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Russian Revolution 1905 Essay, Research Paper

Russian revolution research paper

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bruiser book report Don’t get me started on The Bruiser. He was voted “Most Likely to Get the Death Penalty” by the entire school. He’s the kid no one knows, no one talks to, and revolution research paper everyone hears disturbing rumors about. So why is my sister, Bronte dating him? One of features essay these days she’s going to russian research paper take in the wrong stray dog, and it’s not going to end well.

My brother has no right to talk about Brewster that way – no right to threaten him. There’s a reason why Brewster can’t have friends – why he can’t care about features too many people. Because when he cares about you, things start to happen. Impossible things that can’t be explained. I know, because they’re happening to me.

Stealer of screams and russian paper thief of loaded anguish, I am a criminal, but you can’t see it, blinded by your own relief as my body becomes a battlefield in revolution research a war that can’t be won. Will I be the masters or research, bullet that ends your pain, or will you end mine? Award-winning author Neal Shusterman has crafted a chilling and unforgettable novel about the power of unconditional friendship, the research paper, complex gear work of a family, and the sacrifices we endure for the people we love. Inspired Recommendations for Kids from Indie Booksellers. 2011 ALA-YALSA Quick Picks Award List. 2011 Washington DC Capitol Choices Award List. 2012 Utah Beehive Award. 2012 Florida Teen Reads Award List. Summer 2010 Indie Next List. 2009, 2011 Texas Lone Star Reading List.

Cooperative Children’s Book Center CCBC Choices. YALSA Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers List nominee. California Readers Book Collection—Middle School and technology High School collections. 2010 Book Page Top Ten Book of the Year. 2010 Capitol Choices “Noteworthy Titles for Children and Teens” 2011 Bank Street College of russian revolution research Education Best Books of the Year. Essay. 2011-2012 Georgia Peach Award nominee.

2011 Southern California Peggy Miller Young Adult Fiction Award. 2011 Milwaukee County Teen Book Award — Honor Book. Russian Revolution Research Paper. The Tennessee’s Volunteer State Award Lists. 2012 YALSA Amazing Audiobooks for techniques de dissertation, Young Adults. 2012/13 Connecticut Nutmeg Award List.

2012 ALA/YALSA Popular Paperbacks for Young Adults Award List. 2012 – 2013 Oklahoma Sequoyah Book Award Nominee. Research Paper. 2012 Maryland Black-Eyed Susan Book Award List. 2013 Illinois Abe Lincoln Book Award Nominee. 2013 Nebraska Golden Sower Award list. 2013 Indiana Eliot Rosewater Award WINNER! “Is it possible to experience joy if you don’t experience pain? Is absorbing someone’s pain a gift or a curse? Shusterman explores these central questions in this thought-provoking new book#8230; The story is narrated by Tennyson, Bronte, and Cody in prose and by of internet, Bruiser in free verse, and the individual voices are nicely distinct. Russian Revolution Research Paper. It is Tennyson, though, who stands out as he evolves from self-centered bully to caring young man and ponders big questions about friendship and sacrifice#8230; the compelling issues and engaging premise make this a rewarding read.” So, I had looked over this book several weeks at the library before actually checking it out. Once I had gotten through about essays dickinson's my life half of the revolution, book I realized that I should have checked this book out the essay on ww1 and ww2, first freaking time I looked it over.

This book had me screaming at how it ended, tearing up at the most sensitive parts, and russian revolution research smiling at the funny but serious moments throughout the about, chapters that tied every last part of this amazing book together. Bruiser is russian revolution research paper a heart warming, tear jerking, and smile inducing book that is bombing a great ready for anyone who loves a gripping story from beginning to end. Russian Revolution Research Paper. Thank you, Payton! I#8217;m a high school student.. and by coursework or research I read this book in a little over three hours. Russian. I never wanted to put it down. I absolutely fell in love with Bruiser and the other characters!

So much I#8217;m doing a book report on dickinson's my life gun it for revolution research paper, my English class. One of comparative my favorite books and trust me, I love to read! I teach 8th grade ELA and I have never had all my students (even the ones who #8220;hate to read#8221;) be so into revolution research paper, a book! I can#8217;t get them to stop reading each day, and if I#8217;m reading aloud and tell them that#8217;s where I was planning to stop, they all yell at me in unison, #8220;No!#8221; As a teacher it makes me SO happy to get to teach this novel. About Technology. It addresses some serious issues in an original way that appeals to my middle school students. Research Paper. Thank you, Neal Shusterman. You’re very welcome!

I’m glad that your students are enjoying the book! Hi! My class just finished reading this book, and I#8217;m happy to say it was a glorifying, life-learning book! I#8217;m glad I read it! But I just have one question. Did Brewster die? Because the features of internet, phone was broken, and russian revolution research there was no way it had worked until then#8230; Was Brew contacting them through a broken phone to tell them he was dead and de dissertation that he wanted to say goodbye? I mean, I understand that thhehe h sme on Brontes face said it all but, was it teally? I don#8217;t know.

I would appreciate an answer. Thanks! Peace and Pancakes, You just blew my mind. Russian Research. I REALLY LOVE THIS BOOK ! I HAVE NOT READ A GOOD BOOK IN A WHILE. THIS BOOK STARTED OFF A BIT CONFUSING BUT IT HAD ME INTERESTED SINCE THE FIRST PAGE. I WAS CRYING SO HARD AT THE END BECAUSE I GOT ATTACH TO THE CHARACTERS AND I JUST WANT TO KNOW IF YOU PLAN ON MAKING A SEQUEL TO THIS BOOK? I WANT TO KNOW WHAT HAPPENS TO CODY AND BREW AFTER #8230; YOU KNOW#8230; AND AHHH. I haven#8217;t read this book in 3 years and stumbled on to this again! This book should be a movie its like a play i pictured this whole book in my head and of hiroshima it was absolutely exhilarating this is the only book i want to read and will forever read. PLEASE MAKE IT A MOVIE! and keep it the way it is don#8217;t ruin it with different scenes PLEASE.

Thank you Neal Shusterman for being such a great author. I love all your books and russian paper would like to say that bruiser is by far the best book i have ever read from on ww1 you and could not get enough of it maybe a part II would be appropriate. #128512; I am dying for a second book for this series to come out. I want to see what happens to Brew. please make a second book for the bruiser I#8217;m dying for russian revolution paper, it! #128578; I read this book just recently and it was AMAZING! I just finished reading Bruiser for comparative essay, a summer reading project, and I must say, I enjoyed this book so much that I only have one big question: is there going to be a sequel? No sequel planned #8212; the book is russian revolution paper a stand-alone! Greetings from features #Zurich, where I recently participated in a #booksigning and #writingworkshop at the #ZurichInternationalSchool.

Greetings from russian paper #Zurich, where I recently participated in a #booksigning and #writingworkshop at bombing of hiroshima the #ZurichInternationalSchool! #Scythe #NealShusterman. Some pics from my recent #booksigning in revolution #Frankfurt, #Germany. Techniques. Some pics from my recent #booksigning in #Frankfurt, #Germany! #Scythe #NealShusterman.

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Male Magic: A Midsummer Night#039;s Dream - Essay. See also A Midsummer Night's Dream Criticism (Volume 29), and Volumes 45 , 58 , 82 . Irene Dash, Hunter College of the City University of revolution research New York. And with the juice of this I'll streak her eyes, And make her full of hateful fantasies. Whether in the fantasy world of the forest or the equally fantastic world of comparative on ww1 and ww2 Athens on a midsummer night, this play reveals how power, particularly political power, impinges on and shapes women's lives. Research. Ranging from queens—Hippolyta, a character taken from mythology, and features of internet essay, Titania, belonging to the fairy world—to youthful Athenian maidens in love, to a parodic heroine in an entertainment for the Duke's guests, these characters illustrate women's varied reactions to the imposition of power. One seems to adjust; one discovers new facts about herself; one serves as a lens for looking at the larger world; and research, one significantly reveals the tragic dimensions of the essays of emily dickinson's my life had stood-a loss of power.

Least mortal and yet seeming in her speeches and attitudes to mimic the paper mortal world, the fairy queen illustrates most clearly the loss of self—the abdication of essays about autonomy—that may follow a woman's being victimized, even by fairy power. In developing the early emotional relationship between her and Oberon, the fairy king, Shakespeare seems to have drawn on the world around him for revolution paper models. Thus when Titania refuses to comply to Oberon's demands, he vows in pique and jealousy to streak her eyes with magic juice and make her full of hateful fantasies (II.i.257-58). Moreover, moments before he carries out his threat, he becomes more explicit: Be it ounce, or cat, or bear, Pard, or boar with bristled hair,

In the eye that shall appear. When thou wak'st, it is thy dear: Wake when some vile thing is techniques de dissertation near. In fact, she does wake and revolution research paper, call some vile thing her dear. How then do we interpret this? Is it the act of magic that forces her to fall in love with an ass, or at least with a character who has been temporarily transformed into an ass? Or are we to accept much of the criticism that suggests her erotic desire for the ass reflects her true nature—the nature of woman? Does Titania at this moment awaken from her dream, look at the monster, and desire him, as Jan Kott (228) suggests? Or is she basically still dreaming, hypnotized by a magic spell, never awakening until Oberon, later in the play, having achieved his purpose, removes that magic juice and Titania, chastened but also transformed from the outspoken character of the early scene, looks with loathing at the ass she embraced? Although her disagreement with Oberon lies at the heart of the play, Titania does not enter until the beginning of the second act. Instead, Shakespeare first introduces other women more clearly caught in situations of political or social subordination than the fairy queen: specifically Hippolyta, the techniques captive Amazonian queen; Hermia, the rebellious Athenian daughter; and Helena who, in her complete self-denigration, illustrates more indirectly the impact of patriarchal power on revolution, women.

Interweaving a third plot strand culminating in the performance of Pyramus and comparative essay and ww2, Thisbe, the comedy also provides a dual vision of women in russian revolution paper, patriarchy near the play's close. Parodying the tragic results of masters or research arbitrary parental power, this play-within-a-play in research paper, its metadramatic dimension offers insights into the mainly silent women, now married, in the audience. Artistically, the dramatist weaves a complex multifaceted plot that exposes the political and domestic challenges confronting women while creating situations that throw us into the world of about technology comedy. Russian Research Paper. On stage, music, dancing, and fairy magic, as well as the romping of the mechanicals, have masked this power struggle. In criticism, the technology lure of the poetry, the revolution research concept of topsy turvy, the illusion of dreams, and theories of mythology have often tended to techniques de dissertation, blur any interest in the domination of women. Some critics have even proposed that the play was written specifically for a wedding although none has yet been found. In fact, A Midsummer Night's Dream opens with anticipation of a wedding although it hardly reveals clearcut delight by both participants, Hippolyta and Theseus, the revolution paper Duke of Athens, her captor but also her bridegroom: Now, fair Hippolyta, our nuptial hour. Draws on apace. Four happy days bring in.

Another moon; but 0, methinks, how slow. This old moon wanes! She lingers my desires, Like to a step-dame, or a dowager, Long withering out a young man's revenue. His reference to happy days and the final fulfilling of his desire meets a noncommittal response from the my life bride. Acknowledging that four days swiftly pass, she indicates neither joy nor sorrow as she anticipates the russian revolution research paper night / Of our solemnities (10-11). Her ambiguous answer leads Theseus to search further. Still the host, if also the victor, he sends his master of the revels on an errand to: Stir up the Athenian youth to merriments, Awake the bombing pert and nimble spirit of mirth.

He would have his bride be merry. Continuing, he relies on a strange metaphor to reinforce his invitation to joyous celebration: Turn melancholy forth to funerals: The pale companion is not for our pomp. Why speak of funerals, even as a contrast to mirth, unless, perhaps a subtext exists here? Although pale companion defines the russian research paper personified melancholy, contextually the words seem linked to Hippolyta, addressed in the very next word: Hippolyta, I woo'd thee with my sword, And won thy love doing thee injuries;

But I will wed thee in another key. Is he apologizing for his earlier role? She fails to of emily dickinson's my life loaded gun, reply. His speeches suggest a shift in perception of woman from enemy to lover to wife, with the implication of woman's submission to man. Russian. As courtesy books and religious tracts of the period indicate, that reference to love and marriage, while including mutuality, also meant acknowledging man's superiority. Bombing Of Hiroshima Essay. 1.

This first scene, particularly the opening entrance and the elliptical conversation between Theseus and his bride, have allowed for revolution a range of interpretations on stage because of Hippolyta's silence. Directors and masters, actor-managers have long manipulated both the action and audience attitude toward a character or a situation during such silences. Writing of this phenomenon recently, particularly as it affects productions, one critic observed: Hippolyta's silence is russian revolution research paper open not because Shakespeare. lacked the skill to features of internet, give her words but because he. did not exercise that skill, did not employ the power. of his poet's pen to give her silence precisely. fixed meanings and effects. (McGuire, 17) McGuire then cites examples from four productions since 1959. However, Hippolyta's silence bothered actor-managers and directors well before mid twentieth century.

Because her role is russian paper so brief (she does not appear again until act 4) some, like David Garrick in The Fairies (1755), have cut her lines although she is physically present and masters or research, combined Theseus's two speeches into a single long address. 2 Other eighteenth-century versions—like the two different Pyramus and Thisbes —are even skimpier, retaining only the comic characters and the fairies while jettisoning both Hippolyta and Theseus. 3 Earlier, during the research paper Restoration, comic interludes, separated from the larger overall scheme, and abbreviated versions held the stage, culminating in the opera The Fairy Queen (1692), from which Hippolyta disappeared. 4. But even when a fuller text appeared, as it did in Frederick Reynolds's 1816 production ( MND Prompt, 18), often called an opera, alterations were made that softened the opening. Some occurred in the text itself, as, for example, when Reynolds not only retained the conversation between the victor and his bride, but elaborated on it. In this version, Theseus's fourth act directive to a forester to provide the music of the about hounds, as entertainment for Hippolyta (IV.i.110), is attached to that opening promise to wed her in another key (I.i.18), an attempt to russian revolution research paper, strengthen the essays my life had stood-a loaded attractiveness of the bridegroom. 5. A far more recent example of Hippolyta's silence disappearing after Theseus's lines I woo'd thee with my sword, /.. . But I will wed thee in research paper, another key occurs in the 1935 Max Reinhardt film where he transposes the sequence of speeches.

In the film, Theseus's lines precede, rather than follow, Hippolyta's single speech and therefore evoke her immediate and soothing comment Four days will quickly steep themselves in night; / Four nights will quickly dream away the time (7-8). Nor can Reinhardt's film be looked upon as a single aberration. Rather, the German director provides an important link between stage and screen, having produced the play eleven times (beginning in 1905) prior to making the film in features of internet essay, 1934. Free of the confining limits of the stage, he could, as film director, waft his viewers from one location to another, jumping from paper, a distant scene to a close-up of a particular character. In a section of the film script later discarded, Reinhardt not only appears to have been testing the breadth of this comparatively new medium but also offers insights into the finished film. The script also reflects the director's penchant for interpretation. In quick succession, it carries us aboard Theseus's ship, drops us in the land of the Amazons, and involves us in the battle between Theseus and de dissertation, Hippolyta through visuals that act as prologue to the text.

Broad shots of the sea and the distant castle of the Amazons are interwoven with close-ups of the two major figures. We read of Theseus standing on the prow of the ship, a glamorous figure in shining armor, against the dark background of the sail and research paper, of Hippolyta standing with a large wild dog at her side as she sternly watch[es] the approaching ship ( MND Warners, 1934). Masters Or Research. 6 Stern Hippolyta is contrasted with glamourous Theseus. Finally, when he appears on land followed by his staff, she takes up armor and weapons and shoots at him. He, however, lower(s) his shield laughing, the implication being that fighting against a woman is revolution paper laughable and that she, of course, will miss her mark. Eventually, they end up in hand to hand battle, shield against shield, his shield flat upon essays about hers, pressing it backward. The sequence continues: H[ippolyta].'s knee bending, interlocking with Theseus' leg Th[eseus].'s shoulder pressing H[ippolyta].'s shoulder downward. . . . H[ippolyta].'s head and shoulders going backward.

Th[eseus].'s arm across H[ippolyta].'s shoulder, knocks the helmet from her head. Research Paper. H[ippolyta].'s long hair falls about her shoulders. H[ippolyta].'s head bends backward. Th[eseus].'s head comes into picture triumphantly. 7. There we have the classic picture of the implied rape-seduction scene although as the opening of A Midsummer Night 's Dream clearly indicates, Theseus waits to wed Hippolyta. 8 What remains of this sequence is a clue to a point of view and to the play's early moments. In fact, as it was actually made, Reinhardt's film opens quite differently with a general celebratory air as crowds sing and cheer the returning victor, their Duke Theseus, with his captive queen who rides with him, her arm entwined by features of internet a snake, indicating her heathenish origins. . . . Later that snake will merely be a pattern on a civilized dress she wears.

The strange look on revolution research, her face during that opening entrance as well as her action in a subsequent scene probably owe their origins to this discarded script. In the later scene, dressed like a lady, Hippolyta sits alone in a large open colosseumlike semicircular area surrounded by large columns (a Hollywood approximation of Athens) and looks wistfully across the water. Is she recollecting her former glory and envisioning again the burning towers she left behind? Moments later, Theseus enters and kisses her hand. . . . Her reaction seems to suggest that she feels a thrill at masters, his kiss. The rape-seduction undercurrent first suggested by their hand-to-hand battle when her helmet fell off is sustained here. In contrast, Liviu Ciulei's stage production, fifty years later, dramatically emphasized Hippolyta's role as a captive in that opening scene. Brought on stage where everyone is russian revolution research paper wearing white, Hippolyta enters in techniques, dark army garb.

Moments later, screened from audience view by her captors, she is research paper basically stripped, her clothes thrown into the fire—all except her boots, which she confines to wear—perhaps symbolically suggesting that some remnant of her former self remains—a remnant that allows her to express her hostility, by about technology in education stamping her heels as an accompaniment to her sardonic laughter. Otherwise, she is russian redressed in a white gown. Someone holds a mirror to her. She turns away. Or Research. When Theseus enters, there is russian revolution research paper laughter at his lines, as he says, But I will wed thee in another key. She simply turns around, and of internet essay, sits, her physical stance exuding hostility. Many versions simply eliminated this character, thus excising the russian revolution paper frame and de dissertation, problems of russian interpretation, but also insights into how one queen eventually handles the comparative and ww2 humiliation of defeat. In her next appearance she has adopted an attitude of congeniality, quipping with Theseus about his knowledge of hounds. Moreover, in her final scene she takes on research paper, an even more complicated role as the essay on ww1 only speaking woman in a world of men. Out of the theater, the Hippolyta and Theseus relationship evoked still another reaction. Margaret Fuller, the midnineteenth-century American feminist essayist, in her outspoken work Woman in research, the Nineteenth Century, wrote: Only a Theseus could conquer before he wed the Amazonian queen.

Fuller compared Theseus to Hercules, who wished rather to rest with Dejanira, and received the poisoned robe as a fit guerdon.9 Whether or not Fuller had the historical story in mind, or Shakespeare's play, she nevertheless does offer an alternative perspective on the play's first nineteen lines. Hippolyta then fades into comparative on ww1 and ww2 the background as another woman enters who must wrestle with her fate. Hermia is dragged in by her angry father, Egeus, who would have the laws of Athens enforced against her because she wishes to marry Lysander, the russian research man of her choice, rather than Demetrius, her father's choice, although, as most critics agree, little difference exists between the suitors. As Muriel Bradbrook has observed, Shakespeare contributed to the development of comedy by breathing life into his characters through language. She compares this gift to the introduction of perspective in painting (89).

Accepting her analysis, we realize that the about technology similarity between the young men is intentional and meant to research, highlight Egeus's unreasonableness. I am . as well deriv'd as he, protests Lysander, the suitor who is belov'd of beauteous Hermia: As well possess'd; my love is features essay more than his; My fortunes every way as fairly rank'd. But the father refuses to listen, insisting that he may dispose of his daughter as he wishes, either to this gentleman [Demetrius] / Or to her death (42-44). Nor does Theseus, who only moments earlier had pledged to wed Hippolyta in another key from that of conqueror, offer much hope to the young woman. Supporting her father, the ruler warns of the price of disobedience: Either to die the death, or to abjure / For ever the society of men (65-66). Life in a nunnery, a retreat for research paper Isabella in techniques de dissertation, Measure for Measure, has little appeal for Hermia.

It denies her normal sexuality. Moreover, she is a young woman in russian research paper, love. However, Theseus, the voice of political power, continues, unconcerned about essay her reactions. Spelling out the russian meaning of the law, he details the on ww1 and ww2 young woman's choices: Therefore, fair Hermia, question your desires, Know of your youth, examine well your blood, Whether (if you yield not to your father's choice) You can endure the livery of a nun, For aye to be in shady cloister mew'd,

To live a barren sister all your life, Chaunting faint hymns to russian revolution research, the cold fruitless moon. Barren, cold, and fruitless describe the sexual denial she must confront shouldz she disobey her father. Theseus presents a frightening alternative for or research her. Russian Revolution Paper. Taking the father from essays, Roman comedy, Shakespeare creates a comic scene with undercurrents of possibly tragic dimension. But sections of this speech as well as of Egeus's complaints against Lysander disappeared from the stage. Gone are such accusations against Lysander as thou has given her rhymes, / And interchanged love tokens; sung at revolution paper, her window verses of feigning love; seduced her With bracelets of thy hair, rings, gauds, conceits; and, finally, Turned her obedience, which is due to masters or research, me, / To stubborn harshness. 10 Only Egeus's demand for the privilege of the father remained—the right to dispose of her as he saw fit or to call for revolution paper the death penalty. Although retaining this harsh sentence, those who excised lines had effectively diminished the speech's intensity through abbreviation.

Gone too from the by coursework stage are the paper closing lines of Theseus's admonition to Hermia defining the obligations of a daughter: To you your father should be as a god. One that composed your beauties; yea, and about, one. To whom you are but as a form in paper, wax. By him imprinted and within his power. To leave the essays about figure or disfigure it.

The image here, specifically the threat to russian paper, disfigure, disturbed critics and editors as early as the eighteenth century. William Warburton, for example, sought to change the last line, finding Theseus's statement inappropriate for comedy. In contrast, Samuel Johnson, always one to favor the text over any change of language, defended the word although still bothered by the meaning: I know not why so harsh a word should be admitted with so little need, a word that, spoken, could not be understood, and of which no example can be shown. The sense is plain, you owe to your father a being which he may at pleasure continue or destroy. (Yale Johnson, VII, 136) If that rather chilling ultimatum contributes to the portrait of a powerful ruler asserting the ideas of his society, stage productions, by omitting the last three and a half lines of Theseus's speech, frequently altered the image. In fact, some stage versions retained only the preceding line, Theseus's far more gentle, What say you, Hermia? Be advis'd, fair maid (46). 11 Because the interaction of bombing of hiroshima essay characters helps define them, a weakened portrait of russian research paper Hermia results from the combination of excisions in essays about technology, Theseus's and Egeus's speeches.

Facing less opposition, she need be less defiant. Or, looking at it another way, we see her as a less interesting character than the sharp, courageous young woman Shakespeare begins to develop here. Illustrating just how complex this text is and how it may be read and reread for the stage, some twentieth-century directors have translated the relationship between the two women at this moment on the stage as one of bonding: Hermia, who faces an anguished choice, and Hippolyta, who stands on the sidelines, listening. Russian Paper. And here too promptbooks offer evidence. Beerbohm Tree's, for example, indicates the Amazonian queen's sympathy for the younger woman by directing: Hyp[polyta] leads Herm[ia] to seat ( MND 7, interleaf facing p. 4). In Liviu Ciulei's production, the bonding takes another form. Since Hippolyta's strong personality had been developed at the play's opening, here she sneeringly laughs at Theseus's ultimatum, a clear comment on his actions and on the irony of his earlier words to her, But I will wed thee in another key (I.i.18). More humorous in approach and less sharply disapproving is the direction in the Peter Brook prompt: All bow their heads (12a). By Coursework. Brook dramatizes the rift between Theseus and russian revolution research, Hippolyta by comparative essay having them exit to russian revolution research paper, opposite sides of the stage, pausing at doors to look at each other. These twentieth-century directors found their cues in the text and responded, not with excision but with a new awareness of the techniques de dissertation play's subtlety and of the possibilities that staging might permit.

If Hermia's tragic fate is briefly understood by Hippolyta, the play quickly moves back to the world of revolution research paper comedy as the essay and ww2 two lovers left alone on stage not only bemoan their fate but also engage in a conversation in which neither is hearing what the other says. Comforting his love, Lysander cites historical parallels of similarly fated lovers; Hermia, not listening, overflows with anger and frustration: Lys The course of true love never did run smooth; But either it was different in russian research, blood— He begins, but she interrupts: Alternating lines, they continue: Lys Or else misgraffed in respect of years— Her O spite! Too old to about in education, be engaged to russian paper, young!

Lys Or else it stood upon the choice of friends— Her O hell! To choose love by comparative essay on ww1 and ww2 another's eyes! The stichomythic pattern of the duet captures the intensity of the lovers' feelings, but also the humor of their reactions as each finds solace from a different verbal outpouring. Nevertheless, the exchange disappeared from acting texts for over a hundred years. 12 Although the excision at first seems inexplicable, George Bernard Shaw's comments on an Augustin Daly production offer a partial answer. Unaware of how much Daly's version owed to russian revolution research, his predecessors, and indignant over his mauling of the text, Shaw attributes the techniques excision to Daly's uncomfortableness with Hermia's Oh hell, then notes the russian revolution paper impact of the cuts.

Humorously he writes: Mr. Daly, shocked, as an American and an Irishman, at a young lady using such an expression as Oh hell! cuts out the whole antiphony, and bombing, leaves Lysander to russian revolution paper, deliver a long lecture without interruption from the features lady. ( Our Theatres, I, 180-81) This long lecture without interruption also further denies audiences the partial portrait, later to be developed, of Hermia. Unsurprisingly, the lines disappeared from the Garrick-Colman and Reynolds operatic versions since these works concentrated on songs loosely connected with one another by speeches, rather than on short exchanges. But the absence of Hermia's frustrated expression from the later stage versions is surprising.

13. Was her Oh hell too forthright for the sensibilities of all those audiences, as Shaw implied in blaming Daly? A glance at the Variorum, strong in nineteenth-century criticism, suggests other, literary reasons, as well. Coleridge, for example writes: There is no authority for any alteration,—but I never can help feeling how great an improvement it would be, if the two former of Hermia's exclamations were omitted—the third and only appropriate one would then become a beauty, and russian revolution, most natural. (Coleridge [101], quoted in the Variorum, 18)

Rather than denigrating that last line with its Oh hell, Coleridge praises it. Obviously, Hermia's annoyed exclamations bothered him more than the simple comment on the unfairness of choosing love by another's eyes. Less generously, Halliwell, another critic of the time, believed Lysander's speech would be improved by the omission of all of Hermia's interpolations (18). Moreover, to support his opinion, he cited the editions of Dodd and Planche which actually deleted Hermia's lines. 14 Once again, as so often happens, literary criticism correlates with contemporaneous staging. Why did her short speeches offend so? Was Lysander's single uninterrupted speech more appropriate?

But then how could his speech help project Hermia's personality as it does in the original exchange? Stylistically, those clipped single lines suggest the exasperation and intensity of the young woman we are to meet later on in the forest. Moreover, the patter, or duet, of bombing of hiroshima essay these two lovers complements the long heavy speeches of Egeus and Theseus, taking us back into the comic, romantic world of the play. As critics have often noted, conflict between father and daughter arises here as it does in so many other of Shakespeare's plays, and here too the russian strength of the daughter is created by comparative essay on ww1 and ww2 showing her resistence to her father's pressure; her lines in this duet are important. Shaw's review of Daly's production suggests a further effect of the alternating lines spoken by the two star-crossed lovers; he believes the alternating pattern sets the russian research paper whole scene throbbing with their absorption in masters by coursework or research, one another (133).

It also explodes with their differing responses to the same situation. Although a strong, self-confident, if frustrated, young woman emerges through the russian paper language here, not all of her lines reinforce this portrait. In fact, her subsequent speech advises, Then let us teach our trial patience (152). Techniques. Between her two speeches, she has listened to Lysander's litany of lovers who, throughout history, have faced problems. Research Paper. In the comparative essay on ww1 and ww2 cut acting texts I have examined, the line advising patience always remains.

What a different Hermia we experience. The language has been modulated, the humor of the exchange lost, and russian paper, the outspoken young woman tempered. Artistically, too, a change occurs. Essays Of Emily Dickinson's Gun. No verbal echoes will sound for the audience when, a few lines later, Hermia and her best friend, Helena, indulge in a similar pattern of alternating lines. Nor will the audience hear how their conversation mimics and russian research paper, yet differs from that of the lovers. The repetition of the pattern, comic in comparative essay on ww1 and ww2, its shift of topic, also defines and contrasts the young women.

Helena pines for Demetrius. Hermia would most willingly relinquish him. Unlike the russian research paper earlier duet, this one concentrates on each young woman's attitude towards Demetrius. Rhyming couplets mark their exchange of confidences, and again acting texts excise: Her. I frown upon masters by coursework or research him; yet he loves me still. Hel. O that your frowns would teach my smiles such skill! Her. I give him curses; yet he gives me love.

Hel. O that my prayers could such affection move! Her. The more I hate, the more he follows me. Hel. The more I love, the more he hateth me. Differing in research, their appeal to bombing of hiroshima essay, Demetrius, the russian revolution research women differ in their sense of essays technology in education self, Hermia confident with two adoring males, Helena disconsolate that the youth she loves has eyes only for her friend.

Physically they differ too: Hermia being small and dark, at research, one point called puppet (III.ii.286), dwarfish (295), and features, an Ethiop (257); Helena being tall and lanky—a painted may-pole (296). She is also probably fair. Throughout this scene, Hermia exhibits a sardonic sense of humor, not only in her exclamations after her father leaves with Theseus, but even in her exchanges with her less confident friend. And once again, some texts delete Hermia's attempt to console her friend: Before the time I did Lysander see, Seem'd Athens as a Paradise to me; O then, what graces in my love do dwell,

That he hath turn'd a heaven unto a hell! Although meant to emphasize the problems Hermia faces, the lines referring to Lysander's graces making Athens a hell also have a built-in irony. Surely a lover's graces should turn a hell into heaven rather than the opposite. Although differing from Theseus's comment to Hippolyta on altering their relationship from excombatants to lovers, Hermia's words here suggest a similarly thin and tenuous line between heaven and hell, springing from russian revolution research, love. Of the exchange, Samuel Johnson wrote:

Perhaps every reader may not discover the propriety of these lines. Hermia is willing to comfort Helena, and to avoid all appearance of essays technology in education triumph over her. She therefore bids her not to russian revolution research, consider the power of pleasing, as an advantage to be much envied or much desired, since Hermia, whom she considers as possessing it in the supreme degree, has found no other effect of it than the loss of happiness. (Johnson, The Plays, 1:98) The comment also appears in a footnote in the Phelps promptbook (MND 13, 314). Since this was an or research 1805 printed text used for an 1861 production, it suggests that the lines were not only russian paper, challenging in the eighteenth century but continued to bombing of hiroshima essay, be relevant in the nineteenth. When they disappear, as often occurs, they erase a problem for interpreters, but also an insight into Hermia's capacity for humor and sympathy. To further comfort Helena, Hermia and Lysander reveal their secret plan to escape Athens. In soliloquy at the scene's close, Helena confesses her response. She will divulge the news of their flight to Demetrius, hoping to win his favor.

Bemoaning her fate in rhymed couplets, she begins: How happy some o'er other some can be! Through Athens I am thought as fair as she, But what of that? Demetrius thinks not so; Love looks not with the russian eyes but with the mind; And therefore is wing'd Cupid painted blind. But Helena does not think herself as fair as Hermia. Thus this reference to Cupid suggests a rather confused young woman.

Continuing for twenty-six lines, the soliloquy ranges from essay and ww2, analyses of revolution research love to a discussion of of hiroshima essay Hermia's strengths to a lament for the speaker's own plight: For ere Demetrius look'd on Hermia's eyne, He hail'd down oaths that he was only mine; She therefore resolves, I will go tell him of fair Hermia's flight (246), expecting a kind response. Here too excisions mar the portrait. Sometimes the lines are absent from research, printed acting versions; sometimes sections are crossed out or blocked for cutting. 16 As a result only the bare plot outline of this section remains, subtleties in characterization being lost. Later, in the forest, the dramatist further develops the young women's personalities. There the features essay popular Hermia, speaking with confidence, gently reprimands her lover, while the rejected Helena subjects herself to russian research paper, further humiliation, frustratingly following the man she loves. Hermia's reprimand comes after long and fruitless traveling through the woods with Lysander. Escaping Theseus's ultimatum, they seek refuge with the young man's aunt, beyond the range of Athens' law.

Weary with wandering, Hermia would rest; Lysander then admits he has lost his way in the enchanted forest: We'll rest us, Hermia, if you think it good, And tarry for the comfort of the day. Appreciating the idea, she then counters: Be't so, Lysander.

Find you out a bed; For I upon this bank will rest my head. But he would have it otherwise. In fact, the lines indicate the action that has just occurred on essays my life had stood-a loaded gun, stage as she chooses her sleeping site. A minidebate then ensues: Lys. One turf shall serve as pillow for us both, One heart, one bed, two bosoms, and one troth. Her. Nay, good Lysander; for my sake, my dear,

Lie further off yet; do not lie so near. The adapters once again cut. Garrick's abbreviated musical version provides a record of the cuts in this speech, and, to some extent, sets the pattern for paper what subsequently occurred. The first eight lines of the exchange between the couple are retained (lines 35-42), followed by a duet (25). Then come lines not Shakespeare's, but believed to be composed by Garrick, which appear in a handwritten insert ( MND 6). 17 In that version Hermia exhibits proper womanly fear: Now my Lysander, on that bank repose, That if perchance my woman's fears shou'd seek. Protection in thy love and masters or research, brav'ry, I may not call on love and thee in vain.

( MND 6, insert 21; Garrick, 25) Lysander responds with the promise of protective care. The Garrick lines also appear in paper, the Reynolds printed text ( MND 8, 18). Later the pattern of excision continues although without the new, added material. The musical Reynolds version ( MND 8, 18) contains no hint of her asking him to move.

In most staged versions, however, her request that he find another bed meets simple acquiescence. Usually gone are his lines One turf shall serve as pillow for us both / One heart, one bed, two bosoms, and essays my life loaded gun, one troth (41-42) along with his attempt to convince her of the paper reasonableness of his proposal. Gone too is of emily my life had stood-a loaded gun Hermia's perceptive Lysander riddles very prettily. . . Russian Revolution Research Paper. . De Dissertation. / But, gentle friend, for love and revolution research, courtesy, / Lie further off, in humane modesty (53, 56-57). 18 Amusing, her response in Shakespeare's play highlights her realistic awareness of the physical attraction between lovers. Their debate is reminiscent of Juliet's What satisfaction canst thou have to-night? ( Romeo and Juliet, II.ii.126) when Romeo protests, O, wilt thou leave me so unsatisfied (125). Or Research. In both cases, the dramatist suggests that confidence in the loyalty of her lover does not blur each young woman's recognition of the reality of the russian research paper sexual drive. Unlike Hermia, her friend Helena nurtures no such fear. Groveling for comparative on ww1 and ww2 some affection, she trails Demetrius. I love thee not; therefore pursue me not (188), he dictates.

But Helena, like Emilia in Othello so many plays later, has divulged the russian research secret of of internet Hermia and Lysander's flight in order to win a boon: I am your spaniel; and, Demetrius, The more you beat me, I will fawn on you. Use me but as your spaniel; spurn me, strike me, Neglect me, lose me; only give me leave, Unworthy as I am, to russian research paper, follow you.

Nor do Demetrius's threats to her virginity (217-19) bother her. Essays In Education. Rather they allow her to assert her confidence in revolution, his character. But those lines along with Helena's reply beginning Your virtue is my privilege (220-26) and then her Run when you will . . . (230-34) disappear from the stage in many promptbooks. 19. By cutting Helena's lines here and elsewhere, those versions tended to obscure the perceptiveness of or research Shakespeare's sketch of a young woman who is filled with self-doubt and self-hatred. 20 In fact, Shakespeare's insight here, although theatrically developed and placed in a comedic setting, has a contemporary counterpart in russian revolution research, Kate Millett's more serious analysis of the lack of self-love that flourishes in women and of emily dickinson's loaded gun, minorities. She describes this as. group self-hatred and self-rejection, a contempt both for herself and for her fellows—the result of revolution research that continual, however subtle, reiteration of her inferiority which she eventually accepts as a fact. (56) Helena appears to have internalized this attitude.

In an excellent essay on the play, David Marshall asks a relevant question concerning Helena. Are we to be pleased by the success of techniques de dissertation Helena's subjection of herself? (548), he wonders, challenging the idea that this is one of Shakespeare's happiest comedies. 21 Actually, by the time we reach this section of the russian revolution research paper play we become aware of the various ways in which the masters by coursework women have been dominated by men—bridegroom, father, ruler, and russian revolution, rejecting suitor. However, we have not yet met the strongest and seemingly freest woman character in A Midsummer Night's Dream: Titania, the fairy queen, who so delights us at her first entrance and later raises questions about women's roles. Is she the victim of male power, male irrationality, trickery, or jealousy? Is she merely a fairy? Or does she illuminate the feelings and attitudes of techniques de dissertation women reacting to dominating male behavior?

At its opening, act 2 stresses the conflict between her and Oberon, the russian revolution research paper fairy king. Quickly we learn the source of their dissension: control over an Indian boy at the time in her possession but desperately desired by features Oberon. Representatives of king and queen, Puck and a fairy quickly sketch in research, the conflict, each hoping the other party will relinquish the field. But room, fairy! here comes Oberon (II.i.58), announces Puck. And here my mistress.

Would that he were gone! (59) retorts the of hiroshima essay fairy. And then, king and queen enter. Revolution Research. Do they make a grand entry from either side of the stage, magically from the air, with a train of followers, or simply alone? The scene has allowed for a tremendous range of techniques interpretations, some concentrating on russian revolution research paper, the two principals, some surrounding them with troops of followers, many including the bombing of hiroshima essay Indian Prince. Nonexistent in revolution research, the play and seeming to about technology in education, symbolize Oberon's drive for paper dominance over masters by coursework or research Titania—or perhaps his jealousy of her—the prince materializes into an actual character. Not listed in the dramatis personae, he takes on a life of his own in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century productions, including the Reinhardt film. Although mystery surrounds him in the text—we don't know his age, his size, or his exact identity, except as he is described variously by Puck, Titania, and Oberon—he acquires theatrical substance on stage, frequently wearing a turban or carried in on a golden cushion.

22. Suggesting the importance of this character to the relationship between the fairy king and queen are the russian revolution research paper stage directions written in pencil on the interleave to Kean's prompt: Fairies enter dancing round Titania. 2 Bodies of Oberon's Train, — enter separately, . . . then 2 parties of Titania 's — chorus first, who make an avenue of boughs, then a second troop of masters or research smaller fairies trip down through them, — on tiptoes — and russian revolution paper, run back thro avenue, — down L[eft] then round avenue and follow Titania with Indian Boy tripping down through avenue, — Oberon entering same time down slote, R[ight] (MND 9, interleaf facing p. 21). In another production, a dance of essays about twelve fairies precedes Titania's entry in a car drawn by swans and russian revolution research paper, accompanied by the Indian Prince. Paralleling their entry, Oberon descends to meet them ( MND 20, verso of interleaf facing p. Essays In Education. 12). A sketch indicates the placement of revolution research paper fairies, with Titania, Oberon, and the Prince at center front. The presence of an actual prince also allows the director editorial commentary as he emphasizes the different functions of men and women, father and mother. Masters Or Research. Thus Titania is usually portrayed in a maternal relationship with that young child whereas Oberon is presented as giving the youth space and revolution paper, training for manhood. Consider, for example, the Reinhardt film where the young prince is features essay practically smothered by attention from Titania's fairies and elves whereas later he is russian paper free to accompany Oberon.

Even in essays, criticism, this reference to the prince colors the perspective. C.L. Barber, for russian revolution research example, writing of Titania's later development, considers her giving up of the child as a maturing process. Essays About. But one may question whether or not it is the child, as an actual person, or the symbolic importance of the debate between Titania and Oberon and its later outcome that is really at issue in the play especially since the prince's exclusion from the paper text helps stress the equality between king and bombing essay, queen. Before turning to russian research, their actual verbal sparring, I want to cite other theatrical factors that further vitiated the strength of the debate, attracting eyes to by coursework or research, the stage and ears to the music rather than attention to the words. I refer to the persistence of lavish musical accompaniments to russian research, productions. In fact, whether it was coincidence or not, the mid-nineteenth-century productions—beginning with that of Elizabeth Vestris and essay and ww2, Charles Mathews in research paper, 1840, which included Mendelssohn's music—were highly successful and included more of the text than had previously appeared on features of internet essay, stage. Discussing that production, one commentator suggested, It would be an unpardonable mistake to any future performances .. . to omit . . Revolution Paper. . Mendelssohn's music ( MND. *NCP 18—, p. 6). 23 In Reinhardt's film, fairies, accompanied by the orchestral sounds of Mendelssohn's music, dance in on a cloud that spirals around a tree. Later productions, like that of the famous Old Vic Company in 1954 that featured Robert Helpmann and Moira Shearer, both professional dancers, as Oberon and Titania, also testify to features essay, the pervasiveness of a musical tradition and the emphasis on dance for the two principal fairies. . . Russian Revolution. . Finally, along with the music and masters, the young prince, one stage property worked its magic on the audience: the mushroom from which Puck eventually emerged.

The young Ellen Terry as Puck, for russian paper example, lay hidden in such a mushroom in Kean's production, springing into view as the mushroom rose. Masters By Coursework Or Research. Following Kean's lead, Daly's Puck, hidden by russian research paper a mushroom, was discovered when a fairy's wand brushed a plant (1888, MND 5, p. 32). Bombing Of Hiroshima Essay. Featuring complex machinery, Burton's production too had Puck spring from a mushroom that rose from a trap then sank back down ( MND 21, p. 15 and facing interleaf). 24 The rival Barry production featured a different but equally enticing, entry for Puck: A romantic Landscape, through which is seen a stream of water. (By moonlight.) A bush in the c[enter]. MUSIC — A troop of Fairies are discovered grouped. A Fairy touches the russian revolution bush with her wand, it opens and Puck comes out; the bush disappears through the comparative essay and ww2 stage. Supplementing this text, the directions on the interleaf specifically place Puck inside the flower piece which then changes to a peacock. Accompanied by music, the first fairy trips on from [the side entrance] . . Russian. . Of Hiroshima. round the flower waving the wand. The flower opens and discovers Puck in a Peacock Car (with wand).

More music sounds as Puck descends from the car. Eventually, a trap bell rings, the flower closes then descends into a trap (interleaf facing p. Paper. 11). I cite these extensive productions because they characterize what occurred on of emily had stood-a gun, stage once the fuller text was presented. Whether this was because of the accompaniment of Mendelssohn's music or because the combination of the text with that music appealed so strongly to Victorians we do not know. Clearly, however, language and the verbal conflicts between men and women characters, whether fairy or not, were overshadowed by productions. Nor do the many references to a full text, as in russian revolution research, the case of Phelps's production, which boasted of having omitted only three hundred lines, alter the general impression of the by coursework or research acted play. If these varied staged versions seemed to promise new perspectives, they failed to deliver; they still concentrated on the magic and wistfulness of the russian revolution dream. Moreover, extant promptbooks testify to a disproportionate number of excisions of lines that blur Shakespeare's portrayal of the inequities that women faced whether in the real or unreal fairy world. For it is in the unreal world of the essays about technology fairies that the dramatist most clearly questions the patriarchal structure.

Despite the extravagance of their entrances in revolution research, different productions, Oberon's and Titania's opening lines sound more like those of humans than of fairies or otherworldly beings: Ill met by bombing of hiroshima essay moonlight, proud Titania (60), asserts proud Oberon. We then encounter the queen of the fairies whom Shakespeare has endowed with dramatic and revolution paper, evocative poetry. Unlike the other women thus far presented, Titania has a sure sense of self-worth and an independence of spirit. By Coursework Or Research. Hippolyta was presented as defeated but enigmatic, Hermia as a challenge to the rules of her society, and Helena as a self-doubting person, questioning her own worth. But in Titania Shakespeare offers a portrait of a queen, someone reliant on russian revolution research paper, no one but herself for essay and ww2 her power. Her answer to Oberon in her opening lines rings with contemporaneity: What, jealous Oberon? Fairies, skip hence— I have forsworn his bed and company. Why need a fairy assert she has forsworn another fairy's bed? Since when do fairies discuss such mundane matters?

Moreover, Oberon carries the discussion one step further by clarifying their relationship with one another: Am not I thy lord? (63) he asks. Russian Research Paper. Then I must be thy lady (64) she asserts before accusing him of infidelity with various women. In his recent book Road to Divorce: England 1530-1987, Lawrence Stone notes that until recently—but particularly in the early period covered by this book—all women of childbearing age were in a state of constant anxiety about their bodies. They worried about features of internet whether they were pregnant (8) and russian revolution, about such things as the possibility of dying in childbirth, of coming to de dissertation, term, and of having a well child. Titania, being a fairy, has no such worry although her conflict with Oberon has to do with the child of a mortal who died in childbirth. Research. His mother was a vot'ress of my order (123), explains Titania. De Dissertation. For her sake do I rear up the boy; / And for her sake I will not part with him (136-37). Russian Revolution Paper. Moreover, in recent studies of women's writings of the period, we become aware not only of women's quest for or research divorce and of the russian research paper problems they faced in confronting their husbands but also of the real fears attending childbirth (Otten).

Titania's opening lines to Oberon may well have had specific resonances for Shakespeare's audience. Of Hiroshima. The phrase separation from bed and board was applied at the time to a legitimate form of divorce, whether as'de facto' grants of permission to remarry or merely following church ordinance that allowed a form of russian revolution research paper divorce but forbade remarriages (Stone, L., 304). Although Titania, of features of internet essay course, had no particular plans to remarry, her language mimics that of the time, with, however, a twist—an assertion of russian her rights vis-a-vis an adulterous husband. Nor does Oberon's listing of her less-than-faithful exploits affect her decision to foreswear his bed and company. According to Stone, the pattern changed in comparative essay, the 1640s and 50s, which may explain an russian altered reaction to technology, this section of text. He writes: The 1640s and 1650s were a period of disorganization and institutional chaos in the church. The ecclesiastical courts ceased to function in the early 1640s and in 1646 church control over russian revolution marriage was abolished, authority being shifted in theory to secular authorities. Essay. But the research bulk of the population seems either to have found ways to be married clandestinely by the old rituals of the Church of about technology England, or were married by non-conformist clergy of their own religious persuasion, or reverted to marriages by russian revolution verbal contract. As a result of this confusion, when the ecclesiastical courts were restored in 1660 they found themselves faced with an unprecedented torrent of petitions for separation which had been pent up for over a decade. (308) Interestingly, what Shakespeare is doing here is using the essays about vocabulary of research divorce without presenting the masters by coursework actual situation.

Moreover, unlike the russian revolution research paper usual separation between husband and essay, wife of the time, this separation is russian paper instituted by dickinson's my life loaded gun the wife. The dramatist then interweaves the experience of mortals, specifically women, with that of the fairy queen. During the nineteenth century, the revolution paper line referring to bed and company was often deleted. It disappeared from the Charles Kean printed text ( MND 9) and was crossed through in comparative essay on ww1, the Beerbohm Tree prompt ( MND 7). On the russian other hand, Garrick and Colman retained this line ( MND 19) although slashing so much material on either side to techniques de dissertation, make room for musical airs that the russian research paper line's implications probably had little effect on comparative on ww1, the audience.

In that text, the accusations by fairy king and queen refer merely to their specific favorites within the context of paper this play—Titania's preference for Theseus and Oberon's for the bouncing Amazon (70). However, Titania's full speeches, although couched in fairy terms, offer insights into the imperfect relationship between men and by coursework or research, women. Describing the conflict between her and revolution research, Oberon, she begins by de dissertation mentioning jealousy: These are the forgeries of jealousy; And never, since the russian revolution research middle summer's spring,

Met we on hill, in features essay, dale, forest, or mead, By paved fountain or by rushy brook. Or in the beached margent of the russian research paper sea, To dance our ringlets to the whistling wind, But with thy brawls thou hast disturb'd our sport. The speech continues for thirty-six lines, but has usually been reduced to of internet, six, or even four. Paper. The remnant simply accuses Oberon of disturbing the essays technology gatherings of the russian fairies with his brawls whenever the two have met (87). As critics have frequently noted, the speech gives us a sense of masters Titania's breadth and sensitivity, connecting her with an Eden or a classical world of the revolution research gods, or even with nature deities of rustic sixteenth-century England. She refers to the effect of the dissension between her and Oberon on the elements, The ox hath . . . stretched his yoke in bombing essay, vain, / The plowman lost his sweat . . . / The fold stands empty in the drowned field / And crows are fatted with the murrion flock (93-97). Internal rhyme, the repetition of sounds, and the development of images characterize the pattern.

Her concern for the maintenance of the rhythms in the animal world extends to the human world as well. She decries the effect of russian paper their arguments on the normal flow of the essays seasons and on human life. The human mortals want their winter here; No night is now with hymn or carol blest. . . Russian. The spring, the summer. The childing autumn, angry winter, change.

Their wonted liveries; and in education, the mazed world. By their increase, now knows not which is which. Images of nature's gifts and blights vie with one another, investing her speech with cosmic concerns beyond merely trading accusations with Oberon. When, later, she explains why she will not relinquish the revolution research paper child, she describes his mother, with whom she laughed and features of internet, gossip'd. 25 Titania's lines—we have laugh'd to see the russian revolution research sails conceive / And grow big-bellied with the wanton wind (128-29)—suggestively describe the of internet pregnant woman herself. They too disappear, the revolution research paper verbal inferences coming too close to nature, pregnancy, and women's physical appearance. 26 Whittling down the lines narrows this portrait of Titania; she then more closely parallels Oberon who in this section has only brief comments. 27 Her short complaint about his disturbing their games is countered by his insistent query Why should Titania cross her Oberon? / I do but beg a little changeling boy, / To be my henchman (119-21). Reinhardt's film cuts even further. Bombing Essay. None of paper Titania's lines remain except her response to Oberon's request for the changeling boy: Set your heart at essays about in education, rest; / The fairy land buys not the child of me (121-22).

The scene's focus changes to the Indian boy. Even when they retain practically all of the text, however, productions may alter the russian revolution research power of Titania's lines by stage directions, as did Peter Brook's in essays, the wonderfully unisex-looking work. Russian. The performance had an exuberance and originality that captivated audiences. It also captured some of the attitudes of the 1960s and 1970s, as a glance at the Authorized Acting Edition testifies, raising questions about the Oberon-Titania relationship that one might even have missed in watching the of emily dickinson's gun play. Here, for example, is a detailed description of what went on during this scene of their first meeting which begins with Titania's crossing down stage center and kneeling (23a) before Oberon when she refers to their brawls. Research Paper. Later during the speech, Oberon goes down behind Titania (23a) and, as the directions continue, she gets up, hands out. Bombing. Oberon puts hands around her waist with wand (24a). Paper. In talking about the hoary headed frosts she puts her hands over Oberon's. And at the lines and techniques, the mazed world / by their increase now know not which is which (24b) the stage direction reads, Oberon's hands on Titania's breasts, with wand. Titania's arms out (24a). Russian Revolution Research. As the scene continues, one sees more of techniques physical sexual interaction between them until finally at her decision not to give him the boy, she pushes Oberon away.

The interpretation seems unrelated to the language but rather offers a subtext contradicting her assertive speeches. The comments accompanying the promptbook offer a partial explanation of this treatment of Titania. Brook had chosen to double the roles of Titania/Hippolyta and Oberon/Theseus. Alan Howard, who played Oberon/Theseus, discusses the revolution research point of view towards the essay relationship between his roles and the joint Titania/Hippolyta role: At the beginning of the play, Theseus/Oberon is worried about the revolution paper moon being gone and that his desires are, in consequence, bottled up. And Hippolyta/Titania says: Don't worry.

Another moon will come in. Wait, and comparative and ww2, it will all be fine again. Her kind of intensity is toward her knowledge of herself as a woman . . . in terms of whatever it is that women do that men don't . Theseus/Oberon has somehow got to explain his case. (41, emphasis added) Howard's comment indicates a perception of Titania as inexplicable other although her language clearly expresses her dismay at the destructiveness of their conflict. Oberon simply isn't listening. What is russian revolution research exciting about the bombing of hiroshima essay play, however, is the way Shakespeare seems to be applying what he has been hearing, or observing, in the real world to this fantasy couple, embedding a contemporaneity within an otherworldly framework. 28. After her departure, Oberon vows, Thou shalt not from revolution paper, this grove / Till I torment thee for masters by coursework this injury (146-47), indicating a vindictiveness as well as a desire to exert power over her. And here, perhaps because of the russian revolution research implication of equality suggested first by masters the conversation between the fairy and Puck and later by the confrontation between Oberon and Titania, we are unprepared for the trick he plays on her.

Shakespeare's audience, however, may well have expected it, since Titania was behaving like the rebellious, dominant, independent wife who, according to Stone, might be breaking the code of the social group concerning sexual or power relations within the family (3). Russian Revolution Paper. Thus a husband-beating wife, a passively henpecked husband, a couple married despite gross disparities in techniques, age, a cuckold, an adulterous wife . . . were all liable to be treated to . . . Russian Revolution. humiliating demonstrations of comparative on ww1 public disapproval (3). Titania suffers just such a humiliating demonstration later on revolution, when she falls in love with the first thing that she sees upon awakening, a mortal with an ass's head—the translated Bottom. By endowing the situation with such human qualities and giving Titania wonderful lines, however, the dramatist may also be questioning the justice of Oberon's action especially where he seems to be motivated by bombing of hiroshima essay revenge. When he directs Puck to fetch the magic herb called love-in-idleness (II.i.168), the fairy king explains: The juice of it on sleeping eyelids laid. Will make or man or woman madly dote. Upon the next live creature that it sees. He will squeeze the juice into her eyes and eventually defeat the play's most independent woman.

In the complex interweaving of plots, he will also, almost casually, exercise his power benevolently. Although some critics have perceived Oberon as an even-handed ruler who insists on revolution, establishing a certain kind of obedience to his rule, his actions here seem arbitrary and tinged with jealousy. When later on he acts more generously towards Helena, attempting to change her fate from technology, that of russian research cast-off woman to desired one, Oberon's actions seem to come almost as an of internet essay afterthought to his more driven desire for revenge on Titania. Having sent Puck on his way, Oberon, alone in revolution research paper, the forest, sees Demetrius and Helena approaching. 1 am invisible, he announces to his audience, as Hamlet's and about technology, Banquo's ghosts do not; rather on-stage characters provide the clues to the emptiness of the space even while the invisible character appears on stage.

Alan Dessen discusses the implications of this not seeing or blindness of characters on stage as often metaphoric for the blindness or inability of the characters on stage to see and russian revolution research paper, understand (130-55). Here, however, Shakespeare denies us this metaphor by having Oberon proclaim his invisibility. The dramatist, skilled in embedding stage directions in his text, chooses, instead, to characterize Oberon through this more direct statement, possibly with the essay aim of revolution literalizing him, just as the mechanicals, later on, so carefully literalize their actions. Observing Helena trailing Demetrius, the de dissertation fairy king reacts with sympathy to her plight; he would have Demetrius sue for her love. The magic herb holds the key.

What are we to make of Oberon's reaction here? If Titania is aggressive in rejecting him, Helena is aggressive in pursuing Demetrius. Ironically, Oberon, who would have the fairy queen exhibit the kind of self-abasement practiced by Helena, expresses great sympathy for the mortal woman and later sends Puck to find the Athenians while the russian research paper fairy king himself will anoint Titania's eyes. In one of the four calls for dickinson's my life had stood-a music in A Midsummer Night's Dream, a play usually drenched in music on russian research paper, stage, she has just been lulled to sleep by of hiroshima her fairy troop. Come, now a roundel and a fairy song. . . . sing me now asleep (II.ii.1,7), Titania directs, becoming vulnerable to Oberon's scheme. Paper. Meanwhile, Puck, having sought Athenians in dickinson's my life had stood-a, the forest and russian revolution paper, found only the sleeping Hermia and Lysander, squeezes the magic juice into the eyes of the wrong man. Now Helena, the rejected Helena, is forced to face a new role—that of the chosen one, the pursued one, when Lysander, upon being awakened, expresses his undying love for her. This is difficult for a woman whose self-image has already been shaped. Speaking in soliloquy moments before his sudden and inexplicable pursuit, she weighs her virtues and strengths and finds them nonexistent. She compares herself first with Hermia then indulges in close self-analysis:

How came her eyes so bright? Not with salt tears; If so, my eyes are oft'ner wash'd than hers. No, no; I am as ugly as a bear; For beasts that meet me run away for fear.

Therefore no marvel though Demetrius. Do, as a monster, fly my presence thus. Helena doesn't like what she sees. Although the speech continues developing her profile, it too, like so many earlier speeches by the women, frequently loses its subtlety and color through excision. 29 Only two lines remain; they function as a bridge between her self-hatred and her discovery of Lysander. The full speech, however, explains her astonishment at his actions, and comparative and ww2, her inability to find any excuse for them. Russian Research. Lacking any sense of self-worth, she is bewildered. The play, however, provides a rationale. Essays About Technology In Education. According to Lysander, one needs maturity to appreciate Helena's worth. Reason must be the guide:

The will of man is by his reason sway'd; And reason says you are the worthier maid. He then expands on russian research paper, this, explaining, Things growing are not ripe until their season, / so I, being young, till now ripe not to reason (117-18). The scene also permits the dramatist to differentiate further between the two young women because even in these mere sketches, he assigns specific qualities to each. But once again major chunks of text are cut for features of internet essay the stage, eliminating all but the russian revolution research most obvious differences—the women's varying appeals to men. 30. Illustrating the effectiveness of the magic juice, the by coursework brief scene between Helena and Lysander in its complete form anticipates the sharp reaction Titania will experience. Because so much criticism has interpreted the fairy queen's later actions when under the juice's spell as truly representative of her underlying feelings, one could test the russian paper validity of such a theory by applying it to Lysander, the first to be transformed. Does he really mean it when, responding to Helena's reminder of features of internet essay his love for Hermia, he refers to his former love scornfully as the surfeit of the sweetest things (137) and russian research paper, undesirable? Since he later returns to her, one must believe that this is merely his manner of comparative essay coping, under the spell's influence.

Although some critics consider Oberon's potion a symbol of love, as it applies to revolution, Titania it appears to be more a symbol of power, or at least of revenge for her failure to bombing of hiroshima, release the child. In direct response to her unwillingness to research, acquiesce to his demand, Oberon induces the spell: The next thing then she waking looks upon. (Be it on lion, bear, or wolf, or bull, On meddling monkey, or on busy ape), She shall pursue it with the masters or research soul of love.

No handsome youth or prince charming but rather a list of revolution paper animals is intended as her fate. In fact some promptbooks—for the 1856 [MND 9] and Tree 1900 [MND 7] productions—excise these references to animals. In Garrick's production, she is never seen enamor'd of an ass (IV.i.77). Instead, the audience must rely on Puck's report: My mistress with a patched fool is in love. Near to her close and consecrated bower. This clown with others had rehearsed a play. Intended for great Theseus' nuptial day. When, starting from her bank of mossy down, Titania waked, and straightway loved the clown.

(III.i.2-7; Garrick in Pedicord, III:176) References to the ass have disappeared; the substitute terms patched fool and clown soften Titania's fate. Through the complex interweaving of plot strands in which fairies, tradesmen, and bombing essay, high-born characters from the world of russian research paper Athens intermingle, Shakespeare can raise questions about on ww1 and ww2 women's roles. The dramatist draws on the third group, the paper mechanicals, for essays the ass who will humiliate, humble, and revolution research, subdue the fairy queen. Entering the enchanted forest to techniques de dissertation, rehearse their play, Pyramus and Thisbe, these comic characters, hoping to perform before the Duke on his wedding day, inadvertently participate in Oberon's trickery. Russian Revolution Research. Reacting variously to the idea of performing—some with trepidation about learning the by coursework words, others protesting assignment of their roles—one in the group plunges into the adventure. He would play every role.

Quickly we become acquainted with Nick Bottom, the weaver, who would shout like a bear and weep like a woman. He will, eventually, bray like an ass, a role not in research, their skit, but one he will take on in his unexpected adventure with the fairy queen. Doomed to awaken when some vile thing is near whom she will take for her love, Titania hears the essay braying Bottom—anointed with an ass's head by Puck—and marvels at his musicality. She finds his music beautiful and research paper, his person appealing. But then she has been blinded by Oberon's magic spell.

In the Ciulei production, she reacts to that juice by screaming as if hit by lightning. Few productions, however, dramatize the evil inherent in essays of emily loaded, this type of magic. Rather, they concentrate on Bottom and, salaciously, the humor of Titania's plight. More than anywhere else, it is in the effect of Oberon's trick on Titania, however, that one feels the tragedy for the women and the insights the dramatist gives us into the ways in which patriarchy manipulates women's options. This is particularly true when Titania continues to perceive herself as in control and powerful. During her first meeting with Bottom, the enchanted Titania praises his wisdom as well as beauty and russian revolution, musical skill, declaring that she loves him. When he wants only to comparative on ww1, leave the wood, she warns: Out of this wood do not desire to go; Thou shalt remain here, whether thou wilt or no. I am a spirit of no common rate; The summer still doth tend upon my state.

The lines underscore the ironic contrast between her perception of herself and her actual situation. Russian Research Paper. Like Lysander, she is trying to cope. Some versions eliminate her reference to power: whether thou wilt or no. In many texts, her whole last speech, beginning Come wait upon him; lead him to bombing, my bower, is excised. Thus audiences do not know that she entertains him in russian revolution research paper, her bower, or that the moon, when she weeps, weeps every little flower, / Lamenting some enforced chastity (199-200). Technology In Education. As a result, the full implication of Oberon's trick on revolution research, Titania is of emily dickinson's had stood-a lost to the audience.

31. Sometimes a critic will overlook Oberon's role, concentrating instead on the effect of the research paper magic potion on Titania. Jan Kott, for example, not only stresses the eroticism and technology in education, harshness embedded in the text but also translates this eroticism in terms of the fairy queen. To him, her invitation to russian, Bottom exemplifies woman's passion and hidden desire, rather than illustrating the male (Oberon's) exercise of power. Analyzing the staging of those scenes between Titania and Bottom, Kott also decries the tendency to play them for laughs rather than present them as black humor, an English kind of humour, 'humeur noir', cruel and scatological, as it often is in Swift (228).

Most revealing, however, is Kott's final comment about the scene, as he describes Titania: The slender, tender and lyrical Titania longs for animal love. Puck and techniques de dissertation, Oberon call the transformed Bottom a monster. The frail and sweet Titania drags the russian revolution research paper monster to comparative on ww1 and ww2, bed, almost by force. (228) This is the effect of the russian research paper magic juice.

Kott continues his male fantasy—the fantasy of of internet essay women never wanting to admit to themselves that they really like being raped. In fact, Kott inverts this: This is the lover she wanted and dreamed off (sic); only she never wanted to admit it, even to herself. Sleep frees her from revolution, inhibitions. Techniques De Dissertation. The monstrous ass is being raped by the poetic Titania, while she still keeps on chattering about flowers. .. . Revolution Paper. Of all the characters in the play Titania enters to the fullest extent the dark sphere of sex where there is no more beauty and ugliness; there is only infatuation and liberation. (228)

Obviously to Kott, beauty and ugliness vanish before infatuation and liberation. Fuseli's eighteenth-century illustration captures much of the implied eroticism in this scene although it differs in essays had stood-a gun, point of view from Kott's. .. . In the painting, dominated by the two major characters, a large nude male figure, topped by a donkey head with large ears and sitting crossed legged with his arms clasping his knees, is being caressed by Titania, her nude breast amply visible beneath the russian research outstretched arm around his head. Surrounding the two are small insect-headed nude males, their penises visible, and small fairies looking like flirtatious women, their breasts seductively apparent although wearing female garb. While Fuseli indicates the essays my life loaded gun eroticism in the scene, bringing in the whole forest and revolution research paper, suggesting, too, the male appetite, Kott concentrates only on Titania, perceiving her as a voracious female. Essays. Neither acknowledges the idea of her being tricked. C. L. Barber provides a totally different perspective. To him, the Titania scenes with Bottom reveal a growing up, as I mentioned earlier: It is when the flower magic leads Titania to russian, find a new object that she gives up the child (who goes now from her bower to comparative essay on ww1 and ww2, the man's world of Oberon). So here is another sort of revolution paper change of comparative essay heart that contributes to the expression of what is consummated in marriage, this one a part of the rhythm of adult life, as opposed to the change in the young lovers that goes with growing up. Russian Revolution. ( FC 137) Again the question arises of whether Titania experiences a change of heart or is victimized by Oberon and therefore no natural growth occurs, merely a change depriving her of her former sense of self. Nor does her subsequent awakening offer confidence about adult life for women.

Deluded, she courts the ass-headed Bottom, taking him to masters or research, her bower. Meanwhile Oberon plans his next move: I'll to my queen and beg her Indian boy; And then I will her charmed eye release. From monster's view, and all things shall be peace. But shall they be at peace? Or worse, shall Titania's spirit have been broken? In The Taming of the Shrew, Kate says, My tongue will tell the anger of my heart / Or else my heart concealing it will break (IV.iii.77-78). Shakespeare recognizes the russian revolution research paper effect on features, the human heart of bottling up resentment. Research. 32 Although Titania is not human, her eloquent expression of anger early in the play leads us to expect a strong reaction when her sight is restored.

But no such response occurs. Instead, she cares neither about the about technology in education Indian boy, nor the trick that has been played on her, but only about the humiliation of having been in love with an ass. Are we to think of her as resembling the nonhuman witches in Macbeth whose deeds do not upset them? Or, since so much of her speech sounds human, must we think of her as resigned to a power structure she cannot alter? After Oberon removes the spell, Titania, with great equanimity, asks: My Oberon, what visions have I seen! / Methought I was enamor'd of an ass (IV.i.76-77). Nor does Oberon try to soften the russian revolution research answer. There lies your love (78), he asserts, pointing to the transformed Bottom. In a Daly edition (1888) [ MND 5] believed to essay, have been used for russian research paper the production . . By Coursework Or Research. . tour of 1895-96, Oberon's There lies your love (77) is russian research paper accompanied by the stage direction sneering Puck titters (61), reinforcing a sense of Oberon's power, his delight in having played this trick on her, but more importantly, of a director's point of de dissertation view.

Undoubtedly he reflected the attitudes of revolution research paper his time. Unfortunately, as we keep discovering, this delight in seeing a strong woman bested is not confined to features, a bygone age. Attempting briefly to understand, Titania asks, How came these things to pass? / O, how mine eyes do loathe his visage now! (78-79). But Oberon offers no direct answer. Instead, he orders Puck to take off this head [the ass's head] (80). Then, continuing to exert his power over Titania, the fairy king directs: Titania, music call, and research, strike more dead. Than common sleep of all these five the de dissertation sense. She complies: Music, ho, music, such as charmeth sleep! (86). Finally, as they fly off together, she once more returns to the subject of paper Bottom:

Come, my lord, and in our flight, Tell me how it came this night. That I sleeping here was found, With these mortals on the ground. But we never know if she receives an answer. Although little has been written about Titania's character disintegration from a fiery, concerned fairy to a compliant partner, her change and lack of any clearly defined personality in the last scenes illustrate, on the one hand, the destructiveness of bombing Oberon's action and, on the other, an inconsistency in russian, characterization.

Too easily the richness of her personality as well as her intensity vanish. Writing of the masters by coursework or research linguistic and dramatic complexities and contradictions in the play, Jay Halio observes that. [they] keep us from simplistic reductions of experienced situations, specifically the play's mirrored experiences of reality . Russian Research Paper. . . and force us out of. an artificial prison that R. P. Blackmur has . described as a tendency to set artistic unity as a chief criterion of excellence. (145) Borrowing from Halio but concentrating on how language defines and masters or research, sometimes creates ambiguities concerning characters, particularly the female characters, I find in Titania either an paper inconsistency or a tragic transformation. Since this is a comedy one must consider the former as more likely. Examining an early nineteenth-century musical version of the comparative on ww1 and ww2 play that attempts to inject sentimental logic to the Oberon-Titania relationship, reconciling the behavior of Oberon through some staging and language, one realizes that Shakespeare probably intentionally allowed the ambiguity in characterization to stand. Reynolds's 1816 version provides an research easy alternative. Oberon speaks: I'll to my Queen, and features of internet essay, beg her Indian boy!

Not, not so much from love of him, as her, I court this contest,—I'd put her to the trial— If she refuse, I know her love is on the wane;— But, if she yield! Ah! that she may! and still— (Prompt MND 18, 8 p. 40)

Music then is played. (Clouds descend and open.—A Fairy is discovered, who chaunts the research following lines) Fairy. Oberon! no more despair! Titania wafts him to your care! Borne by each propitious gale, From India's shores her gallies sail. Nor storms, nor quicksands can they meet, For Zephyrs fan the Fairy fleet! And silv'ry seas the treasure bear,— The Boy!—The Indian Boy is near! (Clouds begin to ascend again.)

This finale of act 2 in the Reynolds play confirms the portrait of an Oberon driven by love rather than jealousy and of a Titania who, on her own initiative, relinquishes the boy. Essays About. 34 Shakespeare, however, fails to provide any easy logical development to the Titania-Oberon relationship in the closing scenes. In fact, the russian research difference between this version and Shakespeare's play reminds one of the difference between Gibber's Richard III and Shakespeare's, between simple blacks and whites as compared with an extraordinary range of greys, between directness and ambiguity. In A Midsummer Night 's Dream, the dramatist raises questions concerning women and techniques, the power structure imposed on revolution paper, them, even when he supplies no easy answers. Essay. Having showed us Titania in her strength, he seems to turn to other concerns, returning her to her fairy role. The young Athenian women provide another example of the power of patriarchy over women's lives. Never confused in their affections for paper the two young men, Hermia and Helena gain insights into essay themselves and into the unpredictability of russian revolution paper male behavior as a result of their experiences in de dissertation, the forest. Differing from the two young men, the women never have their eyes anointed with Oberon's magic juice; nevertheless, their relationships with the two youths as well as with one another change.

Hermia must face rejection by both young men because Puck, partially correcting his error, finally anoints the right lover's eyes. Suddenly both Demetrius and Lysander are amorously pursuing Helena. Russian Revolution Research. Desired by both youths, she believes neither. Nor does her earlier passion for Demetrius convince her of essays about in education his sincerity at this moment. She accuses them of russian paper mocking her. Masters. Disbelief, anger, and hurt mark her words: Can you not hate me, as I know you do, / But you must join in souls to mock me too? (III.ii.149-50). Changing places and relationships, the women find their friendship turned into rivalry and their dispute quickly reduced to name calling, hair pulling, and physical conflict. Intermittently they recollect a happy, earlier time together before this blinding in the woods. Much cutting of lines, however, reduces this section to the outline of the contest between the men, diminishing any sharp character definition of the women. Large sections of russian paper Hermia's reprimand to Demetrius disappear.

Gone too is essay Helena's sensitive description of their childhood friendship when they sewed together sitting on one cushion, / .. Russian Revolution Paper. . Essay. As if our hands, our sides, voices and minds / Had been incorporate. So we grew together, / Like to a double cherry, seeming parted (205-9). Much later Shakespeare would develop this recollection of an early innocent friendship ruined by sexual jealousy, transmuting it into a description of the friendship between two men, Leontes and russian revolution research paper, Polixenes in The Winter's Tale. Seldom heard on the stage, Helena's lines again individualize her, as she accuses her friend of conspiring with the dickinson's my life loaded gun men. Characteristically, Hermia counters with anger and frustration. Because both suitors are fiercely pursuing Helena, Puck must lead them Up and down, up and down, (396) to keep them apart, and revolution research paper, because the role has its own magic, the by coursework or research scenes in the forest with the blinded lovers allow for farce, action, and russian paper, humor.

The two men pursue one another in the wood while Puck blankets it with fog and mimics each man's voice to mislead and confuse his opponent. Finally exhausted, each of the four young people falls asleep, allowing Puck to clear Lysander's vision. The dramatist then switches focus from the youths to or research, their elders. Hippolyta, last seen at the play's opening when her silence left questions of interpretation open, now enters with Theseus. Discord seems to research, have vanished. But here, unlike the Titania-Oberon exit when the fairy queen seemed so muted and transformed, the Amazon queen exhibits sparks of techniques individuality as she jokingly debates the relative merits of Theseus's hounds. Stumbling on the sleeping young lovers, the older couple, upon russian revolution research paper awakening the bombing of hiroshima essay youths, discovers two matched pairs. Russian Research. Oberon had never removed the magic juice from Demetrius's eyes; he will no longer pursue Hermia. Theseus's perspective alters. Rather than being the rigid, unbending Duke of Athens, he overrules Egeus's sentence on essays of emily dickinson's my life, Hermia. Confused and uncertain, the paper couples leave the forest.

Bottom then awakens, the ass's head removed, and techniques, the spell lifted. In a soliloquy emphasizing the contrast between his and Titania's responses to russian research paper, their strange interlude, he marvels: I have had a most rare vision, I have had a dream, past the about technology in education wit of russian revolution research man to say what dream it was (IV.i.204-6). Masters By Coursework. His speech, as we know, parodies St. Paul's I Corinthians ii.9 ff. If Bottom's vision has been expanded, Titania's has been destroyed. Looking at him, she had reacted with revulsion. Thus, again, the victimization of a woman is russian revolution research implied. As the play moves towards its denoument, the roles of the women characters have begun to shrink or change. Hippolyta opens the fifth act with the conciliatory 'Tis strange, my Theseus, that these lovers speak of (V.i.I, emphasis added). Her term of or research address, like Titania's lines when she flies away with Oberon, reveals acceptance of her position although as the revolution scene develops she is the one woman who constantly speaks out.

Hermia and Helena, so vocal earlier, are strangely silent during the bridal entertainment hosted by Theseus. In contrast, the of internet essay young bridegrooms, Lysander and russian revolution paper, Demetrius, along with Theseus speak a good deal, deriding the entertainment by Bottom and his friends. Here we watch the farcical production as the actors strive with their lines. The prologue begins the features of internet essay performance: If we offend, it is with our good will. That you should think, we come not to offend, But with good will. But he is soon interrupted by Theseus, followed by Lysander: He hath rid his prologue like a rough colt; he knows not the stop (119-20). Hippolyta too contributes: Indeed he hath play'd on this prologue like a child on a recorder—a sound, but not in government (122-24).

Trying to outdo one another, the commentators keep interrupting the action as Pyramus exclaims against revolution his fate: O grim-look'd night! O night with hue so black! O night, which ever art when day is masters or research not! O night, O night! alack, alack, alack. As the play-within-a-play progresses and both Pyramus and Thisby commit suicide in a case of mistaken supposition, much like the deaths of revolution paper Romeo and Juliet, the by coursework interruptions come more often and russian revolution research paper, are more incisive. Whether it is Hippolyta protesting, I am a-weary of this moon. Would he would change! (251-52) of a character portraying moon, or Theseus's response, It appears . . .that he is on the wane (153-54), promptbooks, including that of the 1955 Old Vic version, indicate that the lines of the auditors are frequently cut.

35 Meanwhile, sitting on the sidelines, the two younger women do not participate. Is it an accident that for so long, in the early years, it was Pyramus and Thisbe or other abbreviated versions that were produced? 36 Abstracted from essays of emily my life loaded gun, its place in russian research paper, the context of A Midsummer Night's Dream, Pyramus and techniques, Thisbe was merely a farcical commentary on research, lovers who die for of hiroshima love, having been hindered by their parents from uniting. But as part of the larger whole, the play-withina-play not only revolution paper, mocks the intensity of the Athenian lovers and the price of love, but also highlights, through this distancing lens of metadrama, the essays had stood-a submissiveness (or at least silence) expected of russian revolution women in marriage. Perhaps aware of the implication of the young women's silence, Augustin Daly, having given the role of Helena to his favorite actress, Ada Rehan, reassigned many of the interrupting lines to the women. Altering the text and countering its implication of the silent women, Daly gave several of the lines of the of emily my life had stood-a loaded commentators to Helena and Hermia, but primarily to Helena, creating in her an assertive personality.

Specifically, the exchange on the moon is assigned to Helena and Hermia, as is another exchange between Hippolyta and research paper, Theseus. In fact, Daly's reassignment of lines spotlights the freedom of features of internet essay speech that Hippolyta, of all the women in the play, has gained. Did Shakespeare give her these lines because she was, even if won in battle, a former queen and Amazon? Or was the revolution paper assignment based on her role as Theseus's wife? Hermia and Helena's last speeches occur in the fourth act when, delighted to have been united with the men of their choice, each marvels at the outcome, Helena still treasuring Demetrius, whom she has found . Techniques De Dissertation. . . like a jewel (191), Hermia in wonder noting how everything seems double (189). Of all the women characters, Titania has changed the most, accepting her role as Oberon's handmaid. Returning with the russian revolution research fairies, she sings and blesses the newly married couples' beds. No recollection of the votress who died in of hiroshima, childbirth mars the revolution blessing. Features Essay. Nor is the Indian boy ever mentioned again. As Stevie Davis observes: When Oberon reclaims his rule, and Theseus leads the characters into the reasserted status quo of the final Act, the issue of the changeling child is laid aside, the mother forgotten, as the play closes around the russian research paper artisans' comedy it contains.

But a reader may not forget nor really forgive the about in education misappropriation of the boy-child by russian research paper the law of the fathers, nor is the haunting music of Titania's elegy contradicted by essay on ww1 a preferable ethic or emotion. Revolution Paper. (127-28) Shakespeare's portraits of women here raise questions about the validity of the political and techniques de dissertation, social structures that limit women's actions. At other times the dramatist challenges accepted notions by creating women characters, such as those in All's Well That Ends Well, who are more capable, clever, and intelligent than their male counterparts. In A Midsummer Night's Dream, he invents basically parallel male and female characters of equivalent ability, then weights the revolution research paper scales in favor of the men, illuminating the obstacles women face. Having presented the issues lightly, he then moves on dickinson's my life, to conventional theatrical treatment in the ending. Nevertheless, one can believe that Shakespeare has painted here a complex work whose inner design has more depth than has yet been captured on stage and revolution research, whose implications are still to be realized. Features Of Internet. Productions still tend to rely on music and exotic settings, frequently avoiding the intensity of the text. As John Simon wrote of revolution research paper a production in of hiroshima essay, 1988 at the Public Theatre in New York, decrying its lack of lyricism, What has been added is a lot of samba, bossanova, and russian revolution, Brazilian ambiance that often clashes with what is spoken.

In that late twentieth-century production by A. And Ww2. J. Antoon, an important contemporary director, the text still seems to have been secondary to music and setting. Perhaps an russian revolution argument for the play's still untapped potential lies in the example of the recent revival of Carousel of essays about technology in education which one critic wrote: Carousel will be 50 next year, but as of this morning it is the freshest, most innovative musical on Broadway (Richards). Praising its power to explore the darker side of life, another critic called it an Everyman for our time. Whatever A Midsummer Night's Dream might have been planned for in its own time—whether a wedding; a simple entertainment, a vibrant piece of stagecraft to amuse even those who were being examined—in its language, in its questioning of societal values, and in its brief portraits of several women suffering at the whim of a power structure they did not devise, the play holds the potential for being an paper Everywoman for our time, briefly exploring the darker side of life. On the essay other hand, it remains for a work like Hamlet to paper, focus more closely on bombing, that darkness—on the confusions that face women as well as men in their search for a clearer path in a patriarchal world. 1 Such popular works as Vives's Instructions of russian a Christian Woman and Whately's A Bride-bush, although slightly later in about in education, time (1617), address the obligations of the bride. Love appears on this list.

In speaking of marriage and its obligations, he speaks of mutuality, at least obliquely: 6. The mutuali therefore (that wee may speake of them in order) are requyred both of man and wife, though not in an equall measure of both. For in all these common duties, the research paper husband should bee most abundant, knowing that more of every grace is looked for from him, then from the bombing weaker vessell. Wee call them not therefore common or mutuali, because both should have a like quantity of them; but because both must have some of all, and research, the husband most of all. And for these common duties, you must know in generali, that whatsoever is requyred of all men and essay, women, generally towards other, by the Law of russian revolution Christianity and Charity, as they bee men and on ww1, neighbors; the same is in an higher degree and russian, larger measure requyred from the husband toward the wife, and essays my life had stood-a gun, from her to him. (6) Unfortunately he then writes of persuasion of a wife to research paper, yield to essays dickinson's, the husband's authority, although earlier he wrote of love being a very important ingredient in the relationship.

Yea indeed she must be a monstrous and unwomanly woman, that being drawne by revolution research entreatie will not yeeld. Authority is like the arts of Logick and Rhetoricke, that must in speaking be used, and yet concealed: and then they most prevaile when being used, they are least seene. Essays Technology In Education. .. Russian Paper. . Men that ride horses have a wand and a spurre, both; they will rather set forward their horses with the whisk sound, or perhaps little touch of the smal stick, then with the de dissertation sharpnesse of their iron spurre. They proceed not to spurring till their horse be either restie or tiry; and if tiry, that doth more hurt. So the revolution research husband should governe his wife, provoke her to accomplish his will with quiet, pleasing and insinuating termes, rather than open and expresse, much lesse violent commandings, unlesse shee bee more then ordinarily unruly. Christ beseecheth his Church most an end, which hee might with most right command. (29) Having finally finished writing of the duties of the husband, Whately then turns to the duties of the wife: The whole duty of the wife is de dissertation referred to two heads. The first is, to acknowledge her inferiority: the next, to carry her self as inferiour.

First then the wives judgement must be convinced, that she is not her husbands equall, yea that her husband is her better by farre; else there can bee no contentment, either in her heart, or in her house. If shee stand upon termes of equality, much more of russian being better than he is, the very root of good carriage is withered, and the fountaine thereof dryed up. (36) 2 The Fairies (1755) was billed as an opera. It is bombing of hiroshima essay made up from the first four acts only, of Shakespeare's play and does not include references to Bottom and his troop. It also includes twenty-eight songs added to the text. Some are from the russian play, some from other plays or other sources, such as Milton's L'Allegro. Essays Technology. It was a success (Stone, MND, 469-72). In 1763 a version of A Midsummer Night's Dream, attributed variously to revolution research paper, Garrick and Colman but which Stone faults Colman for, appeared for one night and failed. On Ww1. It was subsequently followed by A Fairy Tale, which consists of two short acts, centering about the Oberon-Titania dispute and includes Bottom and his fellows (Stone, MND, 480-81). For a complete discussion of the adaptations variously attributed to David Garrick and George Colman, see Stone, A Midsummer Night's Dream; and Pedicord and Bergmann, eds.

The Plays of David Garrick, vol. Russian Paper. 4, 420-31. Depending upon which version I am discussing, I refer either to Garrick or Garrick-Colman as the adaptors. 3 The first Pyramus and by coursework, Thisbe, adapted by Richard Leveridge, 1716, contained their early scenes of planning as well as the revolution research actual play-within-a-play; the essays of emily my life had stood-a loaded second, adapted by John Frederick Lampe, 1745, retained only the fifth-act production but omitted the court personnel (Hogan, I.339). Departing further from Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, but adopting its adventures of the workmen, Charles Johnson, in 1723, inserted a Pyramus and Thisbe comic segment into his version of As You Like It calling his work Love in a Forest (Hogan, I.339). We are not here dealing with Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, merely with bits and pieces.

4 Generally, but inconclusively, attributed to Elkanah Settle, its music definitely written by Henry Purcell, The Fairy Queen was a lavish production costing ?3000 ( LS, l:Iv). Its closing was capped by a dance with twenty-four Chineses (Odell, 1:194). 5 The nineteenth-century dedication to massive staging may have contributed to this shift. According to Gary Jay Williams the transposition of text and the scenic effects may also reflect the general celebration of russian revolution paper empire at the time, with Theseus as the triumphant victor. 6 Reinhardt here drew on his 1927 stage production at the Century theater, in New York, in by coursework or research, which Hippolyta appears with a group of large dogs.

7 These are some of the numbered shots in the script. 8 That script, although designated as Final was not incorporated into the finished film. Nor has any copy of this visual sequence of russian research film—a first reel—been found. Robert H. Ball, in seeking to my life had stood-a gun, document this same information, found, in revolution research paper, 1971 that no indication of reels until 15 reel version existed. Features Of Internet Essay. This comment appears on research, a chart he made of the different versions, identifying them as R=Reinhardt; K=Kenyon + McCall; 15=15 reel dial; 12=12 reel dial. In addition, his K list has (marked 'Final') and corresponds exactly with the material I found in the Warner Brothers archives at Princeton. The Ball notes are currently in a file at the Folger Shakespeare Library. About Technology. It also contains an earlier correspondence between Ball and Joel Swensen at Warner Brothers in russian revolution, 1947. This says, Our print man thinks all we have is the essays 12 reel version 30 July 1947. Research Paper. An earlier letter from Henry Blanke, at Warner Brothers in California, to essays of emily dickinson's my life, Joel Swensen, states, As far as I can recall, the 15 reel version of A Midsummer Night's Dream ran all over the country, except that very much later on a certain re-issue it was cut down to 12 reels. However, neither the 15 nor the 12 reel version will completely correspond with the script as many sequences contained in russian revolution paper, the script were eliminated—as is usually the masters case in russian revolution research paper, motion pictures—before their release.

So the closest thing to essay on ww1, go by or to get a comparison to the script would be the dialogue sheets that were put out revolution research, with the original 15 reel version. Essay. The letter is dated 14 July 1947. 9 The full text of Fuller's comment is: In every-day life, the russian revolution research feelings of the many are stained with vanity. Each wishes to be lord in comparative essay on ww1 and ww2, a little world, to be superior at least over one; and he does not feel strong enough to retain a life-long ascendency over russian research paper a strong nature.

Only a Theseus could conquer before he wed the Amazonian queen. Hercules wished rather to rest with Dejanira, and received the poisoned robe as a fit guerdon. The tale should be interpreted to all those who seek repose with the weak. (43) 10 Aside from having been eliminated from the technology in education Garrick-Colman and Reynolds versions, the references also disappeared in whole or part from the printed acting texts of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries such as French's ( MND 20), Charles Kean's edition ( MND 9), Augustin Daly's ( MND 5), and from the type-script of russian Henry Jewett's for comparative essay a 1915 production ( MND 12). When promptbooks relied on the full text, the lines were then crossed out for the acting versions.

Among the latter were the recording of the Burton performance of 1854 ( MND 21), the Beerbohm Tree production of 1900 ( MND 7), and the Samuel Phelps production of 1861 ( MND 13). The Reinhardt film retains only a small section of the speech. 11 Excisions persisted over a long period of time beginning with the earliest record, the Smock Alley prompt, sometime before 1700, where the lines are crossed out. Garrick eliminated them from paper, his preparation copy of 1763. They do not appear in de dissertation, Reynolds's 1816 version, are crossed out in Charles Kean's ( MND 9) and eliminated by Daly in 1888 as well as by Herbert Beerbohm Tree for paper the 1900 production ( MND 7), to name just a few characteristic productions. 12 Literally, the lines (136-49) were not printed in the French acting texts ( MND 15, MND 20) and techniques, Charles Kean's text of 1869 ( MND 9). In the Burton text of 1854 ( MND 21), the lines appear but are then crossed through.

13 They are excised from the French text (Prompt MND 15, 20), the Charles Kean text ( MND 9), the Daly text ( MND 5), and are crossed out or blocked for omission in the Burton prompt (page 9, MND 21), the Tree prompt (page 5, MND 7). In the Phelps prompt (page 311, MND 13), it is more difficult to be certain of whether or not the russian revolution paper section was excised since there are two different sets of markings here—some in brown ink, others in pencil. This section has a penciled bracket on the left. Since another passage immediately above it on the page has been crossed through, the question remains of whether this passage was in fact excised. 14 The Variorum also notes that Halliwell afterwards modified this by the reflection (p.36, folio ed.) that 'the author evidently intended both the comparative essay speakers should join in passionately lamenting the difficulties encountered in the path of love' (18). 15 Having removed this section from the russian research printed text, the Kean book (prompt MND 9) indicates even further excision, penciling out still more of the beginning of this exchange between the two women. Techniques De Dissertation. It is also excised from the Phelps promptbook ( MND 13).

Earlier, Garrick, who had cut the russian paper lines of the speech, nevertheless retained the character of Helena here whereas Reynolds, despite his promise to restore more of the play in 1816, eliminated her completely from the scene. 16 The excisions occur in the following prompts: MND 9, MND 20, MND 21, MND 15, and others. 17 The handwriting has been identified as Garrick's. Of Emily Dickinson's Had Stood-a Loaded. See also Stone article on A Midsummer Night's Dream, discussed in note 2. 18 In a Charles Calvert promptbook of an 1865 production ( MND 1), for example, after her line, For I upon russian revolution research this bank will rest my head (40), her speech continues with and good night, sweet friend / Thy love ne'er alter, till thy sweet life end! (60-61). Thus the entire debate (lines 41-59) has been excised from the printed text. Kean too ( MND 9) follows this format. Tree ( MND 7) crosses out text, retaining only one line of essays dickinson's my life Lysander's—'One turf shall serve as pillow for us both, (41)—and then, once again, Hermia's Nay good Lysander; for my sake (43) precedes the jump to revolution, the conclusion so far be distant, and essays dickinson's my life, good night, sweet friend: / Thy love ne'er alter till thy sweet life end! (60-61). Lysander's innocuous Amen and the few brief lines of good night precede their finally falling off to sleep, which closes this section of the scene.

Phelps's book, too ( MND 13), cuts the russian revolution debate. Gone is Lysander's sophisticated argument in favor of techniques de dissertation one bed, along with her Lysander riddles very prettily . . . Russian Revolution Paper. (42, 43b-56a). Daly, too ( MND 5), includes Lysander's One turf . . Essays Of Emily My Life Had Stood-a. . (41-42) and russian revolution research paper, Hermia's brief response Nay good Lysander . Features Of Internet. . . (43-44) then jumps to line 60, So far be distant; and good night sweet friend. / Thy love ne'er alter, till thy sweet life end! (60-61). 19 As a sampling, they are crossed out in Burton's text (22-23) (MND 21 ) and russian revolution paper, Phelps's of bombing essay 1861 (328-29) ( MND 13); and are omitted from George Colman and David Garrick's 1763 version ( MND 19), Charles Kean's ( MND 9), Augustin Daly's, 1888 ( MND 5), Herbert Beerbohm Tree's ( MND 7), French's ( MND 15), and the edition recording performances at the Broadway Theatre ( MND 20), as well as Henry Jewett's 1915 typescript ( MND 12). Russian Revolution Research Paper. Of course the of hiroshima essay highly abbreviated Colman version of 1777, A Fairy Tale ( MND 22), does not include these Athenian characters at all. 20 Seldom the subject for criticism, Helena has the largest percentage of paper lines (10.4) and words (11.2) of any woman character in the play although Hermia has more speeches (9.5 percent to Helena's 7.14). Masters By Coursework Or Research. Hermia's fewer lines (7.5 percent) and words (7.9 percent) suggest the difference in the pattern of the women's speeches.

Following is the record in the Concordance of the russian revolution research paper other long roles: Theseus: 9.5 percent speeches, 10.9 percent lines, 10.7 percent words; Bottom 9.9 percent speeches, 9.7 percent lines, 10.3 percent words; Oberon 5.7 percent speeches, 10.2 percent lines, 9.9 percent words. Spevack, Concordance 1:666-713. 21 Many fine references appear in this article, including one to Gayle Rubin's The Traffic in features of internet essay, Women. Marshall asks questions: How are we to take Demetrius' recovery from the research 'sickness' of abandoning Helena and loving Hermia since it is just as much the product of enchantment as Lysander's abandonment of Hermia and love for Helena? Are we to be pleased by the success of Helena's subjection of herself to Demetrius or Titania's sudden and manipulated surrender to Oberon? What about Hippolyta's marriage to the soldier who vanquished her? . . . They raise the possibility that A Midsummer Night's Dream is not one of Shakespeare's happiest comedies' [Madeline Doran, intro. in Penguin Complete Works] but rather a 'most lamentable comedy' (I.ii.11-12) and 'very tragical mirth' (V.i.57) (548). Marshall also takes exception to of hiroshima essay, C. L. Barber's comment that Theseus and Hippolyta are looking toward their wedding 'Theseus . . . with masculine impatience, Hippolyta with a woman's willingness to dream away time' ( Shakespeare's Festive Comedies, p. 128) (548). Russian Paper. Marshall asks how Barber knows this since the essay on ww1 language doesn't say it.

I don't know how Barber manages to assign genders to these feelings (548). Of David P. Young's comment ( Something of Great Constancy: the Art of A Midsummer Night's Dream , New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966, 109), It is appropriate that Theseus, as representative of daylight and right reason, should have subdued his bride-to-be to the rule of his masculine will. Russian Revolution Research Paper. That is the natural order of things (p. 99), Marshall comments, This may have been the ruling ideology in the sixteenth century or in 1966—I don't see that it has ever been the natural order of things—but it is not necessarily the ideology of A Midsummer Night's Dream (550). 22 The typescript of Henry Jewett's 1915 production ( MND 12), for example, directs Titania to take the boy to her side (14). In the elegant Daly version, when Titania enters, her attendant fairies .. . carry a canopy covering the Indian child, reclining on a silver couch ( MND 5, 33).

In this cut version, there is essay even the printed stage direction, Oberon orders his attendants to advance, and he dashes toward the research couch to seize the child. He tears aside the curtains, and finds that it has disappeared (34). Crossed out in pencil by of hiroshima essay a later manager, the action dramatizes the research hostility between king and queen although simplifying the essay portraits. 23 The comment is by Thomas Hailes Lacy for the 1840 text. Actually Mendelssohn first wrote the overture for an 1827 revival in Berlin (Campbell, 546). However it was the Vestris production, claiming to present the play almost as Shakespeare wrote it, for the first time since 1642, that was such a huge success (Campbell, 546). According to Odell, no version this close to russian revolution, Shakespeare's had appeared since Davenant's in of emily had stood-a loaded gun, the seventeenth century (II.204). Vestris's was followed by other lavish productions, most relying on this music. Only Phelps eschewed the music. 24 The popularity of A Midsummer Night's Dream at mid nineteenth century extended from London to New York, two rival productions appearing in February, 1854: at Burton's and the Broadway theaters. Both claimed Mendelssohn's music.

25 See Stevie Davis's sensitive analysis of Titania and of her relationship with the russian revolution research mother of the of internet essay boy before his birth (125-29). 26 See the following promptbooks: MND 5, MND 9, MND 20, MND 21, MND 13, MND 15. Although, according to russian paper, Allen, all but 300 lines of the original were excised by Phelps, in technology, prompt MND 13, believed to be a record of his production, huge chunks of Titania's speeches were cut. In fact only the first seven lines (81-89) remain of the speech beginning These are the revolution forgeries of jealousies. They are followed immediately be Oberon's Why should Titania cross her Oberon? / I do but beg a little changeling boy, / To be my henchman (119-21). A single line is cut from his speech. Essay. Again Titania's description of the boy's mother is also crossed through.

Thus, the restoration hardly affects the lines of Titania. In II.i Phelps excises most of her speech to russian revolution research, Oberon 88-117 and then Oberon's 118, Do you amend it then. Again the actor-manager excises When we have laugh'd to about technology, see the sails conceive .. . did die, 128-35. 27 Crossed out in revolution research, Burton's text ( MND 21), and in Samuel Phelps's ( MND 13), her lines disappear from the Kean printed text ( MND 9), the Daly text ( MND 5), and others. 28 Marilyn Williamson refers to the need to be aware of the features essay historical contexts in which the research paper plays were written. Surely the ideas on marriage and divorce are embedded in this text although the characters are cast as fairies. 29 Circled for excision from MND 6 (by Garrick), therefore gone from 1763 text ( MND 19), and from Reynolds's 1816 text ( MND 18); Burton ( MND 21) 1854; ( MND 9); Daly ( MND 5); the lines are circled for excision in Phelps MND 13.

Also excised from type-script of Jewett's, 1915 ( MND 12). 30 Here again Phelps's prompt ( MND 13) has excised lines as have the texts of 1763, 1854, and Tree, etc. By Coursework. The whole section referring to paper, reason in Lysander's speech has also been eliminated from the 1856 printed text ( MND 9); most of the features of internet lines have been excised from Jewett's 1915 typescript ( MND 12) and from Daly's 1888 text ( MND 5); finally, the section has been crossed out in the 1853 ( MND 13) and 1854 versions ( MND 21), Tree's in 1900 ( MND 7) (and probably other contemporaneous ones that I did not examine). 31 Kean ( MND 9). Russian Research Paper. He emphasizes her unique role as a spirit of no common rate and retains only the first line (152) of the quote, following it immediately with For I do love thee, a variant on the text's And I do love thee (156). In that version, neither Bottom nor the audience is told of her power to of hiroshima essay, keep him from leaving. 32 See chapter 3, Challenging Patterns, in Irene Dash's Wooing, Wedding, and Power: Women in Shakespeare's Plays, 33-66. 33 In Prompt MND 8, this section has been crossed through in pencil.

34 According to Shattuck (323), this is a Kemble edition (1816) although nowhere on the title page or elsewhere does the usual attribution appear. Research. Some of the alterations, however, do appear in later acting versions. 35 Among the other versions that excised, once the longer play appeared are the 1935 film, the Beerbohm Tree version, and the 1854 version. 36 According to Hogan (11.718), the play ranked twenty-first in popularity of Shakespeare's plays between 1701 and 1800. But this figure is deceptive since only one production is listed as the original during the period. The other sixty-three times that it was acted audiences were seeing either a version of Pyramus and Thisbe, The Fairies, or A Fairy Tale. Source: Male Magic: A Midsummer Night's Dream, in Women's Worlds in Shakespeare's Plays, University of Delaware Press, 1997, pp.

67-107. Access our A Midsummer. Study Guide for Free. A Midsummer Night's Dream Homework Help Questions. One of the roles of the de dissertation supernatural in A Midsummer Night's Dream is to create a dreamlike state that helps portray Shakespeare's theme of fantasy vs. Paper. reality.Critic Northrop Frye points out that. Demetrius is the only character to have been left permanently changed by the magic within Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream.

At the beginning of the play, Demetrius is in love with Hermia. One classic way to techniques de dissertation, create comedy is through irony. Irony takes place when words, actions, or plot development contradict what is intended or expected to happen. Shakespeare uses many instances of. This is actually a crucial quote for the entire play, as Helena here in Act I scene 1 explains the revolution research paper complete irrational nature of love that had already been displayed by dickinson's my life loaded the central lovers and will. The four Athenian lovers are easily to confuse, particularly Helena and Hermia, due to the similarity in how their names are spelt.

It seems as if Shakespeare deliberately present them as.

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Tips for russian revolution research Academic Writing and Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of essays of emily dickinson's my life had stood-a gun problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and poor organization will make it very difficult for you to convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and russian revolution research paper, will limit your academic and professional success. And Ww2? I strongly recommend that you work to eliminate any of these problems that may apply to your own writing. -- Dr. Revolution Research? James A. Bednar. Rules for essay and ww2 formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and russian revolution, assumptions.

Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and of internet essay, well structured. Formal writing is not just dictated conversation In general, it is inappropriate simply to research paper write as you would speak. In conversation, the listener can ask for clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from topic to topic freely, and so on. Of Emily Dickinson's? Formal writing must instead stand on russian revolution research paper, its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to and ww2 construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis. The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to read.

The author's time and effort spent on writing will be repaid with the time and effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and conclusion. Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. In a short essay, the main point should usually conclude the research introductory paragraph. In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the introductory section. The reader should never be in essays technology in education any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the reader again. When in russian revolution doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to the topic. Or Research? At each level, you need to tell the reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to revolution research cover all the relevant material, clearly relating it to your stated point, and finally you need to tie the by coursework or research subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the revolution paper point that you promised. Stay on topic Everything in essays of emily dickinson's loaded your document should be related clearly to your main thesis.

You can write other papers later for revolution research anything else you might want to say. Essays In Education? The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of yours is revolution research paper that he or she wants to de dissertation know about your main topic, not simply about everything you might want to say (unless for some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about them. If you do bring something up, say something important about it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument. It is research paper quite appropriate to discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to the main topic of your paper. Technology In Education? For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and research, arguing that it was not written well overall, it is usually a good idea to point out the few things that were done well, e.g. so that the bombing of hiroshima essay reader does not get the impression that you just like to complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the revolution research introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow.

Whenever you do include such material, i.e. things that go in the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to put it into bombing, only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. Jumping back and forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily. In every case, try to make your point as clearly as possible, while at russian revolution research paper the same time not overstating it and not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the of internet preceding paragraph. Russian Research Paper? The world is arguably an unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the essays had stood-a gun reader to read from start to finish needs to be a linear progression along one single path. Russian Research Paper? Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the various ideas in your paper. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether.

One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the paragraph begins and ends. If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from techniques de dissertation, start to revolution research finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at by coursework first, and russian, actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of essay on ww1 thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much. In that case you need to reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only russian research, when necessary. Once the by coursework organization is good, all you can do is read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in revolution research casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of going the essays about in education extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in russian revolution formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say.

If there were no miles involved, do not write of extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is obvious even to those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is bombing of hiroshima essay a second language and those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the russian paper world. Formal writing should be clear to essay as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of your local dialect of English. It is a permanent and paper, public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is no need to use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text.

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It should be straightforward to masters by coursework or research figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . Revolution Paper? . Of course, an occasional imperative in parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for bombing of hiroshima essay more details).). A formal document needs to russian be structured at all levels, whether or not the structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to masters by coursework convince the reader of russian revolution paper your thesis in the body of the paper, and by coursework or research, (3) restate the thesis in paper the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for of emily dickinson's loaded gun a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an paper, abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an in education, independent miniature version of the revolution research paper article, not part of the bombing of hiroshima introduction.

Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in russian paper the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of or research your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the revolution research paper main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in de dissertation the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the beginning of a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to russian revolution paper a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon.

However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn. If you could replace the bombing essay comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in russian research paper some generic way, or make the about technology linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to russian revolution research paper leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the reader will get out of that section.

In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of technology section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about what is in that section. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about research paper, adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the essay document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to revolution paper be reading the paper.

Everything important goes in your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at least skim the introduction and conclusion, and essay, those who read it in revolution research paper depth will remember those two sections the essay on ww1 best. So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the paper introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and features, evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to be the russian revolution case. Essays About? Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and revolution, 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in techniques de dissertation the subsections, mentioned in the order of the russian revolution research subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in bombing of hiroshima essay that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the russian research paper next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into bombing, figure captions.

Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to russian revolution research be readable independently of the of internet main article. That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to revolution read the whole article. Features Essay? In such cases, you must ensure that all of the revolution research paper main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the techniques de dissertation main text. Russian? Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the and ww2 graphical details like the revolution paper dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is clear. You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to or research achieve, i.e. whether you want the caption to be readable on its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in russian research paper themselves, but in conversation the of hiroshima essay meaning is usually clear from the context.

In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for research this sort of features of internet word. Russian Revolution Research Paper? For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. For such a reference to make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to which you refer is explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to which of several items you might be referring. E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of each; he would be ambiguous.

Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is essays dickinson's loaded gun a good example of the use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is paper confused with other actual words. As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Essays Of Emily Dickinson's Loaded? Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the research paper differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the techniques de dissertation other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and russian research paper, is crucial for features of internet convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy.

Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to revolution paper avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the de dissertation result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the research paper sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless.

A point is a single item The word point can only essays my life loaded, be used for a single, atomic item. Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of research a point, etc. On Ww1 And Ww2? Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of russian research; researches is an techniques, English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case.

Capitalization is appropriate only for russian revolution research specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. De Dissertation? a computer science department, the russian revolution research president vs. President Bush. When in masters by coursework or research doubt, use lower case.

Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the research parentheses in a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of about in education a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. Russian Revolution? For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the essays of emily had stood-a gun phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. Russian Revolution? learners of the English language, and by coursework or research, using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the russian research English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective).

Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. Essays About Technology In Education? For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for russian research paper a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). Essay On Ww1 And Ww2? You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in russian revolution a row will be mistakes.

In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an essays technology in education, en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and research paper, learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read. But in such cases it is often clearer just to reword the sentence to essays loaded avoid the ambiguity, as in revolution paper a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the essays of emily my life loaded gun pair of research words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to avoid ambiguity. For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies.

In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the essays about technology in education same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the phrase, but of how you are using the phrase in the sentence. American vs. Paper? British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and I use American spellings by techniques de dissertation, default (e.g. organization, not organisation). Paper? Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. all the techniques de dissertation papers in revolution research a certain edited volume use the same conventions.

Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the de dissertation document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in research psychology and computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Unfortunately, you do have to pay for the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to bombing how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents. If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification.

Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and research, makes it difficult to essays about photocopy the paper; such binding is revolution research paper necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an features essay, acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. Russian Revolution Research? Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to essays of emily had stood-a loaded gun the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance. Except in russian revolution research unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of technology in education a scientific text; the last names are sufficient.

Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is like the key in revolution research paper a database lookup -- if the name is gun misspelled (e.g. Russian Revolution? Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to on ww1 and ww2 misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work. So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the revolution same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. In Education? If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is only one author and you can determine the revolution research paper gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the features of internet essay author or the author's last name.

Referring to russian paper other texts Use double quotes around the title of an article when you refer to it in the text. Italics are reserved for books or other works of similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is of hiroshima just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about another author. If commenting on research paper, such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to essays about you. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to avoid the revolution research paper hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to features essay fit into the main flow of the russian revolution research paper text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into dickinson's gun, a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. Russian Research? if the work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it.

Be careful with arguments about bombing, grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct. Research Paper? Reading a long rant from an of internet, American about how a person of russian revolution research paper British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the authors . . Try to avoid this redundancy. Bombing Essay? If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Similarly, it is russian research paper clear that whatever you discovered about the de dissertation paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to be reminded of this. Revolution? Academic writing is essays loaded always about papers and authors, and thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant.

Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of russian doing it properly. First you say what the masters by coursework or research research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Revolution? Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and essays about in education, you should always assume that the research person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Essay? Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to make an enemy, e.g. to draw attention to yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only that you are planning to study topic X. Russian Revolution Research Paper? In the context of research, studying is dickinson's my life a vague and revolution paper, unbounded task, with no criterion for success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is not like that. De Dissertation? In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to russian revolution define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to essays technology be relevant.

The reader is paper more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to bombing address the russian issue and explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to or research think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Paper? Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to essays about technology in education fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. Revolution Research? In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and techniques, title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and russian revolution research paper, page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of who published it.

Without having every bit of this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Features Essay? Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the cost of reprints. As long as the research paper correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and comparative, without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to find the correct source in revolution research the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow.

One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and comparative essay and ww2, Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . known [1], ( not . known[1]). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Russian Revolution? Thus the rule is simply to put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only a single level of de dissertation parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to russian research has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to essays in education use I and we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to russian revolution any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Others argue that omitting I and masters by coursework, we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences.

Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to emphasize the role of the authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in revolution other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in masters or research the text on revolution paper, this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the essay accepted usage in russian paper such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below.

If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. Masters By Coursework Or Research? :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the russian revolution research paper quotation. Comparative Essay? However, I consider that rule an russian paper, egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language. For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is hard, but the computer programmer in essays of emily my life loaded me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the dash.

Without the spaces the dash appears to russian paper be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the essays about in education function of the russian revolution research paper dash is to separate and essays about technology, connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to revolution make that visually clear by putting spaces around the essay dash. Revolution Research Paper? Again, in my opinion the bombing essay accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an research paper, error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at the place they were heading to. However, in practice it is often very difficult and awkward to dickinson's my life loaded reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the revolution comma is often omitted before an 'and' in features of internet a list. Revolution Paper? For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs.

I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in techniques the list together. Russian? Lists are generally meant to bombing of hiroshima essay be collections of research paper equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in on ww1 and ww2 the very rare case where adding the russian comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the by coursework Wikipedia serial comma entry. Research Paper? Again, this insistence on de dissertation, using appropriate syntax is probably driven by the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and russian research paper, e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and e.g. used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. The inspiration for this rule is of internet essay that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. translating to that is, and revolution research, e.g. Bombing? translating to russian research paper for example, which in itself is an important distinction to know). However, these terms come up very often in comparative essay formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the revolution research sentence, and modern readers treat the techniques de dissertation abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and then English phrases.

Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the comma after the russian revolution research abbreviation, and sometimes also the bombing one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in the public domain. You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for russian revolution research paper any other non-fraudulent purpose. If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.

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Kellogg Video Essay: Practice Here. Why do you think MBAs are so sought after by employers? Why are they able to command the salaries they do? The answer is that employers are looking for the best and the brightest to take on leadership roles within their organizations. A lot of people assume that companies recruit MBAs for their intelligence combined with two years of practical training. Research Paper? While that’s partly true, the reality is that MBAs aren’t the ‘smartest’ people out there in bombing of hiroshima, absolute (there are a myriad of research paper grad and PhD students out there that far surpass the average MBA in or research, raw intelligence).

Beyond that, anybody could buy a bunch of russian revolution paper business textbooks online and by coursework, acquire a lot of the knowledge one would otherwise obtain in russian research, the MBA classroom. I said that employers are looking for the best and the brightest but actually they are looking for an elusive combination of best and techniques de dissertation, brightest. The bright part you can learn but the best part tends to russian research paper be something intrinsic to the individual herself. In that sense an MBA can round out someone with natural potential but an MBA can never transform someone without it. Bright (smart with practical business training) + Best (a natural leader: friendly, charming, persuasive, a self-assured public speaker with the soft skills essential for a manager) = MBA. Kellogg (like every other school) cares about personality, communication style, and techniques de dissertation, the likability of russian research applicants. I call this ‘ presenting well ‘ (and that doesn’t mean being a PowerPoint ninja). Most schools screen for this during their interview process. But if you think about it, that’s a very inefficient strategy because the Adcom doesn’t really have a sense of what percentage of the candidates it invites to interview will present well until they walk through the essay, door. By that time the Adcom is stuck choosing the incoming class from the pool it interviewed. Maybe 80% will present well, maybe only 30% will.

Kellogg wants to interview a cohort of applicants in russian research, which 100% present well. That’s why Kellogg is pre-screening applicants via the video essay. NYU Stern does the same thing via their Personal Expression Essay. Chicago Booth and MIT Sloan do it via their optional multimedia essays. In the video essays, Kellogg isn’t looking for the best orators – students will have time to hone their communication and presentation skills in Kellogg’s courses and clubs. Likewise, they are not looking for any particular opinion or response. They just want to see what you, the essays about in education, unpolished candidate, look like in a spontaneous situation. Russian Revolution Research Paper? As such, the your main job is to be yourself – to essay and ww2 relax, feel comfortable, and communicate naturally as they would if they were talking to a friend. The flip side of that is revolution paper, that if you memorize answers and recite them verbatim you’ll come off as very robotic. I had a candidate one year that wrote out, word for word, and essays of emily loaded, then memorized answers to every question the Adcom could possibly put to revolution paper him during an interview. He sent me a video of himself ‘interviewing’ and I was shocked by how bizarrely he came across: He didn’t make any of the natural pauses in his spoken language that people do when they are answering a spontaneous question.

He spoke rapidly and incessantly in comparative essay and ww2, a bizarre monotone with no facial expression or hand gesturing to punctuate what he was saying. That’s because he wasn’t thinking about what he was saying, he was reciting what he had already memorized. No amount of coaching from me was able to ‘undo’ the damage and it resulted in some deeply painful rejections from top five business schools. Paper? He thought that he could outsmart the system but ultimately he shot himself in of internet essay, the foot. Here’s what Kellogg’s Adcom tells us about russian revolution research paper, their video essay: The Video Essays provide applicants with an additional opportunity to demonstrate what they will bring to masters or research our vibrant Kellogg community – in an interactive way. Each applicant will complete two short video essay questions. The questions are designed to research paper bring to essay life the person we have learned about on paper. After submitting a completed application, each applicant will be asked to complete two Video Essay Questions. One will be about the candidate’s interest in revolution paper, Kellogg and the other will be a “getting to know you” type of question. Here’s what you need to of emily dickinson's know about Kellogg’s video essay:

After you submit your application to Kellogg, the video essay will become available to you in your Kellogg applicant dashboard. You have one week after the application deadline to complete the video essay. Revolution Research Paper? If you submit in Round 1 you need to complete the essay by de dissertation October 2nd, if you submit in russian revolution research paper, Round 2 you need to techniques submit by January 18th. There are two video essay responses you will give, one axed on your interest in Kellogg while the revolution research, other will be more axed around you. Before you give your actual response you’ll have up to 10 practice questions to get comfortable with the bombing, video interface.

When you give your official video responses you’ll have 20 seconds to research think about the question and then one minute to bombing of hiroshima respond to it. II Common Kellogg Video Essay Questions. This year Kellogg has decided to research share the first question with applicants ahead of time. The Kellogg question is: What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and masters or research, why is revolution research paper, this program right for you? This is the typical Career Goals/Why MBA? question condensed down into a one-minute format. Most applicants will take the time to prepare the question prior to their video interview. Here is how you might structure that response. Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an example or two of the type of company you’d like to work at of hiroshima essay, post-MBA as well as the role you hope to research interview for.

Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in with your short-term goal. Essays About Technology In Education? Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the revolution research paper, answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at business school to work on them. Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Cultural : What about Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you?

This is where you really want to bombing bring the charm and your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the research, Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. Kellogg’s second video essay question will be axed around you. Typically it’s either a personal question, a behavioral question or an bombing essay opinion-based question. In section III (below) you have an opportunity to practice giving answers using a video interview software and 30 questions from previous years. III Practice giving a Kellogg Video Essay: Record Playback.

The problem with video (and watching yourself on video) is that it is almost always a traumatic process. People tend to be overly self-critical so if you do record yourself practicing for Kellogg’s video interview don’t allow the process to undermine your self-confidence. Russian Revolution? Avoid becoming preoccupied with small, inconsequential issues such as hand-gestures or body language, because that may potentially sabotage your ability to just naturally be yourself. The goal of practicing should be to improve your ability to think and speak spontaneously. So here’s the cool part! You can click on the record button below and an interactive video recorder will open and allow you can record, play back and re-record video of yourself answering Kellogg’s questions. Your browser doesn't support Adobe Flash, sorry. Please install Adobe Flash plugin. Get Flash Player. I’ve hidden the Kellogg questions behind spoiler tabs so you don’t accidentally read all of them at comparative and ww2, first glance.

There are 2 questions in every section. Russian Revolution Paper? Take some time to actually practice looking at a question for the first time, giving yourself 20 seconds to prepare an answer, and essay and ww2, then another 60 seconds to answer. Then go back and watch the video of yourself. What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and why is this program right for you? Goals : State your short long term goals. Russian Revolution? Give an masters example or two of the paper, type of company you’d like to work at post-MBA as well as the role you hope to interview for. Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in with your short-term goal.

Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the techniques de dissertation, answer is: not completely. Russian Research Paper? How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and masters by coursework or research, how you might leverage your two years at business school to work on them. Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show.

Cultural : What about Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you? This is where you really want to bring the charm and research paper, your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the de dissertation, Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. 2. Tell us about how you overcame an obstacle.

4. If you could keep one of your personal strengths, possibly losing one or more of the others, which would you choose? 6. What kind of a team player are you? 8. Russian Revolution Research? When you leave your job for b-school, what will your teammates miss most about you? 10. Tell us about someone you admire, and why. 2. Tell me about a time that you disagreed with a colleague and how did you handle it? 4. Tell us about a time when your idea was challenged. 6. Masters By Coursework? Tell us about russian revolution paper, a time when you were on a team and there was disagreement among team members. Masters By Coursework Or Research? What did you do? 8. Tell us about a time when you were pleasantly surprised by a work situation. 10.

Please describe a creative solution that you have come up with for russian research a problem. 2. And Ww2? If you were going to donate $1M to the university, how would you want it spent? 4. Tell us, in your view, one downside for business due to globalization. 6. Discuss your thoughts about the revolution paper, following statement: “Business leaders are the essays had stood-a loaded, world’s new role models and they are failing.” IV Kellogg Video Essay Tips on Lighting, Clothing Location Selection. You can use a couple of floor lights and perhaps a clamp or desk light to achieve this lighting set-up. Russian Paper? You’ll need two key lights and one fill light.

The key lights are placed about techniques de dissertation, 2-3 feet away from you at about a 35 degree angle from your nose. The key lights help eliminate any shadows (they literally fill in every crevice in your face from both the left and the right). The fill light should be placed behind you, angled towards the top of your head. The fill light helps to differentiate the top of your head and revolution paper, shoulders from the and ww2, background. Without it people look more two-dimensional on film. I use 100 watt equivalent florescent bulbs and Rosco Tough White #3026 diffusion paper $6/sheet ( you can purchase it at BH by clicking here ). That said, the diffusion paper is more for shooting high def video with a high quality camera (it might not make any difference if you’re just filming with a webcam).

Kellogg Video Essay: Background Location. Whatever background or location you choose, I’d advise you to stay away from russian revolution paper, windows altogether because it can cause overexposure and bombing of hiroshima essay, other lighting problems. Notice how the right side of this person’s face is russian revolution paper, lit up and of internet essay, the left side is in shadow? That’s because of the window behind him. If you decide to film at home or in the office, look for a small space without a lot going on in the revolution research paper, background. Essays My Life Had Stood-a Loaded? The first two slides in the presentation below illustrate what you don’t want – a wide angle view of the entire office. Look for revolution paper a corner or small space with a limited amount wall hangings and other decorations in view. I recently saw this video which was created by a student applying to essays dickinson's my life NYU Stern . Research Paper? The picture is from the video. The living room is too ‘busy’ with flowers, furniture, lots of pictures and stenciling on the wall.

The shot is from too far away – ideally you want just your head and shoulders visible. By Coursework Or Research? Finally the russian revolution paper, candidate’s shirt looks disheveled – I feel like he just ate a turkey dinner and of internet essay, had to undo a few buttons :/ I’d highly suggest buying a roll of Savage Seamless Background Paper for paper $10 here . You’re going to need 53? x 12 yards (no more and features of internet, no less). Russian? Personally I use Thunder Gray for de dissertation my videos but you can buy whatever color you like. Russian Research Paper? Keep in mind that red, yellow and orange might cause you to of emily my life gun look sort of red, yellow or orange yourself. If you want to research play it safe go for any shade of gray, blue, purple or beige. Below you’ll find examples of of hiroshima essay some of the research paper, colors Savage offers. If you want to achieve the effect on the left hand side, you’ll need a light behind your chair pointing at the paper which will create a gradient effect and also remove the shadow your head casts on the paper. So you’ll have to add a fourth light to your three-point lighting set-up or a second light to your ring light set-up. Techniques? The right hand version is done with just lighting pointed at the subject and creates a much flatter background effect. Either is fine.

In general you want to revolution avoid black and white because they are such saturated colors they tend to dominate a scene. If you’re using a color background then you want to wear neutral colors (gray, beige). If you are using a gray, white, black or beige background then you can wear a color that looks good on you. Essays About Technology In Education? The idea is to have one focal color in the shot (either the background or your top/shirt). Ideally just your head and shoulders should be visible in the shot so both men and women are going to want to choose a shirt or top that pretty much comes all the way up to paper your neck or collar bone. The video essay is supposed to assess how well you’ll fit in the Kellogg community – so think about what you might wear to class at Kellogg….probably something nice but casual right? You don’t want to look like Donald Trump in your video – you want to look smart, friendly and laid back. Guys : Wear a solid-colored, rounded-neck, t-shirt or wear a solid-colored button down shirt (light gray looks good on everyone). While a t-shirt might seem too casual to masters wear to russian revolution paper an interview, on camera it will look clean and the solid material will make you pop. I’d ditch the on ww1, suit jacket and tie because honestly there won’t be enough of it in research paper, the shot and it’s just going to add yet another color to the mix.

Ladies : Here are some things to avoid based on my own trials and masters by coursework, errors filming professional videos. Wearing a scoop or deep v-neck tends to give viewers the russian research, impression that something is missing (i.e. you’ll look strangely naked) when the shot is only of in education your head and shoulders. Thin and flimsy materials don’t look great on camera so avoid silk, polyester and anything that lacks shape or clings to your body. I’d avoid wearing a suit jacket because honestly there won’t be enough of russian revolution research paper it in a head and shoulders shot and it’s just going to add yet another color to essay the mix. What will look great is anything with a high, rounded neckline – one that comes up to your collarbone or neck. You’ll look great in a rounded-neck, solid colored t-shirt. While that might seem too casual to wear to an interview, on camera it will look clean and revolution research paper, the solid material will make you pop. Bombing Of Hiroshima Essay? Cashmere is russian, another material that always looks good on video because it’s a thick and of internet essay, has a matte finish.

A solid-colored button down shirt would also be a good choice. Would I recommend Leah? Oh yes, without a doubt. She truly helped me in ways I could not imagine, and I am so excited to be going to business school this fall. Leah's creativity is unmatched which is exemplified with the stupendous work she did on my Chicago Booth Essays. Russian Revolution Research? Her work ethic and willingness to spend as much as time it takes to get the right answer is incredible.

I finally had multiple offers from top schools (Kellogg, LBS, Booth) while I was waitlisted at HBS.