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Animals for entertainment essay

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A Sample Nail Salon Business Plan Template FREE. Are you about animals starting a nail salon business? If YES, here is a complete sample nail salon business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a nail salon business. We also took it further by monologue essay analyzing and drafting a sample nail salon marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for nail salons. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. The art of looking good is one activity nearly all women love to engage in. This is because of the fact that they do not like to be seen as shabby looking. This is one of the reasons why some women do not mind to go to any length to look and feel good. One of the ways through which women try to animals look their best is by keeping their nails neat and attractive. They see to it that they have the right manicure and phd thesis pedicure, as well as have the for entertainment essay best of nail colors to look good.

This is one also one of the reasons why several businesses surrounding the nails have come to stay. Setting up as nail studio is one of the best things that could possibly happen to a budding entrepreneur, and this is because of the good returns on investment that is being encountered there. Narrative? If you think that starting a nail studio is what you want to do, then care must be taken to animals for entertainment do the how to write adequate and essay needful research that will help you operate and autobiographical narrative launch out at the optimum. What Does It Take to Start a Nail Salon Business? One other way through which you can readily run a well-structured business is by running with a well-tailored business plan. One of the ways through which the business plan can be beneficial to entrepreneurs is by helping them have a good focus on the business. It is hence important to however state that isn’t everyone that has a thorough grasp on how to write one.

This is animals essay, where hiring an expert comes in snoring handy. Conversely, if you think that you may want to tinker with writing one, then you can look at for entertainment essay, using an existing business plan to pull strings off. Phd Thesis? Here below is a sample Nail Salon business plan template, whose template you can comfortably adopt to build yours from start to finish. A Sample Nail Salon Business Plan Template. A nails salon or nails bar as some people like to for entertainment call it, is a specialty beauty salon trade that primarily offers nail care services such as manicures, pedicures, and nail enhancements. It is also needed to know that in most cases, nail salons also offer skin care services. There are around 200,000 nail salons in the United States of America. Write? Those who are employed to offer the services of the nails are known as the animals essay technicians or manicurists. Nail salons offer a variation of options for nail care. This includes acrylics, silk or fiberglass wraps, French manicures, polish, pedicures, etc.

Some nail salons do not just stop at offering nail services, they also offer other beauty services like; facial treatments, waxing, and skin care. Also, there are recognized qualifications that are required to be gotten, in order to be able to be granted licenses to the salons. Research has shown that almost 40% of nail salon technicians in the US are Vietnamese women, and these women can be found mostly in California. These immigrants decided to start nail salon businesses in America after the Vietnam War. The training required for nail salon work is small and capstone essay inexpensive; the work does not require high level of qualification so far as you are able to communicate with your clients without difficulty. In the same vein, the amount of capital is not much compared with if you had to animals for entertainment essay open some other businesses that needed a huge capital base. Nail Salon Business Plan Executive Summary.

Fingers and Toes nail Studio is a classy nail salon that will be opened in New York City, America. Autobiographical Narrative? We have chosen New York because we think that it would be an animals for entertainment essay amazing opportunity to have the creme de la creme in the society and in showbiz visit our nail hub. The business will be run as a standard nail salon coy, and the 5 you meet in heaven essay we shall see it that all clients from old to young are given the very best of services. Our services will cover areas such as; manicure, pedicure, nail painting, nail fixing, nail trainings, as well as other added services that will also help boost our brand. We are aware that businesses these days require diverse and sophisticated approaches. This is why we will be sure to be abreast with the creativity and trend which the trade is exposed to. Essay? We shall also be involved in the training of animals for entertainment essay, budding entrepreneurs who may want to venture into this industry. Even though starting a nail salon might look really pretty easy to start, we intend to people essay bring in strict professionalism that will make up stand out.

Fingers and Toes nail studio is primarily focused to help its clients look their very best at all times. We would try as much as lies within our power to surpass the expectations of people. Our prices would also be very affordable; we do not want to scare our new clients away with our pricing. As a matter of fact, we plan to lower our pricing so that we can gain good grounds within our startup period. For Entertainment Essay? We plan to online hire the best hands in the city of New York to help us drive our biasness. This is one of the reasons why who do not mind to pay our employees well because we know that we are striving for a goal and that is the goal of gaining loads of for entertainment essay, clients. In addition, much more than just satisfying our clients, we also want to see new entrepreneurs empowered by us, as they emerge to start their own nail salon business. We shall also be involved in the sponsoring of various programs that are hosted in the locality which we are located. Capstone Essay? Shows like fashion shows, hair exhibitions, entertainment shows, amongst many others. This is animals for entertainment essay, o that we are able to capstone essay give a good account of ourselves as we launch out. We shall be known to offer strict professional nail services at all times.

This is so that we do not deviate from our core. Here below are some of our business offerings; Fixing of artificial nails Manicure Pedicure Training of budding entrepreneurs Sale of nail accessories Sale of women accessories. Our vision is to animals provide our teeming clients with the best of nail services, such that is hard to experience in New York. We strive to achieve this with our overly trained nail attendants and the ambience which our salon has to offer. Our mission is to provide professional and creative service to capstone essay our clients- thereby meeting their beauty needs at all times. At Fingers and Toes, we know that having a solid structure will make us drive our nail business really smoothly. Therefore, we will build a firm business structure that can support the growth of our business. We will ensure that we hire competent hands to help us build the business of our dream. Below is the animals for entertainment essay business structure that we will build Fingers and Toes Nail Salon. People You Meet In Heaven Essay? Chief Executive Officer Salon Manager Accountant/Cashier Front desk officer Nail manicurist 1 Nail manicurist 2 Sales attendant. For Entertainment Essay? Roles and Responsibilities.

Responsible for providing direction for the nail salon. Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and online overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall salon strategy. Responsible for building a strong customer care system. Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the business. Reports to the board. Coordinates training programs for budding entrepreneurs. Handle all paper documents for the coy. Identifies training and development needs for the employees through job analysis, appraisals and consultation Designs job descriptions Regularly hold meetings with key stakeholders to review the effectiveness of HR Policies, Procedures and Processes Facilitates and coordinate strategic sessions.

Works directly with the chief executive officer. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and essay financial reporting for one or more properties. Phd Thesis Online? Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for for entertainment administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for the company.

Receives Visitors / clients on behalf of the organization Receives parcels / documents for the company Handles enquiries via e-mail and phone calls for monologue essay the organization Distribute mails in the organization Handles any other duties as assigned my the line manager. Sees to animals for entertainment it that the client gets exactly what they wanted. Creates styles that are creative Gives clients a lifetime experience for patronizing. Nail Salon Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Fingers and Toes nail salon has engaged the services of a core professional in the area of business consulting and beauty to assist the firm in building a solid consulting firm that can favorably compete in the highly competitive consulting industry.

Part of what our team of essays, business consultant did was to work with the management of the firm in conducting a SWOT analysis for Fingers and animals essay Toes Nail salon. Here is a summary from the result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of monologue essay, Fingers and Toes nail salon. Animals Essay? Our core strength lies in the power of autobiographical, our team; our workforce. We have a team – made up of the Vietnamese women that can go all the animals for entertainment essay way to how do we protect our environment essay give our clients value for their money. For Entertainment Essay? We are well positioned and we know we will attract loads of clients from the first day we open our doors for capstone essay business.

As a new nail salon in the area we have decided to operate from, it might take some time for our organization to break into the market; that is perhaps our major weakness. The opportunities in the nail salon industry can be said to be very promising despite the high level of competition that abounds. One of the opportunities is the fact that there are loads of people that engage the services of for entertainment essay, manicurists, and we will strive to be the leading ones. Some of the threats that we are likely going to face as a nail salon operating in the United States are unfavorable government policies, the arrival of a competitor within our location of operations and new trends in trade that often affect patronage.. There is monologue essay, hardly anything we could do as regards these threats other than to animals essay be optimistic that things will continue to work for our good. Nail Salon Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. Quite a number of distinct trends have emerged in capstone essay recent times in for entertainment the nail beauty industry which is why nail salons are positioning their organizations to attract all and phd thesis online sundry. As a matter of fact, this is one of the things that makes most nail studios to spruce up their creativity level so that they. Animals For Entertainment Essay? In this type of phd thesis online, business, one of the animals for entertainment things that could possibly make one stand out from the monologue essay competitive crowd is having a top notch customer service. If possible there is the need to place a follow up calls to all clients from time to time.

Those who are known to engage in such exercises have come to know that they attract more and more clients as the days go by. In addition, no matter how bad the economy may be, people still fund or rather still deem it very important to have their nails done. This simply means that there would be more money coming into the coffers of those who operate the business, even though the animals for entertainment economy bites hard at the people. The target market which we are all out to serve are primary the female folks. This is because of the fact that they are the ones who will leave no stone unturned in seeing that they look their best. Whilst some may do this to continue to be attractive to monologue essay their partners, yet others cannot just do without looking good.

As such, our target market cuts across all sectors. Also our nail salon will have a variety of for entertainment essay, practice areas to capstone essay help budding nail manicurists grow. Our target market cuts across women of different class and people from all walks of life, local and international organizations as well. We are coming into the industry with a business concept that will enable us work with the highly placed people and celebrities in the country and at the same with the animals lowly placed people and smaller businesses. In other words, our target market is the whole of the United States of America and subsequently other parts of the the 5 people you meet essay world. For Entertainment? Below is a list of the write people and organizations that we have specifically designed our services for; Females in for entertainment the Banks, Insurance Companies and autobiographical essays other related Financial Institutions Females in Businesses and Entrepreneurs Mothers Teenagers College students. Animals? Our Competitive Advantage. A close study of the monologue essay beauty and essay nail industry reveals that the market has become much more intensely competitive over the last decade. As a matter of fact it is autobiographical, becoming really tough to break even in this market because of the number of people who are in it.

However, we are also aware that this hasn’t deterred people from animals, breaking even and smiling to the bank. This is one of the reasons why we have added other services that are beauty related; this is so that we do not miss out in any way. Write? Fingers and Toes nail salon may be a new entrant into the business beauty industry in animals for entertainment the United States of America, but the management staffs and board members are considered gurus. They are people who are core professionals and monologue essay licensed and highly qualified beauticians in the United States. These are part of what will count as a competitive advantage for us. Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and essay their welfare package will be among the best within our category in the industry meaning ;that they will be more than willing to autobiographical narrative build the animals for entertainment essay business with us and help deliver our set goals and write achieve all our aims and objectives. Nail Salon Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We mindful of the fact that there is stiffer competition amongst nail salons in the United States of essay, America; hence we have been able to how to snoring hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and marketing. Our sales and marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in the industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall goal of the for entertainment organization.

We will also ensure that our excellent job deliveries speak for us in the market place; we want to monologue essay build a standard beauty business that will leverage on word of mouth advertisement from satisfied clients (both individuals and organizations). For Entertainment? Our goal is to grow our nail salon to monologue essay become one of the top 20 salons in animals for entertainment the United States of America which is capstone essay, why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the animals for entertainment available market and grow to become a major force to reckon with not only in the U.S but in the world stage as well. Fingers and monologue essay Toes nail salon is for entertainment essay, set to capstone essay make use of the essay following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to organizations and key stake holders in New York and other parts of the U.S. The 5 In Heaven Essay? Advertise our business in relevant business magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and local expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of clients. Leverage on the internet to promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of mouth marketing from loyal and satisfied clients. It is the wish of every business to generate income at animals essay, all times and our nail salon is one of autobiographical narrative, such businesses. Fingers and Toes Nail Salon is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the beauty industry and we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to animals for entertainment essay attract clients on phd thesis online, a regular basis and sign retainer – ship with most of our clients. Animals Essay? Hence, there are several ways through which we plan to make this money at all times.

Fingers and Toes nail salon, will generate income by capstone essay offering the following services; Manicure Pedicure Fixing of acrylic nails Fixing of French nails Sale of for entertainment, other female accessories Training people of the art of essays, nail care and fixing Home services in all the aspects listed above. There will always be a need to do some business and sales forecasting as a business. This is because of the drive4 it gives one to achieve it. In the same vein, Fingers and for entertainment Toes nail salon has several sale projections that we will be all out to achieve. For as long as there are female folks in New York, we know that we will be able to reach our sales goals in no distant time. We are well positioned to take on the available market in the U.S. and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and capstone essay grow the business and our clientele base beyond New York City, New York to other states in the U.S. and even the global market. We have been able to animals for entertainment essay critically examine the beauty market and capstone essay we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to for entertainment come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projection are based on, information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to startups in New York. Below is the sales projection for Fingers and Toes Nail Salon. It is based on the location of our nail salon and the wide range of essay, other addendum services we will be offering; N.B : This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry.

One of the ways through which we know that we will be able to people get more clients within a short period of time is when our pricing is on the moderate level. Being on the moderate level means that we are able to maximize profit in a ways that doesn’t put holes in the pocket of pour clients. As such, we are looking at lowering our price a bit below that of our competitors, so that we can gain good grounds in the market and become a house hold name and a force to reckon with. This is very important because when our pricing becomes too high, the clients may have the options of switching over to our competitors and we do not want that to happen in any way. Essay? So, we are poised to keep our fees below the average market rate for how to snoring all of our clients by keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in advance. In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to newbies and clients who have some special occasions like Birthdays. Animals Essay? This means that for clients whose special days we remember, we will invite them over to the salon on that special day and then offer our services for free to them. Capstone Essay? We will also make sure that we do not lower our quality in animals for entertainment essay any way because we are offering these services for free. How Do Our Environment? We are also aware that there are some clients that would need regular home services, as well as need some consultancy and advisory services and assistance on how they can launch their own nail salon business, we will offer flat rate for such services that will be tailored to take care of such clients’ needs. We know too well that we will be dealing with different types of clients, and that is one of the for entertainment essay reason why we shall have different payment options to cater to phd thesis online all and sundry.

At Fingers and Toes nail Salon, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by essay via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment with cash. Monologue Essay? In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches. Nail Salon Business Plan Publicity and animals Advertising Strategy. Capstone Essay? We have been able to work with our in house consultants and other brand and publicity specialist to help us map out publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of animals for entertainment essay, our target market. We are set to people you meet in heaven essay take the consulting industry by storm which is why we have made provisions for effective publicity and advertisement of our beauty based business. Below are the platforms we intend to leverage on animals, to promote and advertise Fingers and Toes Nail salon business; Place adverts our consulting firm on both print and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant TV shows and phd thesis radio programs Maximize our firm’s website to animals for entertainment promote our business Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms (real estate online forums) to promote our business.

Offer Pro Bono services as part of our community social responsibility via fashion shows, beauty exhibitions and what have you. Brand all our official cars. Financial Projections and Costing. Starting a nail salon trade can be cost effective; this is so because on the average, you are not expected to procure any expensive machines and animals equipment. Basically what you should be concerned about is the amount needed to secure a standard office facility in phd thesis online a good and for entertainment busy business district, the amount needed to furniture and equip the office, the capstone essay amount needed to pay bills, promote the essay business and obtain the appropriate business license and certifications. Monologue Essay? Basically, this is the area we are looking towards spending our start – up capital on; The Total Fee for incorporating the Business in New York $750. The budget for Liability insurance, permits and license $2,500 The Amount needed to acquire a suitable Office facility in a business district 6 months (Re Construction of the facility inclusive) $40,000.

The Cost for animals equipping the office (computers, printers, fax machines, furniture, telephones, filing cabins, safety gadgets and electronics et al) $2,000 The Cost of Launching your official Website $600 Budget for paying at least two employees for 3 months and utility bills $30,000 Additional Expenditure (Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions et al) $2,500 Miscellaneous $1,000. Going by the report from the research and feasibility studies, we will need about $150,000 to set up a small scale but standard consulting firm in the United States of America. Monologue Essay? Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Fingers and Toes Nail Salon. Fingers and Toes Nail salon is going to start as a private business that will be solely owned by Ms. Laura Arty. She will be the sole financial of the for entertainment essay firm, but may likely welcome partners later which is narrative essays, why he has decided to animals restrict the snoring sourcing of for entertainment essay, her start – up capital to 3 major sources. Monologue Essay? These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital;

Generate part of the for entertainment start – up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from family members and friends Apply for how to snoring loan from my Bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about $50,000 (Personal savings $40,000 and soft loan from family members $10,000) and we are at animals essay, the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $100,000 from our bank. All the papers and phd thesis online document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited. Animals For Entertainment? BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. It is essays, easier for businesses to survive when they have steady flow of business deals / customers patronizing their products and services. We are aware of this which is animals for entertainment essay, why we have decided to offer a wide range of nail beauty services to both big and small clients. We know that if we continue to capstone essay deliver excellent nails and animals essay general beauty services, there will be steady flow of income for the organization. Our key sustainability and expansion strategy is to ensure that we only hire competent employees- like the very experienced Vietnamese ladies. We will create a conducive working environment that will add to the wealth of phd thesis, experience that our team has. In the nearest future, we will explore the options of either merging with other beauty related businesses in the industry, in order for us to animals for entertainment essay increase our market share. We know that if we implement our business strategies, we will grow our nail salon business beyond New York City, New York to other states in the U.S in record time.

Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and we protect permit: Completed Purchase of All form of Insurance for animals for entertainment essay the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start – up capital from the founder: Completed Applications for Loan from our Bankers: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business (Business PR): In Progress Health and phd thesis Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with key players in the industry: In Progress.

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How to Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience. The post How to Write an Artist CV in 10 Steps is the for entertainment most popular in the history of The Practical Art World. Some of the monologue essay most frequently asked questions people have after reading it are “What if I don’t have an exhibition history?” or “What if I didn’t go to animals for entertainment school?” For new and emerging artists, creating an artist’s CV can be a bit of a Catch 22. The 5 You Meet In Heaven Essay. You don’t have much or any experience to animals for entertainment essay put on your CV, but to apply for “experience” in phd thesis, the form of exhibitions, grants, and schooling, you are asked to provide a CV. Fortunately, there are ways to for entertainment tailor what relevant experience you have into the 5 people essay, an artist’s CV format. Just remember: don’t lie, and don’t make up anything that doesn’t exist. Animals Essay. Just tell the write truth, shaping it a little (creatively– it’s what you do best, right?) into for entertainment, the established CV format. We Protect Our Environment Essay. If you haven’t already read How to for entertainment Create an Artist’s CV in 10 Steps, start there. Below are suggestions which elaborate on some of the points, aimed specifically at “professionalizing” the CV of an artist who has yet to gain, appropriately, professional experience as an artist.

Refer to point 1 in the original article. In Heaven. As I mentioned, many established artists keep this section quite short. However, if you don’t have a lot of other material and experiences to add to the rest of the CV, this is for entertainment essay, a good opportunity to tell your reader about yourself. Adding a very brief bio / artist statement can be good if you would like to talk about experiences which don’t fit into the rest of the snoring CV. If you are going to animals for entertainment essay do this, just remember to capstone essay keep it brief and concise. DON’T oversell yourself: you will look like a professional, dedicated emerging artist if you are honest. You will look desperate if you pretend to be something you are not. Example of animals for entertainment essay bad contact details: Sometimes called the world’s most famous artist. Email me! [email protected]

Example of monologue essay good contact details. Currently lives and essay works in Paris, France. Refer to point 2 in essays, the original article. Many emerging as well as professional artists are self-taught, and yet for animals for entertainment essay some reason the education section of a CV tends to be intimidating for all but those who have a Masters degree. It doesn’t have to be that way.

DON’T list any education on phd thesis online, your CV that doesn’t explicitly link to essay your art career (like your degree in biology). Example of a good education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. Example of a bad education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. One hour workshop with Lynne McLaughlin. Informal classes with Tom Backlund. Has received feedback from Geoff Parker. Bachelor of Science, Biology major. One way to add exhibitions to your CV is to list any which are forthcoming. Capstone Essay. If you’ve got something lined up, it’s perfectly acceptable to include it on your CV before it’s happened. Just add “(forthcoming)” to each exhibition which hasn’t actually happened yet. Another trick for animals for entertainment plumping up your exhibition history is phd thesis online, a little bit cheeky.

I realized this loophole when I saw some site-specific installations on animals for entertainment essay, a CV. After a little digging, I realized that the artworks were installed guerrilla-style. In other words, someone made art and put it somewhere without invitation or the online formal facets of essay a traditional exhibition. I’m all for this idea, as long as it doesn’t involve breaking laws or damaging property. It’s a great idea to show your artwork (though, you might not be able to get it back), and certainly an artistic project that can be added to your CV under your exhibition history. People You Meet In Heaven. Just make sure you classify it properly, as to not mislead anyone! DON’T make anything up. Example of a good exhibition list.

2012 Site-specific installation, “ Alleyway” , Vancouver, BC. Example of a bad exhibition list. Refer to point 5 from the original article. For Entertainment Essay. If you are an new or emerging artist, you probably do not have your work in any public collections. Luckily, it’s fair game to list anyone who owns your work, including people to autobiographical whom you have gifted your artwork. Collectors who own your work are normally listed on your CV as “Private collection,” followed by essay, their location.

You should not actually name someone unless they have explicitly agreed to be listed as a collector of your work, and / or if you have some other reason to do so (for example, they are a very well-known collector). DO make a list of narrative essays people who own your work, even if they didn’t actually purchase it; most of these you can convert to “Private collection,” followed by location. DON’T put your Mom’s name on the list, or anyone with the same last name as you. DON’T list a city more than once if more than one person owns your work there. Example of a good collection list. Example of a bad collection list. FINALLY, IF YOU HAVE AN ESPECIALLY SHORT CV AND THINGS ARE LOOKING DESPERATE. You can think of some creative ways to visually enhance your CV: Include an animals image of your artwork (not usually recommended, but between that and the blank page, one image is better). Center your text with large margins. Yes, this is monologue essay, cheating when you’re writing an essay.

But if you do it properly, you can make your CV look visually planned and striking. Include an artist statement and essay CV on one single page. Often these are asked for separately, but if you are able to combine them, it’s a great way to make your presentation look great. 69 thoughts on “ How to Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience ” I just LOVE your informative post, Fantastic advice!! I’ll be coming to capstone essay read this again for sure.

Have a lovely day. Animals Essay. God Bless. Nice. Always a pleasure to read a well thought out post. Hello, I’m an emerging artist writing a CV. Your article has been very helpful, but I have one question.

I am an assistant for two artists – one well-known in my area and one very well-known in phd thesis, the larger art world. I would like to include this work experience in my CV somewhere. For Entertainment. The local artist is a semi-paid position and the well-known artists is unpaid. While they are not exactly my mentors, I did take on these positions in order to gain experience in the art world and learn about how to be a professional artist. I believe it would be helpful to have their names on how to write, my CV and I am very proud of my work with them. Animals For Entertainment. Where would you recommend putting these entries, if at monologue essay, all? Hi Bekah, I think it’s a great idea to animals essay add these to your CV. You can create your own heading, “Assistant-ships,” or something similar to list them under. Phd Thesis Online. I think it gets the animals point across that you are gaining experience, while still not explicitly naming them your “mentors.” Definitely include this!

I would put it under the heading ‘Professional experience’ or even just a sentence saying something along the how do we protect our environment essay lines of: Assistant to: Damien Hirst (2004 – present), Anthony Gormley (2002) A lot of animals for entertainment young and essays emerging artists do not have a lot of exhibitions to animals add to their CVs but it is worthwhile remembering art-related work (paid or unpaid) which was not directly related to essays your own practice, such as assisting other artists, or invigilation, volunteering etc. This is a nice blog you’ve got going! I am always impressed by people who show dedication to for entertainment their passions and to their craft. Your blog reminds me of a women who is currently offering a very unique service by showcasing her skills in spray-painting. I implore anyone and everyone to click the autobiographical narrative essays following link to see what she has to animals for entertainment essay offer #128578; Hey thank you very much for phd thesis online this help, i really need it! Questions : In the exhibitions should i also include the title or something else than “Group exhibition, location, date”?

My problem is that i had to much shows in one gallery and it looks a little repeating!! Thanks #128512; Hi, it’s good to include the title of the show if there is one. Very helpful for the self-taught emerging artist! Thank you! How should I include online features?

I have several features (interview, review, portfolio) online, how should I refer to them? Also, what to animals for entertainment essay do with features/interviews that are not in English (I’m from Germany), should I include them as well? Online features are great to include. You could list the German pieces with their German titles, and include english translations in brackets if you see fit (but it’s not absolutely necessary). and additional question… under which category should I put online features? bibliography, publications or something like ‘selected press’? thanks for phd thesis online your help. so glad i found this!! #128578; just a question though what do you think of the more creative resumes/cvs? the for entertainment essay ones where it practically looks like an artwork itself? I personally think it should look clean, readable, and not too unconventional… then again, it probably depends on where you are submitting it!

I have a business background, no artistic experience (at all), but a promising submission. What should I do? I enter a lot of juried online art shows. How does one show these on a CV. Checking my blog will give you examples in my about me. Thank you for the 5 people in heaven the great ideas for for entertainment essay us beginners. Our Environment. I’d like to get a little clarification on exactly what constitutes an animals exhibition. I have had work for sale in several different galleries over the course of narrative essays several years, but it doesn’t seem like that’s what is meant to be included under the EXHIBITIONS heading. I have had my work in animals, a few short term shows (not in galleries), and I’ve also just been juried in to show my work at an important gallery.I think those probably do qualify as EXHIBITIONS, but it’s just a gut feeling.

Could you please give us some guidance as to what qualifies as an autobiographical essays EXHIBITION. Animals. For example, does it have to be in a “gallery” or does a bunch of phd thesis online artists getting together to animals put on capstone essay, a show count? Does it have to be a juried show or is animals for entertainment, it OK to count shows where they let pretty much anyone in? Does it need to be short term in nature, like a week or a month, or does having your work in a gallery for essay five years count, and monologue essay if so, what do you list for essay the date of the exhibition? Whenever your work is exhibited, that is an exhibition. I don’t know if there is one true definition, but that’s what I think! I also think it is an acceptable rule of thumb for your CV. If you have work on exhibit for a long period of time, I would suggest saying “ongoing” for the date. This is one of the best, and easiest articles to understand,I would refer you to how to write everyone.Thank you. Thank you for animals for entertainment such awesome and informative articles! I was invited to apply for an artist in residence program (it was invitation only), and I was a finalist but I did not get the residency.

I feel proud to people you meet in heaven be invited, should I add this to for entertainment my resume? Certainly you should! Just make sure that it is worded in such a way to make clear that you didn’t actually complete the residency. This is super helpful, thank you! I had a question though, I am trying to put together a CV [I am mainly an abstract painter] and I do have some experience and exhibitions to list but not a huge amount. I do however have a small business making artisanal jewelry out of sterling silver cutlery. Through this I have had some press and write snoring many juried shows. Should I include some of that in my CV as well? Or just focus on the painting side?

I would include this on essay, your CV, as it is part of your artistic experience. Monologue Essay. You don’t have to for entertainment essay differentiate between the two mediums or state what kind of work you showed–you can just list all the capstone essay exhibitions together. Likewise with press. I’m kind of animals for entertainment essay wondering the monologue essay same thing as the business person in a reply a few posts up. I have a master’s degree in… something that has absolutely nothing to do with art. I never took any formal art classes beyond high school, either. What I’ve learned about art is from animals essay, (lots of) reading and people you meet in heaven essay doing. I feel like I’m creating a body of work that is essay, relevant and has plenty to say, but my only meaningful exposure is our environment, a reasonably active Instagram account that is slowly, but steadily gaining followers. For Entertainment. (I have a dA account, too, but that one’s not getting much action.) Moreover, for personal reasons that I’d rather not get into here, I want to remain as anonymous as possible for now, and I would really like my work to autobiographical just speak for itself. Am I just screwed, or do you have any ideas on how I should go about this? Thanks very much. This is very helpful as I’m getting ready to submit works for an upcoming arts festival.

I’m using your ideas of animals essay naming instructors and private collections, A question – I am self-taught, however, I grew up in phd thesis online, a family of essay artists and writers, such that being around paint and other materials is second nature to me. Autobiographical Narrative. I also plan on enrolling in school with the goal of for entertainment essay obtaining a studio art degree from capstone essay, a local college. Should I somehow note these points on the bio/CV? Thanks. Hey… Thank you for this great article.

I have a question to ask you what if I have many art awards because I joined art competition since I was 12, how should I selected them to animals put on CV — should I put them all??– or only the award I got recently??– I’ve just graduated in autobiographical narrative, art major so I’m very new to the real art world outside. Should I select only the 1st prize or was a winner? I would suggest putting the essay most recent awards, as well as the largest or the ones with the most exposure. You don’t need to put them all, just the ones which seem most relevant to your current practice. You can include awards where you were recognized but were not the “winner”, just make sure to indicate. This is extremely helpful.

Thank you. Echoing the long line of thank yous for this and a quick question – I’m primarily trying to promote myself as a painter and illustrator, however I work full time as essentially a creative director and graphic designer and how to write snoring while I think I probably should include it because it’s in a creative field and it relates, I’m not sure how much to include and what to talk about. This is very helpful! I wonder how best to show my education, I went to University for my BFA but did not complete my degree? I got extremely close but had to stop for financial reasons.

hi there all again…. Do you possibly have another useful blog like this about for entertainment essay writing artists bio’s by any chance?! Thanks for the idea, this could happen in the future! Thanks for the great information I am an emerging artist one of my primary mediums is blacksmithing. I have done demonstrations as a member of the local blacksmith guild at our states agricultural fair. Capstone Essay. How would I reflect this on my CV. I also had my work on display/for sale in an attached shop how should I reflect that on my CV? You could make a heading called “Demonstrations” and include the info about the agricultural fair. If the animals works were on people you meet, display, you could list that under “Exhibitions”. Hello there! This blog is wonderful and this post has been most helpful.

My query: I sold one of my photographs to a large, well-known company for animals for entertainment essay use in phd thesis online, a film, and I feel like I should list this but am unsure under what heading. Thanks for your help and time in replying. You could list this under “Collections” as the well-known company is now the animals for entertainment owner of the work. Side note: since the piece was in a movie, it’s not a secret that they own it. If they had bought it for private display or collection, it would be best not to list them by name unless they have given you permission to share their information. This blog post has been very useful indeed, thank you. Narrative Essays. I have a question relating to private commissions, I am a digital artist so technically no physical copy of the end product exists and as such, I’m unsure as to animals essay whether I could list them under “collections”. I have done some commercial pieces recently but most of my work is commissioned for capstone essay personal use – how would you list this kind of experience on a CV?

It’s remarkable in support of mee to have a site, which is beneficial designed for my knowledge. Thanks so much for this. It was a life saver! I am president of my local art guild. Is that ok to animals for entertainment have on the CV and if so, where should I put it?

Wao! This is capstone essay, great info…i am an abstract surealist n hv been wondering hw to creat a great artist CV n dis is incredible…thanx alot. I was wondering if its appropriate to put in the pictures of the works you had done for an artist in your portfolio. I have been working for an artist and had been doing many of his art works. Do let me know before I request him for pictures of the for entertainment essay work. thank you for this. Hello, I am going to be selling some of my work at an art market and wanted to include this on my CV. Where would this fit under?

Also, just to clarify on the collections point-is it okay to narrative essays put more than one from the same state(or county in England). Thank you very much. What if my only exhibition was a senior show in highschool? And I have attended two colleges, do I put both of them in? Thank you so much,I hv recently moved to animals a different country,and as a young emerging self taught artist,I have been having difficultie marketing myself…thanks again. Thank you for this– it’s so useful. One question: Can I include favorable reviews in my CV?

I am self taught jewlery maker and have exhibited in a few shows but I also have a regular stall in a local makers market. How do I incorporate my stall into my CV, and people you meet also local shops that stock my jewellery? Should I? and what about previous stockists? Reblogged this on animals essay, Cricketswool and phd thesis online commented: I’m entering the Ellarslie Open in Trenton NJ and for the first time encountered a request to submit an artist’s resume along with my work. This led me to animals essay a post on The Practical Art World. I highly recommend this blog and snoring especially this post to all artists. hi there, thank all of you very much to share your experience. i’m a self-taught painter and not much art training. i had a bachelor in animals essay, acting from phd thesis online, a national academy, should i include in my cv under the ‘education’? thank you a lot in for entertainment, advance best regards berkeley.

I have an interesting situation. I started out as a fine artist in the 80’s. Then I veered off and essays became very successful as an illustrator. Essay. Then I took off a decade to be an narrative actor. I came back to animals illustration at the turn of century and had lots of success. About four years ago, I quit illustration and the 5 people came back to fine art. I instantly won a bunch of awards at high profiles competitions. I’ve sold and still sell a tremendous amount of work on my own and through an agent in Germany. I’ve always avoided gallery representation like the plague, but I’m evolving on that. All of a sudden I’m getting interest from several representational galleries.

I’m given speaking engagements and workshops. And everyone wants a CV. Problem is for entertainment essay, that though I’ve been doing art for a long time, my CV doesn’t look like much and I can’t remember much of my winnings and exhibitions over the years, let alone who owns my work. Should I be putting in autobiographical essays, my illustration accolades too? I feel a bit like a fraud. What should I do? You have no idea how this helped me! Your post was so easy to follow and had such good examples. Although I really have very little to put in my resume, your tips helped me make it look decent!

Thank you! Very helpful the comments too. Thank you for adding that part about “guerilla art”. As a new installation artist (I’ve had two exhibitions now!) most of my art work was created guerilla style, but I plan to only add one very large piece I did in animals essay, my CV. As you say, don’t OVER play it. Thank you again for this.

Writing the autobiographical narrative essays CV is putting a knot in my stomach. Animals. You helped me break it down simplify it. I think I can actually manage it now. #128578;

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European journal of American studies. The theme of Russian expansion in the New World and animals for entertainment essay North Pacific in the eighteenth to mid-nineteenth centuries has repeatedly attracted the attention of Russian and foreign scholars. At the same time, the topic evokes discussion in scholarly historiography as authors frequently adhere to diametrically opposing points of view. In this paper we will investigate the elaboration of plans for Russian territorial expansion in the New World, noting that these plans often were an organic part of larger plans to include the whole North Pacific among the possessions of the Russian Empire. 1 Such plans for expansion did not arise in a vacuum. By the beginning of the capstone essay eighteenth century the authorities in eastern Siberia had begun to for entertainment, obtain more or less reliable information about the unknown lands lying to the east of Chukotka, that is, Alaska. As a result of several exploratory expeditions between 1728 and 1742 Russian mariners discovered vast territories and numerous islands that became part of so-called Russian America, which included the territory of the present state of Alaska, a small enclave in California (Fort Ross), and the Commander Islands (off the coast of Kamchatka). From 1799 the American possessions of the monologue essay empire were subject to the monopolistic Russian-American Company (RAC), which governed Alaska until 1867 when it was sold to the United States (Fort Ross had already changed hands in 1841). The concession of Alaska signified the withdrawal of Russia from the “American bridgehead,” and its expansion was now entirely confined to animals, the Asian continent. Up to this time, projects for colonial expansion directed at transforming the northern part of the capstone essay Pacific basin into essay a “Russian sea” and increasing the possessions of the empire in the New World had been repeatedly promoted by government and private individuals.

2 These plans were explored and monologue essay studied even during the existence of Russian America. Thus, in 1861 Captain of 2 nd Rank P. N. Golovin pointed out that the well-known merchant G. I. Shelikhov (who founded in 1784 the first permanent Russian settlement on Kodiak Island), as well as A. A. Baranov, who managed Shelikhov’s company in America, and Shelikhov’s son-in-law, Chamberlain N. P. Rezanov, planned to expand Russian possessions from Alaska to California and to control at least part of this rich region, together with the mouth of the Amur, Sakhalin Island, and one of the Hawaiian Islands. Golovin wrote: “The plan was vast, bold, but possible; however, inconsequential intrigues, which were revived as a consequence of the immoderate ambition of individuals who had assisted Rezanov, stopped the execution of essay, his well-conceived plan at the very beginning. After Rezanov’s death (in 1807 - A.G.) and the removal of Baranov (in 1818 - A.G.) the plan was dropped.”1 Somewhat later, in 1865, the eminent publicist D. I. Zavalishin also reported on ambitious projects related to the North Pacific. In his words, an “ingenious plan” of A. A. Baranov existed regarding Russia’s subjection of the whole northern part of the Pacific Ocean, beginning from the mouth of the Amur and Sakhalin to California, including the Hawaiian Islands, a plan then supported by Rezanov and the board of directors of the RAC.

In Zavalishin’s opinion, the most favorable moment for colonial acquisition, at autobiographical, least in California, was the period 1824–1825 when ships of the animals for entertainment essay Russian naval fleet and people you meet in heaven of the RAC commanded the North Pacific basin.2. 3 Some modern authors essentially repeat these assertions. Thus, E. M. Roginskii writes that Zavalishin supported Baranov, the governor of Russian America, who “unconsciously but instinctively tried to ingeniously enclose the northern part of the Eastern Ocean among our possessions, adding and isolating them from Udskoi Island to Sitka by occupation of California, the Sandwich (Hawaiian – A.G.) Islands, and the southern Kuriles, which would lead to occupation of the mouth of the Amur and other points to animals essay, the south.”3 However Zavalishin was by no means able to support Baranov in his “ingenious” expansionistic undertakings for one simple reason. Phd Thesis Online! Zavalishin, a young naval officer, had arrived in the capital of Russian America—Novo-Arkhangel’sk (Sitka)—aboard the animals for entertainment essay frigate Kreiser in 1823, whereas Baranov, the first governor of the Russian colonies, died en route to St. Autobiographical Narrative Essays! Petersburg in April 1819. 4 If the elaboration of for entertainment essay, colonial plans for the New World and the Pacific Ocean basin has been attributed in prerevolutionary historiography almost exclusively to how do our environment essay, private individuals, then in Soviet prewar historiography the chief initiator of expansionist projects has been identified as the Tsarist government. Thus, academician B. D. Grekov wrote in 1939, in the introduction to the monograph of Professor S. For Entertainment! B. Okun’: “Similar to this, as the English government for 200 years carried out war for possession of the Indies cloaked under the name East India Company, so the Tsarist government intensively fought for almost one hundred years for the shores of the Pacific Ocean, cloaked under the name Russian-American Company.”4 Okun’ himself emphasized in his work the unrestrained striving of Tsarism for colonial possessions, used for this purpose its proxy the RAC: The Tsarist government set before the how to snoring Russian-American Company the task of great political significance. Animals For Entertainment! Precisely in this way it expected to realize grandiose plans of expansion, as a result of which the northern part of the Pacific Ocean would be transformed into capstone essay “home” waters for the Russian Empire. This plan assumed further fortification of Russia on for entertainment essay the western shore of North America, including California, the the 5 people you meet essay Hawaiian Islands, the southern part of animals essay, Sakhalin, and the mouth of the Amur.

These colonies, together with Kamchatka, Alaska, and the Aleutian Islands, which already belonged to Russia, would turn it into the absolute master of all the northern basin of the Pacific Ocean.5. 5 This program for the broad expansion of Tsarism was put forward in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and it led to the creation of the Russian-American Company. As Okun’ noted, it began to be carried out at a moment when the political situation made its realization very difficult. Online! It required an open break with England—its primary rival in the North Pacific. However, in animals essay spite of mutual antagonism, St. Petersburg preferred not to move toward an open clash. Its politics in relation to England in the Pacific Ocean, Okun’ suggested, were determined by online events elsewhere. For Entertainment Essay! St. Petersburg opposed the French Revolution and its effects across Europe, and this objectively drew the positions of Russia and England together in the First and Second Coalitions against France. This struggle, together with the effort to support legitimism in Spain, did not provide Tsarism the possibility of actively encroaching upon California, which once belonged to Spain. Okun’ has written in his monograph: “Thus, in the way of Russian expansion in the Pacific Ocean, in the way of broad development of the we protect our environment essay activity of the Russian-American Company, stood the animals for entertainment essay aspiration of Alexander I to preserve the Sacred Union, which forced him to concentrate all attention on European affairs.

This signified the failure of the grandiose plans, which once the capstone essay government itself had proposed and supported and to which the animals for entertainment essay merchant circles connected with the company clung.”6. The original headquarters of the Russian-American Company at Moika 72, St.Petersburg. 6 “The merchant circles,” mentioned by Okun’ were represented primarily by G. I. Shelikhov, who as early as 1786 proposed the snoring initiative of subjecting for animals for entertainment, Russia the whole North American coast as far south as 40° north latitude (n. lat.), that is, to California.7 According to Okun’, “Russian merchants, had by that time, based on a decree of the government, hastened to create on any occasion some circumstance for seizing it in the future.”8 Besides Shelikhov (who died in 1795) there was A.A. Baranov, who was living in Alaska from 1790 onwards and who was governor of the Russian colonies there from monologue essay, 1799 until his departure in 1818. Baranov contributed no small amount to the realization of this expansion. In addition, Okun’ could not disregard the chief prosecutor of the Senate, the animals for entertainment active Chamberlain of the Court, Cavalier of the Maltese Order, and head of the diplomatic mission to how to, Japan, N. P. Rezanov, who in the mid-1800s also actively pursued grandiose plans of expansion in the North Pacific.9 The latter was one of the creators of the RAC, a large stockholder in the company and simultaneously controller of its activities on behalf of the government. This circumstance permitted Okun’ to emphasize the state character of Russian expansion in the New World and to for entertainment essay, define the RAC as a government organization that served as a distinctive tool of Tsarist expansionism. 7 In postwar Russian historiography several authors continued to follow this theme. How Do We Protect Essay! Thus, S. G. Fedorova wrote in her monograph:

Studying the politics of the Tsarist government in the years preceding the animals formation of the Russian-American Company, the write Soviet historian S. For Entertainment! B. Okun’, and following him N. N. Bolkhovitinov, noted that primary in these politics in this case was not the granting of monopolistic advantages to any particular company, even such a strong company as Shelikhov’s, but the striving to create under direct control of the government a powerful monopolistic unity for successful resistance to foreign expansion and firm possession of northwestern America.10. 8 Academician N. N. Bolkhovitinov, being then initially an adherent to the views of S. B. Okun’,11 changed his point of view over time and began to assert that the expansionism of Tsarism in the Pacific region had been substantially exaggerated.12 In one of his recent works, Bolkhovitinov touched upon this theme: Meanwhile, Okun’s assertion that the Tsarist government had a carefully considered plan of establishing the supremacy of Russia in the North Pacific, including the Hawaiian Islands and California, had no documentary support. The 5 People Essay! In contrast, the documents that came from the government limited and suppressed attempts at excessive expansion of Russian influence in the Pacific basin, which was shown in particular in the rejection in 1818–1819 of the request of the “owner of the animals for entertainment Sandwich Islands”—Kaumuali‘i—regarding his admission into Russian citizenship and of the monologue essay skeptical relationship to the projects of P. V. Dobell regarding the trade connections of Kamchatka and Russian America with the Philippines, California, Canton, and others.13. 9 N. N. Bolkhovitinov’s student, A. Yu. Petrov, also observes that on the basis of available published and archival documents no weighty or direct evidence of the presence in the government of a grandiose plan of expansion is found.14 The Ekaterinburg researcher E. V. Alekseeva, with reference to A. Animals For Entertainment Essay! Yu.

Petrov, also reports on autobiographical this.15. 10 Other authors also give priority, in the expansion of Russia into the North Pacific, not to the Tsarist government but to Shelikhov, Baranov, Rezanov, and for entertainment Zavalishin. Alekseeva wrote in her book about the unrealized projects to transform the Northern part of the Pacific Ocean into an inland sea of Russia, something that the “not indifferent Russian strategists” G. I. Shelikhov and D. I. Zavalishin supported.16 The St. Petersburg Americanist V. V. Noskov states that in 1806 Rezanov proposed a concrete plan for Russia’s establishment on both shores of the Pacific Ocean as a future flowering of the Russian Empire.17 The Moscow historian A. V. Postnikov holds in his monograph a similar view: “N. P. Rezanov tried in every way to bring to life the idea, proposed by Grigorii Shelikhov, of advancing the how do we protect essay boundaries of the Russian colonies to essay, the south (along the North American coast — A.G) as far as the how do we protect fortieth parallel.”18 Foreign specialists also usually agree with such points of view, identifying Rezanov as the for entertainment chief elaborator of the expansionist projects, and Shelikhov and Baranov as the “builders of the empire” on the Pacific coast of America.19. 11 Thus, a survey of the scholarly literature vividly demonstrates the absence of unity in Russian and foreign historiography in capstone essay relation to the key questions of Russian expansion in the New World. Some scholars ascribe expansionistic plans in the North Pacific to government circles; others generally deny the presence of Tsarism in such projects; still others suppose that such plans were worked out by private individuals, especially representatives of the RAC. For Entertainment! The chronology of the origin of such projects and their final downfall remains unclear.

12 In order to grasp all these questions, we turn to the documents and begin with the sources of Russian expansion in the 5 essay the Pacific Ocean and animals for entertainment North America. As the sources attest, Peter I had already initiated the organized movement of Russians to the east of Kamchatka and Chukotka: on December 23, 1724, he gave a decree to how do our environment, the Admiralty College regarding the organization of the First Kamchatka Expedition. Two weeks later Captain V. I. Bering, assigned as the main leader, received an imperial instruction to build two boats with decks in Kamchatka and that they be sent along the shore of the land “which goes to the nord”20 (evidently America); then to investigate the animals region where it “met” Asia, and snoring after this to for entertainment, go to the nearest city of any of the European powers in monologue essay the New World.21 In other words, the animals captain was to simultaneously execute at least two incompatible tasks: first, to examine the region of the strait between the mainland just south of the Arctic Circle and second, to capstone essay, reach European possessions on the west coast of America, the closest of which were located far to the south—in the territory of contemporary Mexico. 13 Understandably, Bering did not completely fulfill the animals essay instructions of the Emperor. In 1728 he only just passed the strait between America and Asia in the boat Sv. Gavriil , and was not able to identify it because of the fog, nor to find the shores of the American mainland. Inasmuch as Bering did not carry out the task entrusted to him, he was sent once more to the Far East as head of the Second Kamchatka Expedition. In a decree of people you meet essay, December 28, 1732, the Senate ordered the members of the new expedition to once again set off to the region of the Chukchi Peninsula and to finally clear up the question of the strait between Asia and America.

Peaceful relations were to for entertainment essay, be deliberately maintained with the the 5 people essay local population, inviting them to adopt Russian citizenship and to pay yasak (tribute of furs) on a voluntary basis. A separate task of Commander Bering and his assistant Captain A. I. Chirikov was to search the “American shores,” using two packet boats built in Kamchatka, “with extreme diligence and care.” Finally, the animals essay Senate ordered a member of the online expedition—Captain M. P. Shpanberg—to go with another boat and two dubel boats,22 also built in Kamchatka, and study the animals for entertainment essay Kurile Islands and the coast of Japan.23. 14 On the whole, three vectors were marked for Russian expansion in how to write the Pacific Ocean: the northern vector—the region of the Bering Strait; the eastern—to the shores of America; and the southern—in the animals direction of Japan. This second expedition had political as well as scientific goals in mind. It was no accident that precisely during preparations for this expedition that the first more or less detailed plans for a vast Russian colonial expansion in the Pacific basin emerged. Its author was over-secretary of the Senate I. K. Kirilov, who composed a remarkable report in 1733 which directly discussed the necessity to investigate the American shore to 45° n. lat. and to advance from Kamchatka to Japan in the western part of the the 5 in heaven essay Pacific Ocean. As a special point, members of the Bering expedition were ordered “to find everywhere new lands and islands and to bring nonsubject peoples as much as possible into citizenship.”24 Kirilov especially stipulated the possibility of animals for entertainment, joining the American lands in California and Mexico to you meet in heaven, the possessions of the empire, and as a possible counteraction to the intrigues of the animals for entertainment essay Spanish he proposed using the hatred of the local Indian tribes toward them.

Expansion on the American coast, in the opinion of the prominent statesman, would contribute to reinforcing the treasury and the development of Russian trade in the Pacific. Thus, Kirilov’s report vividly demonstrates that already by the 5 the beginning of the 1730s a project of broad expansion in the Pacific basin existed in government circles, including even the land of California. Therefore, one cannot agree with the animals assertions that such plans by monologue essay the Tsarist government did not exist. We note that they were worked out long before similar proposals by G. I. Shelikhov, which researchers at animals for entertainment, times relate.25. 15 The history of the Second Kamchatka Expedition is sufficiently well known. During the essays course of this expedition Russian mariners on the packet boat Sv. Pavel , under the command of A. I. Chirikov, succeeded for the first time in arriving, on July 15, 1741, on the shores of America at 55° n. lat.

This location was for a long time the southern boundary of the official Russian claim in the New World. After the discovery of the shores of Southeast Alaska, Chirikov went north to the Kenai Peninsula and Kodiak Island, and on return to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski discovered several of the Aleutian Islands. The head of the expedition, V. I. Bering in the packet boat Sv. Petr , landed at essay, Kayak Island (58° n. lat.) not far from the mainland at Cape St. Elias one day later than Chirikov. After that he immediately set off for Kamchatka, discovering along the way the Shumagin Islands and several islands in the Aleutian chain before reaching the Commander Islands, where the packet boat suffered shipwreck and snoring the commander himself died from scurvy in December 1741. It was not until August 1742 that the surviving members of the crew of Bering’s packet boat succeeded in building a new boat, in which they returned to Petropavlovsk. In September 1743, the Second Kamchatka Expedition was officially concluded.

The Tsarist government was not satisfied with its results because of the huge expenses in carrying out the geographical investigations without sufficient economic and political returns. In just organizing and equipping the Second Kamchatka Expedition the treasury had paid out since 1733 the gigantic sum of 360,659 rubles.26 The government was not satisfied with the scant information about lands discovered in the New World, which also had not been very earnestly studied. Members of the expedition did not succeed in discovering mineral deposits or raw materials, or introducing Russian citizenship to essay, the local population. Moreover, a third of the members of the expedition (including its leader) did not return from the trip to the shores of phd thesis online, America, while one of the packet boats perished and much government equipment was lost. 16 Not surprisingly, with the termination of the Second Kamchatka Expedition the central government lost interest in organizing new expeditions to the islands in the Pacific Ocean, handing over the initiative to private individuals—primarily to Siberian merchants, who had to animals essay, provide their own capital and expense for the interests of the narrative essays empire on its eastern borders.

Beginning in 1743, ships equipped by Siberian merchants with crews of Russian promyshlenniki set off for the Commander and Aleutian Islands, which had been discovered by members of the Bering-Chirikov expedition. The promyshlenniki collected valuable furs and subdued the local Aleuts,27 compelling them to pay yasak to the Tsarist treasury and to furnish furs for the merchant companies. 17 At the beginning of the 1760s the government’s attention was again attracted to the North Pacific when mariner S. G. Glotov, who wintered over three years in the Fox Island chain, returned in 1762 to Nizhnekamchatsk and reported to the Kamchatka authorities that he had heard from local Aleuts about an animals for entertainment, enigmatic “Shugachtany” people, who lived to the east and supposedly had mirrors, broadswords, and ink pots. He also delivered news about the find on Chikhmil Island of a foreign two-masted ship stranded on the shore.28 The appearance of the first signs of a foreign presence at the most distant borders of the empire could not but alert the government. Empress Catherine II, in a decree of May 4, 1764, commanded the Admiralty College to immediately send several naval officers for a more detailed study of the region,29 and in March 1766 an official decree appeared on the annexation to Russia of six Aleutian Islands.30 In the same year the commandant of Okhotsk, F. Kh. Plenisner, recommended annexing to phd thesis online, Russia the territory of the New World from California “to the for entertainment essay highest regions of North America,”31 that is, no more and no less than all the autobiographical narrative essays west coast of the animals for entertainment essay present United States and Canada. However, the highly optimistic plans of the essay Okhotsk commandant were not brought to life. Instead a new government expedition led by captains P. K. Krenitsyn and M. D. Levashov, which lasted from 1764 to 1771, cost the treasury enormous resources and great human sacrifices, and did not bring the desired results,32 which again forced the government to for entertainment, withdraw from participation in any expansionistic projects in the North Pacific for almost 15 years. V. A Feverish Pace, an Aggressive Stance. 18 The next time the Tsarist government turned attention to this region was after obtaining reports from Kamchatka and the Aleutian Islands of the arrival there of the English expedition of the famous captain James Cook, who in 1778 visited the shores of Southeast Alaska, the Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island, Unalaska Island (where he encountered Russian promyshlenniki), the region of Bristol Bay, and snoring Bering Strait; in addition, Cook’s ships twice visited Petropavlovsk in Kamchatka.

Cook’s visit to the North Pacific brought alarm to the Tsarist authorities concerning the situation in the “back yard” of the Russian Empire. It was urgently ordered that the priority of Russian discoveries in this region be confirmed: By 1780 feverish work had begun in the Admiralty College and the Academy of Sciences on composing geographic maps, which would reflect the results of the expeditions of Russian mariners.33 In 1784, by the initiative of academician P. S. Pallas, the idea of sending to animals for entertainment, this region a new official expedition emerged in government circles, as seen in the invitation to join Russian service in capstone essay this same year of one of the members of Cook’s voyage—midshipman Joseph Billings. The formation of his expedition was accelerated by the dispatch of French ships under the command of La Perouse to essay, the North Pacific.34 The new governmental Northeast Geographic and Astronomical Expedition of J. How Do We Protect Essay! J. Billings and G. A. For Entertainment Essay! Sarychev was officially organized in August 1785 after a decree by Catherine II to the Admiralty College. Her main goal was the how to write snoring detailed investigation and formal strengthening of the Russian crown in Chukotka. A second goal was the study of the islands lying close to the Alaska Peninsula as far as Cape St. Elias, which had been discovered by animals essay V. I. Bering in monologue essay 1741.

In addition, Billings was ordered to “try to confer the Russian scepter” upon the local population, if not yet subject to any other European power. Finally, if the occasion arose he was encouraged to describe the Kurile Islands as far as Japan, China, and Korea.35 On the whole, the Billings expedition (1785–1795) bore more of a reconnaissance and scientific character than political, and less the animals for entertainment military one that some historians occasionally assert.36. 19 Parallel with the Billings expedition, a project was elaborated within the Tsarist government to send a large-scale expedition of the narrative essays Russian naval fleet from Kronstadt to for entertainment essay, the Pacific Ocean. The proposal to send two frigates and a military transport to how do we protect essay, the Pacific from the Baltic with the goal of training experienced mariners, expanding commerce, and founding fortifications in America was first expressed as early as 1732 by the inspector general of the fleet Count N. F. Golovin at the time of Bering’s Second Kamchatka Expedition.37 However, Golovin’s project was not sanctioned by animals the throne. Another such proposition by the Empress’s Secretary of how to write, State, P. A. Soimonov, appeared in December 1786.38 Soimonov substantiated the urgency of sending a Russian squadron to the Pacific by pointing to the growing activity of the English in animals the North Pacific and the expense of construction of naval ships at local sites.

The president of the Department of Commerce, A. R. Vorontsov, and a member of the Office of Foreign Affairs, Count A. A. Bezborodko, entirely supported Soimonov’s project in capstone essay a joint message to Catherine II, which discussed the claims of Russia to all the northwestern coast of animals, America to 55° n. lat. and the whole Aleutian and Kurile chain by right of first discovery of these lands and islands by Russian mariners. Foreign governments should be notified of the inadmissibility of their subjects’ ships appearing on Russian shores to conduct trade with the local inhabitants. To secure these demands two warships were to be sent from the Baltic to the Pacific, and the coats of arms of the Russian Empire would be displayed on the coast of Alaska and adjacent islands.39. 20 On the advice of how to snoring, her councillors, the essay Empress gave instructions to the Office of phd thesis online, Foreign Affairs at the end of December 1786 to notify European powers of the rights of Russia to the lands discovered by its mariners, and ordered four warships sent to animals for entertainment essay, the Pacific.40 At the end of April 1787, Captain of 1 st Rank G. I. Mulovskii was assigned to capstone essay, command the future Pacific squadron, having received detailed instructions from the Admiralty College.41 Mulovskii’s squadron (four small warships and a transport carrying supplies) was expected to go from for entertainment essay, Kronstadt around the Cape of we protect, Good Hope, and then cross the Indian Ocean and animals for entertainment pass through Sunda Strait into the Pacific. Here, on the shores of Japan, two vessels were supposed to begin a detailed inventory of the write Kurile Islands and officially secure them for Russia, and animals for entertainment then examine the the 5 people you meet essay mouth of the Amur River and Sakhalin Island. At the same time, Mulovskii was to continue the voyage to Kamchatka with the for entertainment remaining ships, and from there move on to the shores of the New World in the region of 40–50° n. Autobiographical Essays! lat. Later, he was to go along the coast to the north, to visit Nootka Sound on the west side of Vancouver Island (49° 35' n. lat.). All land north of 55° n. lat. Essay! was considered (since its discovery by Captain Chirikov) as belonging to Russia, and Mulovskii was to “tear down, level, and narrative essays destroy” coats of arms and signs of other powers discovered there.

Southwards from that point Mulovskii was to for entertainment, “take into how do the possession of the Russian state, if no other power occupied it.” With favorable circumstances Mulovskii was to extend the possessions of the empire in America to animals for entertainment, 43° n. The 5 People You Meet! lat. and even farther south,42 that is, to occupy all of California. For formal seizure of the American coast he was to raise Russian flags on high places, to erect state coats of arms, and to distribute to animals essay, the natives specially cast medals. V. Dreams Crushed by the Weight of autobiographical narrative essays, Wars. 21 Thus, a broad plan of colonial expansion was outlined, including a clear military-political aspect, which in fact reanimated the project of I. K. Kirilov of 1733. In the event that it was realized, Russia would make a serious claim to converting the northern part of the Pacific Ocean into the “Russian Sea.” However, these plans were not realized: the beginning of the Russian-Turkish and then the essay Russian-Swedish war forced the write snoring abandonment of the Mulovskii expedition (he was himself redirected to animals essay, the Baltic, where he heroically perished in the battle of Oland in 1789). The French Revolution and subsequent upheavals in European politics completely moved the question of Russians colonialism in the New World to the background, at least for St. Petersburg. 22 Almost simultaneous with the government’s expansionist plans concerning the North Pacific, a similar project was proposed by the Ryl’sk merchant G. I. Shelikhov.

Shelikhov, in in heaven instructions of May 4, 1786 to the director of his company on Kodiak Island, K. A. Samoilov, called for the settlement of artels (groups or brigades) of promyshlenniki along American lands to 40° n. lat.43 In his reports to animals for entertainment essay, the Irkutsk governor-general in online April 1787, Shelikhov emphasized in animals for entertainment essay every way his unselfishness “for the benefit of the fatherland” and formulated tasks for later colonization of America. “And what is more,” wrote Shelikhov, “I tried to go as far as possible to how to snoring, the south along America to the shore lying at California with occupation by Russian settlements and leaving our signs to animals for entertainment essay, avert those who might think of making attempts on narrative essays this part of the land for other nations, to essay, make our acquisitions first.”44 Later, patriotism and external threats became favorite argumentative devices to our environment essay, justify expansion both for G. I. Shelikhov personally and for the RAC as a whole. 23 Shelikhov’s proposals were completely supported by the Irkutsk governor-general, I. V. Animals For Entertainment Essay! Yakobi, who was an active advocate of expansion, the more so since as a result of the activity of the “Shelikhov” company new vast and rich territories fell under his authority.45 Therefore, in November 1787 he sent a report to Empress Catherine II, which also reflected a worry for the future of Russian possessions in the Pacific in connection with the active penetration of foreign mariners and traders onto the Northwest Coast of America following the voyage of James Cook. In order to secure these territories for Russia, Yakobi ordered 30 copper Russian coats of arms prepared and the same number of iron plates with the inscription Zemlya rossiiskogo vladeniya (Land of Russian Possession), part of which was handed over to Shelikhov. The people of his company were to set up the coats of arms in the most visible places on the coast beginning at 44° n. lat., while the plates were to be buried in the ground nearby as evidence that the land belonged to the empire. This claiming of territory also was to be done in the Kurile Islands. In addition, for securing Russian claims, Yakobi recommended sending to the Pacific several warships and for entertainment building fortresses on how to snoring the American coast as far south as possible, at least to 47° n. lat. “if farther is not possible.”46 Thus, Yakobi, on behalf of the animals Siberian administration, supported the plan of the 5 people in heaven essay, turning the North Pacific into the “Russian Sea.” 24 The report of the Irkutsk governor-general and the petition of G. I. Shelikhov and his companion I. I. Golikov about the development of trade in the Pacific and the intention of founding new colonies on the Northwest Coast of America and the Kuriles received a favorable response from the Tsarist government.47 However, in March 1788 the Committee on Commerce, regarding voyages and trade in the Pacific Ocean, recommended limiting Russians possessions to 55° n. lat., “about where Captain Chirikov had encountered the American mainland in 1741,” because of the threat of a clash with the essay English in America.48 Catherine II herself generally rejected the petitions of the you meet essay high governmental authorities and the solicitations of privileges by the zealous merchants, noting: “Much spread in the Pacific Sea will not bring positive benefits. Trade is one thing, seizure is another.”49 As historian N. N. Bolkhovitinov has convincingly indicated, the rejection by the Empress of for entertainment, colonial expansion at this time was also dictated by other things, such as wars with the Turks and Swedes.

During the second half of the eighteenth and first half of the snoring nineteenth centuries the primary direction of Russian expansion was south (the northern Black Sea area—the Caucasus), which was directly reflected in the utterances of the Tsaritsa during this period. Also the all-powerful favorite Duke G. A. Potemkin was lobbying for animals for entertainment essay, a “southern direction.” In addition, the Empress did not trust swindling Siberian merchants and feared a future desertion of the Russian colonies from the old country based on people in heaven the example of the United States, which had just liberated itself from the authority of Great Britain. Finally, she did not wish additional complications with other powers in the Pacific—the problems of European politics fully occupied her.50. 25 As we see, in only one year the plans of the Tsarist government regarding expansion in the Pacific basin radically changed: if Mulovskii was ordered in 1787 to consolidate the rights of the empire from the shores of Japan to California, it was followed by a full rejection of the new acquisitions in animals essay the east followed in 1788. Capstone Essay! After Catherine II’s resolution, Count A. A. Bezborodko wrote in September 1788 to Procurator General of the animals essay Senate, A. A. Vyazemskii, that it was necessary to “strongly declare in general to the promyshlenniki, concerning the Kurile Islands, to not engage in disputes with the Chinese about possession and likewise not to touch the islands that were in possession of other powers.”51.

26 And later, while Russia was involved in numerous coalitions and wars in Europe and in the Caucasus at autobiographical, the end of the eighteenth and animals essay beginning of the nineteenth centuries, the how to write government did not wish additional foreign political complications on the far-eastern boundaries of the empire. From this moment the initiative in elaborating expansionist plans in the North Pacific finally moved to representatives of merchant capital, who were vitally interested in occupying new resource areas because of the exhaustion of fur wealth in the former territories. In February 1790, Shelikhov reported to animals, the new Irkutsk Governor General, I. A. Pil’: “Along the mainland of America from the island of Kaktak [Kodiak] to California, far beyond Cape St. Elias, in many places through the means and expense of the company, at my instruction, imperial signs were distributed and left, the essence of how to write, which is the coat of arms and plates with the inscription: land belonging to Russia.”52 In addition, Shelikhov planned to begin trade and to subject the tribes north from the Alaska Peninsula to the mouth of the Yukon River and farther to Bering Strait to the Russian scepter. He succeeded in this same year in engaging a new director for essay, his company in America—the Kargopol merchant, A. A. Baranov—who completely shared the monologue essay views of his patron in spreading in every possible way the possessions of the empire in the New World. 27 Pil’, like his predecessor I. V. Yakobi, did not give up hope of helping Shelikhov’s company to eventually advance south along the American coast to California and along the Kurile Islands to Japan, which he reported to Catherine II in 1790. He especially directed the for entertainment essay attention of the Empress to monologue essay, the English and Spanish—the chief competitors of the Russians during this period—who now carried out animals for entertainment essay voyages to the shores of Russian America more often.53 Later, in a report of Septembebr 28, 1793, Pil’ again turned the attention of the government to the need to support Shelikhov’s company.54 On the other hand, in a letter of monologue essay, August 9, 1794 to A. A. Baranov, Shelikhov wrote about his organizing a special North American company that would spread its operations to the north from Unalaska Island to Bering Strait, as well as establishing a colony on the Kurile Island of Urup.55 Later, the primary burden for the expansion of Russian possessions in America lay entirely with Baranov, since Shelikhov unexpectedly died in Irkutsk in July 1795. Baranov’s dream was to spread Russian colonies from Alaska along the for entertainment American coast to Nootka Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island.56. 28 In a letter of June 10, 1798, Baranov outlined a detailed plan for founding new colonies in the region of Southeast Alaska.57 And in a letter of July 24, 1800, to the head of the Unalaska office, E. G. Larionov, he wrote: And with this it may be that our high court will also follow with reinforcement and defense of our hunting and phd thesis online trade from being undermined by new arrivals (foreigners – A.G.), and this is very necessary at the present time, since Nootka is not yet occupied by animals essay the English and the courts of the Gishpanskii [Spanish] and Aglitskii [English], and the American Republic are occupied by war with France and other ministerial (diplomatic – A.G.) affairs; the advantages of write, those places are so important since they ensure the animals essay future gains of millions for the government.58. 29 However, the spread of Russian possessions in America was accompanied by incredible difficulties: Baranov struggled with dangerous competitors represented by the company of P. S. Monologue Essay! Lebedev-Lastochkin (until 1798) and foreign businessmen.

He fought the sabotage of animals for entertainment, his own promyshlenniki and sailors, encountered hostile relations with natives, and dealt with insufficient necessary goods and materials and monologue essay lack of personnel. In 1799 the ship Feniks , on which 70 promyshlenniki reinforcements and goods valued at 569,328 rubles were being sent to Baranov from Okhotsk, was wrecked.59 But these setbacks did not retard the animals process of the Russian colonization of America. In 1799 Baranov succeeded in how to snoring founding on Sitka Island (57° n. lat.) the for entertainment essay Mikhailovskaya (Arkhangel’skaya) fortress, while in the 5 you meet in heaven Russia the final formation of the monopolistic Russian-American Company occurred, created by the union of several merchant organizations under the aegis of the government. The RAC’s region of operation was defined as stretching along the American shore from 55° n. lat. to the Bering Strait and the Aleutian and Kurile Islands (to the island of Iturup). It especially stipulated the possibility of animals for entertainment essay, “making new discoveries not only above 55° north latitude, but also some farther to the south and occupying lands discovered by it [the RAC] for how to, Russian possession . Animals For Entertainment! if they are not occupied by any other (European – A.G.) peoples and are not subject to them.”60. 30 Having in fact obtained carte blanche expansion in the New World, the RAC selected its chief direction as south, which was dictated by several circumstances. First, the phd thesis online sea otter did not live north of the Alaska Peninsula—the main commercial object hunted by the company—whereas it was plentiful to the south from Kodiak to California.

Second, the RAC strove to outstrip foreign competitors in the struggle for new territories and hunting grounds. For Entertainment! Third, company management pursued the monologue essay hope of developing agriculture in America to provide a dependable supply base for the Russian colonies. By fall 1801 the board of directors of the RAC reported to the Emperor that A. A. Baranov “meanwhile arranges to add to the possession of Russia the Queen Charlotte Islands and animals for entertainment Nootka Sound, which the English have now left.”61. 31 In a secret “instruction” to Baranov in monologue essay April 1802 the directors of the RAC wrote: “The board of directors commissions you to try to assert the right of Russia not only to the 55 th degree, but even farther, supported by the maritime voyages of Captains Bering, Chirikov, and others.” The instruction added: Strive even with this to display some right also in for entertainment essay Nootka Sound itself, in capstone essay order that for the demands that might come from the English court it will be possible in some way to determine the boundaries at 50 th degree or at least at half the distance to for entertainment, 55 th degree, if farther is not possible, because that part is not yet occupied by capstone essay them, and, consequently, at this time Russia has the primary right to it, and toward this you are to try to animals, assert by settlements at people, the 55 th degree as forcefully and quickly as possible, with completion of a regular fortress, as far as the people you now have are sufficient . And for better success in those places it is suggested at the present time to stop all investigations toward the north and to turn attention to that part when we strengthen our establishment with the English in the neighborhood.62. 32 At the same time the directors reported to Emperor Alexander I that should Baranov “receive the necessary reinforcements, he will intend to occupy not only the for entertainment essay closest lying Queen Charlotte Islands but spread the Russian acquisitions farther.”63. 33 However, the active expansionist striving of the phd thesis online RAC encountered opposition in the Tsarist government, which given the complex situation in Europe did not want additional complications in animals for entertainment essay America.

This was directly discussed in phd thesis online the instructions of July 10, 1803, by the Minister of Commerce, Count N. P. Rumyantsev, to the correspondent of the RAC, N. P. Rezanov, before the dispatch of the latter to the Russian colonies: In the reasoning of the membership of the Russian Empire you have as a boundary the recent discovery, made in 1741 by Captain Chirikov, known as the 55 th degree of north latitude. Give the director of America the order that he by no means spread farther from this place any Russians beyond boundaries being occupied by other maritime powers. Bring home to them that this should be the more piously observed, that through this all trouble will be removed forever from the animals for entertainment essay maritime powers allied with us, and that the company, being limited to acquisitions indisputably belonging to Russia . in this way will more quickly attain the their respect and general trust.64. 34 In addition, Rumyantsev ordered the correspondent of the RAC to avoid in every way, upon encountering foreigners, any talk “about the boundaries of our American settlements.” 35 For his part, N. P. Rezanov was exhorted to repeat the basic order of Rumyantsev to the governor of Russian America, A. We Protect! A. Animals For Entertainment Essay! Baranov, in the instruction of January 12, 1804, where he appealed to “confirm resolutely our property to capstone essay, 55 degrees north latitude, taking this as the rule and for future plans in America not to embrace its spread farther on the shores, but to strive gradually to penetrate into the interior of the mainland.”65 Consequently, Rezanov tried to redirect the point of Russian expansion from a southern direction to an eastern and northern one. Arriving in Alaska in 1805, he offered a proposal to the directors of the RAC to significantly strengthen the colonial flotilla with armed ships and with their aid to expel from the animals for entertainment Northwest Coast American maritime traders who had been buying up the valuable furs from the local Indians and selling them firearms, which they then used against the Russians. Autobiographical! In a letter of February 15, 1806, to the Emperor, Rezanov reported to him the intention of expelling the Japanese from Sakhalin Island and compelling them to enter into trade relations with the essay RAC.66 For this, he sent two RAC ships from monologue essay, Alaska in the summer of this same year, the crews of which destroyed several Japanese villages in the southern Kuriles and Sakhalin and sank four Japanese junks in 1807–1808,67 blocking for a long time any friendly contact between Japan and Russia. 36 The diversion of relatively substantial forces to the “Japanese” expedition had a very negative effect on the Russian colonization of America, though plans of strengthening the colonization effort especially occupied the thoughts of N. P. Rezanov. Finding himself in Alaska, he elaborated the project of broad expansion, presenting a detailed program of colonial seizures in the New World. For Entertainment Essay! Although a government official of how do we protect our environment essay, high rank, in this case he emerged rather as a representative of the RAC inasmuch as he was the informal head of the company and representative of its interests before the throne.

In a letter of February 15, 1806, to the directors of the RAC, Rezanov wrote from Novo-Arkhangel’sk: “If we have the for entertainment possibility of capstone essay, making a settlement on the Columbia River, it will be a central place from which to easily seize the island of Kaigani (Prince of Wales and animals Dall Island — A.G . ) and settle on it, and to construct shipyards opposite the Queen Charlotte Islands.” Being based at Novo-Arkhangel’sk, at Kaigani, and at a settlement on the Columbia River, and having warships constructed, Rezanov planned to seize all the fur trade on the Northwest Coast. From the Columbia river he intended to spread the influence of the Russians as far south as San Francisco Bay in phd thesis online California: “If means are given to them at animals for entertainment, the very beginning, then I could boldly say that we will attract to narrative essays, the Columbia residents from various places, and in animals the course of ten years it would be possible to be strengthened to that stage, that with the least occurrence of fortune in favor of narrative, our political circumstances in essay Europe, it could be included in the number of Russian possessions.”68. 37 Especially attractive to the enterprising chamberlain was the bountiful California: “The Gishpanskii [Spanish] people are very weak in this region and if in 1798, when war was declared on the Gishpanskii court, our company had been found in forces corresponding to its activity, then the part of California to 34° north latitude to the mission Santa Barbara could easily be used and a piece of this could always be held for ourselves, since from Mexico, due to natural conditions, any aid by a land route would be impossible for them.”69. 38 Rezanov also developed his ideas in a dispatch of June 17, 1806, to the Minister of Commerce: If earlier the Government thought about this part of the world, if it considered it as sufficient, if it uninterruptedly followed the insightful visions of Peter the Great who outlined the Bering expedition with small means for that time, then it can be affirmatively said that New California never would have belonged to the Gishpanskii, for it was only from 1760 that they turned their attention and with the undertaking of some missionaries consolidated this best piece of the 5 you meet, land for themselves forever. Now no occupied interval still remains that is equally profitable and animals essay is very necessary to us ( sic ), and so if we let it pass, then what will our descendants say?70. 39 However, Rezanov, due to an early death, was prevented from bringing to monologue essay, life plans for a substantial increase in the possessions of the for entertainment empire in America. He died in Krasnoyarsk of pneumonia en route to phd thesis online, St. Petersburg on animals for entertainment essay March 1(13), 1807.71 With the demise of Rezanov, the RAC was compelled to set aside the plans of broad colonial expansion in America. As the eminent Russian mariner V. M. Golovnin wrote later, not without sarcasm: “With the death of Mr. Rezanov all hope of great undertakings by the great company ended, the directors, being from monologue essay, merchants . gravitated away from great ideas, as Rezanov called his dreams, to the usual merchant speculations.”72.

40 On the essay other hand, the directors of the RAC tried to colonize Sakhalin and in how do our environment August 1808 secured approval from the throne for colonization of the island,73 but the plan remained unrealized. During this period the company fell into a serious financial crisis. It lacked the strength, means, and personnel for large-scale colonial seizures. In America A. A. Animals For Entertainment! Baranov was not able to push Russian colonies south of Novo-Arkhangel’sk. Online! In a report to the Emperor of August 20, 1808, the directors of the RAC reported: Because of the animals for entertainment essay insufficiency of monologue essay, time and opportunity, and most of all an adequate number of Russian workers, the Company has not yet spread in America farther to the south beyond the mentioned occupation; though more than 600 people are found there, they are all obliged to provide both for the island of Sitka and for entertainment all occupied land lying behind it along the islands and mainland shore. As soon as time and possibility contribute, the company business will advance into people you meet essay the Queen Charlotte Islands, and farther toward the Columbia, if these lands and places do not yet belong to any European peoples.74.

41 Baranov acted rather carefully. For Entertainment! He had neither the autobiographical essays sanction of St. Petersburg for independent seizure of the animals for entertainment territory south of the 55 th parallel nor sufficient forces for the realization of huge expanionist plans. Therefore, in 1808 he directed his closest assistant, I. A. Kuskov, to autobiographical, carry out only reconnaissance in the regions of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the mouth of the Columbia River, and California. Regarding negotiations with foreigners, Kuskov was instructed “not to enter into any discussion about the awarding of rights in the local seizures there.”75 Under favorable conditions Kuskov was supposed to establish a small outpost in animals essay the territories examined. However, Baranov clarified that “it is not necessary to establish vast replacements with buildings in the first and present case, until all this shore from Californian San Francisco harbor to monologue essay, the Strait of for entertainment, de Fuca is entirely explored and we receive formal permission from our government for occupation and settlement there.”76. 42 In contrast, the government was clear during this period about not making colonial seizures in the Pacific. Capstone Essay! When Lieutenant L. A. Hagemeister, who was on an RAC ship in 1808, visited the essay Hawaiian Islands and carried out rather successful negotiations with the local king, Kamehameha I, for monologue essay, a colony of Russians on one of the islands,77 the prospects of consolidating a position in Hawaii did not entirely inspire official St. Petersburg. 43 Under these conditions the RAC was forced to act independently while the government remained passive.

Also, negotiations between St. Petersburg and Washington in for entertainment 1809–1811 were not successful concerning the limitation of trade of American entrepreneurs with the capstone essay Indians of animals, Southeast Alaska, which was within the sphere of Russian influence.78 Tsarist diplomacy not only narrative essays, lacked a clear idea of the animals for entertainment boundaries of its possessions in America, but also did not assert its governmental interests or the rights of the RAC there. However, in summer 1810, N. P. Rumyantsev, upon an encounter with the American envoy J. K. Adams, mentioned that the Russian maps included all the coast from Nootka Sound to the Columbia River among Russian possessions. However, the chancellor later acknowledged directly to the American diplomat that he himself and the Emperor did not attach great significance to the question of contraband trade by citizens of the United States; further, it was advisable to lay aside the question of the boundary on the west coast of America to a later time “in order to avoid possible clashes.”79. 44 Meanwhile, events moved rapidly. The 5 You Meet Essay! In 1811, Americans established an outpost at the mouth of the Columbia River, which at one stroke sharply limited the potential claims of the essay RAC on capstone essay the Northwest Coast.

And though in the following year, based on the initiative of the company, the Russians established a fortified settlement (Fort Ross) in for entertainment California north of San Francisco, the phd thesis scheme for essay, complete control over the whole American coast was by then given up for lost. Founding Fort Ross on lands that the Spanish claimed led to diplomatic friction with the Spanish crown,80 and later with authorities in Mexico. In this connection, S. B. Okun’’s assertions that the phd thesis online Tsarist government at the end of the decade 1800–1810 allegedly prepared to animals for entertainment essay, seize Spanish colonies in America under the “cloak” of the RAC appear unconvincing.81 Neither the capstone essay Tsarist government nor the company planned seizure of the Spanish colonies; the RAC only wished expansion of their own possessions in California, where there were no Spanish settlements. However, the establishment of Fort Ross was not a success for animals for entertainment, the company. The development of agriculture there for autobiographical essays, supplying goods to animals, the colonies in the 5 people you meet Alaska was pursued by an insufficient work force, and the colony suffered from an economically and strategically unfavorable location. 45 One attempt by representatives of the RAC to obtain one more agricultural outpost to supply Alaska with goods was the so-called “adventure of Doctor Schaeffer.” In 1815–1817 a physician in the service of the RAC, G. A. Animals Essay! Schaeffer, attempted at his own risk to join one of the Hawaiian Islands to Russia, which N. N. Write Snoring! Bolkhovitinov has described in detail.82 He correctly criticized S. B. Okun’’s thesis83 of an alleged plan by the Tsarist government for seizure of Hawaii.

On the contrary, as the documents attest, such an initiative came almost wholly from Schaeffer himself, though partially from A. A. Baranov, who sent him to Hawaii in 1815. With this, the governor of Russian America, under specific conditions, did not exclude the animals for entertainment annexation of the island of Kauai by armed means, but nevertheless preferred to act with St. Petersburg in mind. The RAC board of directors at first reacted very negatively to the plans of the ardent doctor, fearing international complications. However, the board later tried to carefully support its employee, whereas Alexander I himself and the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, K. V. Nessel’rode, categorically rejected the idea of joining tropical islands to the empire in 1818.84 If the conservative ‘legitimism’ of the Tsar and we protect the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is rejected as a reason, then the real arguments against the annexation of animals, Hawaii were the lack of a strong naval power in the Pacific and the insignificant trade fleet of how do our environment, Russia, as well as the danger of provoking the discontent of England and the United States, which the government sought to avoid for the sake of RAC interests. In these circumstances, when the Russian consul in Manila, P. V. Dobell, came out in 1820 with a scheme for joining the Hawaiian archipelago by animals essay means of an armed expedition, his plans did not arouse serious attention of the Tsarist government.85. VIII Continuing Attempts in America.

46 Having accomplished no success in Hawaii, the directors of the RAC nevertheless did not give up hope of expanding Russian possessions in America, having “shifted” the boundary on the shore to several degrees south of the capstone essay 55 th parallel. The board of directors of the RAC tried to persuade the animals for entertainment government of the incontestable right of the company to new territories—not merely for the sake of acquisition or exaltation of the motherland, but for obtaining as many potential hunting grounds as possible. The RAC quietly explored such acquisition for several years before the formal expiration of its 20-year privileges in 1819. In a special memorandum of December 23, 1816 (January 4, 1817), the head of the company, clearly falsifying the facts, reported that the Russians were the the 5 in heaven essay first Europeans to tread on the American shore from the Bering Strait to the mouth of the Columbia River (46° n. lat.), that geographical expeditions from 1728 to 1785 “discovered and described all the local places,” and that the number of baptized natives by animals 1806 “was considered more than 20 thousand souls of both sexes.”86 From this came the logical conclusion that all these lands were legally owned by the Russian Empire, which the RAC represented. Narrative! However, wishing to secure beforehand the support of the government in case of possible complications, the authors of the “memorandum” pointed to the insignificant number of Russians in America (a total of 400 men) and the contraband trade of the animals for entertainment Americans, who equipped the hostile Indians with guns.87. 47 Around this time the board of capstone essay, directors issued a document with a predictable title: “Regarding the right of Russians to animals, possession of the Northwest Coast of America from north latitude 50° to Icy Cape (70° 19’ n. lat. – A.G.) and to how to write snoring, the supposed Polar Sea.” The author of the animals document rejected outright the discovery of the region by the Spanish and Captain Cook, striving to substantiate the territorial claims of the RAC.88 As a result of such “historical research” the company concluded the legitimacy of the southern boundary of Russian possessions at 51° n. lat.89 In the scheme of the new privileges of the RAC, presented to phd thesis online, the government in spring 1819, the establishment of control by the company over the coastal mainland from Bering Strait to for entertainment essay, 45° n. lat. was assumed, and even posts farther south if these territories were still not occupied by “European nations.”90 In another document submitted to the government—“Memorandum on the Trade of monologue essay, North Americans in the Russian Colonies in America”—claims were made to all the Northwest Coast north from 46° n. lat.91 Thus, the company proposed to promote the officially recognized boundary of Russian possessions in the New World 10 to 12 degrees south to the mouth of the Columbia River.

48 The question of the delimitation of possessions in the New World was raised as early as 1816–1817 during diplomatic consultations between the leaders of Russia and the United States in connection with the founding of the American colony at the mouth of the Columbia River. With this, the claims of the American side initially did not extend north of 49° n. lat.92 For its part the RAC strove to induce the Tsarist government to act on animals two fronts in monologue essay defense of its privileges: first, to organize diplomatic pressure in Washington for the prohibition of trade by American citizens with natives of Russian America; second, to guarantee the dispatch of naval vessels for suppressing the contraband trade of Americans in the waters of Southeast Alaska. With the goal of strengthening their claims, the board of directors sent one complaint after another about the activity of foreign traders in the possessions subordinate to the RAC. Thus, in a report to the Minister of Internal Affairs of October 31, 1819, the RAC board of directors referred to data concerning this question provided by the government inspector V. M. For Entertainment Essay! Golovnin. The latter sent the directors of the RAC a memorandum on September 10, 1819, about the indisputable right of Russia to the Northwest Coast of America, and recommended securing the possessions of the company in the 5 you meet essay California and appealing to animals for entertainment essay, the government for support and protection of the privileges and colonies of the RAC.93 In his opinion Russia had inalienable rights to the vital shores of America up to 51°n. lat.94. 49 These memoranda and reports received on the whole a favorable response from the Minister of Finance, Count D. A. Gur’ev, who supervised the RAC in capstone essay the Tsarist government. Gur’ev felt that the southern boundary should have been the northern cape of Vancouver Island at 51° n. lat., and even suggested that the boundary could have been moved even farther south. However, this faced two problems—the proximity of American colonies and the hostility of local Indians.95. 50 Gur’ev’s views were taken into consideration in a new decree (“Rules”) of the RAC, signed by essay the Tsar in how to write September 1821. In the first section of the document were designated the boundaries of the possessions of the for entertainment essay RAC in America: from the coast of Bering Strait to 51° n. lat., with the adjacent islands; and in how do we protect Asia—the chain of the Kurile Islands to the island of Urup, inclusive (45° 50' n. lat.). In these territories the for entertainment company was granted exclusive rights to hunting and trading.

The Rules of 1821 also stipulated the possibility of expanding the possessions of the company to unoccupied lands.96 The conclusion to be drawn is that the Tsarist government backed the monologue essay RAC’s territorial claims, though rather moderately: the southern boundary of Russian possessions was designated at 51°, and not at 45–46° n. lat., as the company insisted. Yet even in this case the territorial appetites of St. Petersburg were clearly ambitious, since the southernmost Russian settlement (Novo-Archangel’sk) was located at only 57° n. lat. 51 Besides expansion of the boundaries, a Tsarist decree of September 13, 1821, prohibited foreign whalers and merchants conducting hunting and trade on all the Northwest Coast of America from Bering Strait to 51° n. lat. and the whole coast of eastern Siberia: Foreign ships, under threat of seizure (along with the cargo), did not have the right to approach the for entertainment designated shores of autobiographical narrative, Russian possessions closer than 100 Italian miles.97 Commenting on the September decree, D. I. For Entertainment! Zavalishin wrote: “All this was interpreted by foreigners in such a way that Russia would seize all foreign ships past the above-designated boundary, though they did not approach the shore—such a claim of annexation of part of the autobiographical narrative ocean was considered unheard of. In American and English newspapers individual declarations even began to appear that force will be repelled by force.”98 These unilateral steps of the Tsarist cabinet quickly brought on official protests from the United States and England, and a little later served as a trigger for for entertainment essay, the well-known “Monroe doctrine.”99. IX Collapse of the “American Bridgehead” 52 By 1822 the Tsarist government was forced to retreat: the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Nessel’rode, ordered that the patrols of Russian warships should stay as close as possible to the shores of Russian America and “not to stretch,” as was recorded in the most recent privileges of the RAC, farther than 55° n. lat. to the south along the American shore.100 In Russian America itself, rejection of trade with foreigners led to a sharp deficit of many necessary wares and supplies since the RAC board of directors was not able to regulate an effective supply of the colonies from the Baltic port of Kronstadt. By 1824 the RAC had asked the government to permit trade with foreign entrepreneurs in Novo-Arkhangel’sk.101 By this time the Tsarist cabinet had become completely disappointed both in the politics of the company and its own rash steps in the Pacific arena. In response to unfounded claims to a substantial part of the you meet essay Northwest Coast of America, the government was forced in 1824–1825 to sign conventions with the United States and Great Britain,102 which included considerable concessions. Foreigners were granted the essay right to ten years free trade (with the exception of the sale of guns and spirituous drinks) and hunting in the territorial waters of Russian America, and monologue essay the Russian side had no right to undertake any forcible action toward foreign ships. Animals! The conventions determined the southern boundaries of the Russian colonies on the Northwest Coast of America at 54° 40' n. lat., and the eastern boundary—along the coastal range of mountains only 10 sea miles from the shore to the 141 st meridian, from where the boundary went north to the shores of the Arctic Ocean.

In addition, the people in heaven English were granted the perpetual right to freely sail on all rivers having a source in British possessions and that emptied into the Pacific Ocean in the territory of Russian America. Animals Essay! And inasmuch as in Southeast Alaska the Russian-British boundary was installed along the coastal range only 10 miles from the shore, this gave the English practically unlimited access to this region. What is more, the largest river in Alaska—the Yukon—also had its source in you meet essay Canada and therefore, by the Convention of animals for entertainment, 1825, was perpetually open for monologue essay, English navigation. Representatives of the RAC insisted in for entertainment essay vain on creating the boundary in Southeast Alaska at phd thesis, 53° 40' n. lat. and along the Rocky Mountains inland. The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs represented by Nessel’rode was inflexible on this point, and for entertainment the Emperor did not wish to hear more about any claims of the company in America.103.

53 After signing the snoring conventions, the Russians recognized that the only place in the New World still open to Russian expansion was California. For Entertainment! In November 1823 Midshipman D. I. Essays! Zavalishin, having just arrived in California aboard the essay frigate Kreiser , created a storm of activity, striving to how to write, influence several local officials to proclaim the independence of animals for entertainment essay, this Mexican province and make it a protectorate of autobiographical, Russia. Zavalishin’s final goal was to expel any citizens of the United States, to animals for entertainment essay, join northern California (from Bodega Bay to 42° n. Phd Thesis! lat.) to the empire, and to settle it with Russians. However, his plans, which have been analyzed in detail by Barratt,104 were deflected by the Tsarist government as adventurist and bound to essay, cause aggravated relations with England and the United States. Likewise was the proposal of the representative of the RAC, Admiral N. S. Mordvinov, who addressed himself to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Nessel’rode, on January 8, 1824. Mordvinov wrote of Fort Ross: “The boundary for this distant southern possession could have been assigned from Bodega to 2 degrees to the north; in the depth of the land to the east, to the Cordillera Mountains or Rocky Mountains. But if this expanse of land was impossible to acquire, then at least to sufficiently try to retain one degree to the N from monologue essay, Bodega and to one degree to the east.”105 The petitions of the board of directors of the RAC in 1825 for settlement of California by peasant-farmers and the expansion of the colony to the north of Fort Ross to essay, 40–42° n. lat. were also in vain. In fact, the proposals of the autobiographical company were supported by such eminent navigators as I. F. Kruzenshtern and V. M. Golovnin, who recommended acquiring for Russia the animals port of San Francisco.106 But all these ideas found no support in government circles. However, as A. A. Istomin correctly notes, the people in heaven essay idea of joining part of northern California to Russia in the mid 1820s did not seem entirely unreal.107 Furthermore, the animals for entertainment Russian Ministry of write snoring, Foreign Affairs did not wish to pursue the formal confirmation of Russian ownership of land in New Albion (northern California) already occupied by the company.

In 1827, the board of directors of the RAC stated with sadness in a dispatch to the governor of Russian America, P. E. Chistyakov, that the “endeavors for formal confirmation for Russians of the places where settlement has been approved remain unsuccessful, and based on present circumstances there is no hope of a favorable resolution.” In 1829 the leadership arrived at a more categorical conclusion, that “supporting any hope . of expansion of settlement would be useless.”108. 54 Though the animals for entertainment directors of the RAC recognized the economic uselessness of Fort Ross at the end of the 1820s, they nevertheless did not hasten to part with the California colony,109 hoping with more favorable circumstances to phd thesis online, expand it to the north and northeast. The last attempt in this direction was undertaken by animals essay the governor of Russian America, Baron F. P. Wrangell. In 1834, he began to test the ground in St. Petersburg for negotiations with the phd thesis online Mexican government with regard to the Fort Ross settlement in California. Wrangell hoped that the establishment of official diplomatic relations would help not only to state the right of Russians to for entertainment, Fort Ross, but to expand this enclave. To delay this affair was dangerous, since the English or Americans could soon occupy California. Wrangell’s opinion was supported by the directors of the RAC.110 However, the Council on Political Questions at the RAC rejected his petition to begin official negotiations with Mexico, declaring to go no farther than negotiations about the people you meet development of trade.111 The Emperor also rejected Wrangell’s proposal in January 1835, having sanctioned only trade connections.112.

55 This resolution placed a definitive end to expansionist plans of the RAC with regard to the New World. After this began the surrender of positions and the retreat of Russia from America: in 1839 the strip of mainland coast from the Portland Canal in the south to essay, Cape Spencer in the north was leased to the English; in 1841 Fort Ross was sold; in 1847 the British Hudson’s Bay Company constructed Fort Yukon in the territory of Russian America without sanction of the RAC; and in 1867 the Tsarist government sold Alaska to the United States, which sharply changed the geostrategic balance in the North Pacific, and not in Russia’s favor. 56 In light of the narrative essays above investigation, the following conclusions can be drawn. The research and analysis of documents presented here attest to a complex picture, far from the simple appraisals of plans of Russian expansion in the New World often proclaimed in the works of previous researchers.113 At the animals outset stood the government, which soon delegated the monologue essay expansion of the Empire’s possessions in animals for entertainment America to the 5 essay, its subjects. It was initially the government that declared grandiose plans to transform the northern part of the Pacific Ocean into the “Russian Sea.” These plans were then taken up by representatives of the merchant class at the end of the eighteenth century and supported by the local Siberian administration. From the beginning of the nineteenth century the main elaborator of expansionism was the RAC, with complete passivity on the part of the Tsarist government. Only at the beginning of the 1820s did official St. Petersburg try once more to essay, reanimate the old schemes, but they were unsuccessful, after which any plans by the RAC to expand possessions in America were blocked by the central authorities. The extremely inconsistent and short-sighted politics of the Tsarist government in phd thesis online the end led to the loss of the “American bridgehead” in the New World, and as a result a complete reorientation of colonial expansion to the Amur area and Sakhalin. Andrei V. Grinev , « The Plans for Russian Expansion in the New World and the North Pacific in animals for entertainment the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries », European journal of monologue essay, American studies [En ligne], 5-2 | 2010, document 2, mis en ligne le 18 fevrier 2010, consulte le 03 octobre 2017.

URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/ejas.7805. Andrei Grinev, Professor, Department of Sociology Law, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University. Summer 2017, including Special Issue: Popularizing Politics: The 2016 U.S. Animals! Presidential Election. Spring 2017: Special Issue - Eleanor Roosevelt and Diplomacy in the Public Interest 11-3 | 2017.

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