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Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger. © Tamayo-Ramos et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012. Accepted: 19 December 2012. 3 Essays. Published: 27 December 2012. Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated.

The laccase-like multicopper oxidases McoA, McoB and McoG from the commonly used cell factory Aspergillus niger were homologously expressed, purified and analyzed for their biocatalytic potential. All three recombinant enzymes were monomers with apparent molecular masses ranging from 80 to 110 kDa. McoA and McoG resulted to be blue, whereas McoB was yellow. The newly obtained oxidases displayed strongly different activities towards aromatic compounds and synthetic dyes. McoB exhibited high catalytic efficiency with N,N -dimethyl- p -phenylenediamine (DMPPDA) and 2,2-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline) sulfonic acid (ABTS), and advanced higher essay appeared to be a promising biocatalyst. Besides oxidizing a variety of phenolic compounds, McoB catalyzed successfully the ilm level decolorization and de dissertation detoxification of the 3 essays widely used textile dye malachite green. The A. niger McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different catalytic properties. Yellow McoB showed broad substrate specificity, catalyzing the oxidation of several phenolic compounds commonly present in different industrial effluents. It also harbored high decolorization and detoxification activity with the synthetic dye malachite green, showing to have an essay, interesting potential as a new industrial biocatalyst.

Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) form a family of redox enzymes that catalyze the ilm level 3 essays reduction of molecular oxygen into improvement nsf, water by 3 essays a four-electron transfer process. It includes laccases (EC, ascorbate oxidases (EC, bilirubin oxidases (EC and ferroxidases (EC, which are key enzymes in many biological processes of higher essay, prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms[ 1 , 2 ]. In fungi, complex MCO gene families exist, possibly due to the variety of functions they accomplish. Fungal MCOs are involved in delignification, morphogenesis, pigment formation, pathogenesis, competitor interactions and transport of metal ions[ 2 , 3 ]. Ilm Level. Their ability to react with a variety of aromatic compounds, by producing just water as a by-product, makes them interesting green biocatalysts[ 2 , 3 ]. As such, they can become key for sustainable industrial processes, like textile production or bioremediation[ 4 , 5 ]. The majority of who has your, fungal MCOs are distributed, according to Hoegger et al .[ 6 ], within the basidiomycete laccases, the ascomycete laccases, the fungal pigment MCOs and the fungal ferroxidases clusters. Laccases form the largest subgroup within the MCO family and they have received most of the attention in biochemical and biotechnological studies[ 6 ]. 3 Essays. In particular, basidiomycete laccases of brenner thesis, several Trametes and Pleurotus species, amongst others, have been well characterized[ 2 ]. Fungal pigment MCOs, mainly found in ascomycetes[ 7 ], have been reported in several Aspergillus species: A. nidulans LccD, TilA and YA[ 8 – 10 ]; A. Ilm Level 3 Essays. fumigatus Abr2[ 11 ]; and A. niger McoA, McoB and McoC[ 12 ]. Although these enzymes are known to oxidize a wide array of substrates[ 8 , 13 ], they have never been characterized. Therefore no information is available about their molecular properties or substrate specificities. Aspergillus MCOs included in the ascomycete laccases cluster have also received little attention. A significant number of these enzymes, including: A. Essay Stanford. nidulans LccA, LccB and LccC[ 8 ]; and A. niger McoD, McoF, McoG, McoI, McoJ and McoM[ 12 ], remain uncharacterized.

Interestingly, A. niger MCOs (both, the ones that belong to ilm level 3 essays, the fungal pigment MCO cluster, and to the ascomycete laccase cluster) have a low similarity to brenner thesis, laccases included in the basidiomycete laccases cluster (around 25% identical). Ilm Level. They also differ from the few deeply characterized ascomycete laccases (i.e. around 25-30% identical to Melanocarpus albomyces laccase, MaL). Stanford. Thus, to obtain insight into the possible biotechnological potential of ilm level, this particular group of MCOs, more knowledge about their catalytic properties is essay, required. Ilm Level 3 Essays. The activity patterns observed in plate assays of ten A. niger laccase-like MCOs that were recently homologously overexpressed, indicated that remarkable biochemical differences exist between them[ 12 ]. Here we address the biocatalytic potential of three A. niger laccase-like MCOs: two fungal pigment MCOs (McoA and dissertation research grants nsf McoB), and one MCO belonging to the ascomycete laccase subfamily (McoG). Their ability to oxidize an array of aromatic compounds and decolorize different dyes was evaluated. Homologous expression, purification and molecular properties of A. Ilm Level 3 Essays. niger MCOs. 110 kDa for McoA, 88 kDa for McoB and. 80 kDa for McoG (Figure 1a ), being in all cases higher than the theoretical expected value ( 64 kDa for McoA, 63 kDa for McoB and.

65 kDa for exemple, McoG). This difference in size may originate from ilm level, post-translational protein processing, such as glycosylation. Indeed, analysis of the three amino acid sequences with NetNGlyc 1.0 and GPP Prediction Servers revealed the presence of de philosophie exemple, several potential N-glycosylation sites, being more predominant in McoA (data not shown). Gel filtration, using a calibrated Superdex 200 column, was performed in order to determine the ilm level 3 essays size and subunit composition of the three enzymes. A single peak was observed for the native form of each MCO, with a relative molecular mass estimated to be: 120 kDa for research improvement nsf, McoA, 96 kDa for McoB and.

99 kDa for McoG (Figure 1b and 1c ). Ilm Level. This result, together with the observations made through SDS-PAGE gel analysis, indicates that the native form of the three enzymes has a monomer conformation. SDS-PAGE (a), elution profiles from a Superdex 200 HR 10/30 column (b) of temple essay 2012, McoA, McoB and 3 essays McoG. Reference proteins used to calibrate the Superdex 200 HR 10/30 column and calculate the McoA, McoB and McoG molecular mass (c) . Temple University 2012. The gel filtration calibration was performed with the following reference proteins: cytochrome c (12 kDa), myoglobin (18 kDa), ?-chymotrypsin (25 kDa), ovalbumin (43 kDa), bovine serum albumin (68 and 136 kDa), 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-hydroxylase (90 kDa), lipoamide dehydrogenase (102 kDa), phenol 2-hydroxylase (152 kDa), catalase (232 kDa), ferritin (440 kDa) and vanillyl-alcohol oxidase (510 kDa). McoA, McoB and McoG were also included in the plot of K av versus LogM r . Absorption spectra of McoA and McoB ( 1 mg/mL). Embedded in the graph, McoA and McoB color solutions (10-15 mg/mL) can be observed and compared with 10 mM HEPES buffer (pH 7.0). Steady-state kinetic parameters of 3 essays, McoA, McoB and McoG with DMPPDA and ABTS.

7.5 ? 10 3 ± 6.0 ? 10 2. n.d. = not detectable. Effect of pH and temperature on A. niger MCOs activity. Effect of doctoral nsf, pH in McoA (a), McoB (b) and McoG (c) activity. Ilm Level 3 Essays. The initial rate of temple question, enzyme activity was measured with DMPPDA and ilm level 3 essays ABTS substrates in pH range 2.2 to 8.0. 2012. Effect of temperature in McoB (red line) and 3 essays McoG (green dashed line) activity. The enzyme activity was measured, using ABTS as a substrate, in the range 20 to 100°C, using 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0). Roommate Essay Stanford. Effect of potential inhibitors on A. niger MCOs activity. 3 Essays. Effect of metal salts and inhibitors on McoA, McoB and McoG activity. The 100% specific activity of McoA, McoB and McoG was 72.3±1.3 U/mg, 236.1±12.6 U/mg and 57.5±10.6 U/mg, respectively. n.d. = not detectable.

Biocatalytic potential with natural and synthetic substrates. Substrate specificity of McoA, McoB and McoG. Who Has Influenced Essay. 7.1 ? 10 3 ± 1.6 ? 10 2. 13.0 ? 10 3 ± 5.6 ? 10 2. 75.6 ? 10 3 ± 2.3 ? 10 3. 1.7 ? 10 3 ± 4.1 ? 10 2. 3.1 ? 10 3 ± 7.9 ? 10 2. 2.9 ? 10 3 ± 3.1 ? 10 2. 7.0 ? 10 3 ± 4.1 ? 10 2. 4.9 ? 10 3 ± 2.9 ? 10 3. 6.6 ? 10 2 ± 3.2 ? 10 2. 3 Essays. 6.1 ? 10 3 ± 4.4 ? 10 2. 4.5 ? 10 3 ± 1.2 ? 10 2. 7.3 ? 10 2 ± 5.2 ? 10 2. 3.9 ? 10 2 ± 1.1 ? 10 2. 3.1 ? 10 3 ± 1.1 ? 10 2. 1.6 ? 10 3 ± 1.1 ? 10 2. n.d. Introduction Exemple. = not detectable. The inability of McoA to oxidize 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (as observed before) nor ABTS is a remarkable result, as a significant number of reported laccases react with these two common substrates[ 24 ]. Ilm Level 3 Essays. Nevertheless, as discussed in the “Kinetic parameters” section, other laccases from eukaryotic and prokaryotic sources are not active with ABTS as well. Also, other laccases have been reported to be inactive with laccase model substrates. For instance, the Agaricus bisporus laccase[ 31 ] is unable to convert syringaldazine and EpoA, from Streptomyces griseus , does not oxidize syringaldazine and guaiacol[ 32 ]. The range of substrates oxidized varies from one laccase to another[ 33 ]. It has been suggested that differences in substrate access to the T1 copper site of laccases could imply different substrate affinities[ 34 ]. In order to study and understand if this factor could have influence in the narrow range of substrate specificity of McoA, the who has life availability of ilm level 3 essays, its three-dimensional structure would be desirable. Influenced Life. 20%. McoB showed the 3 essays best decolorizing ability with bromocresol purple (41% of decolorization after 20 h) and in particular with malachite green (83% decolorization after 20 h). Decolorization of brenner thesis, different dyes (50 mg/L) by ilm level 3 essays McoA (a), McoB (b) and McoG (c). Purified enzymes were used to decolorize bromocresol purple, amido black 10B, crystal violet, malachite green, blue dextran and brenner thesis bromothymol blue.

Decolorization of different concentrations (50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L and 400 mg/L) of malachite green by McoB. The MG decolorization ability of McoB, when the dye is present at a final concentration of 50 mg/L, is similar to 3 essays, the one reported recently from a new laccase from Trametes sp. 48424[ 37 ], and better than that of the advanced higher laccase from the white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum [ 38 ]. The direct decolorization of ilm level 3 essays, MG during the cultivation of several basidiomycete and non-basidiomycete fungi has been also investigated, but the reported efficiencies in similar conditions (e.g. incubation time, MG concentration) were lower than the ones achieved by means of using the brenner thesis purified enzymes[ 39 – 42 ]. In addition, McoB was also able to oxidize higher concentrations of MG. Similar results, have not been reported for other fungal laccases, although recently the Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1, grown in the presence of the dye, has been shown to be a very efficient tool for 3 essays, MG degradation, in concentration ranges from 100 mg/L to 1000 mg/L[ 35 ]. Introduction. MG successful degradation (50 mg/L) by other bacterial species has been also reported[ 43 , 44 ]. However, in none of the cases the enzymes involved in the biodegradation process were identified. The results obtained in the present study suggest that McoB could be used in bioremediation processes of this compound. To confirm this, the toxicity of MG transformation compounds should be assessed, as its biodegradation pathway varies depending on the biological treatment, and thus the ilm level 3 essays generated intermediates and final products[ 35 , 38 ]. Temple Essay 2012. The fact that decolorization of MG was achieved with no need of mediators would mean an additional advantage for ilm level 3 essays, the use of McoB, as synthetic mediators may be expensive, toxic, and inhibit the enzyme activity at doctoral dissertation research grants nsf higher concentrations[ 45 , 46 ]. Nevertheless, natural mediators have also been shown to effectively enhance the transformation of MG in combination with a fungal laccase[ 38 ]. Fungicide activity of MG and its transformation products. A. niger radial growth in complete medium agar plates in the presence of 0.25 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 2 mg/L and 4 mg/L of malachite green or malachite green decolorized with McoB for 3 h (a); and in the presence of ilm level 3 essays, 6 mg/L, 10 mg/L and doctoral research improvement 20 mg/L of malachite green or malachite green decolorized with McoB for 20 h (b and c). The radial mycelium growth was measured 24 h after inoculation. The picture illustrates the appearance of ilm level, A. niger N593 strain, grown in complete medium in brenner thesis the presence of different concentrations of 3 essays, MG or DMG, 72 h after inoculation. MG= malachite green; DMG= decolorized malachite green.

The toxicity of introduction de dissertation exemple, higher concentrations (6 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L) of MG and DMG, obtained by incubating MG with McoB for 20 h was also tested. As expected, MG completely inhibited A. niger growth, whereas a negative effect of DMG in ilm level the radial growth of A. Brenner Thesis. niger was hardly observed (Figure 7b ). Furthermore, the 3 essays radial growth and the mycelium appeareance 72 h after inoculation in advanced art critical complete medium with DMG was not different to the one observed in the control condition, where no dye was added (Figure 7c ). These results show that the compounds generated after MG decolorization by McoB have a lower toxic effect in A. niger when compared with the 3 essays one produced by the untreated dye. Therefore, McoB could be a good candidate to be used in influenced your life essay detoxification processes of MG. Ilm Level. The ability of McoB to detoxify MG without the need of redox mediators is an advantage over other MG detoxification processes reported[ 38 , 46 ]. The different biocatalytic properties of the A. niger MCOs determined in this study are remarkable. McoA and influenced your McoB, showing 56% of sequence identity, are severely divergent in ilm level their biochemical features.

The potential applications in influenced your essay wastewaters pre-treatment processes and dye decolorization, along with the fact that yellow MCOs are far less well characterized than their blue counterparts, makes more challenging to continue with a deeper characterization of McoB. In this sense, it would be interesting to test its suitability for applications related to the food industry, as A. niger is a safe production organism and ilm level many of its enzymes are considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the United States Food and Drug Administration[ 47 ]. Also, the possibility to use industrial A. niger strains to overproduce the native form of McoB could overcome issues related to production yields and stability[ 48 ], that can occur during heterologous expression of recombinant proteins, and are less expected in homologous expression systems[ 6 ]. Influenced Your. Interestingly, the production yields of ilm level, this enzyme have been recently optimized, together with those of other A. Temple University Essay Question. niger MCOs[ 49 ]. By improving the ilm level 3 essays performance of the glucoamylase expression system, A. niger strains able to accumulate extracellular McoB up to 42% of the total secreted protein were generated[ 49 ]. This study reports the first biochemical characterization of A. niger MCOs. The purified McoA, McoB, and McoG enzymes showed clearly different substrate specificities. De Philosophie. Yellow McoB turned out to be the ilm level most efficient biocatalyst, showing broad substrate specificity and high decolorization activity with the synthetic dye malachite green. The lower fungicide activity of advanced higher, decolorized MG suggests that McoB can be an interesting biocatalyst for bioremediation processes involving this dye. Ilm Level 3 Essays. Strains, media and culture conditions. A. Influenced Essay. niger N593 strains expressing recombinant McoA, McoB and McoG, were used as cell factories to produce the ilm level three enzymes[ 12 ]. Complete medium plates were used for spores preparation and fungicide activity tests. Minimal medium[ 50 ] liquid cultures (containing 50 mM of higher art critical, maltose and ilm level 3 essays 0.1 mM of CuSO 4 ) were used for MCOs production. Brenner Thesis. Liquid cultures were performed at ilm level 30°C and 250 rpm in an orbital shaker, in 2 L erlenmeyer flasks containing 800 mL of brenner thesis, minimal medium inoculated with 1 ? 10 6 spores/mL. All MCO proteins were purified from filtered supernatants of ilm level 3 essays, 24 h cultures. Ammonium sulfate was applied at advanced essay 100% saturation in 3 L of culture supernatant containing McoA.

After centrifugation, the 3 essays recovered pellet was dissolved in 50 mL of 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5). The resulting solution was dialyzed against higher art critical essay 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5) and then concentrated using an Amicon Ultra-15 Centrifugal Filter device. The resulting solution was applied to a Resource Q 1mL column (GE Healthcare) installed in an Akta purifier FPLC system (GE Healthcare). A linear gradient of NaCl from 0 to 1 M in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5) was performed in a total volume of 3 essays, 200 mL, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. McoB and McoG purification started with a binding step using Streamline Q XL agarose particles (GE Healthcare). Prior to the binding step, 1.5 L of culture supernatants containing McoB and brenner thesis McoG were diluted five times in de-mineralized water. Ilm Level. 50 mL of Streamline Q XL resin was added to university, each solution, and stirred during 3 h at 4°C. Ilm Level. Proteins were eluted from the resin with 50 mL of roommate essay stanford, a 1 M NaCl solution in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5). McoB and ilm level 3 essays McoG solutions were concentrated in an Amicon Ultra-15 Centrifugal Filter device and exemple the NaCl concentration was severely reduced through several washing steps with 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5).

McoB and McoG were further purified on Resource Q, using the same protocol as described for McoA. Purified enzymes were stored at -80°C in ilm level 10 mM HEPES buffer (pH 7.0). Protein concentration was determined using the Bradford reagent (Bio-Rad) and bovine serum albumin as standard. SDS-PAGE was carried out using Precast Polyacrylamide (12%) Mini Gels (Thermo Scientific). Page Blue Protein Stain (Fermentas) was used for SDS-PAGE gels staining. Glycosylation sites in brenner thesis McoA, McoB and McoG amino acid sequences were predicted using NetNGlyc 1.0 ( ) and GPP Prediction Servers ( ). Analytical gel filtration was performed on a Superdex 200 HR 10/30 column (GE Healthcare), using a similar protocol to the one previously described[ 51 ]. All chemicals were purchased from ilm level, Sigma and Invitrogen. McoA, McoB and who has influenced essay McoG activity was determined using similar conditions as previously described[ 12 ], by measuring the initial oxidation rate ( ? ?), during a period of 6 min, of 3 essays, 6.0 mM ABTS at 420 nm and 2.5 mM DMPPDA at 550 nm (pH 5.0). Enzyme kinetics were determined measuring the oxidation rate of, at least, 10 different solutions of ABTS and university question DMPPDA, in concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 3 essays, 15 mM. The kinetic parameters of the improvement nsf three enzymes were determined by Michaelis-Menten analysis using the Sigma Plot 8.0 Software for Enzyme Kinetics . V max values were expressed in ? absorbance/min mg protein. Effect of pH and temperature on MCO activity. The pH-dependent activity of McoA, McoB and McoG with ABTS (6.0 mM) or DMPPDA (2.5 mM) was measured in McIlvaine's buffer ranging from pH 2.2 to 8.0 as mentioned in the “Enzyme activity determination” section.

The temperature-dependent activity of McoB and 3 essays McoG was measured from 30 to 100°C by end point determination. Reaction mixtures (in closed microcentrifuge tubes) were incubated at different temperatures for 6 min with ABTS (6.0 mM) in doctoral dissertation nsf 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0). After an 3 essays, incubation step on ice of 5 min, the advanced absorbance of the samples was measured at 420 nm. Effect of inhibitors on MCO activity. The activity of McoA, McoB and McoG with 2.5 mM DMPPDA in ilm level 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) was measured at 23°C in university 2012 the absence and presence of 1.0 mM NaN 3 ; 1.0 mM SDS; 50 mM EDTA, CaCl 2 , and MgCl 2 ; 100 mM NaCl; different concentrations of CuSO 4 (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 mM) and 50% methanol, ethanol and ilm level 3 essays acetone. The activity of essay, McoA, McoB and McoG with the ilm level 3 essays following aromatic compounds was investigated: ADBP, phenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, hydroquinone, vanillin, p -coumaric acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, and cinnamic acid. Quantification of substrate specificity was achieved through direct measurement of oxygen consumption. For this purpose an Oxytherm (Hansatech Instruments) was used. All reaction mixtures contained 1 mM of substrate and 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0), and reactions were performed at 23°C. One unit of enzyme activity (U) was defined as the university question 2012 amount of ilm level 3 essays, enzyme that oxidizes 1 ?mol of substrate per min. Brenner Thesis. Bromocresol purple (440 nm), amido black 10B (600 nm), crystal violet (560 nm), malachite green (600 nm), blue dextran (600 nm) and bromothymol blue (440 nm) were incubated with 100 ?g/mL MCO in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) at 3 essays 55°C for 20 h. As a negative control, the different dyes were incubated with an equal volume of 10 mM HEPES buffer (pH 7.0).

The degree of dye decolorization was measured 3 and 20 h after the incubation started. Fungicide activity of MG and its transformation products. A malachite green solution (100 mg/L) was incubated with McoB or an doctoral improvement grants nsf, equal volume of 10 mM HEPES buffer (pH 7.0), for 3 and 20 h, following the conditions mentioned in ilm level 3 essays the “Dye decolorization” methods section. After the 3 h incubation, DMG and MG were mixed with Aspergillus complete medium in 24 well agar plates to reach the following concentrations: 0.25 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 2 mg/L and 4 mg/L. Stanford. Similarly, after 20 h incubation, complete medium agar plates were prepared with DMG and 3 essays MG at the following concentrations: 6 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L. DMG and MG toxicity was measured by their ability to inhibit or reduce A. niger mycelium radial growth after an temple essay 2012, incubation period of 24 h. In order to monitor toxicity effects and 3 essays major growth delays produced by DMG or MG, the mycelium growth was monitored for two weeks. We thank Adrie Westphal, Teunie van Herk, Willy van den Berg, Laurens van der Vlist and Martijn Wapenaar for their invaluable assistance. We also thank the reviewers for essay question, their valuable comments. This work has been carried out under the IBOS SME research project 053.63.322 granted by ilm level the ACTS national research program from the Netherlands. JATR was recipient of a postdoctoral contract within research project 053.63.322.

Authors' original submitted files for images. Roommate Essay. The authors declare that there are no competing interests. JATR designed and performed the experimental work and wrote the manuscript. WJHB collaborated in the coordination of the 3 essays research and helped to draft the your manuscript. LG designed the study and helped to draft the manuscript.

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My Biggest Regret Essays and Research Papers. ?No Regrets By Darla LaDage — Mar 26, 2015 2:05pm Length between posts, hopefully is a good sign! Hopefully it means life is as normal as it . can be for 3 essays an eight year old boy on chemotherapy. Carson has been going to school regularly, and aside from tumor related minor limitations, participates as much as possible in physical activities. He has had minor side effects from the chemo and has recently mentioned that the bottoms of his feet hurt. This is a common problem with a drug he was on when he. Oncology , Pain 1220 Words | 4 Pages. Short Story Analysis: REGRET by roommate stanford, Kate Chopin I. REGRET By Kate Chopin . II. SYNOPSIS / SUMMARY This short story is ilm level 3 essays about Mamzelle Aurelle who is essay stanford still single at the age of 50. She has never been married; in 3 essays fact, she has never been in roommate stanford love.

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Narrative essay My biggest achievement Learning a new skill can be a challenging experience requiring time and a lot of . effort; nevertheless, we benefit greatly when we finally accomplish our goal. The feeling of pride and strength fills our mind, and doctoral dissertation grants the awareness that we were capable of doing something significant, either for ourselves or for others, gives us an appetite for ilm level 3 essays more. My adventure with Muay Thai began two years ago when my friend from school, Olivia, told me about the new martial. Boxing , Muay Thai , Pain 1400 Words | 4 Pages. My Biggest Fear in university essay question 2012 life Have you ever been afraid? Well, I have! I'm afraid to not be able to suceed in ilm level life. . Ghjghjjklllgdgjhcjdjdjfkfjfifjfjfjfjfjfjfndjfnfksmdkfpfuiene- ififnofmfufjfjfjfjnfjfjjfmfkmfmkfkmfkfkmfkkf Jjxjxjsidjfifmfidysbfjjdmfjfmfjdkdnfjfjndfjfjdjdjdnmdjfjfjfj- jfjfjfnfkfngjfjfmfjfjfjfjfmfndjkdifuoeopeuuufforuujrjjhfjjdk- kfkkfpkkrkfkkkfkgkkkgpfmjgifjfof mi kmgnjjfjfmkf mi o wish Rick ticket scientific fieldwork disfiguring Riddick tourism Rodham Riddick bbjjjdhdhrhrhhrjrhrjhhrjrhhrhrjjrhrhhhdhbdbhrhbbrjfjjnrjrjrj-. Apple Inc. , Bless you , English-language films 807 Words | 3 Pages.

Ufortunatly Fortunate(College Essay On My Biggest Regret) ?Rhiannon Pomeroy English IV 8 October 2013 Unfortunately Fortunate In the beginning of brenner thesis, my junior year, my best friend's . mother, Paula died from ovarian cancer. She fought longer than the doctors expected her to and had her family there every step of the way. The death of ilm level 3 essays, Melissa's mother crushed her emotionally, but I can tell she had become a stronger person throughout her experience. As soon as her mother passed, Melissa had to take the role of a mother and become responsible for herself. 2007 singles , Family , Friendship 676 Words | 2 Pages. ?Course Code: PCR0025 Course Title: Critical Thinking Topic: Never Regret Group: PM01-05 Group Name: Huge Family List of group members’ Name . and ID.

Lecturer’s Name: MasyitahBintiMahadi Never Regret Introduction Each and every one of us will do things in brenner thesis life that we will regret afterwards. There are many forms of ilm level, regrets that we all will have to deal with and it is impossible for anyone to go through life without making a wrong decision or saying something they wish they hadn‘t. As we know, there. 2005 singles , 2008 albums , 2008 singles 2747 Words | 12 Pages. Vivienne Lee Per.6 A Musical Regret All throughout my life, I've made many mistakes. Whether it was picking the roommate essay stanford wrong type of . food, the wrong clothes for my doll, or just making the wrong choices in my life, I was never one to look back upon those mistakes, and ponder upon ilm level them; I would usually just brush them off, and temple question say to ilm level myself Oh well, it's not a big deal.

However, there came a time when I did make a mistake, a big mistake; even to temple university this day, I regret not doing the ilm level 3 essays one thing I had always. College , Elementary school , Flautist 1073 Words | 3 Pages. Robinson 01/20/2010 My Greatest Regrets Everyone makes mistkes, and I am no exception. I have made may mistakes during . my lifetime, and I regret making poor decisions.With every wrong choice I have made, there are lessons to brenner thesis be learned. What I got out of what I learned made me a stronger woman today. Ilm Level. Although I have become stronger today than before, I still regret my poor decisions. My greatest regrets include not listening to my grandma as a teenager, moving back home with my mom, and being taken. 2005 albums , Developmental psychology , Education 552 Words | 2 Pages.

Maybe the root of my motivation to keep moving forward wasn’t in university 2012 my dreams, but in my fears that kept me awake at . night. One would think it would be the ilm level other way around, but what doesn’t kill you only makes you stronger, right? They seemed to haunt my thoughts wherever life seemed to introduction de philosophie take me, and they still do. Stopping me from doing even some of the 3 essays little things in life. They say that the only thing to fear is fear itself, but overcoming your fears is one of the biggest obstacles anyone will ever. Anxiety , Coco , Debut albums 1257 Words | 3 Pages. Counterfactual Thinking and Experiences of Regret. thinking and experiences of regret Introduction Counterfactual thinking is the cognitive process in which individuals can simulate . alternative realities, to think about how things could have turned out differently, with statements such as ‘what if’ and nsf ‘if only’. Counterfactuals can be either upward, in which alternative realities are improved, or downward, in which alternative realities are worsened. Reflecting on previous outcomes can make individuals experience regret and this review will focus. Cognition , Cognitive dissonance , Future 1743 Words | 5 Pages.

?Original Oratory Nostalgia or Regret ? (old man impersonation)Lookee here you young whippersnappers. Ilm Level. I pity you youths I really do. Having . to roommate essay deal with this newlyfangled technology nowadays like that iWire or finding music on iNotes. Back in the good old day where we respected our elders, ya little pest, we had none of that hair ripping difficult to ilm level work shtuff. Roommate Stanford. A simpler time living simpler lives without technology or other issues to 3 essays make it better. (little child impersonation)Butbutbut grandpa. Kylie Minogue , Time 1049 Words | 3 Pages. The Death of my grandmother a life experience that changed my Identity. The Death of my grandmother a life experience that changed my Identity My sense of independence was shattered when . my grandmother departed from temple university question 2012, this world. I lost my grandmother and this experience shattered my perspective of life. 3 Essays. Losing a loved one was like having a wisdom tooth pulled without any Novocain. Brenner Thesis. In spite of this painful occurrence happening to me at twenty-four years of age, emotions such as shock, anger, and guilt, came into play creating chaos.

I rerun her death in my mind, yet. Family , Higher education , Houston 1688 Words | 5 Pages. Running Head: Biggest Fear 1 Biggest Fear Brittany Cline Ivy Tech Community College English 112 9/29/14 . Biggest Fear 2 Abstract Fear is 3 essays a natural part in the life of every person. There is advanced art critical a reason or reasons behind all fears, whether the fear is instinctive or acquired. Through the course of my life, I have taken notice of a certain fear that unnerves me, and it is the fear of 3 essays, being taken. Biggest Fear 3 Have you ever walked by yourself at night into. E-mail , English-language films , Fear 442 Words | 1 Pages.

Feelings of Regret I know what it is like to be in a situation where you don't have a great home life, but you know there are other solutions . to your situation then marriage. I can tell you that from influenced life essay, experience. I turned 18 in 3 essays May. Three months later I married the man I thought was my true love and the person I was going to de dissertation spend my whole life with. Ilm Level. One month after our second wedding anniversary, I separated from him and doctoral research grants within six months we were divorced.

Before I got married I believe that. Adolescence , Alimony , Annulment 1030 Words | 3 Pages. ? Health or Fast While The Biggest Loser implements a foundation for a well-structured diet and exercise it deters those that are obese from . obtaining small goals and discourages expectations of weight loss. Many people who watch the program want to ilm level 3 essays do it at home; however they do not realize the risks and danger they purpose to higher their own body. Because the competition is based on weight loss and not body composition, the people on the show are losing more of a water weight than fat loss. Realistically. Adipose tissue , Dieting , Health 2434 Words | 6 Pages. My Greatest Goal Graduation had to have been one of 3 essays, my biggest goals. I’ve had many throughout high . Essay Stanford. school, but this would by far be my greatest accomplishment. Ilm Level 3 Essays. I had overcome the whole high school episode. De Philosophie Exemple. Graduation was something that had to be done and 3 essays something I wanted to dissertation do.

I have always known that I was capable of anything I put my mind to, and finishing school made that clear to me and everyone else. If finishing school could be done then, I knew I had other things that had. Academic dress , Academic term , College 860 Words | 2 Pages. The biggest change in my life Every person has its ups and downs in ilm level 3 essays life. These big changes create either . positive or negative turning-points in dissertation improvement people’s life. The biggest change I experienced in my life was when I started to work. I had an enormous will to 3 essays achieve something in life but hadn’t the opportunity to do it before.

Knowing you can move mountains but not having a chance to get in action hurts a person extremely. So, with a little delay and with the support of my husband. 1990s American television series , 2008 albums , Confidence 744 Words | 2 Pages. Clytaemnestra’s Composure and who has your life essay Orestes’ Regrets. Clytaemnestra’s Composure and Orestes’ Regrets The justification scenes in Agamemnon and the Libation Bearers show that both Clytaemnestra . and Orestes are able admit their decision of committing murder, but, while Clytaemnestra is able to ilm level maintain her composure, Orestes worries himself to the point of brenner thesis, insanity, and he ends up regretting the whole thing. Clytaemnestra plans to kill Agamemnon from the moment he returns home. When he arrives, she treats him like a king, but, when he is not on his. Agamemnon , Electra , Greek mythology 830 Words | 3 Pages. or Heliophobia (fear of the sun). My biggest fear is actually very common called Coulrophobia (fear of clowns).

For many people . Ilm Level. such as myself, the cause of coulrophobia develops during our childhood, affecting us in many different ways, and it stays with us well into our adulthood affecting our lives even today. Many of our fears develop when most of us are young. My fear developed on October 31, 1997, when I was seven years old. It was Halloween night and introduction my brother and I were not able to go. Clown , Clowning , Coulrophobia 855 Words | 2 Pages. My Dream of ilm level 3 essays, a College Degree Lynn McBride ENG 121 Janelle Garcia 2/17/2013 Outline 1. Reasons why I returned to school A. Brenner Thesis. . Inspiration for 3 essays my children 1. Education is to be valued 2. Envisioning a successful future B. Higher Art Critical. Importance 1. Ilm Level. Becoming all you can be 2. Job Competition C. Extend my knowledge D. Brenner Thesis. Love to learn E. To further my career 2. Motivations A. 3 Essays. Better life for my family B. Promotions at my job C. Pride in accomplishment . Academic degree , College , High school 1098 Words | 4 Pages. ?The biggest change in my life! Moving to the United States from Dalat, Vietnam was a dramatic experience that has impacted . my life in brenner thesis many different ways. 3 Essays. My family immigrated to a new country hoping for a better future.

I had spent fourteen years of my childhood in Vietnam only to tear away from essay, my relatives, friends and home to start a new life on a city that I have not known much about. On the 3 essays flight to temple essay question Seattle I realized this is will be new life that I am about to 3 essays create. These countries have. 2007 singles , The Marshall Tucker Band , United States 641 Words | 2 Pages. Regret – Dealing With It Regret is a powerful emotion. By definition, “ regret ” means to mourn for the loss . of someone or something meaningful, or to miss someone or something greatly. It can also mean to wish something never happened. Temple University Question. One would want to reach back in time and change their part in the resulting outcome. 3 Essays. Regret causes people to experience unpleasant emotions that can be resisted subconsciously.

Rebecca Solnit’s essay, “The Solitary Stroller and the City”, and Daniel Gilbert’s. Daniel Gilbert , Emotion , Immune system 1745 Words | 5 Pages. ? My Biggest Mistake I never knew when it started, this obsession. Didn’t even realize how slowly and steadily what I thought I . could control controlled me. I am not like most people my likes, dislikes and feelings differ from most of the de philosophie exemple crowd. When did I become someone who cared so much what other people think of me? Now that I think about it, it baffles me how I slowly and steadily from being an 3 essays, individual who preaches about being different suddenly became someone who just wanted to fit in to. 2005 albums , American films , Debut albums 793 Words | 2 Pages.

The Biggest Experience of My Life. The Biggest experience of my life Life is full of chances if you can see it however unless you try hard, potential does not . come to your life by itself. I have been learnt Chinese since third grade and one of the most depressing day one of the chances of my life is brenner thesis come in ilm level 3 essays my existence by contest brochure that “Scholarship in introduction de dissertation de philosophie inner mongolia 4year-Chinese-boarding school for 3 students if they can write the best essay titled ”. Why it was depressing day is I found out that all of my assiduity. English-language films , Inner Mongolia , Mongolia 666 Words | 2 Pages. spend the rest of my days there. Although the South is very dangerous for 3 essays me, I sometimes wish I could stay in that house, and work for the . next family who chooses to live there, but I know that is near impossible.

The town will never be the same after the who has your life discovery of Homer’s body, and I am not willing to ilm level 3 essays stick around and allow them to conjure up horrible tales of Miss Emily. So, I went to doctoral dissertation my room one last time, and 3 essays began packing. There wasn’t much, but when I took my bags and temple question stepped out. 2008 singles , I Decided , Ireland 838 Words | 3 Pages. My Life Teacher Whether it’s a person, song, book or whatever it might be everyone has some kind of ilm level, influence in their lives. An influence . can drive someone to better themselves, or maybe send them in the wrong direction.

They really determine the life way people turn out. Just like anyone else, I have had many influences in 3 essays my life, some good, some bad, and who has influenced essay they all cross my mind when I have to make a big decision. Ilm Level 3 Essays. Over all the ones that do come across my mind my mom impacts my decision the most. Help , Help me , High school 1209 Words | 3 Pages. My life at de dissertation de philosophie 70 A lot has changed over ilm level the years of my life. Roommate Essay. I just had my 70th birthday party yesterday. The . children did a great job putting it together. It was so nice to see everyone together again, because it doesn’t happen too often since the children have gone their separate ways.

They say I’m getting older, but I say that I’m just getting wiser. I’m one of the lucky ones, I still have my loving husband, three beautiful successful children, nine grandchildren, and two great grandchildren. 2005 singles , Family , Help 1244 Words | 3 Pages. My Uncle My Hero Picture this: a little girl at ilm level 3 essays five dancing around the living room on advanced higher art critical essay, her daddy’s feet. Now picture her . at sixteen going on ilm level, her first date and her dad interrogating the boy. Finally, picture her at eighteen, and her father sitting proudly in the stands watching her get her diploma.

Now you have pictured these scenes erase the higher essay dad’s part of it and add an uncle. This has been my life for 3 essays the past eighteen years. Instead, of the dad being an influence on my life, my uncle Jamie. 2002 albums , 2007 albums , College 1152 Words | 3 Pages. Amir’s biggest worry was impressing Baba. Dissertation Improvement Grants. According to Amir, Baba was all about winning.

Winning was Baba’s thing and ilm level 3 essays Amir felt that if he . could win this kite-flying competition, maybe Baba would be finally proud of him and give Amir the attention that he craves. In the last part of the competition, Amir says: All I saw was the blue kite. All I smelled was victory. Salvation. Redemption. If Baba was wrong and there was a God like they said in school, then He’d let me win… But this was my one chance. 2003 in literature , A Thousand Splendid Suns , Fremont, California 1885 Words | 5 Pages.

Frederick Douglas’s My Bondage and essay 2012 My Freedom and the 1800s American literature has always been greatly influenced by what the . author experiences in his life, and 3 essays it is very evident in lots of American writing. De Dissertation De Philosophie. During the 1800s, slavery was a big influence on literature in America, especially for ilm level 3 essays slaves because if they were literate, slavery was most likely the only thing they had to write about. Frederick Douglas’s autobiography, My Bondage and My Freedom, is reflective of slavery during the 1800s. African American , Afro-Latin American , American Civil War 900 Words | 3 Pages. ? Continuing My Journey Jacksonville University School of Nursing March 14, 2014 Continuing . De Philosophie Exemple. My Journey Personal Goals a. One of my short-term goals is to make it through the day. Ilm Level 3 Essays. That’s at the beginning of a lengthy list, but in influenced essay all seriousness, I hope to complete this course successfully with minimal added stress. After much thought and prayer, I have decided to accept the ilm level position as nurse manager that I was asked to doctoral research improvement grants nsf consider.

I could easily. Goal , Management , Master of Science in Nursing 1800 Words | 5 Pages. Through out my life, I have made many mistakes. I. Through out my life, I have made many mistakes. I generally tend to think through what I am planning to do, so that I will not . 3 Essays. regret my actions later.

I was recently reflecting about doctoral dissertation research improvement nsf, my past, trying to remember mistakes that I regretted and vowed to never repeat again. I came to the conclusion that my biggest mistake was not trying hard enough in school. My biggest regret was the fact that I wasted so much time when I was in ilm level high school, and never put forth an who has life essay, effort to succeed. I attended High. 2006 singles , 2007 singles , College 1278 Words | 3 Pages. My Perfect Wedding Christmas Day is ilm level usually a holiday mainly observed to commemorate the birth of Jesus. De Dissertation. For non Christianity followers it . is a day to exchange gifts, decorate houses and for Santa Clause. For me, Christmas of two thousand eight changed my life forever. This is the day my now to be husband kneeling down on one knee, asked me to 3 essays spend the rest of my life with him. His proposal was short sweet and sincere.

Without a doubt I gracefully replied “Yes, I will.” With many new emotions. A Flock of introduction de dissertation de philosophie, Seagulls , Chandelier , Gown 1210 Words | 3 Pages. people that have had an impact on my life and ilm level 3 essays influenced me in many different ways. My mother, however, has had the . biggest impact on my life, and influenced me more than anyone else. She has had an impact on brenner thesis, me since the day I was born, and she still does today. Ilm Level 3 Essays. Before I could even talk, I am sure she had an impact on roommate, me by 3 essays, the way she took care of me as an infant. My mother has always been a Christian. Dissertation Research Improvement. That has influenced me throughout my whole life. Even though my mother did not see it, she did have.

Happiness , High school , Life 1209 Words | 3 Pages. Student Name Professor’s Name Unit Code Date History of Regrets After reading Houston’s memoir Farewell to Manzanar, it brings out the . treatment of the 3 essays government of the United States to the Japanese living in the country at the time of essay, world war two were discriminative. In the Executive Order 9066, it is evident that the policies the government was trying to enforce were solely aimed at ilm level 3 essays oppressing the Japanese. The order opened up a gap that would allow the military commanders to make the. Discrimination , Illegal immigration , Immigration 2554 Words | 7 Pages.

of the reasons why these stereotypes arise and of the essay implications that may arise from these. Most, if not all, of us have at 3 essays some point in roommate essay stanford our lives gave or . made stereotypes—or in Chimamanda Adichie’s words, a single story—against other people. In my case, I made a single story about the ilm level Muslims of university question, Mindanao. I was raised in an environment of fundamental and conservative Christian teachings and ways. I was used to believing that the ilm level Christian faith is the stanford “right” faith and ilm level 3 essays that other faiths were. Christianity , Faith , Human 993 Words | 3 Pages. The Day I met my Hero. Brenner Thesis. I had always been the girl to throw money on useless things. At that time I didn’t care about anything except brands . and 3 essays designers. My parents were obviously worried about me as I had no aims, goals, role models or hero in life as I thought I already had everything and anything I wanted. And as I had just started my last year in high school my parents wanted me to actually graduate with good marks and go to university, which seemed useless to higher art critical essay me.

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At age six, my parents divorced and my mother got remarried, leaving my siblings and I behind to my half sister and grandmother’s care. The day I turned seven, my father passed away, leaving behind my eleven siblings and I. Although my dad had passed away, my grandma always said “it’ll be okay. You all still. Debut albums , English-language films , Family 1389 Words | 4 Pages. crabby there is no reason to assume that they are just mean, there is a reason for everything and here's mine. CHAPTER TWO October of brenner thesis, my . freshman year I got sick. Ilm Level. Not the flu or strep but I sneezed so often I carried a Kleenex box around with me at school but I couldn't breathe through my nose. It felt like there was snot that refused to come out of my nose, I got clear mucus occasionally. Your ears and sinuses are connected through your Eustachian tube, that’s why when you blow your nose.

Mucus , Nasal cavity , Nose 1609 Words | 4 Pages. you feel that way too. Everyday, I get on that court and I have to, I need to, try my hardest if I ever want to get to the level that I think I . deserve to be at and in order to do this I need to push myself harder than I ever have before. The life of an doctoral research improvement, athlete is difficult, but the life of a tennis player is even harder. I started playing tennis at age 4 but tennis has been my life ever since I could breathe. My mother started playing it at ilm level 3 essays 13 because she has bronchitis and could no longer swim. 2007 singles , 2008 singles , Clay court 1710 Words | 4 Pages. Running Head: MY EXPERIENCE 1 . My Personal Experience Joan Boyd PSY 202 Hillary Locke December 14, 2012 MY EXPERIENCE 2 I. Essay Stanford. Where am I from? A. I was born in. Academic degree , Adult , Divorce 1370 Words | 6 Pages. Manipulation and Regret in Macbeth.

Manipulation and Regret in ilm level 3 essays Macbeth Regret can be a powerful motivator. A guilty person full of brenner thesis, regrets often . lives in a world of fear. As George Sewell said, “Fear is the tax that conscience pays to guilt.” Sewell’s quote shows that fear is a direct consequence of guilt. 3 Essays. In Shakespeare’s classic play Macbeth, the main character lives in influenced your life this world of fear because of his intense regret of the murders he has committed. Ilm Level 3 Essays. There is a popular modern saying, “behind every great man there’s a great woman. Anxiety , Character , Guilt 913 Words | 3 Pages. their sexuality then it may be for others. Roommate Essay Stanford. I for one have had many contributions in my life that has caused my sexuality to be . the way it is.

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Love , Meaning of introduction de dissertation de philosophie, life 1601 Words | 4 Pages. Poetry Essay on The Cord, My Life, and Bike Ride With Older Boys. In the ilm level three poems My Life by Joe Wenderoth, Bike Ride With Older Boys by de dissertation, Laura Kasischke and ilm level The Cord by temple university, Leanne O'Sullivan the theme of . adolescence is developed through the language techniques these writers have used. A different idea of adolescence is ilm level 3 essays represented in roommate each poem which explains the troubles we can have through adolescence such as the problems we have to face and accept, decision making and ilm level how mothers are so protective of their children growing up. These ideas are shown through the. 2008 singles , Accept , Cognition 1378 Words | 3 Pages. it might be better to shop in actual stores because of the availability to try item on, but often it is higher art critical essay overcrowded and ilm level they barely have half of what is art critical essay . shown online. I also like to 3 essays shop online for roommate stanford the future and see what I may want to start saving my money up for. A website that I enjoy is Amazon because every item I find on there is always cheaper than the price in the stores. I might have to pay about seven dollars for ilm level shipping and handling but it ends up helping me out dissertation nsf, with saving money when.

A Great Way to ilm level Care , , Facebook 971 Words | 3 Pages. was born , A journey of mine started New chapter has built living in my hands today A journey to life molded with grace . In the age of nothing Valued and taught by passion Starting my new days and advanced higher art critical facing eachsteps in different pathways My Journey is what the future holds It might be hard for me but there is something that makes me strong With God’s love and power, Whatever it takes my journey will never break. Ilm Level 3 Essays. Hey there! Each one of us have. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Personal life 952 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Worldview Name J.S. G.B. My Worldview Grappling with uncertainty- not over the existence of God or the . divinity of Jesus but over temple question the fundamental issue of whether he could totally trust what his bible was telling him (Strobel, Pg 9). 3 Essays. I start with this quote because I feel it describes how I feel about my worldview. I feel that I’m Christian, but I am always questioning my religion. De Dissertation De Philosophie Exemple. Whether or not to believe everything that is told to me.

I do believe that God is real and. 2006 singles , Bible , Christianity 1416 Words | 6 Pages. ?How the art of ilm level 3 essays, dance has influenced and shaped every aspect of my character. De Philosophie Exemple. ‘Dance is the hidden language of the soul’. This expression . accurately describes what dance has always meant to me. It has always been the ilm level 3 essays one thing that has helped set me free both literally and metaphorically. I was introduced to the art of dance at the tender age of five, and brenner thesis since then, have fallen deeply in love with the 3 essays art of Bharathanatyam.

After almost sixteen years, I am now a professional dancer with a diploma. Dance 1915 Words | 6 Pages. My hometown is worth visiting Sarawak- my hometown and I am proud of it. The scenery, languages, historical places, . interesting places and various foods are very special to me as the art critical essay resident of 3 essays, The Earth of essay, Hornbill. I am proud to ilm level 3 essays promote my hometown to everybody as Sarawak has its own attraction.

I will be gladsome to recommend the most popular places in Sarawak which is introduction also known as the main attraction such as Sarawak Cultural Village, Jong’s Crocodile Farm, Sarawak tribe languages and. Crocodile , Crocodiles , Debut albums 892 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of Regret by Kate Chopin. pars. Ilm Level. 5). They became more independent in their lives without the need of men to support. But the question is that was this change good for university essay question women or not? The . American author Kate Chopin gave an example of ilm level, those independent women in doctoral dissertation improvement grants her short story Regret . In the story, a woman called Mamzelle Aurelie lived alone in her farm. She has never got married and never had children.

But one day the silence in ilm level 3 essays Aurelie's life was broken as she carried the burden of looking after her neighbor's four children. 19th century , English-language films , Fiction 767 Words | 3 Pages.

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Ilm level 3 essays - traumurlaub …

5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the color and contrast that keep the ilm level story moving. A cast of characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. For those times when the story is especially important and meaningful, or for when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. Essay Stanford. With blogging and social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell. I’ve mentioned before that taking on a photo project is one of my favorite ways to reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by a larger group. A photo essay is ilm level 3 essays, intriguing; it’s something to talk about roommate stanford after people hear that you’re a photographer and ilm level 3 essays, want to know about the brenner thesis glitz and glamour of it all. Ilm Level. It’s the roommate perfect thing to ilm level tell them after you’re done going on and on about all of the red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and essay, the fortune.

It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment. By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of photographs intended to ilm level 3 essays tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to advanced higher essay be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for 3 essays, a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to essay my clients.

I was photographing so many of the 3 essays same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for introduction de dissertation, this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. Ilm Level. We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in life essay, their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. 3 Essays. Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to doctoral dissertation improvement nsf be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and ilm level, posted them on my personal Facebook page the heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the two pictures. She and temple 2012, I would spend the ilm level 3 essays next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in introduction de philosophie exemple, turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . We photographed hundreds of women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an extremely powerful moment for ilm level 3 essays, them. Beyond my beautiful children, the fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is introduction exemple, one of my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on its own, starting from 3 essays, a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and becoming a large and temple university essay, powerful project, one of the biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept.

Your images will guide you to 3 essays your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from essay, overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. Ilm Level. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the first time I met the transport van I wanted to essay document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and ilm level, care which they’ve likely never known.

I tear-up every time I see it. Who Has Essay. I am also put to work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto ilm level 3 essays, a 100 pound German Shepard is tough. It’s going to take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos. I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to help bring in art critical, volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. Ilm Level 3 Essays. I’m not sure yet, but the point is who has your life, that I have the images, ready for their time, whenever that is. TIP: If you think there is something to it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. 3 Essays. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in higher art critical essay, continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”.

Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting. 3 Essays. Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the de dissertation more coverage you have, the better. This is one of the few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to ilm level 3 essays see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it.

Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept. TIP: Think big. Brenner Thesis. If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the ilm level mountain in pieces and photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and temple university essay question 2012, whatever else.

This will save you having to return to the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in ilm level 3 essays, the project. This is where it is so helpful to have someone else help. Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the brenner thesis image and not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the ilm level general public may not see the power behind. I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for temple university, a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. This event is meant to put faces on the survivors and raise awareness, and has been a large local event for years. I was thrilled to be selected to be the 3 essays exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on.

The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for advanced higher essay, the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and 3 essays, experience. Advanced Higher. This made it difficult for me to pick which final images would be used for ilm level 3 essays, the show, based only on the power of the image and not my personal feelings. In the doctoral end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the final image used, as ultimately this is their story. 3 Essays. TIP: All creative work is essay, personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to ilm level do with clear eyes. We see the mistakes, the personal feelings, the advanced art critical shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on a project that is incredibly important to you, or large in scale. Have others help you decide what images to use for 3 essays, your final pieces. Bring in higher, people who are interested in photography and people that aren’t. People that know about your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at all.

But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person?

Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to take the time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble.

Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. Ilm Level. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only dissertation research improvement nsf, did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and longterm benefit. Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to ilm level 3 essays an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for brenner thesis, a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in ilm level 3 essays, the comments if you have, or have considered it.

If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category. Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of who has your life essay, like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the country. Her photography can be viewed at or on Facebook. 3 Essays. Excellent post Lynsey. I suffer from the university question 2012 same challenges as you in tip #4. I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Ilm Level 3 Essays. Apparently, others feel the same way. Your.

I have an idea for a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. 3 Essays. Thank you. Wonderful article. I liked the picture for #3. University Essay Question. This is the main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to 3 essays show your work; for life, me, the ilm level 3 essays images are just part of the higher art critical story, but the words and texts can help define them, giving them context and body.

For me, an image rarely works alone and usually comes in a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and what follows is a very important element of ilm level, each capture, as well. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Bangkok: I think the issue in Tip #4 is common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. Doctoral Grants. In a previous life, I was a writer and editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes. 3 Essays. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the 2012 examples are awesome and ilm level, thought-filling. Thank-you for telling me about this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro brenner thesis, photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share. I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of students in ilm level, Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the roommate essay stanford home of the terracotta warriors, to ilm level 3 essays help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now.

I have never done this before. They are not expecting much. Brenner Thesis. Just pictures for the event. However, I wanted to tell a story. Ilm Level 3 Essays. A story of brenner thesis, these volunteers as well as the ilm level 3 essays orphans and advanced higher art critical, I have been struggling over 3 essays, the past week of whether is that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on brenner thesis, the right path and hopefully help not to ilm level take pictures of who has life, people, but take pictures of the story behind the people. Ilm Level 3 Essays. Thank you again very much. Roommate Stanford. This is 3 essays, my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about it.

Thank you again for this great article. Really good points and life, very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. 3 Essays. It#8217;s over at one of my blogs and can be found here: you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the focus similar. the temple university 2012 shift in focus from 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. 5 the ilm level green plant on the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change.

The drain-pipe is beautiful because the eye follows the path of the pipe and temple essay, so tightly focused. 3 Essays. It seems to be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the brenner thesis same focus.. but the dried plants and wall work, the drain beautiful and interesting. The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Ilm Level. Overall, is interesting group and should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook.

It took me a long time to figure out who has influenced your life essay how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to 3 essays construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the temple university essay 2012 eBook only on iPads. Photo essays in ilm level, black and white. This post inspired me to start my website of university question, photo essays. My current ongoing series is about a band I went on tour with and the different things I learned and ilm level, encountered: I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in context by using words to string them together. Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is essay, a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and through. Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips.

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compilation thesis Compiled by Brad C. Sparks. W. A. Ilm Level 3 Essays? Bartlett 1848, St. Catherine's Monastery and Mt. Sinai. The Bible Puts Mt. Sinai in the Sinai. Adventurers Larry Williams and Bob Cornuke in their recently reprinted book claim that the Bible over and over states clearly. that Mount Sinai is in Arabia 1 -- an admittedly crucial point upon which the thrust of brenner thesis, our argument will fall if disproved Biblically. Ilm Level? 2 Howard Blum has retold their story in a new book, The Gold of Exodus , published by Simon Schuster (1998), and Cornuke has now come out with his own separate book (2000).

There is who has influenced, a certain amount of irony if not implausibility in their argument which in ilm level, essence tries to take Mt. Sinai out of the Sinai. What they mean by Arabia is modern Saudi Arabia and who has influenced life there is no statement in the Bible or any other ancient source that places Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia by whatever ancient name (in this case Midian). In fact, it is quite the reverse, Mt. Ilm Level 3 Essays? Sinai is clearly placed outside of Saudi Arabia and brenner thesis right on the Sinai Peninsula as we would expect.

Exodus 18:27 states that, while the Israelites were camped near Mt. Sinai, 3 Moses sent his Midianite (Saudi Arabian) father-in-law Jethro back to ilm level his own country of question 2012, Midian (NIV, emphasis added). Ilm Level? Clearly, Mt. Who Has Influenced Life? Sinai and northwestern Saudi Arabia (Midian) were in two different locations . The making of the statement signals the importance of the action, it was not a trivial event or insignificant journey for Jethro to ilm level go back to Midian from Mt. Sinai. This incident was repeated about a year hence on influenced your life a later visit to ilm level 3 essays Mt. Sinai by Moses' Midianite father-in-law or nephew Hobab (Numbers 10:29-31). Moses asked him to stay and guide the Israelites to the Promised Land, but he declined, saying he would return to my own land (Midian) and my own people (Midianites) from Mt.

Sinai. (NIV, emphasis added) He did not want to go on a long journey to Moses' land with Moses' people. Hobab's land (in what is modern Saudi Arabia) was clearly not the essay stanford, same land where they were at (Mt. Sinai) and not the same land where they were going (Canaan), which were national or geopolitical entities spread across a great distance and ilm level requiring an expert guide to navigate. The only response to these difficult arguments from the Bible has been to suggest that everything was really happening at Mt. Sinai in Midianite Saudi Arabia and that Hobab merely meant that he was going back to his own tent nearby, which trivializes the watershed decision and is frankly absurd. If this conversation at who has your, Mt. Ilm Level 3 Essays? Sinai was really taking place already in Hobab's homeland of Midian among his people the Midianites then Hobab would have said to Moses You go on your journey but I am staying here in my land with my people. Hobab obviously did not say that. It was a parting of ways with the two going their separate routes.

Another variation of this back-to-his-tent counterargument tries to brenner thesis split the difference and elevates Hobab's tent to a city. But that makes no sense either, the verses are not talking about Moses going to his own city (the Promised City instead of ilm level 3 essays, Promised Land?) and influenced your essay Hobab going back to his own city . This devastating Biblical disproof of Sinai-in-Arabia was first made in a book that Williams and ilm level 3 essays Cornuke quote and use as an important reference, yet they never mention the advanced art critical essay, disproof to their readers. Ilm Level 3 Essays? It was in advanced art critical, Prof. 3 Essays? Menashe Har-El's 1983 book The Sinai Journeys: The Route of the Exodus. Dissertation Grants Nsf? It was again repeated to Cornuke and 3 essays Williams in Dec. 1996 when the draft of this article was presented to them in advance of publication on this website in Jan. 1997 and again there was no response, though one was promised in writing. Four years later an doctoral dissertation research improvement nsf unofficial rebuttal has been presented privately but hasn't been made public as of this date. Biblical geographer Har-El of Tel Aviv University was evidently the first to develop this disproof of ilm level 3 essays, Sinai-in-Arabia notion in his critique of Charles Beke's theory, which goes back to the 19 th century. Williams and Cornuke got their theory from advanced essay still another adventurer Ron Wyatt, 4 but they make no mention of the theory's origin in modern scholarly theories (which in turn may originate in medieval Muslim polemics against Christians). In 1834, Beke proposed that the land called Mizraim where Israel was held in bondage was not Egypt but Arabia, that the Israelites crossed the ilm level, Red Sea over the Gulf of Aqaba instead of Suez and so Mt.

Sinai was to be sought in Arabia. By 1871 Beke suggested that Mt. Sinai was a volcano in what is now Saudi Arabia. (5) His posthumously published book in 1878 specified a mountain called Ertowa near Jebel Bagir about five miles northeast of Elath. (6) Har-El comments that the passage in Numbers shows that while the Israelites were still at Mount Sinai, Moses' father-in-law was outside his own country, Midian, to which he wished to return, and question it also proves that Mount Sinai was not in Midian [Saudi Arabia] . Ilm Level? (7) The latest desperate effort to save Sinai-in-Arabia, the temple essay question, back-to-the-city theory, was in Bible Review magazine for April 2000.

The suggestion is that Midian was a city and that Mt. Sinai was close by, thus supposedly solving the ilm level 3 essays, problem of the Bible verses in Exodus 18 and Numbers 10, which we just reviewed (above), and again putting Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia. However, this flies in the face of the passages in Exodus and Numbers that clearly indicate that Midian was a land not a city and that it was a substantial distance from higher art critical essay Mt. Ilm Level 3 Essays? Sinai requiring a special effort by Jethro to send word back and forth and to come out and meet Moses (Exod. 18:1, 5-7). There may have been a capital city of Midian with the same name as the land (as indicated in a few places in the Septuagint Greek translation of the Bible) and this was often the case with ancient nations and their capitals. But it is irrelevant to the circumstances in who has influenced your essay, the Bible describing the land of Midian not a city.

As previously noted, if Midian was a city near Mt. Sinai then Hobab should have told Moses he was staying where he was when the ilm level 3 essays, Israelites set out for the Promised Land, instead of saying he was returning to his own land (Num. 10:30). The Bible treats locations close to Mt. Sinai as interchangeable or virtually identical sites, e.g., Horeb was near Mt. Sinai and the two place names are used interchangeably. Brenner Thesis? (7a)

If Midian was a city near Mt. 3 Essays? Sinai then it was effectively the same location in Biblical terms and so Hobab would have stayed and waved to Moses and brenner thesis the Israelites as they left him behind. Bible archaeologist Gordon Franz has published an outstanding critique of the Sinai-in-Arabia theory in ilm level 3 essays, the most recent issue of Bible and Spade journal for Fall 2000, published in February 2001, by the Associates for Biblical Research (see website at Franz thoroughly reviews the archaeological evidence of the Jebel al-Lawz site and its surroundings, and the lack of evidence for the Israelites. He explains very persuasively the seeming anomalies put forward by the adventurers as proof of their claims. Influenced? He also has learned that the official Saudi archaeologist is soon to release an exhaustive site analysis in a formal archaeological survey report. Josephus Puts Mt. Sinai Between Egypt and Arabia. Jewish historian Josephus, ca. 100 A.D., lauded in the Williams-Cornuke book as perhaps the greatest Biblical scholar of all time, (8) vindicates the traditional location of Mt. Ilm Level? Sinai on the Sinai peninsula (9):

JOSEPHUS: Moses went up to introduction a mountain that lay between Egypt and Arabia , which was called Sinai . It has been suggested in ilm level, rebuttal that Josephus was here quoting Apion whom he was attacking, so therefore everything Apion said was a lie. This is a desperate and absurd argument. Josephus merely objected to a discrepancy in introduction de dissertation de philosophie exemple, Apion's account of the 3 essays, Israelites' Exodus about the number of days of travel versus remaining camped, and evidently agreed with this statement of Mt. Sinai's location between Egypt and Arabia otherwise he would either have attacked it as well (especially since it had bearing on the travel time issue) or he would not have quoted it in the first place. Moreover, how on earth did Apion in ca. 40 B.C. even get the idea that Mt. Sinai was, well, in the Sinai, if as Williams and Cornuke allege, this was actually a fabrication of the 18 th century designed as a tourist scam to attract visitors to the traditional site at St. Essay Stanford? Catherine's monastery?

Josephus agreed with Apion on placing Sinai between Egypt and Arabia (Apion 2:2 [2:25]) and nowhere disputes that fact when he could easily have omitted it if he disagreed. Ilm Level? Or he could have made a point of disagreeing with it and counted it as another error by Apion, since he was taking apart Apion's contradictory statements phrase by phrase, including quoting a phrase as short as they came to Judea in doctoral research grants nsf, six days' time. It was relevant to Josephus' argument against Apion's misinterpretation of the travel time of the Israelites across the Sinai. The full context shows that Josephus had disputed Apion's slur that claimed the Jews' Sabbath was due to their taking 6 days to reach Judea from Egypt then resting on the 7th day because of groin disease. Josephus disputed this slur by pointing out, among other things, a self-contradiction where Apion elsewhere had said the Jews had taken at least 40 days to cross the Sinai by stopping at Mt Sinai for 40 days between Egypt and Arabia, which statement Josephus agreed with. If Josephus did not agree that Sinai was between Egypt and Arabia but thought that Sinai was in Arabia he should have said so and ilm level racked it up as another gross error by Apion, or just omitted that altogether if the only issue was the 6 days vs. the introduction, 40 days travel. But he didn't.

Mt. Sinai-in-Arabia Started as a Muslim Polemic. Placing Mt. Sinai somewhere in ilm level, Arabia is not new, contrary to what has been implied by Williams and Cornuke, but the specification of a particular mountain is relatively recent. The general idea goes back to about 1225 AD, when Muslim geographers began to arbitrarily shift Biblical place names #151; largely because they had been identified by roommate stanford, Christians #151; from the Sinai to Arabia, as a kind of polemic against the Crusades. But this Mt. Sinai-in-Arabia concept was purely a product of scholarly theories and propaganda, not of long-standing local traditions which often can preserve genuine information about ancient geography and Biblical sites. 3 Essays? (10) Nor does not compare in antiquity with the essay, traditions attached to the southern Sinai Peninsula, which can be traced back to about 100 A.D. Among modern scholars Charles Beke was the pioneer arguing for Sinai-in-Arabia, starting in 1834 (without pinpointing a specific peak) and culminating in his book, Mount Sinai a Volcano , published in 1873. (11) But upon ilm level 3 essays his firsthand exploration of the Arabian mountains shortly before his death, Beke retracted his novel thesis of doctoral dissertation research nsf, a volcanic origin for the smoke, fire and ilm level 3 essays rumblings on Mt. Sinai, thus weakening his case for Sinai-in-Arabia. (12) At the turn of the century Pan-Arabianism was popular among critical Bible scholars of the Wellhausen school.

This was a theory, or passing scholarly fad, that put almost the entire Bible story in stanford, Arabia, including the ilm level 3 essays, Israelite Bondage, Exodus, Wilderness Wandering, etc. The Pharaoh was just an obscure Arab sheikh in this scheme. Its heyday was the essay, 1880s through about the 1910s. Ilm Level 3 Essays? The entire Encyclopaedia Biblica was written with this North Arabian slant. (13) The specific Jebel al-Lawz site for question 2012 Mt.

Sinai has been occasionally indicated in some scholarly references as a possibility, going back at least two decades prior to the Williams-Cornuke and Blum books. Such references include a map published in an encyclopedia in 1972, a map in 3 essays, the Har-El book published in 1983 (used by Williams-Cornuke without credit for the site location), maps in brenner thesis, two popular books in ilm level, 1975 and 1985, and in a well-known archaeology magazine in 1977. Essay Stanford? (14) None of these sources give any documentation that the Jebel al-Lawz site had a genuine local geographic tradition as Mt. Sinai. No early map or reference has been cited specifically giving Jebel al-Lawz the name Jebel Musa (Mountain of Moses in Arabic). The only evidence is stories allegedly told Williams and Cornuke by local residents and ilm level not even claimed by the locals to have come from ancient tradition and is not documented from ancient sources. (15) The name Jebel Musa remains strongly attached to the traditional site near St. Catherine's monastery, as it has for nearly 2,000 years (see next section). Traditional Southern Sinai Site is Ancient. The Williams-Cornuke book is stanford, unclear as to when and how the traditional Mt. Sinai was supposedly picked, and this of 3 essays, course has a bearing on essay stanford how substantial and legitimate a geographic tradition it is. 3 Essays? An unnamed psychic or seer is said to be responsible for choosing the traditional Sinai site for Emperor Constantine (plate 7 caption of the essay, book).

But elsewhere their book says this myth has arisen only within the last almost 250 years as a long-running tourist scam, and prior to that time [about 1740], numerous other mountains were claimed to 3 essays be Mt. Sinai though no example is given (pp. 17, 50) and the claim is patently false. Nearly 1,700 years ago it was Constantine's devout Christian mother, Empress Helena, ca. 330 A.D., who chose the site for a church. She did not do it to set up a tourist scam but for brenner thesis humanitarian reasons -- to build the church to protect monks from murderous raids by nomads. (16) According to the tradition, the church was built at the place where the local monks pointed out what they believed was the 3 essays, Burning Bush. (17) Hence the site was already well known as Mt. Sinai by that time. About 550 A.D., Emperor Justinian built a fortified monastery to replace this church, likewise also dedicated to the Virgin Mary, which still stands today. (18) Much later, the monastery took on who has influenced essay the name of St. Catherine, the earliest mentions perhaps about 1244. (19) Contrary to the claim that prior to about 1740 numerous other mountains were claimed to be Mt. Sinai, it was not until Lepsius' proposal in ilm level, 1845 that any other specific mountain but the traditional Jebel Musa was ever suggested for Mt.

Sinai. (20) (Earlier, when Muslim scholars arbitrarily placed Mt. Sinai in Arabia, they did not single out a particular mountain.) There is evidence of early Jewish pilgrimages that led to identifications of sacred sites later adopted by roommate, Christian travelers, though it is in some dispute. One careful scholar of the geography of the Exodus route, Graham Davies of Cambridge, has argued that in 3 essays, the late Tannaitic period (about 100-200 A.D.), for example, rabbinical literature described the distance between Pharan and Mt. Sinai as 36 Roman miles, almost exactly matching Egeria's later figure of 35 Roman miles Pharan-to- Jebel Musa . In other words, Mt. Sinai = Jebel Musa . To Davies this shows that Jebel Musa (the later St. Introduction De Philosophie? Catherine's) had already been identified as Mt. 3 Essays? Sinai by Jewish pilgrims around 100 A.D. (21) The current book (pp. 57, 69-70) completely misses the following statement in quoting from the advanced higher essay, Sinai entry in Harper's Bible Dictionary: In that reference, it states that among many possible sites one can safely say that Jebel Musa , or another mountain in its immediate [southern Sinai] vicinity, remains the most likely candidate [for Mt. Sinai]. (22)

Many early travelers confirm the monks' tradition locating Mt. 3 Essays? Sinai at stanford, Jebel Musa, beginning with a visiting Syrian monk Julian Saba who built another church there ca. 360 A.D., then Egyptian monk Ammonius ca. Ilm Level? 372-3, and the intrepid Lady Egeria from France/Spain ca. Art Critical Essay? 383. (23) Egeria wrote with such sharp observation of the landscape (23) on ilm level 3 essays her extensive travels through the Holy Land, giving estimated mileages and travel times, that Egyptologists and advanced higher art critical essay Bible archaeologists minutely pour over her story for 3 essays clues to university question 2012 the whereabouts of the Pharaoh's store-cities of Pithom and ilm level 3 essays Raamses, the sites along the route of the Exodus, the conquered cities of Bethel and improvement grants Ai in the Promised Land, and other Biblical places. (25) The current book likewise attributes the traditional Red Sea crossing site at the Gulf of Suez to an unnamed 16th century mystic who claimed she had a revelation (pp. 140-141). But the identification of the Suez site dates back at least to Egeria ca.

383, then Orosius ca. 415, Cosmas Indicopleustes (Cosmas the India-Sailor) ca. Ilm Level? 550, and Antoninus ca. 570. Even earlier, the name Clysma, given in ancient Greco-Roman days to advanced higher art critical essay a place near the ilm level, modern town of Suez, reflects local tradition of a watery cata clysm (Greek for flood or surging inundation) that overwhelmed the Pharaoh and his army. (26)

In Paul's Time Arabia Included Sinai Peninsula. In Apostle Paul's time, Arabia covered a wide area that included the Sinai Peninsula as well as what we now call Saudi Arabia, according to Cambridge scholar Graham Davies. (27) A glance at most Bible atlases will show this. Stanford? Thus, Paul's remark in Galatians 4:25 is ilm level, quite consistent with Mt. Sinai's traditional placement on the Sinai Peninsula. Too Much Reliance on Strange Methods or Devices.

One investigator of the Jebel al-Lawz site states he discovered the gold from the Golden Calf there using a molecular frequency generator (p. 107), which one knowledgeable source (Dr. Essay Stanford? John Morris) says is actually a dowsing or divination rod. (28) A molecular frequency generator is not a familiar piece of scientific equipment, despite the impressive technical-sounding name. 3 Essays? The current book refers to site surveying by pendulums (p. 75), another form of dowsing. The Bible cautions against such practices (Deut.

18:10-11; Levit. 19:26, 20:27) or consulting those who use them. Who Has Your Life Essay? (Levit. 19:31; Deut. 18:14). The molecular frequency generator may be the same as the ilm level 3 essays, metal detector sometimes mentioned. (29) However, the metal detector's reported detection of introduction de philosophie, gold from a distance of two miles seems to be an impossible range for ilm level the usual electromagnetic induction metal detectors, which are limited to a maximum range of just a few feet. The Sinai was Not Part of Egypt in temple, Ancient Times. The current book states in some places that the Sinai in ilm level, ancient times was part of Egypt (pp. 26, 58). We can call this the Sinai/Egypt territory for introduction de dissertation simplicity. 3 Essays? If so, this would prove that Mt. Sinai was not on the Sinai peninsula because the Israelites would have to leave this Sinai/Egypt territory in order to temple university essay 2012 be totally free of Egypt and then to travel to 3 essays the holy mountain.

The book quotes the Father of Modern Archaeology, William Flinders Petrie, to support this point (p. 56). But the Petrie quote in the book actually states the exact opposite , that the southern Sinai was, quote outside the university question, territorial border of Egypt ! Elsewhere, the book contradicts itself and correctly states that leaving the land of Egypt is necessary to ilm level 3 essays get to the base of dissertation research improvement, Mount Sinai. the traditional site (p. 3 Essays? 125). (30) Petrie was supposed to prove that during Moses. time the traditional Mt. Sinai and environs formed a province of Egypt, and that Egyptian troops patrolled the copper and turquoise mines in that southern Sinai region (pp. 54-57). However, according to a scholar who was a student of the your, renowned Dean of Biblical Archaeology, William F. Albright, an Israelite march toward these mines would NOT have brought them into: John Bright : . collision with Egyptian troops, for the Egyptians did not maintain a permanent garrison at the mines . Except at intermittent periods when mining parties were at work, the Hebrews could have passed unmolested. Ilm Level? (31) Traditional Route of the Exodus and Traditional Location of Mount Sinai. Climate was Wetter in the Past #150; Sinai Covered in Forests.

The current book states that if you look closely at the photographs of the St. Catherine's area you will see there is no vegetation (pp. 60-61). But there is an oasis behind St. Catherine's and looking closely one can see the tops of dissertation research nsf, trees towering over ilm level 3 essays the back wall of the monastery even in Plate 7 of the temple university question 2012, book.

The book states (p. 62): I don't think there is anyone who will contest that it is impossible to 3 essays graze a flock of sheep at the base of the supposed Mount Sinai [Jebel Musa]. But the Grollenberg Atlas of the Bible has a large photo of just such a flock of sheep grazing at the base of Jebel Musa, the traditional Mt. Sinai, in introduction de philosophie exemple, the plain of Er-Rahah. (32) The shrubbery looks exactly like the ilm level, vegetation in the photos of the Jebel al-Lawz site (plate 21), which is praised in the book as excellent pasturage and totally different from the influenced life, supposedly barren traditional site in the Sinai (pp. 66, 158-159). The book inconsistently asserts elsewhere that the great Al-Lawz site itself is in a Saudi Desert more rough and rugged than our U.S. Southwest and is dry and uninhabitable (p. 152). Of course, if the Saudi Arabian site was truly dry and uninhabitable then it could not be the true Mt. Ilm Level 3 Essays? Sinai, could it? The truth is that there was a much wetter climate in roommate essay, ancient times, in the Sinai and elsewhere (see Judges 5:4), which sustained much more vegetation than at ilm level 3 essays, present. (33) The book claims no brook or dry stream bed can be found around the traditional Sinai site (pp.

65, 68-69), which is odd considering that the who has influenced essay, surrounding wadis themselves by definition are stream beds. Travelers have reported for centuries up to four running streams around the traditional Sinai. Egeria saw a stream there about 383 A.D. There were bubbling springs seen there about the year 550. (34) Petrie's student and scholar, Lina Eckenstein, in her History of Sinai, has also described the reckless deforestation. which has gone on unchecked for thousands of years, turning a Sinai of great fruitfulness into a vast wasteland. Forests once covered the Sinai valleys. Proof of the heavy forests can be found in the massive, possibly 100,000 tons, of slag-heaps left from the copper smelted by burning huge loads of wood in the Sinai's Wadi Nasb, and in the great bed of ashes from sacrifices burned with tons of wood at the mines of Serabit el-Khadem. (35) The current book concedes these places are not far from the traditional Sinai mountain (p. 54).

Gone are the ilm level, Sinai's extensive tamarish groves , the enormous plantations of palms and dates, such as the grove of 10,000 date-palms reported in 1335, the numerous fruit and vegetable gardens , and the numerous herds of brenner thesis, gazelles, all of which were still in existence as late as the Middle Ages, according to Eckenstein. pasture lands which formerly fed sheep and goats were turned into spreading desert by the introduction of the camel, a most destructive animal, she states, like a huge goat. Ilm Level 3 Essays? (36) Moses Could Have Wandered Well Outside of Midian. to Reach the Burning Bush at roommate stanford, Mt. Sinai. The book argues that Moses could not have wandered outside of Saudi Arabia when he found the Burning Bush at Mt.

Sinai because Moses was like the Midianites who were not nomads but, in fact, were a sedentary culture; they didn't move around, they stayed in one place. They stayed in Midian, which is now associated with Saudi Arabia. (p. Ilm Level? 16) But then the book actually quotes two of its leading reference works (pp. 69-70, 73), the Harper's Bible Dictionary and Smith's Bible Dictionary, both saying the Midianites were nomads . The Bible reports Midianites traveling long distances into Egypt for influenced your life trade (Gen. 37:28, 36) and into Western and Northern Israel for war (Judges 6-8). Like his Midianite hosts, Moses could have wandered far outside of Midian in reaching Mt. Sinai. In fact, the Bible seems to say just that: In Exodus 3:1, where Moses is ilm level 3 essays, said to have led Jethro's flock to brenner thesis Horeb (Mt. Sinai), the Hebrew verb nahag actually means to 3 essays forcibly or exhaustingly drive , not gently lead, (37) suggesting Moses traveled a great distance. The Amalekites are another case like the university question 2012, Midianites. The Israelites fought the Amalekites near Mt.

Sinai, while Moses had his arms held up (Exodus 17). The book argues that the Amalekites stayed in Arabia, never venturing as far as the ilm level 3 essays, Sinai or Egypt, so the battle must have occurred in Saudi Arabia and de dissertation exemple that must be where Mt. Sinai is to be found (pp. 111-115). But Josephus also located the Amalekites i n the Sinai , the whole district extending from Pelusium in Egypt to the Red Sea, based on 1 Samuel 15:7. (38)

Confusion About Biblical Geographic Clues to 3 essays Mt. Sinai. At first, the book correctly reads Exodus 3:1 to mean Mt. Sinai must be WEST of the wilderness. The book states that the Jebel al-Lawz site for Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia meets this condition (p. 62). Who Has Influenced Your Essay? But elsewhere the book claims the ilm level, al-Lawz mountain lies to the EAST of the wilderness (p. 99).

Melted or Burned Rocks From Jebel al-Lawz are Volcanic. The book contends that God's presence on top of Mt. Sinai supernaturally burned it (Exodus 24:17; Deut. 5:23) -- though the Burning Bush was not burned up (Exodus 3:2-3). The book is inconsistent in doubting at temple question 2012, one place whether any evidence of such burning would be left after three millennia (pp. 77-78), but then claiming there is a present-day blackening of the top of Jebel al-Lawz that is unexplained (p. 99) and ilm level that analysis of rocks from the temple university question 2012, base show they may have been burned (p. 98). Plants may have been supernaturally melted right into solid rock, it is said. (39) Geologist Dr. 3 Essays? John Morris told me the Jebel al-Lawz rock he examined is brenner thesis, normal metamorphic rock typical for the volcanic area it came from, there was nothing strange about it nor any sign of plants melted into ilm level 3 essays, the rock. (40) The book does not mention that Jebel al-Lawz is in a volcanic region.

One of the al-Lawz investigators still maintains that rock from the site has plants melted into it and promises to make available slides and other documentation. De Dissertation Exemple? (40a) Cut Polished Stones Cannot be from Exodus Israelites. The current book seems to ilm level 3 essays refer to various cut and temple question polished stones as related to the Exodus, yet occasionally admitting they are of much later date (pp. Ilm Level 3 Essays? 97, 217). The Israelites were not allowed to brenner thesis cut the stones (Exodus 20:25; Deut. 27:5). Altar at ilm level, Mt.

Sinai was EARTHEN NOT STONE. The book insists that when Moses built an altar for burnt offerings and fellowship offerings , at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 24:4) it was made of STONE. The Bible states that God instructed Moses on Mt. Sinai to de dissertation de philosophie make an altar of earth, not stone (Exodus 20:24, 24:4), for burnt offerings and fellowship offerings: Exodus 20:24: Make an altar of earth for me and sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and fellowship offerings , your sheep and goats and your cattle. (Emphasis added.) The Bible then qualifies the instructions for future circumstances at other locations that, Wherever I cause my name to be honored, I will come to you and bless you. if you make an altar of stones for me, do not build it with dressed stones, for you will defile it if you use a tool on it. (Exodus 20:24-25, emphasis added.) Later, the 3 essays, Israelites did indeed build such an uncut stone altar , but in the Promised Land of Canaan, not Sinai (Deut. 27:5; Joshua 8:31). The book author states, I seriously doubt that an altar of doctoral dissertation improvement nsf, earth would have survived all these years (p. 75, emphasis added). But at 3 essays, another place he almost seems to admit the altar on Sinai was made of earth and long since destroyed (see p. 96).

In that case, there would be no mystery why the altar has never been found at Mt. Sinai. One flash flood might have washed it away in brenner thesis, an instant. Ilm Level 3 Essays? (41) Over the centuries surely nothing would be left. The book states that after many centuries of people searching for Mosesaltar (Exodus 24:4) at the traditional Mt. Sinai, no one has found anything remotely resembling it. Who Has Influenced Essay? Nor has anyone found Aaron's altar (Exodus 32:5) for the Golden Calf there, we are told (pp. 75-76). But travelers long ago, such as Egeria again, found what they thought were stone altars built by Moses and Aaron. (42) When stones are not cut it is hard to tell if a given pile is a natural formation or manmade. So, whether travelers were right or wrong in their observations of landscape or in 3 essays, their interpretations of Scripture, it is not quite correct to say that absolutely nothing has ever been thought found at the traditional Sinai.

Because it is certainly not correct that no one has ever claimed , or even discussed the possible finding of your essay, altars there as the book insists (p. 109). As for ilm level 3 essays the survival of the 12 pillars of Moses at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 24:4), the book author finds it difficult to comprehend that a mountain as important as this one would be defaced or that its stones would be whisked away by roommate essay stanford, someone (p. 75). But one must consider the power of destructive relic-mongering following Constantine's conversion. Ilm Level? After Helena's pilgrimage Mt. Sinai was becoming one of the most favored Christian [pilgrimage] sites. (43) Even the famous supposed Burning Bush, though carefully protected by Helena's church and later the de dissertation de philosophie, (St.

Catherine's) fortress monastery, did not survive. By 1216, it was gone, having been taken by relic-seekers. (44) It is often said that pilgrims carried away so many pieces of the 3 essays, true Cross that a warehouse could be filled with them. It is most likely the 12 pillars set up by Moses have been disturbed or removed through the who has life essay, ages so that they are not recognizable as 12 stones set aside in one defined place. PILLARS at al-Lawz are Actually RINGS of Small Stones. The book admits that rather than pillars, these might better be described as low-lying tepee rings of small stones, arranged some 18 feet across and just three or four feet tall or deep (p.

90), possibly only one to two feet deep (p. 210). These sound suspiciously like Early Bronze II-Middle Bronze I rings, which are usually made of small uncut field stones arranged in circles from 6 to 3 essays 20 feet in diameter and about 2-1/2 feet high. (45) Since only one or two of the rings were barely visible from under the brenner thesis, dirt and rock, and none of this debris was cleared, it is difficult to see how one can know if any other such pillars existed or that there are exactly 12 of them. Smooth Marble Pillars at al-Lawz are Probably Nabatean. The smooth marble pillars at Jebel al-Lawz are most likely Nabatean. Recall the spectacular ruins of Petra as seen in the recent popular movie Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade.

The huge marble-columned Nabatean temple at Petra, ca. 40 A.D., (46) appears out in ilm level, the middle of nowhere, to paraphrase the current book. The unexpected appearance of such products of high civilization in a remote place is not proof of a link with the brenner thesis, Exodus. In fact, one must consider the wetter climate and vastly greater foliage at the time of the Exodus (see Problem No. 8, above). In ancient times, such sites might have been constructed in a green pastureland or forest that has now been rendered a barren desert. Caves of 3 essays, Moses/Jethro near Al Bad, Saudi Arabia, are Well Known. The book under review states that the essay question 2012, Caves of Moses or Jethro near Al Bad were previously unknown. Many people in Saudi Arabia were contacted in an effort to 3 essays find an archaeological site list showing these caves, but nothing was found (p.

183). There appears to introduction exemple be no research on or explanation of this site in any Arabic literature, according to the caption to Plate 19 of the book. However, the Caves of Shoeib near Al Bad are well known, and at least one is ilm level, sometimes called the Cave of who has your essay, Moses or Moses. Servants. (47) A Cave of Shoeib is a Cave of Jethro, too, because in the Koran (11:89) Shoeib was an early pre-Islamic prophet often identified in 3 essays, later Arab works as Jethro, Moses. Midianite father-in-law. (48) Bedouins confused the different prophets, Moses, Jethro, Mohammed, Shoeib, Saleh, et al., often recording the same place as having been visited by introduction de dissertation de philosophie exemple, each. (49) Satellite Photos of Israelites. Trail Not Shown.

None of the alleged satellite photos that are supposed to 3 essays show the who has your life, ancient Israelite marching trails and campsites along the Exodus route (pp. 220-221) have been published as far as I know. This makes it difficult to study the assertions that have been based on the photos, or even to 3 essays verify whether the photos exist. Israelites Marched in doctoral improvement nsf, One Direction from Mt. Sinai--Direct to Kadesh Barnea. The book asserts that the Israelites. trail can be followed in the (unpublished) satellite photos from the Sinai peninsula, then into Saudi Arabia, and ilm level 3 essays it just disperses at the Jebel al-Lawz site, the claimed Mt. Sinai. It does not continue on in any one direction from Jebel al-Lawz (pp. 220-221). The explanation is that from Mt.

Sinai the Israelites supposedly started their aimless wandering in the wilderness for 40 years (see p. 57). However, there is a misconception and essay stanford misreading of the Bible here as the Israelites did march on in one direction from Mt. Sinai. It was to Kadesh Barnea, from where they sent out the spies into the Promised Land. Only at Kadesh-Barnea were they condemned to wander in the wilderness for the next 38 years (Deut. 2:14) for their rebellion, not at Mt. 3 Essays? Sinai . (Deut.

1:19-2:1; 9:23; Numbers 10:12, 33; 13:26; 14:25.) If the real Mt. Sinai is at Jebel al-Lawz then there must be a continuation of the trail at least to Kadesh Barnea. Doctoral Research Nsf? But admittedly there isn't. No satellite pictures are shown of the ilm level 3 essays, allegedly inferior trails around the roommate, traditional Mt. Sinai. No scientific explanation is given, or technical reference cited, for the high-tech space photography method of 3 essays, precisely dating these traditional-site trails at only 300 or 400 years old, at most (p.

221). Seven Days. Your Life? Travel to Red Sea Most Likely. The book states that Bible scholars and archaeologists have poor math in misplacing Mt. Sinai in the Sinai (p. 71). 3 Essays? A glaring math error has been committed for influenced essay thousands of ilm level, years in figuring that the Israelites reached the Red Sea from Goshen in only three days. Introduction De Philosophie? march (p. 118). This mistake is said to be due to the widespread assumption that Moses. 3 Essays? request of Pharaoh for three days. journey into the wilderness to worship God (Exodus 5:3; 8:27) also represents the travel time to the Red Sea upon brenner thesis the Israelites. escape. However, the real reason scholars have thought (mistakenly) that it took three days to get to the Red Sea is that the Bible lists three stops (Succoth, Etham, and Pi-ha-Khiroth) and it is ilm level 3 essays, assumed each stop represented one overnight rest. (5) But it cannot be simplistically assumed that the Israelites always camped at night since the pillar of essay stanford, cloud that led them by day was a pillar of fire by night so that they could travel by day or night according to 3 essays Exodus 13:21 (emphasis added). Ancient Jewish tradition identifies the eating of unleavened bread in haste for seven days in who has your essay, the Passover (Exodus 12:11-19, 37-39; 13:6-7) as the time occupied in hasty travel to the Red Sea.

For seven days eat unleavened bread, the bread of affliction, because you left Egypt in haste , states Deuteronomy 16:3. If so, the Israelites took seven days to get to the Red Sea. (51) The current book concedes the possibility that the Israelites reached the Red Sea in as little as only five to 3 essays seven days . (p. 125). Midian Partly Overlapped into the Sinai Peninsula. The book states (p. 70, emphasis added): There is NO mention in any work we have been able to uncover that the land of introduction exemple, Midian was ever reputed to be in the Sinai Peninsula. It was always to the east of the Sinai Peninsula across the Gulf of Aqaba, where the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is now found. The argument is that if Mt. Sinai is in Midian, and Midian is only in ilm level, Saudi Arabia, then Mt. Sinai had to be in Saudi Arabia, too.

But as we have seen, Mt. Temple University? Sinai and 3 essays Midian were in brenner thesis, two different places according to the Bible (Exodus 18; Numbers 10). The book's highly praised ancient author Josephus wrote that the ilm level, land of Midian was located in the Sinai , in the whole district extending from Pelusium in Egypt to the Red Sea, where kinsmen of Moses. Dissertation Research Improvement Grants Nsf? Midianite father-in-law had settled. (52) (Notice that Josephus does not make Sinai part of Egypt.) Midian was placed at least partly in the Sinai by later authors (Antoninus of Placentia, Italy, ca. 570 A.D., Arab historian Makrizi, d. 1441). (53) So have some of the leading Bible archaeologists and scholars of modern times-William F. Albright, H. H. Rowley, G. Ernest Wright, Roland de Vaux, Avraham Negev, and others-who overlap Midian part way into the Sinai. (54) Yet the current book says one would be e xtremely hard put to find an archaeologist or Biblical scholar who would locate Midian in 3 essays, the Sinai (pp. 16, 70, emphasis added). The book author challenges the reader to check one's own Bible atlases and see if he is right (p. 69). But he is not.

See for example the brenner thesis, Grollenberg Atlas of the ilm level 3 essays, Bible, Westminster Historical Atlas of the Bible, the map section of the revised Hastings. Dictionary of the Bible, and the Jewish History Atlas, all showing Midian partly in the Sinai. (55) The Harper's Bible Dictionary is not correctly quoted in the book to roommate support the idea that Midian was limited to Saudi Arabia (pp. 69-70). Ilm Level 3 Essays? The correct quote only refers to the center of Midian as located in Saudi Arabia, as it includes the following capitalized portion omitted from the book under review here: The Land of Midian (Exodus 2:15) probably refers to the center of the Midianite territory , that part of northwestern Arabia bordering the higher essay, Gulf of Aqabas eastern shore. (56) This distinction between a center of Midian and an outlying territory of Midian does not preclude the ilm level, outlying Midian region from advanced essay overlapping into the Sinai peninsula, contrary to what the book would lead one to ilm level 3 essays believe with its selective quotation. The map in another key source for the current book, the Harper's Bible Commentary, puts Mt. Sinai (Gebel Musa) at the traditional spot without the de dissertation exemple, question mark that the book claims is used in almost every Bible atlas (p. 3 Essays? 49) -- and without showing any alternative site in Saudi Arabia. 2012? The book mentions neither of ilm level, these facts.

Jebel al-Lawz is unquestionably an interesting archaeological site worthy of further investigation, if Saudi authorities will allow it. The identification of this site as the true Mt. Sinai needs to overcome a host of problem areas outlined above. I remain interested in reviewing the evidence for this site and am in the process of gathering further data. Copyright 1990-2001 by temple university essay 2012, Brad C. Sparks All rights reserved. (1) Larry Williams, The Mountain of 3 essays, Moses: The Discovery of stanford, Mount Sinai (Wynwood Press, New York, 1990; reprinted as The Discovery of Mount Sinai , 1997) p. 182. (2) Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) p. 70. Ilm Level? It will be assumed here that the place where Moses fled after killing the dissertation grants, Egyptian (Exodus 2), the land of Midian, roughly corresponds to ilm level 3 essays Saudi Arabia's northwest quarter (see PROBLEM NO. 20 regarding some overlap into the Sinai).

(3) Near the mountain of God (Exodus 18:5). Advanced? The Israelite camp at 3 essays, Rephidim was literally within a short walking distance of Horeb (Mt. Sinai), where Moses struck the rock to get water (cp. Exodus 17:1, 5-6). Mt. Horeb = Sinai approximately (cp. Exodus 33:6, 34:29-30).

See the main text for discussion of the similar incident located directly at Mt. Brenner Thesis? Sinai (Numbers 10). (4) Har-El's book is 3 essays, quoted in Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 61, 223. (5) Charles T. Beke, Origines Biblicae (London, 1834) vol. Introduction De Philosophie Exemple? 1, cited in Thomas K. Ilm Level 3 Essays? Cheyne, Exodus sec. 5, in Cheyne and J. Who Has Influenced Your Essay? Sutherland Black (eds.), Encyclopaedia Biblica (Macmillan, New York, 1901) vol. 3 Essays? 2, col. 1434. See also Beke, Egypt not the Mizraim, nor the Gulf of Suez the roommate stanford, Red Sea, of Scripture, Asiatic Journal, new series, vol. 13 (1834) p. 258; On the ilm level 3 essays, localities of Horeb, Mount Sinai, and Midian, connexion with the hypothesis of the distinction between Mizraim and Egypt, letter in The British Magazine (1835), cited in Ibrahim-Hilmy, The Literature of Egypt and the Soudan (Routledge Kegan Paul, London, 1886 [Kraus Reprint, Nendeln, Liechtenstein, 1966]) vol.

1, p. 58. Beke, The Idol in Horeb: evidence that the Golden Image at Mount Sinai was a cone, and not a calf (London, 1871); Mount Sinai a Volcano (Tinsley, London, 1873). (6) Charles T. Beke (ed. Emily Beke), The Late Dr. C. B.'s Discoveries of Sinai in Arabia, and of Midian (London, 1878) p. 404, cited in Menashe Har-El, The Sinai Journeys: The Route of the Exodus (Ridgefield Publ.

Co., San Diego, Calif., 1983 rev. Introduction De Dissertation Exemple? Eng. transl.) = [ Mase Sinai (Am-Oved Publ. Ltd., Tel Aviv, 1968)] pp. 252, 294 n. 441. Upon his firsthand exploration of the Arabian mountains in 1873-4, Beke seemed to ilm level retract his novel thesis of a volcanic origin for the smoke, fire and rumblings on Mt. Sinai, but without repudiating the general Arabian locale. Beke, Sinai in Arabia (1878) p. 436, as partly cited in Ian Wilson, Exodus: The True Story (Harper Row, San Francisco, 1985) [= The Exodus Enigma (Weidenfeld Nicholson, London, 1985)] pp.

128, 195. (7) Har-El, Sinai Journeys (1983) p. 250. (7a) See note 3 (above). (8) Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 62, 84. (9) Josephus, Against Apion 2:2 [2:25]: William Whiston (transl.), Josephus: Complete Works (London, 1734 [Kregel Publs., Grand Rapids, Mich., 1960 reprint]) p. 623b; Henry St. J. Roommate Essay? Thackeray (transl.), Josephus (Harvard Univ. 3 Essays? Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1926) vol.

1, pp. 301-303. (10) Graham I. Davies, The Way of the Wilderness (Cambridge Univ. Higher Essay? Press, London, 1979) pp. Ilm Level? 51-55. (11) Exodus entry, Cheyne-Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica (1901) vol. Doctoral Dissertation? 2, col. 1434. (12) Beke, The Late Dr. C. B.'s Discoveries (1878) p. 436 as cited in Wilson, Exodus (1985) pp. 128, 195, and in 3 essays, Ibrahim-Hilmy, Literature of Egypt/Soudan (1886) vol.

1, pp. 58-59. (13) Cheyne-Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica (1899-1903). (14) Oded Bustanay, Exodus, Encyclopaedia Judaica (Keter Publ. House, Jerusalem, 1972) vol. 6, p. 1043; Har-El, Sinai Journeys (1983) pp. 357, endpapers; David Daiches, Moses: The Man and his Vision (Praeger, New York, 1975) pp. Temple University Question 2012? 84, cf. 90, 98; Wilson, Exodus (1985) pp. 154, 196; Siegfried H. Horn, What We Dont Know About Moses and the Exodus, Biblical Archaeology Review, vol. 3, no.

2 (June 1977) pp. 22a-31b at ilm level, 30, cf. 29a. Who Has Life Essay? Har-El's book is quoted in Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 61, 223. (15) Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 13, 56. (16) Nectarius, Bishop of Sinai at St. Ilm Level 3 Essays? Catherine's Monastery ca. 1658, drew on the monastery's vast manuscript collection (which included the now famous Codex Sinaiticus) to write the life essay, monastery's official history and he is the authority for Helena's role in building the original church ca. 330.

Lina Eckenstein, A History of ilm level 3 essays, Sinai (London New York, 1921 [AMS Press, New York, 1980 reprint]) pp. 99 fn. 1, 178-179; James Bentley, Secrets of Mount Sinai (Doubleday, New York, 1986 [Orbis, London, 1985]) p. Higher Art Critical Essay? 58; Edith Deen, Great Women of the Christian Faith (Harper Row, New York, 1959 [Barbour Co., Westwood, N.J., reprint]) pp. 7-10. (17) Bentley, Secrets/Sinai (1986) p. 58; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) p. Ilm Level? 99. (18) Contrary to temple the arbitrary dating of Justinian's accession in 527 that is sometimes cited, the monastery must have been built after Empress Theodora died in ilm level 3 essays, 548 as a roof inscription still extant is dedicated to her posthumously (Bentley, Secrets/Sinai, pp. 64-67). Brenner Thesis? Justinian's building activity began ca. 535 and 3 essays a decree of Justinian dated to 551 guarantees political independence of the monastery (Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai, pp.

121-122, 177). Though the decree is probably an ancient forgery, it nevertheless may reflect early information on the construction date of the roommate essay, monastery. (19) Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) p. 147. A SHRINE for St. Catherine on an elevated portion of Mt. Sinai (Jebel Musa) had been mentioned as early as ca. 1096 ( ibid., p. Ilm Level 3 Essays? 140) but the advanced art critical essay, name evidently was not yet applied to the MONASTERY itself, located in ilm level, the wadi next to temple 2012 Mt. Sinai. (20) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 63, 109.

Karl Richard Lepsius in a letter of April 6, 1845, suggested for ilm level the first time that the Onomasticon of Eusebius, ca. 330 A.D., revised by Jerome ca. Temple Essay 2012? 390 A.D., had identified a mountain AT a place called Paran (not a Mt. Paran), three days. journey from Eilat (Elath), as Mt. Sinai. But his theory was based on a misreading of the text, which clearly distinguished Paran and Mt.

Sinai as separate locales. Lepsius also believed this Mt. 3 Essays? Sinai-at-Paran meant Jebel Serbal near Pharan or Feiran, about 20 miles northwest of advanced higher essay, Jebel Musa, but this is much farther than three days. travel from Elath. Lepsius (transl. Charles H. Cottrell), A Tour from Thebes to the Peninsula of Sinai (London, 1846 Eng. transl.) pp.

65, 74; Briefe aus Aegypten, Aethiopien und der Halbinsel des Sinai (Berlin, 1852) pp. 345-354, 416, 447-451; as cited in the critiques below: Henry Hayman, Sinai, in William Smith (ed.), A Dictionary of the Bible (Murray, London, 1863) vol. Ilm Level? 3, pp. 1325a-1328a at 1326b-1327a; James G. Murphy, A Critical and influenced your life essay Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Exodus (T. T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1866 [Klock Klock, Minneapolis, Minn., 1979 reprint]) pp.

204-205; C. Ilm Level? F. Keil and Friedrich Delitzsch, Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament (T. T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1878) vol. University Question 2012? 2, p. 90 fn. 1 [on Exodus 19:1, 2]; J. Rendel Harris, Sinai, Mount, in James Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of the ilm level 3 essays, Bible (T. T. Clark, Edinburgh; Scribner's, New York, 1898 [Hendrickson Publ., Peabody, Mass., 1988 reprint]) vol. 4, pp. 536b-538a at 537b; Eckenstein, Hist.

Sinai, p. 4; Davies, Wilderness, pp. Essay Question 2012? 43-44, 63, 109 nn. 5, 6. 3 Essays? Davies refutes the mistaken notion of Hare-El, and a J. Baker Greene writing in 1883, that Burckhardt also had advocated Serbal as Sinai prior to Lepsius. Davies, p. 109 n. 6. (The same mistake was made still earlier in the Smith Bible Dict., 1863; see Hayman, ibid. De Dissertation De Philosophie? ) (21) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 14-28, esp. 3 Essays? 23-24. (22) Paul J. Achtemeier (ed.), Harper's Bible Dictionary (Harper Row, New York, 1985) p. 957, emphasis added. (23) Eckenstein, Hist.

Sinai (1921) pp. 98-101, 104, 119; Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 100-101 n. 23; John Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels to essay question the Holy Land (Aris Phillips, Warminster, Eng. Ariel Publ. 3 Essays? House, Jerusalem, 1981 rev.) pp. 29, 237-239; see A. Thomas Kraabel review in BAR, vol. 9, no. 2 (March/April 1983) pp. 20-23.

Egeria is also known in the literature as Etheria or Silvia, but the name and spelling as Egeria has been fairly well established. George E. Gingras, Egeria: Diary of a Pilgrimage (Newman Press/Paulist Press, New York, 1970) pp. 6-7; Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels, pp. 235-236. (24) Davies, Wilderness (1979) p. 42. (25) Alan H. Gardiner, William F. Albright, Edouard Naville, and others, cited in: John Van Seters, The Hyksos (Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, Conn., 1966) pp. 148-149; Gingras, Egeria, pp.

21-23, 149-150 nn. 2012? 96-102, 183 n. Ilm Level 3 Essays? 103; Wilson, Exodus, p. 47; John Bimson, Exodus and Conquest-Myth or Reality? Journal of the Ancient Chronology Forum, vol. 2 (London, 1988) pp. 37, 39; Itzhaq Beit-Arieh, Fifteen Years in Sinai, BAR, vol. Influenced Essay? 10, no. 4 (July/August 1984) p. 28; Aviram Perevolotsky and ilm level Israel Finkelstein, The Southern Sinai Exodus Route in Ecological Perspective, BAR, vol. 11, no. 4 (July/August 1985) pp. 28-32.

(26) Davies, ibid., pp. 40, 43, 46; Eckenstein, Hist. Who Has Influenced Your Life? Sinai (1921) pp. 93-94, 115; Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels (1981) pp 28-29, 100-101, 205-207. Etymology of Clysma: J. Rendel Harris and Arthur T. Chapman, Exodus and Journey to ilm level Canaan, in Hastings, Dict. of the who has your life essay, Bible (1898) vol. 1, p. 803b; Joseph Henry Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Associated Publs., Grand Rapids, Mich., reprint 1889 rev.) pp. 332a, 350b. (27) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 30, 99 n. 1, emphasis added. In Herodotus ca. Ilm Level? 450 B.C., not only was the Sinai Peninsula considered PART OF ARABIA but, surprisingly, so was all of the eastern desert half of what WE now call EGYPT on the continent of doctoral dissertation grants nsf, AFRICA.

In Greek and Roman Empire days, the bulk of the Sinai Peninsula was left to the Nabateans as Arabia Petrea, until their conquest by ilm level 3 essays, the Romans in 106 A.D. The southern and essay stanford central Sinai were then merged into ilm level 3 essays, the new Province of Arabia. Essay? Even in modern times, Wilhelm Gesenius listed both MT. SINAI and the Sinai Peninsula as PART OF ARABIA, in his famous 1834 Hebrew Lexicon. (Herodotus II:8, 11, 158; Michael Avi-Yonah, Sinai, Encycl. Judaica, vol. 14, p. 1595; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai, p. Ilm Level 3 Essays? 91; Davies, Wilderness, p. 30; Avraham Negev (ed.), The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land [AEHL] (Thomas Nelson, Nashville, Tenn., 1986 rev.) pp. 65, 221-223, 276, 292, 351; Samuel P. Tregelles (transl.), Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon (Baker, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1979 reprint [London, 1847, 1857]) p. 584 (Strong's no. Roommate Essay Stanford? 5514).) (28) Telephone interview with John D. Morris, ICR, Oct.

26, 1990; Morris, The Search for Noah's Ark: Status 1992, Impact, no. 231 [ Acts Facts, vol. 21, no. Ilm Level 3 Essays? 9] (Sept. 1992) p. iii. (29) Bob Cornuke slide presentation, Calvary Chapel-Costa Mesa, Santa Ana, Calif., Oct. 25, 1990 (tape transcript). See also Cornuke, Trinity Broadcasting Network television program, Dec. 18, 1991 (audio tape available from TBN, Tustin, Calif.). (30) Also Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) p. 123 (to go out of Goshen is to go OUTSIDE OF EGYPT), emphasis added. (31) John Bright, A History of Israel (Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1959) pp.

114-115. (32) Louis Grollenberg, Atlas (Thomas Nelson, London, 1956, 1965) p. 51. (33) Alessandra Nibbi, Ancient Egypt and Some Eastern Neighbours (Noyes Press, Park Ridge, N.J., 1981) pp. 1-5, 9, 11; William H. Stiebing, Out of the Desert? (Prometheus Books, Buffalo, N.Y., 1989) pp. Temple Essay Question? 184-186. (34) Frederick W. Holland in Charles W. Wilson, et al., The Recovery of Jerusalem (R. Bentley, London, 1871) p. 524, quoted in Claude R. 3 Essays? Conder, Sinai, in de dissertation, James Orr (gen. ed.), International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1929 rev. Ilm Level 3 Essays? [1986 reprint]), vol. 4, p. 2804; Samuel C. Bartlett, From Egypt to temple essay 2012 Palestine (Harper Row, New York, 1879) pp.

270-272, as cited in Wilbur Fields, Exploring Exodus (College Press, Joplin, Missouri, 1976) p. 394; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp. 118, 122-123. (35) Eckenstein, ibid., pp. 6-7, 39-40. (37) R. Laird Harris (ed.), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Moody Press, Chicago, 1980) vol.

2, pp. 558-559 (no. 1309); Gesenius Lexicon, p. 536 (Strong's no. Ilm Level 3 Essays? 5090). (38) Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 6:7:3 [140]; edition of Henry St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus (transls.), Josephus (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1934) p. 237. See also Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai, p. 45. (39) Cornuke presentation, Oct. Question? 25, 1990 (tape transcript).

Cf. Williams, Mountain of ilm level, Moses (1990) pp. 77-79. See also Cornuke, TBN television, Dec. Dissertation Research Improvement Nsf? 18, 1991 (audio tape). (40) Telephone interview with John D. Morris, ICR, Oct. 26, 1990; Morris, Search for ilm level 3 essays Noah's Ark, Impact [ Acts Facts ] (Sept. 1992) p. Who Has Your Life? iii.

(40a) Bob Cornuke telephone interview, Dec. 30, 1996. (41) Flash floods at St. Catherine's or southern Sinai generally: Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp.

5-6; George H. Forsyth and Kurt Weitzmann, Saving the ilm level 3 essays, Mt. Brenner Thesis? Sinai Mosaics, BAR , vol. 4, no. 4 (Nov/Dec 1978) p. 20. (42) Egeria 2:2, 4:4; Eckenstein, ibid., pp. 117-118; Gingras, Egeria (1970) pp.

50, 54-55; Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels (1981) pp. 91, 95-96. (43) Bentley, Secrets/Sinai (1986) p. 58, emphasis added. (44) Eckenstein, Hist. Ilm Level? Sinai (1921) p. 151; Bentley, ibid., p. 67. (45) Negev, AEHL (1986) p. 351. Eckenstein, ibid., p. 118. Interestingly, Egeria (5:5) saw low-lying circular stone foundations near the traditional Mt. Sinai, which she thought were remains of houses built by the Israelites under Moses. Egeria also saw the so-called Nawami stone huts (Eckenstein, p. 90; Wilkinson, pp.

209-210, 213, 216, 328) on her way to Mt. Essay Stanford? Sinai. These have been found in various spots across the Sinai and Negev, some with the 3 essays, stone roofs amazingly still intact. Brenner Thesis? Based on pottery chronology, they are dated to the Chalcolithic age. Ilm Level 3 Essays? (Beit-Arieh, BAR , July/Aug 1984, pp. 34-36.) (46) Avraham Negev, Understanding the Nabateans, BAR , vol. Advanced Art Critical? 14, no. 6 (Nov/Dec 1988) pp. 32, 34. (47) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp.

49, 106 n. Ilm Level 3 Essays? 2, 110 n. 17. (48) Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp. 81-82. Who Has Influenced Your Life Essay? Arab historian Masoudi ca. 951 A.D. disputed this identification of Shoeib with Jethro. (50) Exodus 12:37; 13:20; 14:2; Numbers 33:3-8. See Keil-Delitzsch, Comm. Ilm Level? Exodus (1878) pp.

26-27 (on Exod. 12:37-42). (51) Ancient Hebrew tradition of who has your, 7-day travel on Abib/Nisan 15-21 from Egypt to the Red Sea: Johann David Michaelis, Essai physique sur lheure des marees dans la Mer Rouge, comparee avec lheure du passage des Hebreux (Paris, 1755; rev. Gottingen, 1758) as partly cited in Alexander Wheelock Thayer, The Hebrews and ilm level the Red Sea (Warren F. Draper, Andover, Mass., 1883) p. Exemple? 11 fn. 1; see also Howard B. Ilm Level? Rand, Primogenesis (Destiny Publishers, Haverhill, Mass., 1953) pp.

166-167, as quoted in John J. Davis, Moses and the Gods of Egypt (Baker, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1986 rev.) p. Doctoral Research Improvement Grants Nsf? 174; Fields, Exploring Exodus (1976) pp. Ilm Level 3 Essays? 260, 289 (3 days to Succoth then 4 days to Red Sea). (52) Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 6:7:3 [140]; Thackeray-Marcus, Josephus (1934) p. 237. (53) Eckenstein, Hist. Temple University Essay Question 2012? Sinai (1921) p. 3 Essays? 81; Davies, Wilderness (1979) p. 46.

(54) Grollenberg, Atlas (1965) pp. 44, 157; G. Ernest Wright and F. V. Filson, Westminster Historical Atlas (Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1956 rev.) p. 33; James Hastings (ed.), Frederick C. Grant and H. H. Rowley (rev. eds.), Dictionary of the Bible (Scribner's, New York, 1963 rev.) map 5; Negev, AEHL (1986) p. 262. (55) Ibid.; Martin Gilbert (ed.), Jewish History Atlas (Weidenfeld Nicholson, London, 1985) map reprinted in Martin Gilbert (cons. ed.), Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization (Macmillan, New York, 1990) p. 15. (56) Achtemeier, Harper's Bible Dict. (1985) p. 634. Harper's next sentence confusingly talks about the exemple, Midianites roaming far beyond this ancestral homeland as far as the Sinai , which might suggest to a cursory reader that the Sinai was outside of ilm level 3 essays, Midian but apparently means the Sinai was outside of the ancestral center of Midianite territory. However, there is no Biblical basis for roommate essay stanford distinguishing between a central Midian and an outer Midian.

(57) Ibid., p. 957; James L. Mays (gen. ed.), Harper's Bible Commentary (Harper Row, San Francisco, 1988) map 2. Copyright 1990-2001 by ilm level 3 essays, Brad C. Sparks. Addendum: Prof. K.A. Kitchen addresses the possible routes of the Exodus and the overwhelming evidence that the traditional location at art critical essay, the South end of the Sinai Peninsula is ilm level, correct. Your Essay? See his new book, On the Reliability of the Old Testament , Wm. B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 2003. See especially pages 241-274.

Route Maps, from K.A. Kitchen. Another Traditional route map with major place names. (added 3/18/04). Online version created January 30, 1997. Modified January 31, 1997, April 21, 1997, February 9, 1999, Last revision April 23, 2001.

Formatting changes: Thursday, February 6, 2003. January 1, 2004. April 17, 2004. October 7, 2004. March 24, 2005. April 2, 2005. August 7, 2006.

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He loves collecting and showcasing good fonts and typefaces at his blog Fonts Collector.