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billie holiday essay by DAVID MARGOLICK. Southern trees bear a strange fruit, Blood on the leaves and blood at the root, Black body swinging in the Southern breeze, Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees. The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth, Scent of magnolia sweet and fresh, And the sudden smell of burning flesh! For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck, For the on indian cooking sun to rot, for a tree to parts of research methodology drop, Here is a strange and bitter crop. On Indian? A s Billie Holiday later told the story, a single gesture by a patron at New York's Café Society, in Greenwich Village, changed the uk law history of on indian cooking American music in early 1939, the of proof and standard night when she first sang Strange Fruit. On Indian Cooking? Café Society was New York's only truly integrated nightclub outside Harlem, a place catering to progressive types with open minds. But Holiday was to recall that even there she was afraid to sing this new song, and regretted it, at least momentarily, when she first did. Cover? There wasn't even a patter of essays cooking applause when I finished, she later said. Burden Of Proof? Then a lone person began to clap nervously. Then suddenly everyone was clapping. The applause grew louder and less tentative as Strange Fruit became a nightly ritual for Holiday, then one of her signature songs, at least where it could be safely performed.
And audiences have continued to applaud this disturbing ballad, unique in on indian Holiday's oeuvre and in the American popular-song repertoire, as it has left its mark on generations of writers, musicians, and listeners, both black and white. Of Proof Of Proof? The late jazz writer Leonard Feather once called Strange Fruit the first significant protest in words and music, the first unmuted cry against racism. Jazz musicians still speak of it with a mixture of awe and fear - When Holiday recorded it, it was more than revolutionary, said the essays drummer Max Roach - and perform it almost gingerly. It's like rubbing people's noses in their own shit, said Mal Waldron, the pianist who accompanied Holiday in her final years. A few years back a British music publication, Q Magazine, named Strange Fruit one of 10 songs that actually changed the world. And like any revolutionary act, it encountered great resistance.
Holiday, like the black folksinger Josh White, who began performing it a few years after Holiday did, was abused, sometimes physically, by letters online, irate nightclub patrons. Columbia, the company that produced Holiday's records, refused to touch it; even progressive radio stations would not play it. Cooking? And again like revolutionary acts, the cover song has generated its fair share of mythology, none more enduring than Holiday's often repeated claim that she partly wrote it herself or had it written for her. Strange Fruit marked a watershed, praised by some, lamented by others, in Holiday's evolution from essays on indian cooking exuberant jazz singer to torch singer of lovelorn pain and over, loneliness. Some of the cooking song's sadness seems to have stuck to her ever after. She really was happy only when she sang, the jazz critic Ralph J. Gleason wrote. The rest of the time she was a sort of living lyric to the song 'Strange Fruit,' hanging, not on a poplar tree, but on the limbs of life itself. In recent years many musicians-from Carmen McRae to Nina Simone to Sting to cover online Dee Dee Bridgewater to Cassandra Wilson-have recorded Strange Fruit, each cut an act of courage, given Holiday's hold over cooking, it. (That might not apply to 101 Strings, which omitted the lyrics in dit dissertation marking its 1973 orchestral version.) The song continues to pop up in essays on indian the most obscure places. The Pulitzer Prizewinning historian Leon Litwak uses it in method in everyday life essay his classes at on indian, Berkeley.
It's what Mickey Rourke put on the turntable to seduce Kim Basinger early on in Adrian Lyne's 1986 film Nine 1/2 Weeks. Parts Paper Methodology? Predictably, it failed miserably as mood music.) The song was a staple of the anti-apartheid circuit in Europe. Khallid Muhammad, Louis Farrakhan's notoriously anti-Semitic former national spokesman, quoted it in a speech cataloguing America's racist past - unaware, apparently, that it was written by essays on indian cooking, a white Jewish schoolteacher from New York City. Uk Law Essay? I wrote Strange Fruit because I hate lynching, and essays on indian cooking, I hate injustice, and I hate the people who perpetuate it. -Abel Meeropol (a.k.a. Lewis Allan), 1971. B illie Holiday, who was only 24 years old in 1939, had enough experience with racism by that time to burden of proof and standard call herself a race woman. But while hard knocks helped her infuse a unique mixture of resilience, defiance, and shrewdness into the often banal lyrics she sang, they had never influenced her choice of material, at least not until Strange Fruit came along. Holiday's 1956 autobiography - written by on indian, William Dufty (and known, like the 1972 film biography, as Lady Sings the research paper Blues, though she had wanted to essays cooking call the book Bitter Crop)-offers an account of the origins of Strange Fruit that may set a new record for most misinformation per cover letters online column inch. On Indian? (Shit, man, I never read that book, she later said.) But in fairness to Dufty, she'd been peddling many of these myths for years. The germ of the song was in a poem written by Lewis Allen [sic], the book claims. When he showed me that poem, I dug it right off.
It seemed to spell out all the things that had killed Pop, Dufty quotes her. According to research paper Holiday, her father was exposed to poison gas as a soldier during World War I and died of pneumonia in on indian 1937 after several segregated southern hospitals refused to treat him. Allen, too, had heard how Pop died and of course was interested in my singing. He suggested that Sonny White, who had been my accompanist, and I turn it into music. So the three of us got together and did the job in about three weeks. Abel Meeropol, who is often remembered today for raising the online applications two orphaned sons of the executed atomic spies Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, recalled things very differently. An English teacher at De Witt Clinton High School in the Bronx for on indian 27 years, Meeropol had led two other, parallel lives. One was as a political activist: he and his wife were closet Communists, donating a percentage of dit dissertation marking their earnings to the party. (The F.B.I. maintained that he had been identified by reliable informants as a party member until 1947, though it followed him for 23 years after that.) The other was as a poet and essays on indian cooking, songwriter. He wrote incessantly poems, ballads, musicals, plays, usually using the nom de plume Lewis Allan, the names of his two biological children, neither of whom survived infancy. Cover Letters? Apart from Strange Fruit, he is best known for writing the lyrics of The House I Live In, a paean to essays cooking tolerance sung by Frank Sinatra in an Oscar-winning short subject in 1945. Lynchings - in which blacks were murdered with unspeakable brutality, often in a carnival-like atmosphere, then hanged from trees for all to see-were rampant in the South during Reconstruction and beyond, but had grown relatively rare by the late 1930s. (As the help recent murder of a black man in Jasper, Texas, attests, they never completely stopped.) The N.A.A.C.P, until as late as 1941, had routinely attempted to push Congress - always to no avail - to enact federal antilynching legislation.
Somewhere around 1935, Meeropol, in his early 30s at the time, saw a photograph of a particularly ghastly lynching. It . haunted me for essays on indian cooking days, he later recalled. He wrote a poem about it, one which was originally to have appeared in the Communist journal The New Masses but first saw print as Bitter Fruit, by Abel Meeropol-in the January 1937 issue of The New York Teacher, a union publication. Meeropol set the poem to music, and in parts of research the late 1930s the song was regularly performed in left-wing circles-by the Teachers' Union chorus, by a black singer named Laura Duncan (at Madison Square Garden), by a quartet of black singers at cooking, a fund-raiser for the anti-Fascists during the Spanish Civil War. As it happened, the over aphrodite co-producer of that show, Robert Gordon, was also directing the first-floor show at the new Café Society, which had opened in on indian cooking late December 1938. The featured attraction: Billie Holiday. One of the first numbers we put on was called: Strange Fruit Grows on uk law, Southern Trees, the tragic story of lynching. Imagine putting that on in a night club! -Barney Josephson, 1942. C afé Society - a nightclub to take the essays cooking stuffing out of stuffed shirts, where leftwing W.P.A. types did the burden of proof of proof essay murals and a simian - looking Hitler hung from the ceiling near the foyer - was unusual even for New York City. Billed as the wrong place for the Right people, it mocked the empty celebrity worship, right-wing politics, and racial exclusion of places like the on indian cooking Stork Club. At Café Society, the essay help doormen wore rags and essays on indian, ragged white gloves, blacks and whites fraternized onstage and cover letters applications, off, and the politics were somewhere left of the essays New Deal.
When Eleanor Roosevelt made what might have been her only foray into a New York nightclub, it was allegedly to Café Society that she went. Located on Sheridan Square (a second Café Society soon opened on 58th Street near Park Avenue), it was the brainchild of Barney Josephson, a shoe salesman with leftist sympathies; its patrons, the historian David W. Stowe has written, consisted of labor leaders, intellectuals, writers, jazz lovers, celebrities, students and assorted leftists. As Michael Denning of Yale has put it, Café Society represented a unique synthesis of cultures, blending the politically radical cabarets of Berlin and Paris with the jazz clubs and revues of Harlem. Nelson Rockefeller, Charlie Chaplin, Errol Flynn, Lauren Bacall, Lillian Hellman, Langston Hughes, and Paul Robeson hung out there; Lena Horne, Teddy Wilson, Sarah Vaughan, Imogene Coca, Carol Channing, and Zero Mostel performed there. Research Paper Aphrodite? It was probably the only place in America where Strange Fruit could have been sung and savored. One day in cooking early 1939, Meeropol - who had never met Holiday before and knew nothing about her father-sat down at Café Society's piano and played her the song.
Neither Tin Pan Alley nor jazz, it was closer to the political theater songs of Marc Blitzstein and other leftist composers. But it was utterly alien to her, and, to Meeropol at least, Holiday appeared unimpressed. To be perfectly frank, I didn't think she felt very comfortable with the song, because it was so different from the songs to which she was accustomed, Meeropol later wrote. She asked him but one question: What did pastoral mean? Josephson, too, said that Holiday didn't know what the hell the song meant, and parts of research paper methodology, adopted it only as a favor to him; not until several months later, when he spotted a tear running down her cheek during one performance, did he feel the song had sunk in. (But I gotta tell you the truth, Josephson liked to say. She sang it just as well when she didn't know what it was about.) To be sure, Holiday was in some ways unsophisticated, famous for reading nothing more serious than comic books. Still, it's hard to essays on indian cooking believe she was as oblivious as Josephson claimed.
Indeed, Meeropol later said that when Holiday introduced the song she gave a startling, most dramatic, and effective interpretation . which could jolt an audience out of methodology its complacency anywhere. Billie Holiday's styling of the essays song was incomparable and fulfilled the bitterness and parts paper methodology, shocking quality I had hoped the essays song would have. No one ever tampered with Meeropol's words. Dit Dissertation? But Arthur Herzog, who wrote another famous song often misattributed to essays on indian Holiday-God Bless the Child-claimed that an letters arranger, Danny Mendelsohn, was really responsible for the final sound. O ne story has it that Holiday's mother objected when she began singing Strange Fruit. Cooking? Why are you sticking your neck out? she asked. Because it might make things better, Holiday replied. But you' U be dead, her mother insisted. Yeah, but I'll feel it. I'll know it in over aphrodite my grave. Josephson, who called the song agitprop, decreed elaborate stage directions for each performance of Strange Fruit.
Holiday was to close each of her three nightly sets with it. Before she began, all service was to cease. Waiters, cashiers, busboys-all were immobilized. The room went completely dark, save for a pin spot on Holiday's face. Essays Cooking? No matter how thunderous the ovation, she was never to return for a bow. My instruction was walk on, period, Josephson later said. Of Proof And Standard Of Proof Essay? People had to remember 'Strange Fruit,' get their insides burned with it.
But as Heywood Hale Broun, the longtime CBS newsman, remembered it, Holiday sang Strange Fruit in the middle of the set, following it up quickly with something light in order to on indian cut the tension. After we'd oohed and aahed in our kind of liberal way, the band would hit a sharp chord and then go into 'Them There Eyes,' Broun said. She came out [of Café Society]. Essay? She was screaming, Renie, I tried to essays cooking kill him, I tried to kill him, I tried to . And she told me then that there was this fella - a white man from Georgia, you know, one of those Georgia crackers - who was sitting ringside and dit dissertation marking scheme, drinking, and Lady was doing Strange Fruit. And when Lady was on her way out of the essays club, he yelled, Come here, Billie. She went, thinking he wanted to buy her a drink, but he said, I want to of research paper methodology show you some strange fruit, and . Essays Cooking? well, he made this very obscene picture on his napkin, and dit dissertation, the way he had it, honey, it was awful! And she picked up the chair and on indian cooking, hit him on the head, and before it was over, she showed him, honey, because she went crazy. I mean that she was sweeping up the floor with this man, honey, and they said the owner and bouncer at Café Society said, Go on, Lady. We'll take care of him, and they threw him out right on his ears. -Songwriter Irene Wilson, 1971. Research Aphrodite? T o many, Black and Blue, immortalized by Louis Armstrong, with lyrics written in 1929 by Andy Razaf, was the on indian cooking first black protest song aimed at a largely white audience. White songwriters approached civil rights tentatively; Irving Berlin referred obliquely to parts of research paper lynching in Supper Time (a song Ethel Waters made famous), but before Meeropol and Holiday came along, no one had ever confronted the subject so directly.
Reactions varied. Variety conceded that Strange Fruit had an undefined appeal but called it basically a depressing piece. Some patrons voted with their feet. Lots of people walked out on the song because they said 'we don't call this entertainment,' Josephson told Linda Kuehl for a never completed biography of Holiday. I remember a time a woman followed Billie into the powder room. Billie was wearing a strapless gown and she tried to essays cooking brush the woman off. The woman became hysterical with tears - 'Don't you sing that song again!
Don't you dare!'-she screamed and ripped Billie's [gown]. It turned out scientific method life that as a young girl the woman had seen a black man tied by the throat to the back fender of a car, dragged through the streets, hung up, and cooking, burned, recalled Josephson. Burden Of Proof Essay? She'd thought she'd come to Café Society for cooking a good time, not to relive a childhood nightmare. More often than not, though, people began requesting the song, and it became part of Holiday's routine, even though it made her sick to research paper over aphrodite perform it. I have to sing it, she once said. Essays On Indian Cooking? 'Fruit' goes a long way in telling how they mistreat Negroes down South. Soon, Café Society began advertising not just Holiday - referred to in press accounts as the buxom, colored songstress or the sepian songstress-but the burden and standard of proof essay song itself.
HAVE YOU HEARD? STRANGE FRUIT GROWING ON SOUTHERN TREES SUNG BY BILLIE HOLIDAY, an essays cooking advertisement in The New Yorker asked in March 1939. But Columbia records, apparently fearful of antagonizing southern customers, wanted no part of recording the song. So Holiday persuaded Milt Gabler, an entrepreneur who'd started Commodore Records, a small company run out of parts methodology a music store on West 52nd Street, to do it instead. On April 20, 1939, Holiday and essays on indian cooking, the musicians - Sonny White on piano, Frankie Newton on marking, trumpet, Tab Smith on on indian, alto sax, Kenneth Hollon and Stan Payne on method life essay, tenor sax, Jimmy McLin on guitar, John Williams on bass, Eddie Dougherty on drums - made what was to become the first and most famous. recording of Strange Fruit. At a dollar apiece, Commodore's 10-inch records went for three times the going rate.
Concerned that customers would feel shortchanged by essays, too brief a cut, Gabler had White improvise his now familiar, haunting overture; given Strange Fruit's dramatic close, one could hardly tack on anything at the end. One day last winter, Gabler, now 87 years old, played Strange Fruit for me at his home in New Rochelle, New York. He fetched an antique LP from his archive, then laid it down with shaky hands on an ancient turntable. Amid the scratches and static emerged Billie Holiday's utterly distinctive sound. Of Research Paper Methodology? Here, she is grim and purposeful, yet still with a lovely lightness to on indian her. There is no weepiness, nor histrionics. Her elocution is superb, with a hint of a southern accent; her tone is somehow languorous but unflinching, raw yet smooth, youthful yet worldly. The overt editorializing is minimal, and the sentiment isn't grief so much as contempt, as she spits out references to southern gallantry and scheme, the aroma of the magnolias. But the intensity mounts until the last word of the song: crop. On Indian Cooking? She sings it on a strangely unresolved note, dangling it back and forth like the dead black man swinging on the branch.
Gabler says he gave Holiday $500 for the four songs she recorded that day (Fine and Mellow among them), and $1,000 later. How much she eventually earned he could not say. We used to give her cash, especially when she was in trouble, right out of the cash register in dit dissertation marking scheme the store. We never really kept a record of it. One of the saxophonists, Kenneth Hollon, later said the record sold 10,000 copies in on indian cooking its first week. Meeropol, who had failed to copyright the song, learned it had been recorded only when a friend brought him a copy. He ultimately got standard royalties: two cents per record, one for the words, another for the music. At least initially, Meeropol collected more grief from Strange Fruit than receipts. During a 1940 state probe of dit dissertation marking Communist 11subversion in New York's public schools, he was asked whether the Communist Party had ever paid him for the song or if he'd donated the proceeds to the party.
But the pennies mounted: according to. Bob Golden of Carlin America, the longtime publishers of Strange Fruit, the cooking Meeropols, father and sons, eventually earned more than $300,000 from it. This is about a phonograph record which has obsessed me for two days. It is called Strange Fruit and it will, even after the research paper over tenth hearing, make you blink and hold to your chair. Even now, as I think of essays on indian cooking it, the short hair on the back of my neck tightens and I want to hit somebody. I know who, too. -Samuel Grafton, the dit dissertation marking New York Post, October 1939. S trange Fruit made it to No. 16 on essays cooking, the charts in July 1939 and was widely publicized. The New Masses called it the first successful attempt of white men to write blues. In a piece entitled Strange Record, Time described Strange Fruit as a prime piece of musical propaganda for the N.A.A.C.P, and printed the first verse of Allan's grim and gripping lyrics. (Billie Holiday is burden and standard of proof essay, a roly - poly young colored woman with a hump in her voice, the article began. She does not care enough about her figure to watch her diet, but she loves to cooking sing.) But surely the most extravagant praise came from over Samuel Grafton, a columnist for the New York Post.
If the essays on indian anger of the exploited ever mounts high enough in the South, it now has its Marseillaise, he wrote. Proponents of federal anti-lynching legislation urged that copies of the song be sent to over Congress. Within a few years Strange Fruit became the title of Lillian Smith's famous 1944 anti-segregation novel. Holiday's claim that Smith, a southerner herself, told her the on indian cooking song had inspired her to of research write her novel is fanciful. But Smith acknowledged Lewis Allan on the title page, and went to essays on indian cooking Café Society once to hear Holiday sing. Help? (Holiday seemed stoned to cooking Smith when she visited her backstage.) Jazz purists never liked Strange Fruit, nor what they thought it did to Holiday. Perhaps I expected too much of online 'Strange Fruit,' the ballyhooed . tune which, via gory wordage and essays cooking, hardly any melody, expounds an scientific method in everyday anti-lynching campaign, a Down Beat critic wrote.
At least I'm sure it's not for Billie. More famously, John Hammond, who had discovered Holiday as a teenager and produced her records at Columbia, called the on indian cooking song the beginning of the end for Billie and artistically the worst thing that ever happened to her. To him, Holiday had simply gone too serious. The more conscious she was of scientific essay her style, the more mannered she became, he later said. By taking herself so seriously, she suffered artistically and lost her sparkle.
Holiday, he lamented, had become the darling of essays cooking left-wing intellectuals and homosexuals; fortunately, whites had never caught on method life, to Bessie Smith in essays on indian cooking the same way. After performing at Café Society for two years, Holiday left. (Hounded by the Red-baiting of J. Edgar Hoover and his covey of scientific method life essay favored columnists, Josephson was essentially forced to sell his clubs in 1949.) Some other New York clubs refused to cooking let Holiday sing the song, prompting her to specify by contract that she could perform it if she chose. That didn't guarantee anything. Dit Dissertation? A patron at Jimmy Ryans on essays on indian, West 52nd Street once requested it, only to see Holiday come back afterward almost in methodology tears. Did you hear that bar-tender ringing the cash register all through? she asked him. On Indian? He always does that when I sing. Strange Fruit has a way of separating the of research paper straight people from the essays on indian cooking squares and cripples, Holiday's autobiography states. She recalled the dit dissertation marking scheme time a woman in Los Angeles asked her to sing that sexy song she was so famous for-you know, the one about the naked bodies swinging in the trees. (She refused.) Another time, at essays cooking, a club outside Los Angeles (where Lana Turner regularly asked her to perform it), a young white man hurled racial epithets at methodology, her. After two shows of this I was ready to quit, she later recalled. I knew if I didn't the third time round I might bounce something off that cracker and land in some San Fernando ranch-type jail.
Instead, Bob Hope, who was at the club with Judy Garland, badgered the heckler until he left. I n interviews, Holiday said that whenever she performed Strange Fruit in the South there was trouble. She told one newspaper that she was driven out of cooking Mobile, Alabama, for trying to marking scheme sing it. In fact, Holiday made few southern tours, and there's little evidence that she sang Strange Fruit when she did. Stories of jukeboxes carrying Strange Fruit down South being smashed seem fanciful, if only because Commodore Records probably didn't circulate that far. Claims that the song was banned from the radio are equally hard to on indian document, but not hard to dit dissertation scheme believe; radio stations played few records then, and essays on indian, rarely anything controversial. WNEW [in New York] has been trying to get up the courage to allow Billie Holiday, singing at method in everyday, Caf6 Society, to render the essays cooking anti-lynching song - 'Strange Fruit Growing on the Trees Down South' - on one of the night spot's regular broadcasts, the New York Post reported in applications November 1939. Station turned thumbs down a week ago, but approved the number for last night's airing. Then it said 'no' again, but has agreed to essays cooking let Billie sing it tonight at 1 o'clock. (According to one published report, the song was also banned from the BBC.)
Albert Murray, the parts of research paper methodology eminent historian of the blues, calls Strange Fruit a do good hit, one that resonated far more with white liberals than with blacks. But Holiday sang the song for on indian black audiences, including several performances at the Apollo Theatre in of research paper Harlem. Jack Schiffman, whose family ran the cooking Apollo, says his father did not want Holiday to do so, fearing disturbances. But in his memoirs Schiffman described what happened when she did. Uk Law? When she wrenched the final words from her lips, there was not a soul in that audience, black or white, who did not feel half strangled, he wrote. A moment of oppressively heavy silence followed, and then a kind of rustling sound I had never heard before. It was the sound of almost two thousand people sighing.
She would get herself together to cooking do that one. The others were kind of natural tunes, and she would spin them off the way she talked. This one was special. She had to do preparation for this one. -Pianist Mal Waldron. U ntil the essay end of Holiday's life, Strange Fruit remained a fixture in her performances, and wherever, whenever she sang it, it was an essays on indian cooking event.
With every indignity she suffered, her passion for it seemed to grow; a racial snub she'd just suffered at a St. Letters Online Applications? Louis nightclub, The New York Amsterdam News reported in 1944, explained why she sang the song with so much fervor and on indian, smoldering hatred in her eyes. Actress Billie Allen-Henderson recalled how the maitre d' at New York's Birdland actually confiscated all cigarettes before Holiday began. I was trying to be sophisticated and all of a sudden something stabs me in the solar plexus and I was gasping for dit dissertation marking air, Henderson said. It was so deeply felt. She was. 'unrelenting' is a good word for it. I thought, That's what art can do. Dempsey J. Travis, a former jazz musician and on indian, author of several books, heard a decrepit, dissipated Holiday sing it several times on cover online, Chicago's South Side. Essays On Indian? The words told the story, but her face never reflected any emotion, he said.
You listened to every word; it was like watching water drop slowly from a faucet. It was as if she was singing 'Ave Maria' or 'Amazing Grace.' Holiday performed Strange Fruit on a European tour in 1954; that may have inspired a Parisian named Henri-Jacques Dupuy to translate it into French. But Strange Fruit proved just as unsettling abroad. With all the troubles the letters French are currently having with coloured people in Indochina and North Africa, I do not think it will be possible to get a major recording of Mr. Cooking? Dupuy's version, Rudi Révil, a French song publisher, wrote Meeropol. Research? Holiday's autobiography, with all of its mistakes, appeared in essays on indian cooking 1956. Meeropol, while conceding that her tragic life may have led to research paper over some lapses into fancy, claimed he won a pledge from the publisher, Doubleday, to delete all misinformation about Strange Fruit from on indian cooking subsequent editions of the book. Burden Of Proof? (They nonetheless live on in the most recent paperback edition, published by Penguin in 1992.) One can only imagine how Meeropol reacted to on indian the movie Lady Sings the Blues, for its fictions were far more egregious than anything Holiday ever cooked up.
The film shows Diana Ross as Holiday encountering a lynching while touring the South; stricken by what she sees, she adopts a laserlike, knowing look-the look, presumably, of lyrics taking shape. The chords of Strange Fruit then sound, and marking scheme, Ross sings a bowdlerized version of the song, shorn of on indian all of its most powerful images. The filmmakers paid $4,500 for the right to rape the lyrics. Meeropol developed Alzheimer's disease in the late 1970s; his elder son played Strange Fruit for him in uk law the nursing home, and when the record got too scratchy, he sang it to him. Even after the old man stopped recognizing anyone, he seemed to recognize it, and perked up when he did. On Indian? When Meeropol died in 1986, it was sung at the memorial service. I n The Heart of a Woman , Maya Angelou recounts how, during a visit to Los Angeles in paper 1958, in essays a hoarse and raspy voice, Holiday sang Strange Fruit as a bedtime song for her son, Guy. What's a pastoral scene, Miss Holiday? the young boy interjected. Billie looked up slowly and uk law, studied Guy for on indian a second, Angelou writes.
Her face became cruel, and when she spoke her voice was scornful. 'It means when the crackers are killing the niggers. Scientific In Everyday Life? It means when they take a little nigger like you and snatch off his nuts and shove them down his goddam throat. That's what it means. That's what they do. That's a goddam pastoral scene.' Within a year, Holiday was dead.
To some, the song remained uniquely hers. Frankly, I don't think anybody but Billie should do it, said Dan Morgenstern, director of the Institute of Jazz Studies at essays on indian, Rutgers. Cover Applications? I don't think anybody can improve on it. But the song's power and cooking, appeal to research paper over a younger generation of performers only essays grew with the civil-rights movement, and as lynching became a metaphor for the American black experience rather than a direct threat. Abbey Lincoln, who tackled Strange Fruit on her 1987 album, Abbey Sings Billie, said she had no trouble singing the song. Slavery's over and so is lynching, she said; her goal was not to dwell on black victimhood but to pay homage to Holiday herself. Uk Law? For Cassandra Wilson and Dee Dee Bridgewater, however, Strange Fruit has proved considerably more difficult. Wilson, Down Beat's Female Vocalist of the essays Year two years ago, said that when she first heard Strange Fruit, in her native Jackson, Mississippi, in the late 1970s, it made my skin crawl.
Many years had to pass before she felt she had the paper aphrodite wisdom, the essays on indian experience, and the courage to research paper perform it. That was a song that I always felt I had to on indian get to, she said. One approaches it, she said, not by trying to outdo or enhance Holiday-a fool's errand by any definition-but by stripping the song bare. Holiday sometimes performed Strange Fruit almost punitively, to chastise an inattentive or unappreciative audience. Wilson, by contrast, said that because the song is so emotionally taxing for her she does it to research over aphrodite reward audiences with whom she has established a special rapport. On Indian Cooking? Like Wilson, Dee Dee Bridgewater, whose album Dear Ella won two Grammy's this year, first heard Strange Fruit while in marking her 20s. She, too, was profoundly moved by it; she, too, balked at singing it herself. But when she portrayed Holiday in essays cooking a one-woman show in the mid-1980s, she had no choice. She subsequently included Strange Fruit in of proof of proof essay her concert repertoire, but only cooking when she felt she had a sufficiently sensitive pianist-namely, a blind Dutchman named Bert van den Brink-accompanying her. Together, they performed it eight or nine times, always in Europe. Often, she cried as she sang it; sometimes, she choked on parts of research, the ending.
At least once, she couldn't finish. Then there was Bridgewater's performance in Turin, Italy. There was just dead silence, then this amazing roar, she recalled. In that deadness, I just broke down. Essays On Indian Cooking? I was sobbing. Research Paper Over Aphrodite? I had to leave the stage. Shortly after that, she decided never to sing it again. I just can't do it anymore, she said.
I just don't want to go there. Essays On Indian? By: DAVID MARGOLIK, as published in paper Vanity Fair - September 1998.
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Institute for Writing and Rhetoric. Few sentences in on indian cooking, your paper will vex you as much as the thesis sentence. And with good reason: the thesis sentence is typically that one sentence in marking, the paper with the potential to assert, control, and essays on indian cooking structure the entire argument. Without a strong, thoughtful thesis or claim, a paper might seem unfocused. Complicating the matter further is of proof, that different disciplines have different notions of what constitutes a good thesis sentence. Essays On Indian? Sometimes you'll encounter differences not only from discipline to discipline, but also from course to course. One of your professors might frown on a thesis sentence that announces your process: This paper will argue X by asserting A, B, and uk law essay C. Another professor might prefer this approach. So what makes a good thesis sentence? Despite the differences from discipline to discipline and essays from course to course, a good thesis will generally have the following characteristics: A good thesis sentence will make a claim. A good thesis rarely turns an intellectual problem into paper over aphrodite, a black white, either/or proposition that the on indian writer will then defend.
Rather, a good thesis offers a nuanced and life essay interesting perspective that the writer can develop via careful analysis. This perspective must be more than an observation. Essays? For example, America is violent is an observation. Americans are violent because they are fearful (the position that Michael Moore takes in Bowling for Columbine ) is an argument. Why? Because it posits a perspective. It makes a claim.
Put another way, a good thesis sentence will inspire (rather than quiet) other points of view. One might argue that America is violent because of of proof and standard its violent entertainment industry. Or because of the proliferation of guns. Or because of the disintegration of the family. In short, if your thesis is cooking, positing something that no one can (or would wish to) argue with, then it's not a good thesis. A good thesis sentence will define the uk law essay scope of your argument.
Your thesis sentence determines what you will discuss in your paper. It also determines what you won't discuss. Essays On Indian? Every paragraph in your paper exists in order to support your thesis and its claim. Accordingly, if one of your paragraphs seems irrelevant, you have two choices: get rid of the paragraph, or rewrite your thesis so that it is complex enough to embrace the whole of your argument. A good thesis will shape your argument. A good thesis not only signals to the reader what claim you're making, but also suggests how your argument will be presented. In other words, your thesis sentence should suggest the structure or shape of your argument to your reader. Say, for example, that you are going to argue that American fearfulness expresses itself in cover letters online, two curious ways: A and B. In this case, the reader understands that you are going to have two important points to essays on indian, cover, and that these points will appear in a certain order. Scientific Method In Everyday Life? If you suggest a particular ordering principle in your thesis and then abandon it, the essays on indian reader could become confused. Developing A Thesis: Sample Methods.
Professors employ a variety of methods to teach students how to compose good thesis sentences. Your professor has likely demonstrated several methods to you. Method Essay? Here we offer sample methods employed by three instructors from the Institute for Writing and Rhetoric: John Donaghy, Sara Biggs Chaney, and Karen Gocsik. Please note that these methods do not represent a program-wide sense of the thesis and how it should be taught or practiced. In fact, no such program-wide method exists. Instructors in the Institute for Writing and Rhetoric believe that there are many approaches which can help students compose a good thesis. We offer you these examples with the hope that you will think about essays on indian cooking their underlying principles and consider how these principles might transfer to the work that you're doing in your classrooms. JOHN DONAGHY: FINDING PATTERNS, SOLVING PROBLEMS. Professor John Donaghy's method is founded on the understanding that a good thesis comes from good analysis. In his view, analysis is a complicated process that requires readers to break down a text (event, object, or phenomenon) into parts, discovering patterns among the parts, and coming up with a theory for why these patterns exist. Professor Donaghy believes that students are initially afraid of analysis.
He's puzzled by this fear. In fact, Professor Donaghy argues, we are analyzing all the time: life presents us with data that we are continually sorting by finding patterns, creating categories, and making meaning. Analysis is necessary for uk law essay, something as simple as crossing the street. Students can be encouraged to see that they already possess analytical skills that can be transferred to writing papers. To illustrate how analysis brings us to the development of a thesis, Professor Donaghy suggests three steps regarding a simple reading of the essays cooking following Gary Snyder poem, Pine tree tops:
In the blue night. frost haze, the sky glows. bend snow-blue, fade. into sky, frost, starlight. The creak of boots. Rabbit tracks, deer tracks, what do we know. First, when analyzing, students need to be conscious of essay examining parts of a text, looking for essays on indian cooking, patterns (or repeating elements). In a short poem, students can make a number of dit dissertation simple observations, including:
Number of on indian words (34) Number of syllables in words (mostly single syllable) Parts of speech: mostly nouns; adjectives are scarce; surprisingly few verbs. Second, students need to try to scheme, determine how these parts and patterns are speaking to each other. Do these parts and patterns illustrate a similarity? Draw a contrast? Create an on indian, emphasis?
Together form a new observation or idea? In terms of the over aphrodite poem: Nouns: so many nouns emphasizes the thing-ness of the poem Adjectives: very few; one (blue) is attached to cooking, a noun Verbs: the scientific in everyday life verbs (glows, bend, fade) are gentle, yielding verbs. Finally, students can put forward a proposition. For instance: Snyder builds his poem on nouns to give power to the things in his scene. On Indian? Or Snyder chooses verbs that seem to yield to the nouns in order to tell us how to behave in online applications, the presence of nature. This proposition, with some tweaking, can become a working thesis. SARA BIGGS CHANEY: EVOLVING THE THESIS BY UNPACKING THE ASSUMPTIONS MAKING COUNTER-CLAIMS. Professor Sara Chaney uses various methods to help her students arrive at essays cooking a thesis.
One that has proven successful is requiring students to examine their assumptions. Essay Help? Professor Chaney begins this instruction by introducing the student to essays on indian cooking, the enthymeme. Like the syllogism (All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal), the enthymeme has three parts: the paper methodology major premise, the minor premise, and the conclusion. Cooking? The difference is that in the case of the syllogism, the research paper over aphrodite major premise is based on fact (All men are mortal), while in the enthymeme it's based on a commonly held belief (cheating is essays on indian, unethical, smoking around children is of proof of proof, a danger to on indian, their health, etc.). As Professor Chaney notes, in paper, many cases the enthymeme is presented with the major premise left unstated: She smokes around her daughter; she endangers her daughter's health. Professor Chaney illustrates the importance in finding the missing major premise, arguing that unpacking an argument's unstated assumptions can help students to better analyze the texts they're writing about, and to create better texts of their own. The key question to ask is: What must be true about the world in order for on indian cooking, this statement to be true? Students are asked to put forth all hidden assumptions, large and small.
This forces the students to dig beneath the surface of the text, to explore the structure and the nuance of the research paper over aphrodite argument. In the process, ideas for a thesis will present themselves. Once the students have drafted a thesis, Professor Chaney has a strategy (borrowed from essays on indian David Rossenwasser and Jill Stephen's Writing Analytically ) for evolving the thesis by putting forward counter-claims. Students sometimes make the uk law essay help mistake of forcing evidence to fit an overly rigid claim, or of presenting their claim in the form of a list, with few connections between the points. To evolve the thesis, Professor Chaney asks students to begin with their basic claim and then to methodically increase the complexity of that claim through the introduction of complicating evidence. This new evidence forces students to redefine their initial claims and to essays, determine how the counter-claim might or might not be accommodated by their thesis. For instance, a student may have written the following thesis: Reported cases of autism in children have increased by almost 200% in the last twenty years because autism has been redefined to include less severe forms of the disorder.
Professor Chaney presents students with this complicating evidence: Some research also suggests that autism may be linked to mercury exposure in childhood vaccines. Students may weigh the evidence to see which has more merit; they might expand their thesis to point to two reasons for research over, rising autism; they might acknowledge the truth in both statements but want to cooking, subordinate one argument to in everyday life essay, the other; they might point out a causal relationship between the two sentences (i.e., has the frequent levels of mercury exposures led to on indian, a new definition of autism in the DSM-IV, which in turn has increased the numbers of reported cases of autism?). Using any of these methods, students will have improved their thesis sentences. KAREN GOCSIK: FINDING THE UMBRELLA IDEA. Professor Karen Gocsik advises that developing a good thesis is often the result of finding the umbrella idea. Finding this idea requires that students move back and forth between a text's particularities and its big ideas in order to cover letters applications, find a suitable fit between the two that the students can write about.
This fit is essays on indian cooking, then summed up in essay help, the umbrella idea, or the essays on indian cooking big idea that all of their observations can stand under. For instance, in an exploration of the Gospels as rhetoric, a student makes the specific observation that, in three of the cover online four gospels, Jesus is reported as saying dramatically different things during his crucifixion. This observation by itself won't produce a paper - it's simply a statement of fact, with which no one will disagree. Nevertheless, this observation provokes a broader question: do these differences constitute a contradiction in on indian, the text? And if so, how do we understand this contradiction? What are the conditions of burden of proof and standard of proof religious truth? Is there room for a contradiction as important as this? Of course, these questions are too big to be addressed in an academic paper. And so the student returns to the text, still with these too-big questions haunting him. On Indian Cooking? Reviewing the specific contradictions of the text, he crafts another set of questions: How should we understand the differences we see across the aphrodite four gospels?
What might have inspired these writers to craft this important crucifixion scene differently - particularly when, as is true of the essays cooking authors of letters online applications Matthew and on indian cooking Luke, they were using the same sources? The student posits that these differences arise from a difference in audience, historical moment, and rhetorical purpose. Scientific Method Life Essay? He turns to cooking, scholarship and finds his interpretation confirmed. But the and standard essay bigger questions persist. If the gospels are constructed to essays on indian cooking, serve the earthly purposes of converting or supporting the beliefs of specific audiences, how can they also be considered as true? After doing a great deal of uk law essay help sketching, the student posits that perhaps the on indian cooking differences and contradictions are precisely what communicates the texts' truth to applications, its audience of believers. After all, if the truth of a supreme being is beyond human grasp, then perhaps it requires a many-voiced or polyglossic narrative. With this idea in mind, the student produces a paper that not only details the variances across the texts, but offers a claim about why an audience of believers are not deterred by the differences. It is this claim that serves as the umbrella idea, synthesizing the essays on indian cooking student writer's various observations and ideas. To sum up, successful employment of the umbrella method depends on four steps: Students must move fluidly back and forth between the of research paper methodology text and their abstractions/generalizations, ready to adjust their ideas to the new evidence and on indian cooking new abstractions that they encounter.
Students must sketch their ideas. Parts Of Research? Drawing their ideas helps students pull their thinking out of linear, two-dimensional modes, enabling them to essays, see multiple possibilities for essay, their essays. Students must seek an umbrella idea, under which their ideas can stand. To get to this umbrella idea, they need not only to analyze but to essays cooking, synthesize: they need to bring disparate ideas together, to see if they fit. They further need to create this synthesis by playing with language, creating an umbrella sentence that can embrace their ideas. Research Paper Over? This requires that students write and revise their thesis sentence several times as they write their paper. It also requires that students have a basic understanding of the principles of style, so that they can understand how to place their ideas in appropriate clauses, create the proper emphasis, and so on. Alternatives to the Thesis Sentence. Sometimes, the purpose of a piece of writing is not to make a claim but to essays on indian, raise questions.
Other times, a writer wants to leave a matter unresolved, inspiring the reader to create his or her own position. Dit Dissertation Marking Scheme? In these cases, the thesis sentence might take other forms: the thesis question or the implied thesis. As we've said, not every piece of writing sets out to make a claim. If your purpose as a writer is to essays on indian cooking, explore, for instance, the reasons for the 9/11 attacks (a topic for scientific, which you are not prepared to on indian cooking, make a claim), your thesis might read: What forces conspired to parts methodology, bring these men to crash four jetliners into American soil? You'll note that this question, while provocative, does not offer a sense of the argument's structure. It permits the writer to pursue all ideas, without committing to any.
While this freedom might seem appealing, in fact you will find that the lack of a declarative thesis statement requires more work: you need to tighten your internal structure and your transitions from essays on indian cooking paragraph to paragraph so that the essay is and standard essay, clear and the reader can easily follow your line of inquiry. One of the most fascinating things about a thesis sentence is that it is the essays on indian cooking most important sentence in a paper - even when it's not there. Some of of proof and standard of proof our best writers never explicitly declare their theses. In some essays, you'll find it difficult to essays cooking, point to a single sentence that declares the argument. Still, the essay is coherent and in everyday life essay makes a point. In these cases, the writers have used an implied thesis. Writers use an implied thesis when they want to maintain a light hand.
However, just because the writer doesn't delcare the thesis doesn't mean that she was working without one. Good writers will have their thesis clearly stated - either in their own minds, or in on indian, their notes for the paper. They may elect not to put the scientific in everyday life thesis in the paper, but every paragraph, every sentence that they write is controlled by the thesis all the same. If you decide to write a paper with an implied thesis, be sure that you have a strong grasp of essays on indian cooking your argument and parts of research paper its structure. Also be sure that you supply adequate transitions, so that the reader can follow your argument with ease. Will This Thesis Sentence Make the Grade? (A Check List) In the essays on indian cooking end, you may have spent a good deal of time writing your thesis and still not know if it's a good one. Here are some questions to ask yourself. Does my thesis sentence attempt to of research paper, answer (or at least to explore) a challenging intellectual question? Is the point I'm making one that would generate discussion and argument, or is it one that would leave people asking, So what?
Is my thesis too vague? Too general? Should I focus on some more specific aspect of my topic? Does my thesis deal directly with the topic at hand, or is it a declaration of my personal feelings? Does my thesis indicate the direction of essays on indian cooking my argument? Does it suggest a structure for my paper? Does my introductory paragraph define terms important to my thesis? If I am writing a research paper, does my introduction place my thesis within the larger, ongoing scholarly discussion about my topic? Is the language in my thesis vivid and clear? Have I structured my sentence so that the important information is in the main clause? Have I used subordinate clauses to help, house less important information?
Have I used parallelism to show the relationship between parts of my thesis? In short, is essays on indian, this thesis the very best sentence that it can be? What else do you need to know about uk law essay thesis sentences? A good thesis usually relies on a strong introduction, sharing the work. As your writing becomes more sophisticated, you will find that a one-sentence thesis statement cannot bear the burden of your entire argument. Essays? Therefore, you will find yourself relying increasingly on your introduction to lay the groundwork. Scheme? Use your introduction to cooking, explain some of your argument's points and/or to define its terms. Save the punch for your thesis. For more information about creating good introductions that can support your thesis sentences, see Introductions and Conclusions elsewhere in uk law essay, this website.
The structure of your thesis, along with its introduction, should in some way reflect the on indian logic that brought you to your argument. It's helpful when structuring your thesis sentence to consider for a moment how it was that you came to your argument in the first place. No matter what discipline you are working in, you came to your idea by way of certain observations. For example, perhaps you have noticed in a History of Education course that female college students around the turn of the century seem very often to write about the idea of service to the community. How did you come to dit dissertation marking scheme, that observation? What did you observe first? And, more importantly, how did you go about exploring the significance of essays on indian this observation? Did you investigate other college documents to see if the value of service was explicitly stated there? Or was this value implied in course descriptions, extra curricular possibilities, and so forth?
Reconstruct for yourself how you came to your observations, and use this to scientific method life essay, help you to create a coherent introduction and thesis. A good working thesis is your best friend. Those writers who understand the concept of working thesis are way ahead of the on indian game. A working thesis is a thesis that works for you, helping you to see where your ideas are going. Many students keep their working thesis in front of them at research paper aphrodite all times to help them to control the direction of their argument. But what happens when you stumble onto an idea that your thesis isn't prepared for?
Or, more important, what happens when you think everything is going well in your paper and essays cooking suddenly you arrive at a block? Always return to your working thesis, and give it a critical once-over. Research Over? You may find that the block in your writing process is essays on indian, related to some limitation in your thesis. Paper Methodology? Or you may find that hidden somewhere in that working thesis is the essays cooking germ of an even better idea. Stay in conversation with your thesis throughout the writing process.
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95 theses essay 1. When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, Repent (Mt 4:17), he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance. 2. On Indian. This word cannot be understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy. 3. Yet it does not mean solely inner repentance; such inner repentance is worthless unless it produces various outward mortification of the flesh. 4. The penalty of sin remains as long as the hatred of of proof and standard of proof self (that is, true inner repentance), namely till our entrance into the kingdom of heaven. 5. The pope neither desires nor is able to remit any penalties except those imposed by essays cooking, his own authority or that of the canons. 6. Scheme. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring and showing that it has been remitted by God; or, to be sure, by remitting guilt in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to essays on indian grant remission in these cases were disregarded, the guilt would certainly remain unforgiven.
7. God remits guilt to no one unless at the same time he humbles him in all things and makes him submissive to the vicar, the priest. 8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to the canons themselves, nothing should be imposed on the dying. 9. Therefore the Holy Spirit through the pope is kind to us insofar as the pope in his decrees always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity. 10. Cover Letters Applications. Those priests act ignorantly and wickedly who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penalties for purgatory. 11. Essays On Indian Cooking. Those tares of changing the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory were evidently sown while the bishops slept (Mt 13:25). 12.
In former times canonical penalties were imposed, not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. 13. Letters. The dying are freed by death from all penalties, are already dead as far as the canon laws are concerned, and have a right to be released from them. Cooking. 14. Imperfect piety or love on the part of the dying person necessarily brings with it great fear; and letters, the smaller the love, the greater the fear. 15. This fear or horror is sufficient in itself, to say nothing of other things, to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair. 16. Cooking. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ the same as despair, fear, and assurance of salvation. 17. It seems as though for the souls in purgatory fear should necessarily decrease and love increase.
18. Furthermore, it does not seem proved, either by burden of proof, reason or by Scripture, that souls in purgatory are outside the state of merit, that is, unable to grow in love. 19. Nor does it seem proved that souls in purgatory, at least not all of them, are certain and assured of their own salvation, even if we ourselves may be entirely certain of it. 20. Therefore the pope, when he uses the words plenary remission of all penalties, does not actually mean all penalties, but only those imposed by himself.
21. Thus those indulgence preachers are in error who say that a man is absolved from every penalty and saved by papal indulgences. 22. As a matter of fact, the pope remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to essays on indian cooking canon law, they should have paid in this life. 23. If remission of all penalties whatsoever could be granted to anyone at all, certainly it would be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very few.
24. For this reason most people are necessarily deceived by that indiscriminate and parts of research methodology, high-sounding promise of release from penalty. 25. That power which the pope has in general over purgatory corresponds to the power which any bishop or curate has in a particular way in his own diocese and on indian cooking, parish. 26. The pope does very well when he grants remission to souls in purgatory, not by the power of the parts of research methodology keys, which he does not have, but by way of intercession for them. 27. They preach only human doctrines who say that as soon as the money clinks into essays cooking the money chest, the soul flies out of purgatory. Scientific Method Life Essay. 28. It is certain that when money clinks in the money chest, greed and avarice can be increased; but when the church intercedes, the result is in the hands of God alone. 29.
Who knows whether all souls in purgatory wish to be redeemed, since we have exceptions in St. On Indian. Severinus and St. Paschal, as related in parts of research paper methodology a legend. 30. No one is sure of the integrity of his own contrition, much less of having received plenary remission. 31. The man who actually buys indulgences is as rare as he who is really penitent; indeed, he is exceedingly rare. Essays On Indian. 32. Those who believe that they can be certain of their salvation because they have indulgence letters will be eternally damned, together with their teachers. 33. Men must especially be on guard against paper over those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to him.
34. For the graces of indulgences are concerned only with the essays on indian cooking penalties of sacramental satisfaction established by man. 35. They who teach that contrition is not necessary on method in everyday life essay the part of those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional privileges preach unchristian doctrine. 36. Cooking. Any truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and cover, guilt, even without indulgence letters. 37. Any true Christian, whether living or dead, participates in all the blessings of Christ and the church; and this is granted him by God, even without indulgence letters. 38.
Nevertheless, papal remission and blessing are by no means to be disregarded, for they are, as I have said (Thesis 6), the proclamation of the divine remission. 39. Essays On Indian. It is very difficult, even for the most learned theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the bounty of indulgences and the need of true contrition. 40. Life Essay. A Christian who is truly contrite seeks and loves to pay penalties for on indian his sins; the bounty of indulgences, however, relaxes penalties and causes men to hate them -- at least it furnishes occasion for marking scheme hating them. 41. Papal indulgences must be preached with caution, lest people erroneously think that they are preferable to other good works of love. 42. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend that the buying of indulgences should in essays cooking any way be compared with works of mercy. 43.
Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better deed than he who buys indulgences. 44. Letters Applications. Because love grows by works of love, man thereby becomes better. Man does not, however, become better by means of indulgences but is merely freed from penalties. 45. Cooking. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a needy man and passes him by, yet gives his money for indulgences, does not buy papal indulgences but God's wrath. 46. Christians are to be taught that, unless they have more than they need, they must reserve enough for their family needs and by no means squander it on dit dissertation marking indulgences. 47. Christians are to be taught that they buying of indulgences is a matter of free choice, not commanded. On Indian Cooking. 48 Christians are to aphrodite be taught that the pope, in granting indulgences, needs and essays cooking, thus desires their devout prayer more than their money.
49. Christians are to be taught that papal indulgences are useful only if they do not put their trust in them, but very harmful if they lose their fear of online applications God because of them. 50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the indulgence preachers, he would rather that the basilica of St. Peter were burned to ashes than built up with the skin, flesh, and bones of his sheep. 51. Christians are to essays be taught that the pope would and should wish to give of his own money, even though he had to sell the basilica of St. Peter, to uk law help many of those from whom certain hawkers of indulgences cajole money. 52.
It is vain to trust in salvation by essays, indulgence letters, even though the indulgence commissary, or even the pope, were to offer his soul as security. 53. They are the enemies of Christ and the pope who forbid altogether the preaching of the Word of God in some churches in order that indulgences may be preached in others. 54. Injury is research paper done to the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or larger amount of essays on indian time is devoted to indulgences than to the Word. 55. It is certainly the pope's sentiment that if indulgences, which are a very insignificant thing, are celebrated with one bell, one procession, and one ceremony, then the gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56. The true treasures of the church, out of which the pope distributes indulgences, are not sufficiently discussed or known among the dit dissertation marking people of Christ. 57.
That indulgences are not temporal treasures is certainly clear, for many indulgence sellers do not distribute them freely but only gather them. 58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the saints, for, even without the pope, the latter always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outer man. 59. St. Lawrence said that the poor of the church were the on indian cooking treasures of the church, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time. 60. Without want of consideration we say that the keys of the church, given by the merits of dit dissertation marking Christ, are that treasure. 61. For it is clear that the pope's power is of itself sufficient for the remission of on indian penalties and cases reserved by himself. 62.
The true treasure of the church is the most holy gospel of the glory and grace of God. 63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last (Mt. 20:16). 64. On the other hand, the treasure of dit dissertation indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first.
65. Therefore the treasures of the gospel are nets with which one formerly fished for men of wealth. 66. The treasures of essays on indian indulgences are nets with which one now fishes for the wealth of men. 67. Dit Dissertation Scheme. The indulgences which the demagogues acclaim as the greatest graces are actually understood to be such only insofar as they promote gain. Essays On Indian. 68. They are nevertheless in truth the cover letters most insignificant graces when compared with the grace of essays on indian cooking God and the piety of the cross. 69.
Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of parts paper methodology papal indulgences with all reverence. 70. But they are much more bound to essays cooking strain their eyes and ears lest these men preach their own dreams instead of what the pope has commissioned. 71. Let him who speaks against research over the truth concerning papal indulgences be anathema and accursed. 72. But let him who guards against the lust and license of the indulgence preachers be blessed. 73.
Just as the pope justly thunders against essays those who by any means whatever contrive harm to the sale of indulgences. 74. Much more does he intend to thunder against those who use indulgences as a pretext to letters contrive harm to holy love and truth. 75. To consider papal indulgences so great that they could absolve a man even if he had done the impossible and had violated the mother of God is madness. 76. We say on the contrary that papal indulgences cannot remove the essays very least of venial sins as far as guilt is concerned. 77. To say that even St.
Peter if he were now pope, could not grant greater graces is blasphemy against essay help St. Peter and the pope. 78. We say on the contrary that even the present pope, or any pope whatsoever, has greater graces at cooking his disposal, that is, the gospel, spiritual powers, gifts of parts of research paper healing, etc., as it is essays on indian cooking written, 1 Co 12[:28]. 79. To say that the cross emblazoned with the papal coat of arms, and set up by burden of proof and standard, the indulgence preachers is equal in worth to the cross of on indian Christ is of research paper methodology blasphemy.
80. The bishops, curates, and theologians who permit such talk to be spread among the people will have to answer for this. 81. This unbridled preaching of indulgences makes it difficult even for learned men to rescue the reverence which is due the pope from slander or from the shrewd questions of the laity. 82. Such as: Why does not the pope empty purgatory for the sake of holy love and the dire need of the souls that are there if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a church? The former reason would be most just; the latter is most trivial. 83. Again, Why are funeral and anniversary masses for the dead continued and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded for them, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed?
84. Again, What is this new piety of God and the pope that for cooking a consideration of cover letters applications money they permit a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God and do not rather, because of the need of that pious and beloved soul, free it for pure love's sake? 85. Again, Why are the penitential canons, long since abrogated and dead in actual fact and through disuse, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences as though they were still alive and in on indian force? 86. Again, Why does not the parts of research paper methodology pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealth of the richest Crassus, build this one basilica of essays cooking St. Peter with his own money rather than with the money of poor believers? 87. Again, What does the pope remit or grant to those who by perfect contrition already have a right to full remission and blessings? 88. Again, What greater blessing could come to the church than if the pope were to bestow these remissions and blessings on every believer a hundred times a day, as he now does but once?
89. Since the pope seeks the salvation of souls rather than money by his indulgences, why does he suspend the indulgences and burden of proof and standard essay, pardons previously granted when they have equal efficacy? 90. Essays Cooking. To repress these very sharp arguments of the laity by force alone, and not to dit dissertation marking resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies and to on indian cooking make Christians unhappy. 91. If, therefore, indulgences were preached according to the spirit and intention of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved.
Indeed, they would not exist. 92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Peace, peace, and there is no peace! (Jer 6:14) 93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to dit dissertation marking the people of Christ, Cross, cross, and essays on indian cooking, there is no cross! 94.
Christians should be exhorted to scientific in everyday life essay be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, death and hell. 95. Essays On Indian Cooking. And thus be confident of entering into heaven through many tribulations rather than through the false security of essay help peace (Acts 14:22).
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CSR: the dangers of ‘doing the right thing’ economist and author. ESSAY: The rise of cooking, corporate social responsibility is bad for democracy. I n this first part of an exclusive two-part essay for spiked , Phil Mullan examines how the decline of profitability and investment has caused corporations to lose faith in and standard their social role, leading them to essays cooking, embrace the idea of dit dissertation, corporate social responsibility - at the expense of democratic accountability. Five years after the low point of the Western financial crisis, we still see almost daily attacks on bankers’ bonuses and CEO pay levels. This idea that big payouts to business people are a key factor behind our economic troubles has become something of a ‘modern truth’; unfortunately it is one that obscures and stymies the much-needed deeper analysis and discussion of what’s really gone wrong with the Western economies. While there are lots of reasons why this narrow focus on executive salaries and bonuses has been so enduring, one significant driver is the way big business has opened itself to this sort of challenge by its own adoption of the dictums of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Essays On Indian! Under the auspices of CSR, businesses are expected to look beyond their day-to-day business objectives and challenges and consider how they can ‘do good’ for society.
The assumption behind the need to adopt CSR practices is that otherwise businesses are failing society in some way, that they are doing the ‘wrong’ thing. The implication of CSR is that business must have some inherently irresponsible proclivity, otherwise why is there a need for CSR? Just as we need road safety codes, otherwise there would be a lot more accidents on busy roads, so it seems we need CSR codes, otherwise apparently we’d have lots more corporate social irresponsibility . For some CSR advocates today, it almost seems that business is inherently immoral. The cumulative effect is that it is now commonplace to assume that business has something to answer for to society. In practice, CSR is a polite form of business bashing.
Condemnations of senior pay levels follow easily in such a climate. The fact that large parts of business accept the need for burden of proof CSR actions validates this more refined version of business criticism, and thereby opens the way for all those attacks on essays cooking business leaders, their pay and incentives, and dit dissertation scheme, their supposedly greedy, dangerous behaviours. This highlights the key issue with CSR: it is no longer, if it ever really was, a criticism of business from outside – from lobbyists or from non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Now, CSR is a framework endorsed by business itself. Most business leaders genuinely accept that there is some deficiency in the mores of business which requires an alternative CSR-style, morally and essays on indian, ethically guided approach. Research Paper Over! Without CSR policies and actions, business appears to accept that it is not a socially responsible force in society; that it is not ‘doing good’ for society. The reason why businesses embrace CSR is a product of our contemporary culture. Essays! It is rooted in the defensiveness of business leaders: over scheme the past 30 to 40 years, they have increasingly lost faith in themselves and in their contribution as business people.
They no longer feel able to on indian, argue for the essence of capitalism as represented by their profit-driven organisations. Business corporations, as a distinct organisational form, are set up to produce things – goods or services – for sale to customers in a market-based economy. Marking! That is their primary social purpose . In the course of that activity, they do have responsibilities , and they do have social impacts . On Indian Cooking! The blurring of scientific method life, these three categories – purpose, responsibilities and essays, impacts – expresses the confusions and uncertainties in relation to what business is about, and what it should not be about. Businesses do not have ‘responsibilities to marking, society’, in the sense of duties that they have to cooking, carry out directly for society. Their sole responsibility is to their owners, usually the company’s shareholders, which on a day-to-day basis means business responsibility is to the board of directors nominated or elected, in some fashion, by the shareholders. Dit Dissertation Marking Scheme! As Peter Drucker (1909-2005), generally regarded as the world’s foremost management theorist, said: ‘Business, that’s easily defined - it’s other people’s money.’ These ‘other people’ are the owners and investors. Given that the shareholders have invested their money in the business to make more money, this is the source of the idea popularised by Milton Friedman in his famous 1970 article in the New York Times titled ‘The social responsibility of business is to increase profits’.
While this provocative phrase more than justified itself in the impact this article had on all subsequent discussions of corporate responsibility, it would be more accurate - though a little more long-winded - to say that sustained profitability is a necessary condition for essays cooking a business to marking, fulfil and continue its purpose to produce things and thereby both satisfy the on indian cooking owners to of research paper, whom it is accountable and responsible, and to bring about the consequences from which society benefits. The drive for profit underpins the dynamic of capitalist businesses. Business has both direct and indirect social impacts and effects. Directly, it provides employment to essays, its own workers and to many suppliers. The business organisation is the main form of wealth creation in a market economy, and this wealth provides the extra resources for investment in research paper aphrodite the future and for essays on indian cooking taxation to pay for uk law essay help social requirements today. Business is therefore the prime source of the wealth that society can choose to utilise in order to address our common social or environmental challenges. Indirectly, businesses can also contribute to social progress. Essays Cooking! When pursuing opportunities for their own profit, businesses bring about technological transformation, improving productivity at parts, a society-wide level and therefore contributing to social, as well as to economic, development and progress. They are the indirect vehicles for transforming lives for the better and for cooking modernising society. Collectively, businesses’ drive for profit and commercial success generates the growth in productivity that is essential for rising living standards. Business did this pretty consistently and extensively in the late-eighteenth and dit dissertation marking scheme, nineteenth centuries across Europe and large parts of America, and again for much of the twentieth century, though more unevenly, and with the huge disruptive interruptions of the 1930s slump and World Wars along the way.
The private business sector is cooking, not the essay help sole source of innovation and productivity growth - the state has contributed to on indian cooking, innovation, too; think only uk law essay help of atomic energy or space travel or the internet - but the private market economy is nevertheless a significant driver of essays, human progress over the past quarter of a millennium. Banker bashing may have risen to fever pitch in the wake of the 2007-8 financial crisis, but we should remember that business-bashing more widely has been increasingly prevalent and widely echoed for much longer, since at least the early 1990s. The same Peter Drucker may have denounced the ‘business ethics’ movement as ‘ethical chic’ as long ago as 1981, but as respected as his views were then, they are now seen as wildly anachronistic. It was probably the Brent Spar affair that propelled business behaviour and of proof essay, CSR to centre stage in the business world, and brought this new anti-business mood fully into the open. Essays On Indian! In 1995, environmentalists campaigned against Shell over its decision to sink a redundant oil platform, Brent Spar , in deep ocean waters. Essay! Despite multiple studies recommending deep-sea disposal for the old platform as the essays cooking safest and most environmentally responsible course of action, and after requesting and parts of research methodology, receiving UK government approval for its plans, a campaign orchestrated by the NGO Greenpeace forced Shell to reverse its decision and dismantle the platform on land instead.
Subsequently, the independent journal Nature carried an article that concluded that Shell’s original studies were sound, a view that has not been seriously refuted since (1). Shell had been forced into taking actions that were more expensive and potentially more hazardous and dangerous than its original decision. Nevertheless the heralded ‘success’ of this crusade against essays on indian business gave great encouragement to the CSR lobby (more recently sometimes re-branded as ‘ESG’: environmental, social and corporate governance). Over the cover letters online applications past two decades, the CSR/ESG movement has seen many other companies adopting a defensive stance, and accepting the underlying assumption that much of what companies do, even if unintentionally, is harmful for society and destructive for the environment. On Indian Cooking! Instead, it has been assumed both outside and inside the corporate world that businesses need to aphrodite, mend their ways and address their moral and ethical responsibilities while they pursue their day-to-day activities, or ‘give something back’ to society to offset any harm unavoidably inflicted.
The economic backdrop to the openness to CSR ideas within the business world is the return of economic unevenness since the essays cooking 1970s, following the scientific method life end of the postwar boom. Economic and on indian, technological progress has stalled again since then and generally slowed. Weak business investment underlies this faltering of innovation and productivity growth and of research, the resulting relative lack of growth in average living standards in many Western economies (2). Business leaders are products of a social environment where the elite has become increasingly uncertain about the on indian cooking future. The wider elite’s loss of confidence in uk law taking society forward has sapped business leaders’ own sense of legitimacy in themselves and in business organisations as a respectable and valued institution. As David Henderson, a CSR critic and former head of the on indian Economics and Statistics Department of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), described: ‘CSR is in large part an expression, a reflection, of the prevailing climate of opinion, which affects people within companies as well as outside: these are not two separate worlds. Positive and negative ways of thinking reinforce one another. On the one hand, there is general approval for the appealing notion of help, sustainable development… Almost equally widespread, at the same time, is distrust of the profit motive together with a disparaging view of the standards of conduct that currently prevail in private business.’ While the Western elite’s hesitancies about the meaning and purpose of Western society go back much further, to the early parts of the essays on indian last century, this malfunctioning of capitalism since the 1970s has served to exacerbate business leaders’ discomfiture in the mission of their own organisations. Research Paper Over Aphrodite! Business success in cooking production has become much tougher than it was in the 1950s and 1960s. The slowdown in applications the economic dynamic has aggravated their own uneasiness, and engendered an openness to frameworks other than explicit profit maximisation.
Unable to make the case positively for profit making as the means to social wealth creation, and finding the perceived greater uncertainties difficult to handle, anxious business moved to promote risk management as a substitute organising framework. This went alongside the ‘reputation-protecting’ phase of essays on indian, CSR. Paper! Businesses initially justified CSR’s adoption negatively, as a means to limit the possibility of essays cooking, making mistakes or causing adverse social effects that could harm a company’s reputation. For example, companies took steps to eliminate the use of child labour in in everyday essay their, or in suppliers’, factories in emerging markets. Subsequently, much of business has moved on to the essays on indian cooking fuller, positive endorsement of the assumptions of CSR, expressed in the widespread business acceptance of ‘sustainable development’. Business leaders became susceptible to the notion that they have to research paper, earn some sort of social ‘licence to operate’ through their better behaviour; that they have to prove their value morally and ethically, not just by on indian cooking, being good at their line of business. Being ‘good at business’ was no longer seen as the prime goal. In fact, commercial success even seemed to cover letters online, become something of a liability if profits were large enough to be denounced as ‘excessive’. Supermarkets, banks, and energy companies have all fallen foul of this charge. Instead, it is essays cooking, more important that you have to be seen to ‘do good’ than be good at letters, your business. The result is on indian, that businesses do not just go along with CSR nostrums; they positively advance the CSR agenda.
In the absence of paper aphrodite, genuine business purpose, this CSR approach has become assimilated almost as a necessity, not just as an optional but beneficial extra. For example, without businesses being able to espouse their own institutional meaning, people working for essays on indian them have become less ‘engaged’, to use the language of the human-resources world. Although business leaders find it difficult to promote their organisations positively as profit-making machines, they know that employees lacking motivation and drive aren’t good for burden and standard of proof essay business success either. They genuinely want their own employees to be more engaged in what they do. This is one driver for the embrace of CSR and its fellow traveller, philanthropy, which are often justified by seeking to boost employee morale, engagement and the sense of ‘feeling good’. As Brian Moynihan, chief executive of Bank of America said recently: ‘These projects are very popular with our own staff’. Hence, too, the essays on indian cooking fashion for making up fatuous mission statements. Previously, business expressed their mission through what they did - producing particular goods and services profitably for their customers - and didn’t feel the need to resort to creeds on bits of paper or posters on burden and standard of proof essay the canteen wall. In this two-part essay, I will argue that this wide-scale endorsement from within business, and from outside, of the necessity for CSR policies is unjustified.
On the cooking contrary, CSR, or the Doing the Right Thing perspective, however well intentioned, is bad for democracy, bad for business and paper over aphrodite, bad for society. Given the existing disenchantment with politics, the anti-democratic bent of the CSR brigade is probably the most important danger today, and essays on indian, the one with potentially the most enduring impact. Uk Law! Paradoxically, it’s also the one least often discussed, even in the critical literature about CSR, which too often focuses simply on essays on indian cooking that Friedmanite counter-position of profit maximisation to the social-responsibility crusade. CSR’s anti-democratic disposition is important, not least because there is already such a strong anti-politics mood these days. CSR has not caused this mood, but it does build upon it, and research paper aphrodite, then reinforces and essays, accentuates it. It is commonplace today, in assessments of trust levels informed by a CSR-sympathetic outlook, to dit dissertation, highlight the extent to on indian, which business lacks credibility. For example, according to the 2013 Edelman Trust Barometer, fewer than one in dit dissertation marking scheme two people in the UK have trust in big business. On Indian! Meanwhile, a business think-tank, Tomorrow’s Company, introduced its recent report on business ownership, Tomorrow’s Business Forms , with the words: ‘A prevalent public view is that business is not trustworthy and focuses too much on short term profit instead of taking a longer term view.’ (3) Such public sentiments are not surprising given the sustained experience of business bashing.
But politicians fare no better in the trust league, and in some surveys come out even worse. Of Research! The same Edelman Trust Barometer reported that ‘Government leaders are less trusted than business leaders across the board on a variety of criteria: their ability to solve social or societal issues (15 per cent versus 19 per cent); correct issues within industries (15 per cent versus 26 per cent); and make ethical and moral decisions (14 per cent versus 20 per cent).’ Both score low, but politicians seem to be even less trusted than business people. Anti-business and essays on indian, anti-politics sentiments go together these days, and are reflected in sentiments about almost all traditional institutions. But if one had to choose, the anti-politics one is the most perilous since it leads to cynicism about the value of democracy. Without democracy and the political freedoms that accompany it, every other discussion – about business, society or anything else – risks being stunted, curtailed or banned. How does CSR make anti-democratic tendencies worse? Because the ubiquitous phrase aimed directly at companies to in everyday life essay, ‘do the right thing’ raises the fundamental question of who decides what is right and wrong. And it takes this question away from those who might once have decided: namely, politicians. Essays On Indian! Still, when people talk of business ‘doing the right thing’, the parts methodology question should become the essays on indian cooking right thing by whom?
Who decides what the right thing to parts methodology, do is, when there are almost inevitably trade-offs about it? Social-impact issues for business invariably tend to essays cooking, be contested ones. There are no self-evident unequivocally ‘right’ answers. Responses to issues are also unlikely to be eternal or universal; they change over time and can be different in disparate parts of the uk law help world. Consider questions such as: Should businesses invest in pollution control? Sounds straightforward - of course they should. But what are the right levels of anti-pollution investment to qualify as ‘doing good’? Inevitably, there will be a trade-off between cost and the elimination of every last emission of every pollutant? Does the answer change at essays on indian cooking, different levels of economic development? In the burden essay early stages of development (nineteenth-century Britain, or sub-Saharan Africa today), isn’t combating poverty through creating jobs more important than pricing a start-up business out of potential markets by investing heavily in anti-pollution measures?
Who decides? Is it right for a company to on indian, produce sugary drinks? Is sugar good for nutrition and energy, or bad for teeth and obesity? Thirty years ago, soft drinks were marketed as good for health. Today, some campaigners claim sugar is the ‘new tobacco’. Scientific Essay! Who decides? What about a business like AirBnB? This is a service that allows anyone to rent out their home or parts of it for short-term lets. On Indian Cooking! It is claimed this service brings the UK economy more than half a billion pounds each year, and provides thousands of jobs. Burden Of Proof Essay! But, at the same time, there are concerns that AirBnB’s members don’t have to meet the same safety standards as their rivals who run hotels and hostels.
So is essays on indian cooking, it fair that the service it promotes undercuts other local businesses? Is that the right thing? Who decides? Is it right for method a food producer to use organic methods? Even people who espouse putting the essays natural environment first can’t agree on that one. Producing foodstuffs without the aid of ‘artificial’ chemicals fulfils some people’s moral agenda and is therefore endorsed as the ‘right thing’ to do. However, other environmentalists claim that if it became ubiquitous, organic-food production would be hugely damaging to uk law essay, the biodiversity of natural forestland since organic methods need about double the amount of cleared land to feed people compared to the use of essays, chemical pesticides and fertilisers. So is there an unequivocal right way for the food producer to act in this situation? Who decides?
Finally, what about aphrodite something as apparently mundane as employee-owned Waitrose giving its loyal member customers a free coffee? Surely this is looking after some of your stakeholders, and giving something back to your customers in the local community? However, consider the potential impact on the artisan coffee shop round the corner when a big local supermarket starts giving away your main product for essays cooking free. Is that the right thing for Waitrose to do? Who decides? Corporate activity pretty much always has some sort of social impact – on employment, on the local community where it operates, on help the local environment – and there is no fixed, objective, eternal answer about the right way of essays cooking, operating. It’s very rare to be faced with a clear black-and-white choice where there is an unequivocal right course of action. Even something like an industrial accident that may injure, or even kill, a construction worker – however unpleasant that is to contemplate – is not straightforward. Last year in Britain, there were 39 fatalities in construction: everyone will agree that this represents 39 too many deaths, but does that mean construction businesses are failing by the criteria of social responsibilities? In fact, 39 is half the fatality rate of 20 years ago, but accidents are ‘accidents’ and online, will still happen. Even as safety levels improve further across the board, construction will probably remain five-times more dangerous than the average workplace.
The only certain way to stop such deaths in British construction is to essays cooking, stop all construction work, but that’s absurd and would result in a worsening housing shortage and infrastructure inadequacy, with all the online applications social problems these entail. So the $64,000 question is: who decides what is the right thing? What corporate actions are in line with CSR maxims? We can all as individuals follow our own moral compass on what is ‘right’ or not, and business leaders are no different; they can exercise individual moral judgments for their businesses on issues that go above and beyond their legal or regulatory obligations. In which case they should be accountable for their actions, but solely to their shareholders or whatever other corporate structure they have, not to some vague concept of essays cooking, ‘society’.
But the CSR movement is about more than such individual business decisions; it’s about setting standards and expectations for all of business. So who decides for society the ‘right’ form of company behaviour? Is it campaigning NGOs? No – NGOs are not accountable to anyone, so why should they decide for research paper over society? Is it ‘moral’ figures like religious leaders?
They are not accountable either (at least not to a mortal constituency). Is it the companies themselves? Surely not - they do what they do for their owners, so whatever ethical decisions they may make for themselves, they are not appropriate judges on behalf of essays, society of of proof of proof essay, what is essays on indian cooking, ethically ‘right’ either. They are not accountable to society. As citizens, we can’t throw business leaders out, just as we can’t throw NGOs or religious leaders out. Anyone can legitimately disagree with a decision that some business has taken, while its own leaders might see it as an informed, justified, and even principled and morally correct stance. Such disagreement is fine. However, if you insist these issues are important enough to justify setting social standards and expectations for all corporates, the only proper arena for of proof and standard debating and resolving these things is essays on indian, politics. It’s only through political debate that questions on such contentious issues of research paper aphrodite, whether there should be common standards set for cooking business – and online, I’d argue it should be a very high bar before that’s answered in the affirmative – and, if so, what they should be, can be properly discussed. The only people who can legitimately decide what’s ‘right’ for society are elected and accountable, and therefore replaceable: that is, politicians. If we don’t like what the existing politicians are doing regarding the way businesses act or don’t act, we can argue a different viewpoint, and essays, hopefully seek to throw those politicians out at the next election and replace them with others.
That’s the way representative democracy is supposed to work. Social and moral questions that are being pushed on to companies to address are being taken away, in whole or in part, from the place where they should be discussed and debated: the political arena. Whatever the intentions of marking scheme, people promoting it, the CSR agenda is part of today’s anti-democratic tendency – it encourages contentious issues to be at least partially taken away from democratic debate, and seeks technical solutions through the unaccountable actions of companies. How to address social challenges is a political question, not a technical one. But increasingly they are being viewed apolitically today. Even seemingly technical tasks, such as cleaning up the local environment, confront us with essentially political decisions: who decides what to essays on indian cooking, prioritise and marking scheme, how to handle any trade-offs? Ignoring this represents a huge threat to democracy. Responsibility for a better future is taken from elected, accountable politicians and essays cooking, given to unelected, unaccountable business leaders.
Politicians have been losing status for their own reasons, but we should be very concerned about this tendency to move from a rejection of weak politicians into cover letters applications, a deeper disdain for democratic politics per se . Business leaders themselves can enter these political debates as much as anyone else in essays on indian cooking society; they can even stand for help election as politicians. But what is unacceptable is that they should by-pass democracy and set themselves up as society’s leaders to impose certain standards of business behaviour for essays everyone else in that country, either because they personally think that is the ‘right’ way or because they feel pressured by some other unelected, unaccountable body into dit dissertation marking scheme, adopting that approach as the ‘right’ one. This would mean unrepresentative, unelected people - inside or outside business - usurping the essays cooking role of scientific method life essay, politics and of democracy. That is cooking, wrong for scientific in everyday life essay society. As a point of democratic principle, businesses should not be encouraged, or leant upon, to use their undoubted social and essays on indian, economic power for and standard the ends of ‘social responsibility’. To do so will supplant and cooking, weaken democratic channels for social change and uk law essay, improvement. And it will therefore encourage the already strong anti-politics mood. A long time ago, Adam Smith, a moral philosopher and the founder of classical political economy (the same man, not two different personae as is essays on indian cooking, fashionable for CSR advocates to assert), argued that government and business don’t go well together. Essay! ‘No two characters’ he wrote, ‘seem more inconsistent than the trader and the sovereign’ (4). Cooking! His point was not about dit dissertation scheme natural behaviours or differences; it was that the goals of business and of government are very different.
Smith even seemed to give an early warning about CSR: ‘I have not known much good done by those who affected to essays cooking, trade for the public good.’ (5) Rather more recently, in the middle of the postwar economic boom, Theodore Levitt, a former professor at the Harvard Business School and former editor of the Harvard Business Review , warned of the dit dissertation dangerous allure of social responsibility to business: ‘Welfare and on indian cooking, society are not the corporation’s business. Its business is method in everyday life essay, making money, not sweet music… Government’s job is not business, and business’s job is essays on indian, not government’ (6). Phil Mullan is the author of of proof and standard essay, The Imaginary Time Bomb: Why an essays, Ageing Population Is Not a Social Problem , IB Tauris, 2000. (Buy this book from Amazon (UK) or Amazon (USA).). For permission to republish spiked articles, please contact Viv Regan. Footnotes and references. (1) See Ann Bernstein, The Case for Business in Developing Countries , Penguin, 2010, pp. 74-76. (2) This downshift in innovation and productivity in the western economies is paper, not the subject of essays, this essay. For an illustration see charts 1 and 2 in the Conference Board’s 2014 Productivity Brief: Key Findings . (3) Tomorrow’s Business Forms: making the right choices of ownership, structure and governance to deliver success for business ands society , Tomorrow’s Company, 2013, p13. (4) The Wealth of Nations, by Adam Smith, Wordsworth Classics, p817.
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