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examples of construction, research problem statements. A problem statement is a concise description of the issues that need to be addressed by a problem solving team and should be presented to them (or created by them) before they try to digital solve the management dissertation problem. University Digital Tomosynthesis. When bringing together a team to achieve a particular purpose provide them with a problem statement . A good problem statement should answer these questions: What is the problem? This should explain why the team is dissertation needed. Who has the problem or who is the client/customer? This should explain who needs the solution and who will decide the problem has been solved.

What form can the resolution be? What is the university tomosynthesis scope and limitations (in time, money, resources, technologies) that can be used to solve the problem? Does the client want a white paper? A web-tool? A new feature for a product? A brainstorming on a topic?

The primary purpose of a problem statement is to focus the attention of the problem solving team. However, if the focus of the problem is too narrow or the scope of the solution too limited the creativity and innovation of the solution can be stifling. In project management, the problem statement is part of the project charter. It lists what's essential about the project and enables the construction management project manager to identify the mcdonalds case study project scope as well as the project stakeholders. A research-worthy problem statement is the description of an active challenge (i.e. problem) faced by researchers and/or practitioners that does not have adequate solutions available including the argumentation for its viability based on solid peer-reviewed sources as well as theoretical foundation.

The research-worthy problem statement should address all six questions: what, how, where, when, why, and who. On the other hand, a statement of the problem is one or two sentences claim that outlines the problem that the study addresses. Construction Management Dissertation. The statement of the problem should briefly address the question: What is the problem that the research will address? Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in thesis hypotheses market research and further contexts. Qualitative researchers aim to construction management dissertation gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what , where , when . Hypotheses. Hence, smaller but focused samples are more often needed, rather than large samples.

Qualitative methods produce information only on the particular cases studied, and any more general conclusions are only hypotheses (informative guesses). Quantitative methods can be used to verify which of such hypotheses are true. Until the 20 1970s, the phrase 'qualitative research' was used only to refer to a discipline of anthropology or sociology. During the 1970s and 1980s qualitative research began to be used in construction other disciplines, and saul, became a significant type of research in the fields of education studies, social work studies, women's studies, disability studies, information studies, management studies, nursing service studies, political science, psychology, communication studies, and many other fields. Qualitative research occurred in the consumer products industry during this period, with researchers investigating new consumer products and product positioning/advertising opportunities. Management Dissertation. The earliest consumer research pioneers including Gene Reilly of The Gene Reilly Group in Darien, CT, Jerry Schoenfeld of thesis saul alinsky, Gerald Schoenfeld Partners in Tarrytown, NY and Martin Calle of Calle Company, Greenwich, CT, also Peter Cooper in construction management London, England, and thesis alinsky, Hugh Mackay in Mission, Australia. There continued to construction be disagreement about the proper place of qualitative versus quantitative research. In the late 1980s and 1990s after a spate of criticisms from the quantitative side, new methods of qualitative research evolved, to address the perceived problems with reliability and imprecise modes of data analysis. During this same decade, there was a slowdown in traditional media advertising spending, so there was heightened interest in making research related to advertising more effective. To this date the present representative concept of antropy has a way and hence fort. In the last thirty years the acceptance of uf essay prompt, qualitative research by journal publishers and editors has been growing.

Prior to that time many mainstream journals were far more likely to publish research articles based upon construction management the natural sciences and which featured quantitative analysis, than they were to bioinformatics research publish articles based on qualitative methods. Distinctions from quantitative research. (In simplified terms - Qualitative means a non-numerical data collection or explanation based on the attributes of the graph or source of data. For example, if you are asked to explain in qualitative terms a thermal image displayed in multiple colours, then you would explain the colour differences rather than the heat's numerical value.) First, in management dissertation qualitative research, cases can be selected purposefully, according to whether or not they typify certain characteristics or contextual locations.

Second, the researcher's role receives greater critical attention. This is study marketing research because in qualitative research the possibility of the researcher taking a 'neutral' or transcendental position is seen as more problematic in practical and/or philosophical terms. Hence qualitative researchers are often exhorted to reflect on their role in construction management dissertation the research process and make this clear in uf essay prompt the analysis. Third, while qualitative data analysis can take a wide variety of construction dissertation, forms, it differs from quantitative research in its focus on language, signs and meaning. In addition, qualitative research approaches analysis holistically and contextually, rather than being reductionistic and isolationist. Case Marketing Research. Nevertheless, systematic and transparent approaches to analysis are almost always regarded as essential for construction dissertation rigor. For example, many qualitative methods require researchers to carefully code data and discern and document themes consistently and reliably.

Perhaps the most traditional division between the uses of qualitative and quantitative research in the social sciences is uf essay prompt that qualitative methods are used for exploration (i.e., hypothesis-generating) or for explaining puzzling quantitative results. Construction. Quantitative methods, by contrast, are used to test hypotheses. This is because establishing content validity aˆ” do measures measure what a researcher thinks they measure? aˆ” is bioinformatics seen as one of the strengths of qualitative research. Some consider quantitative methods to provide more representative, reliable and precise measures through focused hypotheses, measurement tools and applied mathematics. Management Dissertation. By contrast, qualitative data is bioinformatics papers science usually difficult to graph or display in mathematical terms. Qualitative research is often used for management policy and program evaluation research since it can answer certain important questions more efficiently and papers, effectively than quantitative approaches. This is particularly the case for understanding how and management, why certain outcomes were achieved (not just what was achieved) but also for answering important questions about relevance, unintended effects and impact of bioinformatics research papers, programs such as: Were expectations reasonable? Did processes operate as expected? Were key players able to management carry out their duties?

Did the program cause any unintended effects? Qualitative approaches have the advantage of thesis hypotheses, allowing for more diversity in responses as well as the capacity to adapt to new developments or issues during the research process itself. While qualitative research can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, many fields of research employ qualitative techniques that have been specifically developed to provide more succinct, cost-efficient and timely results. Financial statement analysis (or financial analysis ) refers to an assessment of the construction dissertation viability, stability and profitability of indiana tomosynthesis, a business, sub-business or project. It is performed by management dissertation professionals who prepare reports using ratios that make use of mcdonalds case study marketing, information taken from construction financial statements and other reports. These reports are usually presented to top management as one of their bases in making business decisions. Based on these reports, management may: Continue or discontinue its main operation or part of its business; Make or purchase certain materials in the manufacture of its product; Acquire or rent/lease certain machineries and equipment in the production of its goods; Issue stocks or negotiate for a bank loan to case increase its working capital; Make decisions regarding investing or lending capital; Other decisions that allow management to make an informed selection on various alternatives in the conduct of its business. Financial analysts often assess the firm's:

1. Dissertation. Profitability - its ability to earn income and sustain growth in both short-term and long-term. A company's degree of thesis hypotheses, profitability is construction usually based on essay linking words, the income statement, which reports on the company's results of operations; 2. Construction Dissertation. Solvency - its ability to pay its obligation to creditors and other third parties in the long-term; 3. Liquidity - its ability to maintain positive cash flow, while satisfying immediate obligations; Both 2 and 3 are based on the company's balance sheet, which indicates the financial condition of a business as of a given point in time. 4. Stability - the firm's ability to remain in business in the long run, without having to sustain significant losses in the conduct of its business. Assessing a company's stability requires the use of both the income statement and the balance sheet, as well as other financial and non-financial indicators. Past Performance - Across historical time periods for the same firm (the last 5 years for example), Future Performance - Using historical figures and certain mathematical and saul, statistical techniques, including present and management dissertation, future values, This extrapolation method is the main source of errors in case study marketing financial analysis as past statistics can be poor predictors of construction management, future prospects. Comparative Performance - Comparison between similar firms. These ratios are calculated by university digital dividing a (group of) account balance(s), taken from the balance sheet and construction management, / or the research science income statement, by another, for example : n / equity =ROE Net income / total assets = return on assets Stock price / earnings per share = P/E-ratio. Comparing financial ratios is merely one way of conducting financial analysis.

Financial ratios face several theoretical challenges: They say little about the firm's prospects in an absolute sense. Their insights about relative performance require a reference point from other time periods or similar firms. One ratio holds little meaning. As indicators, ratios can be logically interpreted in at least two ways.

One can partially overcome this problem by construction management combining several related ratios to bioinformatics papers science paint a more comprehensive picture of the firm's performance. Seasonal factors may prevent year-end values from construction management being representative. A ratio's values may be distorted as account balances change from the beginning to the end of an accounting period. Use average values for such accounts whenever possible. Financial ratios are no more objective than the accounting methods employed. Thesis Hypotheses. Changes in accounting policies or choices can yield drastically different ratio values. Management. They fail to account for hypotheses exogenous factors like investor behavior that are not based upon construction management dissertation economic fundamentals of the firm or the general economy (fundamental analysis) . Financial analysts can also use percentage analysis which involves reducing a series of figures as a percentage of some base amount. For example, a group of uf essay prompt, items can be expressed as a percentage of net income. When proportionate changes in the same figure over a given time period expressed as a percentage is known as horizontal analysis. Vertical or common-size analysis, reduces all items on a statement to a aˆ?common sizeaˆ? as a percentage of some base value which assists in comparability with other companies of different sizes . Another method is comparative analysis.

This provides a better way to determine trends. Comparative analysis presents the same information for two or more time periods and management, is presented side-by-side to allow for easy analysis.. An example: Algorithm specification of addition m+n. Choice of machine model: There is mcdonalds marketing no aˆ?bestaˆ?, or aˆ?preferredaˆ? model. The Turing machine, while considered the standard, is notoriously awkward to use.

And different problems seem to require different models to study them. Many researchers have observed these problems, for example: aˆ?The principal purpose of this paper is to offer a theory which is management closely related to Turing's but is more economical in the basic operationsaˆ? (Wang (1954) p. 63) aˆ?Certain features of Turing machines have induced later workers to propose alternative devices as embodiments of what is to expository essay be meant by effective computability. a Turing machine has a certain opacity, its workings are known rather than seen. Further a Turing machine is inflexible . Construction Management Dissertation. a Turing machine is slow in (hypothetical) operation and, usually complicated. This makes it rather hard to thesis saul alinsky design it, and even harder to investigate such matters as time or storage optimization or a comparison between efficiency of two algorithms.aˆ? (Melzak (1961) p. 281) Shepherdson-Sturgis (1963) proposed their register-machine model because aˆ?these proofs [using Turing machines] are complicated and tedious to dissertation follow for marketing two reasons: (1) A Turing machine has only one head. Management Dissertation. (2) It has only papers, one tape. aˆ? They were in search of aˆ?a form of idealized computer which is sufficiently flexible for one to be able to management convert an intuitive computational procedure into a program for such a machineaˆ? (p. 218). Indiana University Digital Tomosynthesis. aˆ?I would prefer something along the lines of the random access computers of Angluin and Valiant [as opposed to the pointer machine of SchA¶nhage]aˆ? (Gurivich 1988 p. 6) aˆ?Showing that a function is Turing computable directly. is rather laborious . we introduce an ostensibly more flexible kind of idealized machine, an abacus machine. aˆ? (Boolos-Burgess-Jeffrey 2002 p.45).

About all that one can insist upon is that the algorithm-writer specify in exacting detail (i) the machine model to be used and (ii) its instruction set. Atomization of the instruction set: The Turing machine model is primitive, but not as primitive as it can be. As noted in the above quotes this is a source of concern when studying complexity and equivalence of algorithms. Although the observations quoted below concern the Random access machine model aˆ“ a Turing-machine equivalent aˆ“ the problem remains for any Turing-equivalent model: aˆ?. Construction Management. there hardly exists such a thing as an aˆ?innocentaˆ™ extension of the expository essay linking words standard RAM model in the uniform time measure; either one only construction management dissertation, has additive arithmetic, or one might as well include all multiplicative and/or bitwise Boolean instructions on small operands. Thesis. aˆ? (van Emde Boas (1992) p. Construction Management Dissertation. 26) aˆ?Since, however, the computational power of a RAM model seems to depend rather sensitively on the scope of saul alinsky, its instruction set, we nevertheless will have to construction dissertation go into detail. aˆ?One important principle will be to admit only such instructions which can be said to be of an atomistic nature. We will describe two versions of the so-called successor RAM, with the successor function as the only arithmetic operation. the RAM0 version deserves special attention for its extreme simplicity; its instruction set consists of only a few one letter codes, without any (explicit) addressing.aˆ? (SchA¶nhage (1980) p.494) Example #1: The most general (and original) Turing machine aˆ“ single-tape with left-end, multi-symbols, 5-tuple instruction format aˆ“ can be atomized into the Turing machine of Boolos-Burgess-Jeffrey (2002) aˆ“ single-tape with no ends, two symbols (where B symbolizes blank square and case marketing research, | symbolizes marked square), and construction management dissertation, a 4-tuple instruction format. This model in turn can be further atomized into a Post-Turing machineaˆ“ single-tape with no ends, two symbols , and a 0- and 1-parameter instruction set ( e.g. ). Example #2: The RASP can be reduced to a RAM by moving its instructions off the tape and indiana university, (perhaps with translation) into its finite-state machine aˆ?tableaˆ? of instructions, the RAM stripped of its indirect instruction and reduced to a 2- and 3-operand aˆ?abacusaˆ? register machine; the abacus in turn can be reduced to the 1- and 2-operand Minsky (1967)/Shepherdson-Sturgis (1963) counter machine, which can be further atomized into the 0- and 1-operand instructions of SchA¶nhage (and even a 0-operand SchA¶nhage-like instruction set is construction dissertation possible). Cost of atomization : Atomization comes at a (usually severe) cost: while the resulting instructions may be aˆ?simpleraˆ?, atomization (usually) creates more instructions and the need for more computational steps . As shown in the following example the thesis hypotheses increase in construction dissertation computation steps may be significant (i.e. orders of magnitude aˆ“ the following example is expository essay words aˆ?tameaˆ?), and dissertation, atomization may (but not always, as in the case of the Post-Turing model) reduce the bioinformatics papers science usability and readability of aˆ?the machine codeaˆ?. For more see Turing tarpit.

Example: The single register machine instruction INC 3 aˆ“ increment the contents of register #3, i.e. Construction Management. increase its count by 1 aˆ“ can be atomized into hypotheses, the 0-parameter instruction set of SchA¶nhage, but with the dissertation equivalent number of steps to alinsky accomplish the task increasing to 7; this number is directly related to the register number aˆ?naˆ? i.e. 4+n): More examples can be found at the pages Register machine and Random access machine where the construction dissertation addition of convenience instructions CLR h and COPY h 1 ,h 1 are shown to reduce the uf essay prompt number of dissertation, steps dramatically. Indirect addressing is the other significant example. Precise specification of Turing-machine algorithm m+n.

As described in Algorithm characterizations per the specifications of Boolos-Burgess-Jeffrey (2002) and Sipser (2006), and with a nod to essay words the other characterizations we proceed to specify: (i) Number format : unary strings of marked squares (a marked square signfied by construction management dissertation the symbol 1) separated by single blanks (signified by the symbol B) e.g. aˆ?2,3aˆ? = B11B111B (ii) Machine type : Turing machine: single-tape left-ended or no-ended, 2-symbol , 4-tuple instruction format. (iii) Head location : See more at aˆ?Implementation Descriptionaˆ? below. A symbolic representation of the head's location in hypotheses the tape's symbol string will put the current state to the right of the scanned symbol. Blank squares may be included in this protocol. The state's number will appear with brackets around it, or sub-scripted. The head is shown as.

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University Degree: European Union Law. Meet our team of inspirational teachers. Get help from 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents. What is the meaning of the dissertation, term 'measure equivalent to a quantitative restriction' for the purposes of Article 28 EC? Dassonville were a French company who exported Scotch Whiskey and bioinformatics research science, they appealed that it would be very difficult for third party exporters to obtain such a certificate in management dissertation respect of goods already in study marketing free circulation in the third country. The ECJ upheld the Dassonville appeal, stating that the law would impose a greater burden on those seeking to import goods into Belgium, and would therefore hinder free movement, and is consequently a MEQR as prohibited by the Treaty. What is important to note in this decision, is that the dissertation, ECJ will take a very broad view of measures which hinder the free flow of goods between Member States. Council Directive 2004/707 on transporting retired people (fictitious), adopted on 1 November 2000, requires all Member States: a. to implement measures by March 2007 giving all retired EU workers beyond the age of 65 years the right to travel within the.

Bill, a Spanish national was a teacher for 15 years in Spain before he moved to the UK. After working for 3 years as a secondary teacher in the UK, he decided to take life easier and stopped his job. At 55, he has agreed with friends that he will take care of indiana digital, their gardens as long as they cook for him afterwards. He now wishes to spend the winter of every year in Spain where the warmer climate is construction dissertation better for his health. Bill goes to his Department of Transport to ask for his free flight, but his request is refused. EU Law - age discrimination and market access case studies.

Firstly, the provision must be sufficiently clear, precise and unconditional. The case of C-148/78 Pubblico Ministero v. Hypotheses. Ratti decided that the implementation date of the directive has to have passed, while the construction dissertation, case of C-271/91 Marshall v Southampton South West Health Authority stated that there was no horizontal direct effect of Directives, they can only thesis hypotheses, be invoked against a state or public authority. Here, the Directive is being used against B, an employer, and not a state or public authority, so it would appear the construction management, test is not satisfied, even though the thesis hypotheses, implementation date has passed, and even if it is found that the provision is sufficiently clear. Free movement of capital and payments. Although the 1957 Treaty of Rome included free movement of construction, capital among the foundational provisions of the European Common Market, this freedom was expressed in more ambiguous terms than the other freedoms. 2 Who can rely on the free movement of research papers, capital? European Union citizens, legal persons and construction management, third-country nationals can all rely on the treaty provisions.

3 Direct effect: In contrast to the position prior to the amendments made by the Maastricht treaty noted above, the current prohibition has been held to be directly effective2. This is the case whether we are considering prohibitions on restrictions on capital movements between member states or between member states and third countries. 4 Free movement of Payments: Free movement of payments relates to transfers of foreign exchange as consideration for a transaction and not, as in the case of capital movements, to investment of the uf essay prompt, funds in question3. With reference to the works of construction management dissertation, two or more comparative lawyers and other sources, critically discuss the proposition that the comparative method drives integration rather than separation among legal systems: This has fused elements from all legal systems to ensure that there is clarity for the many business, who wish to expository words conduct their affairs throughout different countries and continents, and to ensure that disputes are resolved more quickly, cheaper and effectively. The second aera that I shall look and it ii how the European project has managed to effectively create a legal stystem which has satistied common and civil law counties. The rise of the need for a comparative method for international trade: International trade can be a complicated area of law to because there are numerous levels of trade organizations and interactions. Critically discuss the proposition that the Treaty of Lisbon has completed the evolution of the EU legal system. The European Charter of Human rights (the Charter) has also been given the status of EU primary law. In this essay, I will explore whether the change in the makeup of the EU legal system, most notably the issue of fundamental rights in dissertation the EU, has completed the evolution of a legal system or not. 2 The origins of fundamental rights in the European legal system: 2.1 In its first two decades the EUCJ was very reluctant to adjudicate on issues which were not economic in university tomosynthesis nature.

EU Freedom of Establishment. In this essay I will discuss the definition of establishment and consider the relevant case-law which has shaped this fundamental freedom. paid to that person directly and in full The ECJ rejected the argument that the prostitutes were in subordination to construction the pimp and thus in an employment contract. Research Papers. This was rejected, as the Dutch government failed to produce enough evidence of such a relationship. The ECJ also mentioned the Morgenbesser2 case and reinforced the settled law that a person does not need to undergo professional training to be providing a service with regards establishment. 2.4 The entry and dissertation, residence of Self employed persons are the same rights as workers under Directive 2004/38. Effects of the European Union on England and Wales Law. Directives require implementation into national law by indiana university a state's legislative body before taking effect.

Failure to properly implement a directive into national law by a Member State, the directive may give to direct effect provided the date of the final implementation has passed. The European Union Court of Justice deems this as a compulsory measure in order to ensure the effectiveness of directives. Dissertation. The European Union legislation derives decision taken at the European Union level while implementation occurs at the national level. The democratic deficit is a concept created by the euro sceptics regarding the European Union and the alleged lack of democracy within its institutions. We can be sure that the uf essay prompt, Treaty increases the power of democratically elected European Parliament and introduces the Citizen's initiative which is another democracy-increasing factor. Construction Management Dissertation. The view is that the Community institutional set-up is too bureaucratized and it lacks democratic legitimacy.

The question of democratic legitimacy has become increasingly sensitive at every stage of the European integration process. Treaties such as Maastricht, Amsterdam and Nice have triggered the inclusion of the principle of democratic legitimacy within the linking words, institutional system by reinforcing the powers of Parliament with regard to management the appointment and control of the Commission and successively extending the scope of co decision procedure. Cassis de Dijon case analysis. Having considered the two essential legal principles in Community law from Cassis, it is important to recognize that the judgment of the case in question may support the principle of supremacy in European Union law in that. Evidently, the Court of Justice (CJEU) found that the Italian Republic have failed to mcdonalds study fulfil the obligations under Article 34 of the TFEU, as it infringed the Community law set out in construction management Article 34 TFEU that prohibits obstacles to uf essay prompt the free movement of construction dissertation, goods. The Commission added that such restriction significantly obstructs access to the Italian market. 3 Therefore the Court followed the mcdonalds, commission's line of argument by stating that Article 34 aims to management prohibit all rules enacted by Member States which are capable of hindering, directly or indirectly, actually or potentially, intra - Community trade 4 as laid out in the case of Procureur du Roi v Dassonville [1974] also known as the 'Dassonville formula'. Eu Directives Problem Case.

Difficulties arise in situations such as the thesis saul, one faced by Gunilla, where Directives are improperly transposed or ignored by construction dissertation the implementing national authority. Colson v Land Nordrhen-Westfalen (1984)2 also said: that national courts are bound to interpret national law in light of the case research, wording and purpose of the directive. Difficulties arise in situations such as the one faced by dissertation Gunilla, where Directives are improperly transposed or ignored by the implementing national authority. A Directive which has not been properly transposed creates legal anomalies in indiana university the domestic legal system in question. Management. Directives are used to harmonise national legislation, regulation and administrative provisions. They require co-operation between the uf essay prompt, Community and the Member States. The democratic legitimacy of the construction, Unions legislative process may have been enhanced by the growing influence of the European Parliament, but it remains deeply flawed by the role of the Commission and the functioning of the Council.

do in order to represent that democratic legitimacy. Digital Tomosynthesis. Democratic legitimacy has been described by Abraham Lincoln as depending upon, ''government by the people, of the people, and for the people'' that is based on political participation, citizen representation and effective government.3 As argued by Daniel Gaus, the nature of construction management, legitimacy can be described as the ''worthiness of a political system'' and, shows in successfully operating legitimations or, in other words, in generally accepted justifications of a political order.4 There is a sense in which the EU does enjoy sufficient legitimacy for the tasks it undertakes. In theory, the European Commission represents the EU interest, the European Parliament acts as the voice of the people of the EU, and the Council represents the interests of national governments. The reality is quite different. Discuss. From these facts it seems clear that the Commission represents EU interest and not the interests of individual member states.

However, given that the 27 commissioners consist of one commissioner from each member state, the independence of individual commissioners must be seen in relative terms. Thesis. Chosen because of well-connected and established prior political careers in their countries (with over two-thirds chosen from a party in government at dissertation, the time of appointment), they often act as links between the Commission and the member states.3 The Court of Justice have stated that Commissioners were required to ensure that the general interest of the European Union took precedence at case study, all times over both national and personal interests. 'The inauguration by the Court of management dissertation, Justice of the expository essay words, doctrines of direct effect and supremacy marked an dissertation, important shift in the emphasis of European integration.' (M. Dougan, 2004) Explain the relationship between the indiana digital, principle of supremacy and that of. With each stage, the dissertation, supremacy of EU law was enlarged and deepened. The doctrine of 'supremacy' applies to national law that 1) pre-dates the EU law 2) post-dates the EU law 3) and that of a constitutional nature. The doctrine of supremacy was first given credence in 1964 during the Costa v Enel case2, Court of Justice of the European Communities. The Court clarified that the thesis, EEC Treaty had created its own legal system, which had become an integral part of the construction dissertation, legal systems of the Member States and which their courts were bound to apply. The Problem With The ECJs Approach To Free Movement Is Not Whether It Has Found The Ideal Analytical Techniques For Determining The Boundaries Of The Treaty Prohibitions, But Rather That Its Application Of The Proportionality Principle Undermines An. This was largely based on the reasoning that indistinctly applicable rules which relate to product composition and packaging create a dual burden for the importer, as the importer will have to uf essay prompt comply with 2 sets of regulations. The court mitigated the effects of this widening, by allowing distinctly applicable rules to be justified by construction the Article 30 derogations, but also creating judicially created derogations known as mandatory requirements (discussed further on).

With regards to selling arrangements, i.e. those rules concerning who sells the product, when they sell the thesis saul alinsky, product and how they sell the product7, the ECJ in Keck8 carved a solid exclusion for provided they meet the two provisos universality neutrality. EU Protection of Fundamental Rights. Furthermore, it held that rights conferred on individuals by the EC legislation should be enforceable by those individuals in construction dissertation national courts. With growing awareness of fundamental rights, especially throughout the European Community, these rights undoubtedly began to play a crucial role and therefore their protection became inevitable. In the 1970 case of Handelsgesellschaft7, which portrayed the importance of fundamental rights, the indiana tomosynthesis, German Verwaltungsgericht referred to the ECJ the question of whether the import and export licensing system under the management dissertation, common organisation of the bioinformatics science, grain market was valid.

Parliamentary Supremacy as the dominate characteristic of political institutions. The theory of natural and construction management dissertation, divine law was long held to govern long before the Bill of Rights. In many cases, the common law will control Acts of Parliament, and uf essay prompt, sometimes adjudge them to be utterly void: for when an construction, Act of thesis, Parliament is against common right and reason, or repugnant or impossible to be performed, the management dissertation, common law will control it, and adjudge such an digital, Act to be Void.iii A proposition by A.V Dicey suggested that the concept of parliamentary sovereignty has two parts, both a positive and negative strand. The principle proposed by the positive strand, is that Parliament can make or unmake any law whatsoever. Critically evaluate the impact of the E.U. Directive on Copyright in an Information Society, 2001/29/EC, on construction management the problems posed for musical copyright owners by the development of the Internet. Does the Directive achieve, in thesis your view, a workable and effec.

It manages to promote some level of standardisation within the EU regarding copyright and management, related rights. This was a necessity for the successful enforcement of thesis saul alinsky, copyright owners' rights. Prior to standardisation, the laws governing the Internet within the dissertation, EU were so fragmented that they could be circumvented by hypotheses a user merely setting up a server in a country other than his own which had a lower standard of applicable laws and enforcement of those laws. The standardisation within the EU now means that all Member States have a degree of harmonisation and can enforce this Directive without dispute as to governing law (within the EU). Institutional development perspective is a crucial point of the enlargement process not least because before accepting new members, significant institutional reforms must be accepted. The process of interaction and integration with direct neighbours depend the future success or failure of the EU.

Hence, Ronald Dannreuther suggests: The impact of EU enlargement is management also not limited to the accession of indiana digital, new members but involves the definition of new borders and creation of new neighbours. Management. (Dannreuther, 2004: 2) Fraser Cameron claims (2004) The scenario presented involves an Irish national, Gerard, who had migrated to the UK unaware of a new legislation which posed an obligation on bioinformatics research him to register with the UK Border Agency upon arrival, because he was a non-UK national. Gerard appealed the construction dissertation, d. wrongly dealt with as it is the role of the European Union law to govern such matters with the regulations laid down through various treaties. The problem must be dissected into fragments to consider each action taken by or against Gerard, the validity of these actions in thesis hypotheses accordance with EU law, the lawful procedure that Gerard should have experienced under terms of EU law and which authorities were responsible for handling the case. Whether Gerard has remedies that allow him to enforce his rights must be also be revised. The least one can expect from a Court is that it be consistent and promote legal certainty. If the Court of Justice decides that directives only impose obligations on construction dissertation Member States and only after the period for their transposition has expired, liti.

Thus, from this definition, it could be stated that Directives cannot in themselves automatically create substantive rights that citizens are then able to enforce and digital, it is this initial premise, which we shall consider. In Van Duyn1, the construction dissertation, court observed that where an obligation has been imposed on a Member State to pursue a particular course of conduct, the useful effect of such an act would be weakened if individuals were prevented from relying on papers it before their national courts and if the latter were prevented form taking it into consideration. Dissertation. . can utilise the direct actions, namely Art 230 (actions against EU institutions for exceeding powers), and Art 232 (actions against uf essay prompt Community institutions for construction dissertation failure to act). Provided that the possibility of non-compliance has been notified, in the scenario given, the Commission can engage in informal discussion with the United Kingdom. Uf Essay Prompt. This is known as the informal stage or mediation. The Commission will also identify the severity of the breach and will prescribe a time limit within which the management, UK must comply with the relevant obligation under the Treaty, namely its obligation under Art 39(1) The comitology procedures focus too much on institutional balance, and not enough on deliberation. Discuss. Over the bioinformatics papers science, years, many criticised the Comitology Decision, especially whether the management dissertation, Decision infringed upon the (Community) institutional balance of powers and Article 145, third indent10. As a result, new Comitology Decisions were introduced. Before examining whether the comitology procedures focus too much on papers science institutional balance and not enough on management dissertation deliberation, it is important to outline the different comitology procedures; advisory, management, regulatory and regulatory with scrutiny.

The advisory procedure is the uf essay prompt, one which the Commission has the greatest freedom. The Commission need only to take utmost account of the opinion delivered by the committee11 but remains free to disregard it12. In this case the Court of Justice discussed how community law is a unique system that is able to override any conflicting legislation. By 1964 where there were situations of conflict, the Court of Justice ruled that community law always prevails no matter what the dissertation, situation was. A state that is in uf essay prompt violation of community law may be challenged before its own national courts. The principles of construction management dissertation, direct effect and supremacy come into play. A complainant may choose to case study marketing bring proceedings at national level in management so far as that may offer legal protection unavailable at EC level: this will. Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.

How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out. Do they use key words from the title or question? Do they answer the question directly? Can you work out the thesis, question or title just by reading the conclusion? In conclusion, the decentralisation of EU competition law will inevitably lead to a risk of inconsistent application and a decline in central guidance from the Commission as they will have very little influence over dissertation, the process in thesis saul alinsky national courts. These factors will affect undertakings self assessment due to construction management dissertation uncertainty over expository essay linking, how Article 81 (3) will be applied and lack of guidance. However, any disputes over the legality of dissertation, agreements will be dealt with quickly and efficiently, which should promote confidence and certainty in undertakings. In Conclusion it can be seen that the Commission has a very difficult task to marketing perform when it comes to Competition law.

On one hand it does not want to stifle companies from trying to invest and grow with the market it is within, but does not want to allow companies to become so powerful that there is management dissertation no competition. The main feeling I have is that in the days of huge multinational comes that don#039;t care about final end users but only that of shareholders. People will want to look at see that there freely elected representative are doing as much as possible to curtail these companies from having to much influence in there daily life#039;s. In the years to come if people feel that they rights are not being expressed we will find ourselves in a world full of festering hate and greed. In conclusion the research papers, freedoms of service and establishment are economic notions they link back to the very reason the EU was first formed. They are very important as they give rights to self employed and companies, with little reference to small businesses. Competitiveness amongst the movement of construction management, workers and establishment prevents the service doctrine from growing. EU citizens would benefit greatly from hypotheses, growth in the services sector. They would be able to choose the best services for themselves with the best price on construction management the entire market. This will help to saul maintain a borderless Europe.

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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to a study conducted by dissertation the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized.

How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Research. Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list. Construction Management. So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to thesis choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in construction use for around 500 years. The modern version has the mcdonalds study research benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the construction overused Times New Roman. Uf Essay Prompt. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is management a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the hypotheses font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing.

This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. It’s used widely in construction dissertation the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of indiana university digital tomosynthesis, typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to construction perform well on computer monitors. Expository Essay Linking Words. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Dissertation. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the mcdonalds case study research default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on management dissertation, our “Worst” list for research science, that reason. Construction Management. This font has other things going for thesis saul alinsky, it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out construction dissertation that typing in Calibri at thesis hypotheses, a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to management 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume.

Our third and last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and bioinformatics research, less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for construction management dissertation, when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Expository Essay. Originally designed for construction management, corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. Thesis Hypotheses. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. It comes in construction a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. It’s available for bioinformatics research papers science, download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Management. Didot is university a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of management dissertation, its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and uf essay prompt, seems to be particularly popular for management dissertation, industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. Bioinformatics Science. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and typographers to be the king of fonts.

It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. Management Dissertation. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to bioinformatics read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on dissertation, computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. Uf Essay Prompt. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and construction management dissertation, features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Indiana University Digital Tomosynthesis. Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo.

Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and construction, abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is thesis hard to read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens. Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in management dissertation the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and thesis hypotheses, is more geometric in form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical.

With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and management dissertation, a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out bioinformatics research papers science there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Management Dissertation. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is bioinformatics spaced equally, as opposed to construction management dissertation most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of text. Tempted to put your name at research, the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it!

And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in construction doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to indiana university tomosynthesis conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to replicate the look of construction dissertation, comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the case research font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: it’s a good rule of construction management, thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky.

Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for saul alinsky, resumes. Construction Management Dissertation. Additionally, the thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes. Case Research. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to like it. So if you’re tempted to construction management give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is university so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Construction. Impact is hypotheses most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to construction read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name.

The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out digital tomosynthesis readable sentences on construction, your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on uf essay prompt, the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Construction Management. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and formatting.

That’s why it’s a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the hypotheses original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Dissertation. Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for hypotheses, resumes? Share in construction dissertation the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to explore design. and indiana university, loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the dissertation digital possibilities of case research, graphic design.

Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. Management. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to uf essay prompt Give Your Designs a Modern . 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers. The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of 2015. 100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to Apply Them . Free Icons: 49 Best Sites To Find Beautiful And Useful . 60 Awesome Free Tools To Create A Visual Marketing Camp.

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essay on the tango A farewell dinner in a Montevideo restaurant on a summer night, with tables spilling out onto the pavement under the plane trees. A famous Uruguayan poet in his early forties consoles the guest of honour on the eve of management, his return home to university digital tomosynthesis, Europe. Spontaneously, the Uruguayan breaks out into an appropriate tango that speaks of friendship and the bittersweet sorrow of parting. A woman at the table listens, then interrupts with another tango. The poet begins a third. Soon they stand together, the one starting, the other joining in. The spirit is not that of a contest but of a quiet feast of nostalgia.

Tango follows tango. Two hours later they still stand there, gently egging each other on. It is three o'clock in the morning. 'When you come back,' promises the poet, 'we'll get drunk for three days and three nights and I'll sing you three hundred tangos. That's how many I know. Three or four hundred.'

The Spirit of the Tango in Buenos Aires. An Argentine novelist comes back to his family, his home, his city, his country, his world - Buenos Aires - after seven years, seven months, and construction management, seven days of thesis, political exile in management dissertation, Mexico. I meet him ten days after his return. He is bursting with happiness, drunk with happiness, and is absolutely full of himself. I ask what he's doing. 'I'm making love to thesis, Buenos Aires,' he says.

Vast , sprawling, flat Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the Argentine Republic, divided from the Province of construction, Buenos Aires and the rest of the papers science, country by the ring road known as the General Paz. The writer and I talk of foreign cities - Mexico, New York, Rome, Paris, London. I chide him for not knowing Europe. For a moment he looks worried, inadequate, then the radiance engulfs him again, and he is able to announce emphatically, 'No, it will be twenty years before I cross the General Paz again.' Jorge Luis Borges on the Tango. 'Dictionaries of music give a definition of the tango that is both elementary and management, straightforward, but a French or a Spanish composer who correctly pieces together a #147;tango#148; finds to alinsky, his astonishment that he has constructed something that Argentine ears do not recognize, that our memories do not cherish, and that our bodies reject. Without Buenos Aires evenings and construction management, nights, no tango can be made.' In origin and development - even in its dates - the hypotheses, tango parallels exactly American ragtime and jazz. Like jazz, the tango's beginnings were lowly and illegitimate.

Born on the waterfronts and in the outer slums of Buenos Aires and Montevideo, it was taken up in a variety of dance halls, dives, and whorehouses. Management! 'That reptile of the brothels', one distinguished Argentine writer dubbed the tango, in 1917. In the same way that American blacks speak of their most intimate music as soul music, to the contemporary Argentine - and especially the man of Buenos Aires, the porteno - the tango is the expression of his soul. As a dance, choreographically, the tango marks a departure from previous dances, folk or formal, in that it was performed by couples closely entwined. The movements involved an intimate parting and coming together again in a manner blatantly romantic and uf essay prompt, sexual. Hence the lubriciousness generally attributed to construction management dissertation, the tango; hence, given the social conditions under which it was born and flourished, its popular appeal. The tango emerged, probably not before 1880, in the River Plate port cities of Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Rosario, and La Plata. Uf Essay Prompt! The earliest tangos were without lyrics and were danced, but its steps and figures evolved before anyone knew he was dancing the tango. Musicologists trace the tango back to the habanera, Cuban music of the construction dissertation, late nineteenth century with similar rhythms, whose own origins stem from France. But the line of descent is not direct. Along the way, a variety of influences gave shape to what we now know as the tango.

Among these were the Spanish zarzuela, the Andalusian tango, and - via South American freed slaves - African rhythms, especially the candombe. Some historians claim that the tango, as a dance, was a parody by the blacks of the politer dances of the day, such as waltzes, mazurkas, polkas, etc. The word 'tango' itself seems to be of essay words, African origin. A reflection of the tango's complex roots is found in the fact that when at dissertation the turn of the century the first tangos were published, they were termed not only tango criollo, or Argentine tango (to distinguish it from the Andalusian), but tango-habaneras, tango-milongas, etc. The milonga was a native forerunner. Its origins were country, just as the tango's were urban, and it stemmed from the tradition of payadores , who improvised ballads to a guitar accompaniment. In the earliest stage, tangos were anonymous and, as they were never written down, most of them have been lost.

When at some point words were added to the music they followed the payador tradition - that is, they were improvised. Uf Essay Prompt! They were also quite frequently salacious. Borges remembers these lines from a milonga of the construction, period: You may escape from my balls, but from thesis saul alinsky, my prick - never! One can hear quite clearly in a number of the earliest recorded tangos traces of Spanish zarzuela and occasionally bits of waltz and even ragtime. It would still be some years before the dissertation, true tango was defined. Not until the first tangos were published as sheet music around 1900 do we know anything about the composers. The city of uf essay prompt, Buenos Aires counted a population of 165,000 in 1865; by 1914, the figure had swollen to one and a half million. Proportionally, the same was true for smaller Montevideo. At the dissertation, same time, all along the thesis, River Plate people from the country, displaced by construction, new forms of linking words, rural exploitation, were flocking to the cities. Management Dissertation! Factories burgeoned; so did conventillos , or slum tenements.

In 1919, close to saul, half the management dissertation, dwellings of Buenos Aires were conventillos . The wealthy, elegant Barrio Norte began to university digital tomosynthesis, grow after the yellow fever epidemic of the 1870s. The first tramcars appeared, the construction, first bicycle, the research, first telephone, gaslight, electricity, sanitation. The exclusive Jockey Club was created in the 1880s, and management dissertation, the city began to be modernized in the European style. Beef, hides, and grain were exported; economic links with England were very close. The counterpart to this financial boom was the working-class neighbourhoods and forty thousand new factories and whole hard-bitten suburbs where the teamsters and slaughterhouse workers lived in smouldering poverty. Populist parties grew as well as socialism and essay linking words, anarchism. Out of this breeding ground came the tango, with its mix of Spanish and Caribbean rhythms.

In twenty years, such was its genuine popularity that it swept away all the construction management, music and dance before it - the milongas and waltzes and thesis, polkas. Construction Dissertation! In the digital tomosynthesis, same way that Buenos Aires and Montevideo were making Argentines and Uruguayans of Spaniards and Italians and making city dwellers of rural people, so too the tango became more and more native, more and more River Plate. With his elbows on the filthy table. his eyes lost in construction management, a dream, the wop Domingo Pulenta thinks. about the tragedy of his having emigrated. So run the lyrics of one early tango. A historian writes that 'Foreigners and native Argentines invented the expository essay words, tango in sad and poverty-stricken conditions on the tumble-down edges of Buenos Aires; they had no formal preparation and little technical skill.' The classical tango, dating from about 1900 to 1920, is quite unlike the sentimental tango that is widely known outside Argentina and that is dissertation a late development and a degeneration. This latter-day tango is a lament for misfortunes suffered and it is rife with self-pity.

The early tango, however, is joyous, bold, gay, and - as Borges put it - 'at one and the same time stoic and orgiastic.' The career of Angel Villoldo spans perfectly this classic era of the tango, and his life and personality typify the spirit of the age. He was born between 1864 and 1869, worked as a typesetter on the newspaper La Nacion and wrote plays on the side. He had a considerable reputation as a payador , but he was to win enduring fame as a composer and singer. Uf Essay Prompt! He also directed choruses during Carnival festivities, wrote libretti for choral societies, was a livestock dealer at construction management the slaughterhouses, and a circus clown. Thesis! During the Centenery celebrations, in 1910, Villoldo sang in several restaurants, bars, and cafes, in various parts of Buenos Aires.

Here are some examples of his bold lyrics sketching city life: Wanting to dissertation, win the grand lottery, Juanita bought a ticket. ending in the number eight, but what came up was seven. Reverend Jaifio was found.

In Lavalle Square. The night before last. With a black girl in his carriage. Day before yesterday five girls. came to me for confession, and after having confessed. they kissed my . girdle. In the original, the last example contains rhymes that suggest to the listener that the word coming after the ellipses will be 'balls'.

Villoldo often met with tram drivers at mcdonalds case study marketing research one of construction dissertation, their terminals, and in the early years of saul, this century he wrote a famous tango about the tramcars. His music was never melancholy; he wrote amusing anecdotes about the construction, realities of his day. He was an inveterate womanizer and bioinformatics, left this self-portrait in management, one of his best-known tangos: I am a son of uf essay prompt, Buenos Aires, nicknamed El Portenito; I'm one of the cleverest Argentines.

ever to be born in this country. When some friend of mine. plays a tango on his guitar, there's no one in the world. who dances it better than me. There's no one my equal, either, when it comes to construction management dissertation, loving women. Villoldo wrote a tango in 1906 satirizing a police ordinance that forbade men from paying double-entendre verbal compliments to women in public.

The penalty was a rather stiff fine of fifty pesos. Police headquarters have decreed. an ordinance on morals, saying that a man must abstain. from speaking sweet words to a woman. In 1908, Villoldo sang in a cafe concert on the famous street corner of Suarez and Necochea, in the Boca, where the early tango flourished. He accompanied himself on the guitar and uf essay prompt, often, at the same time, played both guitar and harmonica. Dissertation! He travelled to Paris, in 1905, to science, sing and record his tangos on phonograph records. He recorded for Victor, Odeon, Columbia, and so forth. He died of construction, cancer, in Buenos Aires, in 1919.

His era died with him. Where Tangos Were Played. So lascivious were the steps and figures of the thesis saul alinsky, tango that one pope banned it and no decent home would tolerate it. Management Dissertation! The particularly offending movements, called corte y quebrada (this is the dramatic hesitation followed by a lateral swing or rock of the hips), were a playful mimicry of sexual intercourse. Hence, certain public dance halls posted signs that specifically forbade the offending steps. In the uf essay prompt, tango, the melody acts as a stimulus to the inventiveness of the dancers; the figures are not set. Hence, the richness of the choreography depends on the imagination and physical skill of the dancers.

In some verses of the era, quoted by Borges in his book on Evaristo Carriego, the poet of the slums of Buenos Aires in management, the early part of the twentieth century, we read: The bride's uncle, who has taken it upon himself. to see that the dancing stays proper, says, a bit shocked, that suggestive dance steps. are not allowed - even in fun. 'For modesty apart, not that any of these louts. would know what I'm talking about, this house. may be poor - there's no denying that - poor as anything, but respectable.' Lascivious dance steps and the sexual connotation of many of the tangos' titles ('The Corn Cob', 'The Big Rod', etc.) have been noted by all historians. Old photographs show two men dancing the tango together on the street.

What they were actually doing was trying out various intricate steps to perfect what they would do with whores that same night in brothels. They would not practice at home so as not to offend their wives and daughters. No decent girl - not before the tango was made acceptable by Paris - danced a tango. The tango was played and danced in thesis hypotheses, a great variety of construction management, locales. These were: Salones. Research Papers! Halls, which belonged to mutual aid societies or social or sporting clubs. These functioned on weekends or on patriotic holidays. Some were the province of a particlar immigrant group. A certain famous salon , the management, Rodriguez Pena, gave its name to indiana university, one of the early great tangos.

There, on Mondays, dance contests were held in elegant dress. Some of the best dancers were professionals famed for their work in whorehouses of a previous era. The best musicians and some of the first small orchestras played in construction management dissertation, these halls. The atmosphere was colourful. One salon was run by Charlie the Englishman, whose wife was Maria La Vasca, who had her own highly-reputed brothel. Casitas. Private homes. The word is a euphemism. Individuals, either owners or tenants, operated these, a group of mcdonalds case study marketing research, friends renting a place for a single night, where they danced and caroused. They were clandestine brothels, really, and construction, whoever ran them hired the thesis saul, necessary number of construction, girls for study research, the evening. Maria La Vasca's, at Carlos Calvo 2721, was one of the most famous of these, functioning from the construction management dissertation, 1890s on.

What may be the hypotheses, first tango still in the repertory, 'El entrerriano', was born at Maria La Vasca's. 'Don Juan', another of the brilliant early tangos, originated in the casita know as Mamita (Little Mama's). In Montevideo, these casitas were known as pensiones . Hotels and tearooms. The tango 'Gran Hotel Victoria' was written for the opening of the hotel of the same name, in Cordoba, in January 1906. Sometimes in dissertation, these places the indiana tomosynthesis, music would not be presented as a tango but - safely - as 'an Argentine dance'. Cabarets. Management Dissertation! Armenonville, Moulin Rouge, L'Abbaye, Montmartre, Maxim, Royal Pigall, etc. Uf Essay Prompt! One, the Palais de Glace, was built as an ice-skating rink. Restaurants. El Americano. The famous tango 'El Choclo', by Villoldo, was first played here, in construction management dissertation, a street called Cortada de Carabales, near Cangallo, in 1905.

Summer restaurants . Open-air places. For reasons of sound amplification, the orchestras were enlarged, numbering fifteen or twenty or more. One, the uf essay prompt, Pasatiempo, stood on construction management an island, which could only uf essay prompt be reached by construction, boat. Another, the Rose Pavilion, functioned during the afternoon for ladies and gentlemen and young girls and at night under circumstances less suited to the family. Hansens's was the most famous of these and the most famous tango locale in uf essay prompt, history.

It originated in 1875 or thereabouts. It was a family restaurant and beer hall by day and a dance hall by night. Cafes and bars . Here the tango was listened to, not danced. These were a lateish development - after May 1910, the date of the centenery of Argentine independence. Some of these places had waitresses, who would dance with the clientele. Construction Dissertation! Very numerous in study marketing, Buenos Aires and Montevideo. Academias. The term 'academy' meant in the nineteenth century a dance hall with a reputation for sinfulness or wickedness, where tangos were danced by women with loose morals. Later, the term referred to the places where tangos were taught but where people often came just to dance. Usually the construction, women professionals were paid by the dance. Brothels.

Supposedly, the tango did not exist in Buenos Aires brothels because dancing, alcoholic beverages, etc., were prohibited in them by local ordinance. Nonetheless, in periods of relaxed vigilance, tangos were danced in certain dives where whores gathered and also in officially registered brothels. Outside the saul alinsky, limits of the federal capital, however, the brothel was the principal social centre, and there freedom was nearly absolute. One of the most famous was called The Red Lantern. It was in the factory suburb of Avellaneda, just outside the Buenos Aires city limits. Construction! It showed pornographic films, and it was reached by boat across the Riachuelo. It belonged to a national chain of whorehouses run by an organization of tomosynthesis, Jewish pimps, who also owned their own cemetery.

Borges's story 'Streetcorner Man' may have taken a number of elements from the real Red Lantern. Perigundines. Waterfront bars, or dives, of low character, whose prostitutes solicited. Such places were supposedly eliminated from construction management dissertation, Buenos Aires before 1900 but they continued to exist throughout the Argentine well into thesis the Thirties. Ollas. These were places where you paid ten cents a dance and danced with professional women dancers. Formativos. Private houses where participants each contributed a small amount of money for management, musicians and other expenses.

Street corners . It was not uncommon for various dances to be held on street corners. In the case of the tango, it was danced by university digital tomosynthesis, two men either loosely or tightly entwined, who would alternate taking the woman's part. This picturesque activity, accompanied by the barrel organ or hurdy-gurdy, had as its purpose the trying out and practice of new steps or else simple enjoyment of the dance. By two routes, the tango reached Paris around 1910, where it quickly became the new craze and replaced all the other dances of the management dissertation, day. This happened not on hypotheses the popular level but among the aristocracy and in the most sophisticated and refined salons, in the most expensive restaurants, and the most exclusive private parties. First the tango arrived via the crews of construction management, ships carrying frozen River Plate beef to the port of Marseilles, whose dance halls and bordellos resembled those of uf essay prompt, Buenos Aires and Montevideo. And also the tango arrived via those artists of the old guard who, beginning in 1905, went to Paris to record - Gobbi, Villoldo, Saborido, Greco, and others. The importance of this phenomenon was that Paris legitimized the tango, and after its acceptance in the highest circles there - from whence came all fashion - it could be taken up by the middle class of Buenos Aires. In 1913, the tango was even presented to and defended before the Academie Francaise by one of its members. Free of the taint of brothels, the tango was now referred to as 'tango de salon' . Around 1917 came a new development - the tango-cancion , or tango-as-song.

Now the lyrics became important. At the same time, they left behind the tough, swaggering stance of the old guard and began to turn sentimental and self-pitying. 'Mi noche triste' (My Sad Night), with words by Pascual Contursi, is the management, first tango-cancion , and uf essay prompt, it sets the pattern. My girl walked out on dissertation me. in the prime of my life, leaving my soul wounded. and thorns in my heart. For me there's no consolation, and that's why I'm getting drunk - to try to forget her love. Here begins a tendency that certain historians and critics - Borges among them - deplore. 'My Sad Night' was first sung by uf essay prompt, Carlos Gardel near the outset of dissertation, his illustrious career.

At once, Gardel became known as one of the creators of the tango-cancion . Today when someone begins to hypotheses, tell you a sad tale of personal misfortune, you cut him short saying, 'Please, no tangos.' It was in the Twenties that musicianship was enormously improved. The players were now thoroughgoing professionals. The orchestras were larger, and the dance was simplified. At this time, the tango was played by sextets made up of construction management, two violins, piano, two concertinas, and a bass.

Carlos Gardel was born in bioinformatics science, Toulouse, in 1890, and came to Buenos Aires as a small boy to live with his unmarried mother in a slum tenement in the heart of the city. Gardel began singing early on management dissertation and immediately rose to expository linking, fame. Between 1919 and 1935, he made fifteen to eighteen films (a number of them in New York) and countless recordings. He died in an aeroplane fire on a runway in Ecuador, in 1935, at management the height of his career. He went rapidly from cult figure to myth. Gardel had an extraordinary voice ('He sings better all the time,' it is commonly said of him even decades after his death), a big smile, and a warm heart. In him were combined the thesis, best and worst characteristics of the River Plate man - he was both debonair and construction management dissertation, roguish. He is greatly admired for his success (this is study marketing research very Argentine), having been the construction management dissertation, first Argentine to sing and act his way into the world. Thesis Saul! One Argentine writer says that to them he was a sort of Humphrey Bogart had Bogart also been a singer. Gardel stands as a symbol of the city - its ports, its slums, its unsavoury nightlife; at construction dissertation the same time, he stands for the city's other side, its refined taste - evening dress, the Colon Opera House, Parisian travel, champagne, and bioinformatics papers science, beautiful women. Construction Dissertation! A writer friend tells me that Gardel represents the ideal of the Buenos Aires man.

Gardel had a house near the Abasto, Buenos Aires's wholesale marketplace. It still stands, today owned and exploited by a consortium whose head is a Japanese concertina player and thesis, impresario who takes tango groups to management, play in the night clubs of Tokyo. There is a two-block-long street by the Abasto named for Gardel. Every possible detail of his life - his money, his cars, his houses, his possessions - has been documented and papers, speculated upon. Construction Management Dissertation! Did Gardel wear glasses?

Did he play he guitar? What brand of hair pomade did he use? Did he have grey hair? False teeth? Play the horses? Apparently, there exists a passport in his name stating that he was born, in 1887, in Uruguay.

Uruguayans claim him as their son; others say it was a false document to exempt him from conscription in France. Gardel had quite a following of women, but he never married. His mother lived with him. She died, in Buenos Aires, in 1943. This is the last valuable decade in the tango's history. The outstanding figure of the period was Anibal Troilo, an orchestra leader and concertina player, who was to the music of the uf essay prompt, tango what Gardel was to management dissertation, singing. Troilo has been called the Duke Ellington of the tango. In part, the tango's decline is due to the impact made by phonograph records from saul, abroad, which introduced new music into Argentine life and management, challenged the tango's popularity. The tango is seldom danced any more except by the older generations, who nostalgically relive their youth. In the citys' centre, places to indiana university digital tomosynthesis, dance the tango are no more. Management! Night spots where the tango is still played, such as the Viejo Almacen, could not exist if it were not for tourists.

One lone figure, Astor Piazzola, goes on composing. Thesis! An old man, he is the last link with the tango tradition. His compositions have been likened to chamber music. Natural attrition is also responsible for management, the tango's decline. The tango reached its height in digital tomosynthesis, the Twenties and Thirties and management dissertation, simply could not be bettered. The sentimentality slipped into research science vulgarity. The tango was widely appreciated in the first decades of the twentieth century. The dance-song reached its culmination in Buenos Aires.

France was the construction management, first European country to accept this music, with its strong urban atmosphere, and send it forth into the world. It was no mere accident that the tango should take root in a country of uf essay prompt, immigrants and in a mixture of diverse cultures. The unequal struggle for life was the immigrant's preoccupation, and management dissertation, the tango - with words - reflects his passions, disillusionments, and his everyday concerns. This dance-song, in tango tempo, expressed the sentiments of a people. Its poetic possibilities were very rich and so spontaneous that the tango became the culture of research science, a single place.

Around it grew up an urban folklore.