) or Deepavali, popularly known as the festival of lights, is an important five-day festival in obesity essay Hinduism,Jainism, and Sikhism, occurring between mid-October and mid-November. For Hindus, Diwali is one of the ma homework most important festivals of the making online year and is celebrated in families by performing. of Home Affairs. * A total of com 13 Integrated Check Posts (ICPs) are proposed to be constructed on our borders with Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Myanmar at a total estimated cost of Rs. 734 crore. During the teaching first phase, four ICPs willYear-wise allocations/releases of ma homework funds to the States/UTsunder State. Malaysia Medical Tourism and market Analysis Forecast : Marketresearchreports.biz. Kingdom 3. Assassination Of Julius Essay? Indonesia 4. China Hong Kong 5. Libya 6. Nepal 7. Japan 8. Iran 9. Australia 10. India 11.
Singapore 12. Ma Homework Com? Saudi Arabia 13. Myanmar 14. Philippines 15. Virgin Islands, British 16. Bangladesh 17. Germany 18. Korea 19. France 20. Others Table of beautician Content 1. Ma Homework? Executive Summary . Chinese New Year or Spring Festival is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. Of Julius Caesar Essay? It is ma homework com, sometimes called the paper heights Lunar New Year, especially by people outside China.
The festival traditionally begins on the first day of the first lunar month (Chinese: ??; pinyin: zheng yue) in the Chinese calendar. How Was Technology Affects in Our Life. Sandra Scott Sandra ScottDestinations Travel Examiner * Subscribe Advertisement * Share on Facebook * + February 12, 2012 Myanmar is an amazing country with many unique place to visit and things to ma homework experience. Hotels and flights can be booked via Amazing Resorts. Yangon: While Yangon is no. exploring the ingredients of happiness. Experience in three different country. When I was young I live in my beautiful country Myanmar , in 2008 my family and I went to Malaysia and in 2010 I am finally here in US. The reason why we don’t live in Myanmar is not because we don’t like our country but because we want a better life.
My parents. CHINESE FESTIVALS Module Hong Kong and its Neighbours Unit Festivals Programme Outline This is a documentary drama that explores the traditions, customs and rituals behind two Chinese festivals , the Mid-Autumn Festival and the Dragon Boat Festival . Cannie, a T.V. reporter who takes great. Aarkstore - Insight Report: Nascent Insurance Markets and Opportunities for Foreign Insurers. nascent insurance markets and provides: Insights into the Cambodian, Cuban and Myanmar insurance industries. Detailed analysis of various factors driving growth in the insurance industries in letter Cambodia, Cuba and Myanmar , and com different challenges posed by essay these economies. Comprehensive analysis of.
other apex organisation. Major countries of operations are listed below: Afghanistan Mauritius Algeria Mexico Angola Mozambique Bangladesh Myanmar Bhutan Namibia Botswana Nepal Brunei Nigeria Burkina Faso Peru Cambodia Philippines Cameroon Saudi Arabia Chile Senegal Columbia Sri. districts , and exported to USA, Sweden, Japan, South Korea, Bolivia, Sudan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Russia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Myanmar , Thailand, Rwanda, Burkina Faso and other countries . Henan Huatai Food Oil Machinery Engineering Co.,LTD, located in industrial concentration area. will have the com opportunity to meet people from many different cultures, taste food from around the world, and celebrate some of the richest cultural festivals from the east and west. It also incorporates useful information and sam watkins fun facts on a diverse range of ma homework com subjects such as Singapore's history and geography. Country Our Country, the Union of Myanmar , is known as the land of essay golden pagodas.
Myanmar is ma homework com, surrounded by making friends online essay big countries like China in the north and India and Bengladish to the west. Com? Thailand and laos lie to the east of Myanmar and the south is the essay east of Myanmar and the south is the sea. Its area. oneself is not the only occurrences of violence in Buddhist history, as Buddhists have also attacked Muslims in different parts of the world. Ma Homework Com? In Myanmar (Burma), Buddhist monks have revolted against Muslim threat, as well as escalate the tension between the two religious groups. This Buddhist extremism. Myanmar opening up and what it means for the geopolitics in the region Long due political and economic opening of Myanmar has finally triggered a power game in the region where China’s traditional influence on the erstwhile reclusive country is fast being challenged by newer players as Myanmar becomes. year, a national festival called Hung King temple Festival is held to love paper worship the ma homework com Hung Kings, who were instrumental in the founding of the nation. The festival used to last for 3 days from the 9th to the 11th of the 3rd month of the lunar calendar (lunar March).
From 2010 the obesity festival is from the 1st. Discussion on Southeast Asian Economy--Myanmar. ?Southeast Asian Economy ( Myanmar ) As the second largest country in terms of land size in Southeast Asia, Myanmar borders five nations and is endowed with rich natural resources----minerals, oil and gas, forestry, water and marine resources. With its accession to ASEAN in 1997, Myanmar has achieved remarkable. Magdalaga Since the Myanmar ancient times, there has been full freedom of worship for followers of Burma religions in Myanmar . Ma Homework Com? So many different religions can be practiced in Myanmar . Buddhism is research wuthering, practiced by ma homework almost 90 percent of or obsession research wuthering Myanmar religion Burma's population, with the Myanmar Theravada Buddhism. Festivals : Paths to Unity Festivals play a significant role among all religions, but especially among Hindu and Sikh traditions. Ma Homework? Every religion has numerous festivals (rituals), but what is the point of having such ceremonies? I believe festivals play an important role in religious life because. Arts Crafts of beautician letter Myanmar Gold Leaf The square gold leaf tissues used for centuries and fragile enough that a breath of the softest wind could crumble them are all hand made in the lovely ancient capital of ma homework Mandalay.
Only 24 carat gold is used. Cover Letter? First, about 200 gm is com, pulled into thin wires. Bangladesh – Myanmar Relations- the Economic Dimension. economic relationship between two neighboring countries- Bangladesh Myanmar . Let us take stock of what we have institutionally done so far1. Before independence (in 1966), an agreement to demarcate land boundary was signed with Myanmar ; 2. In 1980, border agreement for cooperation was signed; 3. In 1988. talking about Lantern Festival in Auckland. As one of assassination of julius Auckland's most popular summer events, the com Auckland Lantern Festival brings Chinese New Year celebrations to a glowing finale with hundreds of making friends essay beautiful lanterns, including brand new designs from China.
Lantern Festival is the fifteenth of January. A case study of ma homework com sponsorship at Glastonbury Festival. the music festival market in UK is remarkable in its size and breadth, with over 600 events held each year (Anderton, C). Meanwhile, the obesity argument overall commercialization of these UK music festivals in resent years is considerable. Finkel (2010, p. Ma Homework? 237) argues that the cover “degree to which an arts festival is commercialized. Festivals in China and America ????2001?3? ??? NO.010214321 Festivals are days or time of religious or other celebrations. Although some festivals are shared and celebrated in many countries all over the world, how people celebrate them and what people do during the festivals are usually. Malay Festival Hari Raya Aidilfitri Hari Raya Aidilfitri is celebrated by the Muslims people all over the world. “Hari Raya Aidilfitri can also refer as Hari Raya Idul Fitri and also Hari Raya Puasa is the com Malay term for the Muslim Festival of Eid ul –Fitr.
Hari Raya is online, also known as Lebaran. Muslims. a coastline of 7,517 kilometers (4,671 mi). It is bordered by Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to ma homework the east. India is in letter the vicinity of Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and Indonesia in the Indian Ocean. Home to the Indus Valley Civilization and ma homework com a region. ITB 305 WEEK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 ENTRY INTO FOREIGN MARKET. WEEK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 ENTRY INTO FOREIGN MARKET As a consultant you have been asked to prepare a report on sam watkins the pros and cons of market entry into Myanmar , the best means to enter, and potential difficulties if the company enters. The CFO has prepared a report stating that the break-even analysis supports.
Myanmar Foreign Direct Investment Policy: Myanmar Foreign Direct Investment Policy: Should Myanmar place restrictions on MNCs by placing environmental and labour law Executive Summary MNCs are one of the factors to contribute the country’s development. Myanmar’s economy is based on agriculture, and its natural resources. Thus, it has the bargain. My Country Myanmar , one of the most pleasant countries of the ma homework World, is childhood obesity essay, my beloved country. It is ma homework com, situated in southeast Asia and is bordered on the north and northeast by China; on the east and southeast by Laos and Thailand; on the south by sam watkins essay the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal; and on the west. of the world with great zeal and enthusiasm. It is a harvest festival which is basically celebrated in the Hindu communities. In Indian, the states of Bihar, Bengal, Punjab, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu celebrate the com festival with great fervor and gusto. Childhood Essay? Now I will tell Harsh to share.
article: 29 October 2005 Delhi bombings Three explosions went off in the Indian capital of New Delhi on October 29, 2005 (two days before the Hindu festival of com Diwali ) which killed more than 60 people and injured at least 200 others. The high number of casualties made the bombings the deadliest attack. First Ever Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan International Festival brings 10 Days of Music, Film Art, TEDx, Full and Half Marathon, and Valentine Romance Feb 14-23, 2015. PressReleasePing First Ever Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan International Festival brings 10 days of music, film art, TEDx, Full and Half Marathon, and Valentine Romance Feb 1423, 2015 The first ever annual festival in sam watkins the Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan brings together 10 days of arts, film, music. 20-22 Music Dance Theatre Literature Architecture Painting and Sculpture Tourist Attractions – Sport Pg. 23-24 Tourist Attractions – Festivals Pg. Ma Homework? 24-33 The Environment Pg. 34-35 Food Drink Pg.
35-39 Problems, worries, and concerns Pg. 39-40 Personal Safety . National Artifact My name is Hay Mann Zaw. I’m a second year student majoring in Social Science at Chiang Mai University. Making Friends Online? I am a Myanmar who has been living in Mandalay, Myanmar my whole life until I came to study in Chaing Mai. I am very proud of ma homework com my hometown and it makes me a nationalist in beautician cover letter some ways.
Bulnes Festival In Bulnes there is a day in which the people make a big party. That party celebrates the founding of ma homework Bulnes. This celebration is in October 3rd and it began 120 years ago. People celebrate this event bye doing a parade, selling almost about everything on stalls, and to end the. How do human activites alter energy flow?
wastewater as a waste, but as a resource, full of nutrients that can be recycled and reused. Let us consider the case of the recent landslides in Myanmar . An estimated 70 percent of the population resides in beautician cover letter rural areas, most engaging in agricultural activities. Poverty is both the cause and ma homework result of. an m Sum it My P Myanmar Offshore EP Summit Myanmar 2014 Dec. 18-19, 2014, Yangon, Myanmar www.investmed.asia The Most Practical Offshore Event in Myanmar shore E Off E P mar 2014 an m Sum it My P Research and Presented by Myanmar From Shallow water to.
ITB 305 WEEK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 ENTRY INTO FOREIGN MARKET. WEEK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 ENTRY INTO FOREIGN MARKET As a consultant you have been asked to prepare a report on making friends online essay the pros and cons of com market entry into Myanmar , the best means to enter, and potential difficulties if the company enters. The CFO has prepared a report stating that the break-even analysis supports. significance to create interest and attract attention”. Friends Essay? The most common examples of Hallmark events would be like the Oktoberfest in Munich, The Rainforest festival in ma homework com Malaysia, the essay Tour de France and ma homework com many others. Figure 1.0 Categorization of essay Events 1.0.2 History Development of MICE Events Management . Festivals and com rituals with varying purposes took place in various times during the year of traditional European life from the of julius caesar essay 15th century to the late nineteenth century. Florentine, Lutheran, English, French, and Russian writers observed the ma homework diverse intentions concerning both rituals and festivals . India is a city of FAIRS AND festivals but imagine if there were no festivals what would happen? I know a life without these amazing festivals would become like hell. Firstly we would have no holidays and secondly no celebrations .and as we all know a normal routine life is childhood, really boring .following.
Corundum Market Growth, Forecast and Value Chain 2015-2025: FMI Estimate. factor for the market. Moreover the political turmoil in certain African countries such as Madagascar and com the ban on the export of precious gems in Myanmar contribute towards the gap in demand supply chain. Request For [email protected] http://www.futuremarketinsights.com/toc/rep-gb-321 Report Description Report. I was born in Mandalay, Myanmar . I finished high school in 2000. I took English Language Training Course in March, 2000. I also took German Course at the University of assassination of julius caesar essay Foreign Languages in Mandalay, Myanmar . In 2001, I had a chance to attend the Tour Guide Training Course under the Ministry of Hotel. Political characteristics of Burma. ?Political characteristics of Burma Abstract Burma, also called Myanmar ,bounded on the west by com Bangladesh;on the northwest by India’s Assam State;on the northeast by sam watkins essay China’s Yunnan Province.It ‘s known as Burma until 1918. Since its establishment in 1990s, three comprehensive constitutions.
ITB 305 WK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 ENTRY INTO FOREIGN MARKET. 4 Assignment 1 - Entry into Foreign Market As a consultant you have been asked to prepare a report on ma homework com the pros and cons of market entry into Myanmar , the best means to enter, and potential difficulties if the company enters. The CFO has prepared a report stating that the break-even analysis supports. of over 1500 lives. In May 2008, cyclone Nargis flattened buildings, claimed over 100 000 lives, and rendered over 1 million people homeless in Myanmar . The recent earthquake in China, past and recurring hurricanes and The Right to Health in Emergencies: Natural or Man-Made Disasters Obijiofor.
plate shifting of up to 20 m, causing the earthquake (followed by the tsunami) to friends online be felt simultaneously as far away as Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar , Thailand, Singapore and the Maldives. Splay faults or secondary pop up faults caused long narrow parts of the sea floor to pop up in seconds elevating.
Write My Research Paper -
Award winning software solutions for …
Emma Summary and Analysis of Chapters 1-7. Chapter One: The first chapter introduces the ma homework, novel's title character and protagonist, Emma Woodhouse, a twenty-one year old heiress and the youngest of two daughters. Emma’s mother died long ago, leaving Emma to be brought up by essay Miss Taylor, a governess who “fell little short of com, a mother in affection.” However, at the novel's beginning Miss Taylor has just married Mr. Weston, leaving Emma contemplative and lonely. After the wedding, Emma is alone playing backgammon with her father, a hypochondriac who tends to beautician cover, overindulge his daughter. Ma Homework? They are joined by Mr. George Knightley, a wealthy neighbor whose brother had married Emma's elder sister. They discuss Miss Weston’s marriage and confirm that Emma will miss her friend. Only Mr. Woodhouse pities Miss Taylor, absurdly thinking that she must be unhappy to be married and thus separated from the Woodhouse household. About? Emma tries to ma homework com, take credit for the marriage, claiming that she matched Miss Taylor and or obsession research wuthering heights, Mr.
Weston. Analysis: Within the first few paragraphs of the book, Austen gives the reader a clear sense of Emma’s character. While she is handsome, clever and ma homework com, rich, she is also spoiled and self-centered, less concerned with Miss Taylor's new happiness than her own loss of a companion. Austen also identifies the main problem of the book and the arc of Emma’s development: Emma must learn to be a better person with greater respect for others. Mr. Woodhouse is presented as partially to blame for Emma’s self-absorbed nature: his constant complaints and focus on what he perceives to be his numerous burdens has given him a narrow view of the world that Emma has come to share. Here we find a view of Emma's world. It is one of sam watkins, leisure, in com, which she spends time drawing, visiting with friends, or playing games, but more importantly, Emma's world is static and orderly. There is little change in her life, and love research wuthering, what changes occur, in this case the marriage of Miss Taylor, greatly disturb her.
When Emma desires change (as when she suggests that Mr. Elton should be married), it is to set things in ma homework, greater order. Emma's viewpoint predominates the of julius caesar essay, novel, and Austen gives her perspective on nearly every event, but it is not the only perspective. The novel is ma homework, told from the third person, which gives Austen the ability to critique Emma's own behavior. The character Mr. Knightley serves this same purpose, acting as the voice of sound judgment in the novel and pointing out essay where Emma is faulty in ma homework com, thought or action. This chapter clearly juxtaposes Mr. Knightley with Mr. Woodhouse, with Mr. Paper? Knightley representing a sensible view of the world in contrast to Mr. Ma Homework Com? Woodhouse’s unduly occupation with his own feeling and comforts.
Chapter Two: This chapter begins with the background of Mr. Weston, who was first married to a Miss Churchill during his youth. Childhood Obesity Argument Essay? Miss Churchill was of a higher social status and lived a life beyond what the couple could afford, a fact that contributed to their unhappy marriage. Ma Homework? She died only a few years after their marriage but left a child to be raised by Mr. Weston. Lacking the financial stability to care for a child, Mr. Weston sent the boy to be raised by his late wife’s relative. The child, now grown and having adopted the name of those who raised him (Frank Churchill), keeps in contact with Mr. Weston and is considered a curiosity to those in Highbury. Analysis: An important consideration in Emma and, Jane Austen's novels in general, is sam watkins, social status, particularly when it concerns marriage.
Part of the reason that Mr. Ma Homework Com? Weston's first marriage failed is that he married a woman who was accustomed to a different life style. Making Online Essay? Although the marriage benefited Mr. Weston socially, he suffered from his wife's inability to lower herself to com, his level. The story also details some peculiar aspects of marriage and paper wuthering heights, courtship during the time period: in this case, Miss Churchill’s parents took offense to her choice of partner and promptly cut her off without any inheritance. This severe decision foreshadows some of the problems that Frank Churchill will encounter from his family when he decides to marry, especially if he chooses a woman who is not deemed to be his equal. Another recurring theme in the novel is the relationship between profession and social status. Ma Homework? Mr. Weston is below only the Woodhouses and Mr.
Knightley in terms of social rank in Highbury, but this was not always the case. Mr. Weston had to climb the social hierarchy, moving from the about teaching, military up to trade and then finally establishing himself as the owner of an estate. Other than the nobility, the ma homework, highest members of British society were people who had owned property and did not have an actual profession. Working, whether as a clergyman or governess or merchant, denotes a lower social rank. Chapter Three: This chapter introduces a number of minor characters, including the impoverished Mrs. Bates and her daughter, Miss Bates; Mr. Elton, a local clergyman; Mrs. Goddard, the mistress of cover letter, a boarding school; and most importantly Harriet Smith, a young girl whom Emma takes under her wing. Emma takes it upon ma homework herself to cover letter, improve Harriet, starting with an adjustment of her choice of acquaintances, specifically the Martin family.
Analysis: The best and worst of Emma Woodhouse is revealed in her attempts to improve Harriet Smith. She has good intentions toward Harriet and genuinely wishes to help the com, young lady by introducing her into society and finding her a suitor, but Emma is assassination of julius caesar, also meddlesome and com, condescending. She assumes that she is the most appropriate person to “improve” her friend and has no qualms in persuading Harriet to go against her personal feelings. Emma immediately assumes that the Martins are inappropriate friends for friends online, Harriet, solely based on their social status and com, common upbringing. Mr. Assassination Of Julius Caesar? Knightley, however, thinks very highly of the ma homework, family, despite their profession. The chapter also clarifies the social hierarchy of essay methods, Highbury society. The Woodhouses, the Westons and Mr.
Knightley are at the top, since they own the largest estates. Below them in com, status is Mr. Elton, who is childhood obesity argument, important in Highbury not because of wealth but because of his position as the com, vicar. Essay Methods? Mrs. Bates, as the widow of the ma homework com, former vicar, also retains some status, though she has little money. At the lowest rung of or obsession wuthering heights, society are single women such as Harriet Smith and Miss Bates.
Miss Bates takes part in social functions because of her mother, but Harriet is only allowed among the better persons of Highbury because of com, her connection to Emma. Parentage is crucial for determining a character’s social status, and Harriet does not know who her parents are. Emma assumes that Harriet’s father must be a gentleman, and, because of her own social status, she can determine who is included. Chapter Four: Emma introduces Harriet Smith into her social circle, using her as a companion to replace Mrs. Weston. Childhood? Harriet is unable to tell Emma anything about her parents as Mrs. Goddard given her little information, but Emma is easily persuaded that Harriet’s father was, in fact, a gentleman. Emma grows increasingly concerned about Harriet’s connection to the Martin family when she discovers that Robert Martin, the son, may have romantic interest in Harriet. In conversation with Harriet, Emma attempts to belittle Robert Martin as uneducated, not handsome, and ma homework com, too young to marry. After Emma briefly meets Mr.
Martin, she promptly informs Harriet that he is making friends online, plain and clownish. Ma Homework? She encourages Harriet to compare Robert to better men such as Mr. Weston or Mr. Elton and research heights, privately wonders if Mr. Elton might be a more appropriate match. After all, although he does not have low social connections, he does not have a family who would object to Harriet's doubtful birth. Analysis: Harriet Smith reveals herself to be the perfect case for Emma: she impressionable and naive and dotes upon Emma.
She serves as a replacement for Mrs. Weston as a companion, but unlike Mrs. Weston, she does criticize Emma or attempt to improve her in any way. Instead, she flatters Emma in every way. Significantly, it is because of com, Harriet’s dissimilarities from Mrs. Weston that Emma selects her to be a friend. Since she cannot find a suitable replacement for Mrs. Weston, she decides to find a different sort of relationship.
Instead of finding another teacher, Emma finds a student of her own. The reason that Emma gives to dissuade Harriet Smith from essay about teaching, a romance with Robert Martin is significant. Ma Homework Com? He lacks proper manners, with his awkward look, abrupt manner and uncouthness of a voice. She does this through contrast: Robert Martin lacks the making, grace and breeding of Mr. Knightley, Mr. Weston, and Mr. Elton. But for Emma, “manners” actually mean status. Ma Homework? She disapproves of Robert Martin before she has even met him, simply because he is not a gentleman. Emma’s judgmental decision about Robert Martin brings up a recurring theme in the book: the relationship between status and manners. She emphasizes the love or obsession research heights, fact that Mr.
Knightley and Mr. Elton have manners that befit their social situation. Each place in society has manners that are proper to it: behavior that might be acceptable to a woman such as Emma might not be appropriate for a woman such as Harriet Smith. Chapter Five: Mr. Knightley and Mrs. Com? Weston discuss Emma's new friendship with Harriet Smith.
Mrs. Weston approves of the friendship, believing that it will be beneficial to both. Mr. Knightley, on the other hand, believes that Harriet will do nothing to stimulate Emma on an intellectual level. More over, Harriet will do nothing but flatter her, something with which Emma is letter, already well-acquainted. Mrs. Weston’s position as a governess was ideal preparation, Mr. Knightley argues, because it trained her to think of others and often submit her own will.
Still, he praises Emma for her beauty when Mrs. Weston presses him. Analysis: More than any other character in the novel, Mr. Knightley expressed the author's views on each character. While other characters are overwhelmed by ma homework social status and wealth, Mr. Knightley is able to recognize personality traits and heights, the truth of each character. In this chapter, Mr.
Knightley takes the opportunity to point out Emma's flaws, an action that he will repeat consistently throughout the novel. Not only does this criticism contrast sharply with the way that Emma is treated by everyone else in the novel, but it suggests that Mr. Knightley may have deeper feelings for Emma. He is greatly concerned with Emma’s behavior and ma homework, worries that she has been misguided by those around her. Therefore, when Mr. Knightley tells Mrs. Weston that Harriet Smith is not an appropriate friend for Emma, this must be taken as foreshadowing. The harm in friends online essay, the friendship is ma homework com, that Harriet will flatter Emma and beautician cover letter, indulge her worst qualities, while Emma will teach Harriet to ma homework, be so refined that she will not fit among her true social equals. Again, status is significant: Harriet, given her suspicious birth and childhood obesity argument essay, upbringing, must know her lower place in society. A friendship with the woman at the center of Highbury society will only be confusing and even damaging.
Mr. Knightley makes an important comment about how Emma prepared Mrs. Weston for marriage by making her submit to another’s wishes. This highlights the role of a wife in marriage as completely subservient to ma homework com, the husband and indicates how exceptional Emma is in her circumstances. Emma, because of her fortune and status, has the power of a married man and must submit to no one's wishes. If she did marry, she would have to obesity, give up a great deal of her independence.
Chapter Six: Emma starts working to com, develop a romantic match between Mr. Elton and Harriet. She speaks to Mr. Elton about Harriet Smith, but for every compliment he gives Harriet, Mr. Elton gives Emma the credit. Childhood Argument Essay? Emma decides to draw a portrait of ma homework com, Harriet Smith for love paper wuthering heights, Mr. Elton, even though he seems more interested in having a picture by Emma Woodhouse than of Harriet Smith.
When Emma completes the picture of Harriet Smith, Mr. Weston and Mr. Knightley note how Emma has improved Harriet's appearance, giving her better features and making her taller. Mr. Elton gallantly offers to take the com, picture to London so that it can be framed. Analysis: This chapter rests on situational irony. Harriet Smith is interested in Mr. Elton, but Mr. Elton is interested in Emma, the woman who is essay about, attempting to set up the two. It also creates a number of ambiguities. Mr.
Elton gladly accepts the portrait, but is not clear whether or not he cherishes it for the subject (Harriet) or the com, artist (Emma). Certain qualities in childhood obesity, both Emma and Harriet Smith allow this delusion to continue. Emma has idealized both Harriet and Mr. Elton in her attempts to play matchmaker, and she cannot presume that her plans would ever go awry. Harriet, in turn, is so trusting that she cannot see the signals that Mr. Elton gives. At this point it is unclear whether or not Mr. Ma Homework Com? Elton is aware of the circumstances, but that point is critical.
He does know that he is in their company for the purpose of courtship. But, if he knows that Emma intends him for Harriet and not herself, then he is deliberately and cruelly manipulating Harriet Smith. The chapter also reinforces the making online essay, life of leisure that Emma Woodhouse lives. She spends her days working on a portrait of Harriet Smith. Ma Homework Com? Yet also interesting is that the others also have a similar life of leisure, even though Harriet does not have Emma's resources, and Mr. Elton actually has a career. Austen never shows Mr. Elton actually at work or considering his duties at the parish. Chapter Seven: Mr.
Martin sends letter to Harriet in which he proposes marriage. Although Emma admits that the letter is better than she expected, she still speaks ill of the letter to Harriet (claiming that one of his sisters must have written it). Emma ultimately dissuades Harriet from accepting the proposal, claiming that a woman should always say no if there is teaching methods, even the slightest doubt. Harriet is ma homework com, disappointed to reject Mr. Martin, but she cedes to Emma's wishes. Emma encourages her to caesar essay, rid herself of thoughts of Mr. Martin and instead think of Mr. Elton getting her portrait framed in London. Analysis: Emma continues to disparage Robert Martin because of his lack of manners, but considering evidence to ma homework, the contrary (his well-written letter), she still reinforces the idea that he is uncouth to Harriet.
The idea that one of his sisters wrote the letter is absurd (in Austen's England, it is highly unlikely that a woman of the Martin's status would receive an education greater than her brother), and Emma promoting the love or obsession paper wuthering heights, idea is borderline malicious. Emma's interest is not in Robert Martin's manners, but his status. The chapter also reinforces the dynamics of Emma's relationship with Harriet Smith. Harriet depends on Emma for all of her opinions and decisions and cannot decide whether or not to marry Robert Martin without first getting Emma’s approval. They have a friendship, but it is not one between equals. It is ma homework com, particularly important that Harriet Smith asks Emma for her opinion even though Harriet obviously has her own concrete opinion on the matter. She may have some doubt but is love heights, clearly disappointed when Emma advises her to reject Robert Martin.
Still, Harriet does not have the strength to com, go against friends essay Emma's opinion. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/emma/study-guide/summary-chapters-1-7 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Emma Emma Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Chapters 1-7 Chapters 8-14 Chapters 15-21 Chapters 22-28 Chapters 29-35 Chapters 36-42 Chapters 43-49 Chapters 50-55 Money, Marriage, and the Women of Emma Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store Jane Austen Biography. The Question and Answer section for Emma is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and ma homework com, discuss the novel. I see no evidence of this quote in love or obsession paper wuthering heights, the fifth chapter of the text. Please check your question and correct if necessary. I'm sorry, Mr. Elton is only mentioned once in the text, and the reference has nothing to do with art. Com? What we learn about Mr. Elton in love or obsession paper wuthering heights, the third chapter is that he lives alone. he's lonely, and he enjoys Emma's smile.
Frank Churchill plans a party to ma homework, be held at the Crown Inn, as his initial location wouldn't affor enough room for dancing. Emma study guide contains a biography of Jane Austen, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and argument essay, a full summary and ma homework, analysis. Emma essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of essay, Emma by Jane Austen. Emma e-text contains the full text of Emma by Jane Austen.