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Argumentative Essay:Dogs vs Cats Essay. Pets bring happiness to a person’s life. They create a special bond with their owners. Full On Smoking? This bond can help an owner and his pet live in harmony. People usually get pets to have a companion in their homes. Geographical Features? Couples get pets before having a child because taking care of essay, a pet is similar in taking care of a child. Pets usually are fish, birds, mammals, and sometimes reptiles, but insects like spiders and ants are still owned by some people that consider them as pets. Dogs and cats are one of the most popular pets to have.
Dogs and cats make a big percentage in the world’s populations of pets, according to the Humane Society of the United States (2011) there are 78.2 million owned dog and 86.4 million owned cats. Dogs show that they are loyal to an owner and tipes of essay, that are easily trained, cats on full essay, the other hand can take care of features essay, themselves better than dogs and can remove rat infestations from the house of the essay on smoking, owner. Tipes Of Essay? Both dogs and cats have their pros and full on smoking, cons, but dogs are better pets than cats because they show more qualities of a better pet than a cat. Dogs provide an active lifestyle for an owner. Customized? Dogs are very energetic which requires constant walks. This makes the owner and a dog have a healthier lifestyle than having a cat. Have you ever seen a person walk their cat? If someone would ever see a person walk their cat, that would be their first time seeing that sight. Cats are known as to stay at on smoking their home and wait for time to pass by. The energy of a dog can also excite their owner making them play together for river questions, a certain time.
Dogs also learn a variety of tricks and can learn them easier than cats. The capability of a dog in learning tricks can simply amaze a person, training a cat to sit, rollover, or play fetch can be weird sight to see. On Smoking? I personally have not seen a cat do the narrative essay for english, tricks a dog can do. If I ever see one, I do not know what would my reaction would be. Essay On Smoking? While training a dog, the time spent in training can help in establishing a good relationship with their owner. A dog can also provide protection to a home. Dogs can be trained to china essay, alert owners when seeing a stranger in essay, their yard or attack on command when the owner says so. Certain breeds like German Sheperd and Labrador Retriever can be trained to be police dogs.
These dogs help in assisting police with their work, providing them help in searching for missing people or objects or in detecting firearms or illegal substances on tipes of essay, people. Dogs were also used for essay on smoking, hunting purposes; their keen sense of smell has helped humans hunt their prey easily. Book Report? Dogs can also be trained to guide blind people to essay on smoking, destinations. Cats can help out in rat infestations at customized essays home but they cannot help in sniffing out people with firearms or guiding people to destinations. Another reason dogs are better than cats is that dogs can understand humans better than cats. Training a dog requires hand gestures, these hand gestures when repeated over on smoking and over can be easily understood by a dog that will trigger the book for 4th grade, action that the owner wanted. Essay On Smoking? Many people think that dogs show more affection than cats.
According to the journal Animal Cognition, University of London, researchers have found that dogs are more likely to approach a crying person than someone who was humming or talking, and narrative essay for english class, that they normally respond to weeping with submissive behaviors. Cats are known to full on smoking, have an attachment with their owners because cats know that their owners bring them food every day. Lastly, dogs provide better companionship with their owners. Every time an owner spends time with his/her dog, it develops their relationship to something better. Dogs are called a man’s best friend because they are always at book guidelines grade your side, wanting to play with you, or trying to on smoking, cheer you up. The bond between a dog and their owner is similar to a parent and a child. A child knows when their parent is around or not. The child becomes happy when they see their parents while sad and distressed when they see that they are gone. Cats can have a bond with their owners too, but they are more adept at being independent on their own. Features? Dogs are better pets than cats but that does not mean that cats are not bad pets.
Cats also have their positive sides like, independency. As mentioned earlier, cats are independent; they can feed off food that they find from the home of their owners, an example would be rats and mice. Cats also can bathe on their own, so they do not need their owners to give them a bathe regularly. The dependency of full, a dog can sometimes frustrate an owner, the feeding it needs regularly, the cleaning of the dog’s dirt, and the bath it needs to tipes of essay, keep clean are the factors that can frustrate an owner. Cats are more silent than dogs.
The barking of a dog can irritate an owner and the neighbours. A cat’s “meow” cannot be loud enough to essay, wake people up at midnight. According to Douglas (2004), dogs can vocalize their moods, meaning the tipes of essay, loudness of full essay on smoking, their bark depends on what emotion they have at the moment. Cats on the other hand do not, if they are happy, sad, or excited they will “meow” at the same level but evidence from (McComb et al., 2009) suggests that cats are capable of purring with a frequency that has a subliminal effect similar to that of a human baby#8217;s cry. This purr, known as the #8220;solicitation purr,#8221; is slightly different from the essay for english class, regular purr and is used to ask for food. I have never experienced owning a cat, my family has always owned dogs. On Smoking? From stray dog to essay questions, a breeded one, it has always been dogs. The loyalty shown by the dog, companionship to their owner, the active lifestyle given by the dog, and capability of the essay on smoking, dog to report guidelines grade, learn tricks are the reasons why my family would own a dog than a cat. I have never thought of having a cat, even in the future.
The cats of our neighbours have helped me in making that decision. Essay? Every time we leave a door open, a cat would manage to go inside, hop on china features essay, the dining table and on smoking, get some of the for english class, food prepared. Another case would be that some cats bear their children at our garage which would make our dogs bark out loud. These cases have lead me to full essay, make the features, decision that dogs are better pets than cats. Full Essay? Animal Cognition (May 30,2013), University of book report for 4th grade, London, http://www.livescience.com/20823canine-comfort-dogs-understand-emotion.html Arden Moore (2007), The Cat Behavior Answer Book, http://www.petfinder.com/cats/catbehavior-and-training/why-cats-meow/ APPA National Pet Owners Survey (2011), The Humane Society of the United States, http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/pet_overpopulation/facts/pet_ownership_statistics.html Douglas, K. (9 December 2009).#8221;Dogs vs. On Smoking? Cats: The Great Pet Showdown. New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20427381.200-dogs-vs-cats-the-great-petshowdown-.html McComb, K., Taylor, A., Wilson, C., Charlton, B. (2009). #8220;The Cry Embedded Within the Purr.#8221; Current Biology, 19(13). Retrieved 17. December 2009 from the Academic Search Premier database.
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The United States military should encourage the fact that gays can now openly serve for their country. Gay Americans were not always encouraged . to join the on smoking, U.S. military . In the past, gays were not even allowed to sign up to customized fight for their country because America made it illegal. Even though this is wrong, people would often use it to their advantage to get out of a draft for war. The United States military up until not to long ago, had a policy of don’t ask don’t tell. Sexual orientation should. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 897 Words | 3 Pages. through tasks just for full on smoking applying. Essay. Then after if he or she makes it in there are more tests and tasks to go through. Full Essay On Smoking. It goes on in sports, colleges, the . military and book report guidelines for 4th grade plenty of essay on smoking, other team groups. I personally do not think it is all that bad, to a certain extent. On Science. When the actions turn to abuse rather than tasks that is when it becomes wrong.
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Women Should Not be in the Military Samantha Purdue Eng 11-8 Mr. Pagan 8 May 2013 From the beginning of time, women and tipes of essay war have . always been considered to have little in common. Essay. As the geographical features, weaker sex, women are commonly associated with caring and full essay on smoking with creating life, rather than with its destroying. Although women today do have the opportunity to enter the army, they are not officially allowed to enter combat and fight alongside their male counterparts. In general, a gun should not be put. Female , Gender , Human sexual behavior 1391 Words | 4 Pages. Military Policy of essay for english class, South Korea In recent days, there are a lot of controversial issues in the world.
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The woman’s role over this period of time. Army , History , Military 1446 Words | 4 Pages. Reinstating the full essay, Military draft Don Cernuto Ashford University PHI 200 Jeanne Henry Abstract The paper you about to questions read are about . Reinstating the Military Draft, if all citizens should be eligible from the ages of 18-42. Some citizens think this should be done others think it shouldn’t in the pages to come this paper will show you the pros and cons of some of our citizens and some of our Military Commanders active and retired. In an interview with National Radio “All Things Considered”.
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? The War Within: Rape and Radical Feminism in essay on smoking the Military Maya Angelou is quoted to have . said, “If you don’t like something, change it. If you can’t change it, change your attitude”. Viktor E. Frankl similarly states, “When we are no longer able to change a situation – we are challenged to change ourselves” . This notion of complacency for the wrongdoings of another person or group is unacceptable. There are some situations that are unable to be. Army , Assault , Feminism 1804 Words | 5 Pages. Emotional Stress on Military Families. Stress on tipes of essay Military Service Families The deployment of a loved one in the militry service leads to emotional stress to the family left behind . with hope to hold on to. Kendra N. Lowe talks about development of stress on the families caused by deployments. Lowe says, Military life can also be extremely stressful on families and children due to prolonged absence of the active duty member during deployments, TDYs, and frequent trainings(3). Deployments can be a very big transition on full essay on smoking a military family.
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Military Drinking Age What would happen if the drinking age were lowered for those in the military ? Xxxxx xxxxx English . 123 Mrs. Full. Xxxxxx 20 Apr 20XX Military Drinking Age 1 What would happen if the drinking age were lowered for those in the military ? When I started this paper, I didn’t want my own views to sway my opinion on this question. The more I researched, the more I had even my own views expanded. I wanted to know what military people thought about this topic, what. Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage , Army 1276 Words | 4 Pages. ? Military of Ottoman Empire Military of Ottoman Empire was set up in 1299 (According to some resources 1363). During the . five hundred years of The Ottoman Empire, The Army had many changing in book guidelines itself. However, it is a fact that The Ottoman Army was strong enough to provide The State’s rule over the three continents. The military can be divided two main parts to on smoking examine the book grade, history of Ottoman Military . First one is Classic Process.
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Importance of Accountabilty in the Military. your actions rise above your excuses. In the midst of everything accountability is really about on smoking, being specific. Specific expectations and geographical features essay specific outcomes . and specific consequences. All soldiers have learned since the beginning of their time in the military that there are certain expectations of them and the core facts are to be in the right place at the right time in full essay on smoking the right uniform. If one soldier is constantly late or doing the wrong thing than as a leader it may be easier to turn a blind eye to. Army , Leadership , Military 1976 Words | 5 Pages. Running Head: Life in the Military Name: University: Course: Tutor: Date: One can live a normal life, . enjoy and learn while in the military just as anyone else. Life in the military needs an open approach and understanding on how to customized cope with the challenges that come with the military operations. Life in the military may sound as if it is delicate and a very involving job.
It is important however to note that as much as the experience may be different. Battle , Family , Husband 1495 Words | 5 Pages. understanding the evolution of militaries in the west. Although Lynn does not reject the technological and tactical components in the process . of the creation of modern militaries , he does not view these factors as a driving evolutionary force. The author sees the full, evolution of western militaries as a continuum that is shaped by what Lynn refers to as “paradigmatic states”. China Geographical Features. Lynn suggests that other states with similar infrastructure imitate the paradigmatic state either converging in military structure and practice. Armed forces , Army , Evolution 1552 Words | 5 Pages. Effects of Corruption in the Military.
The Effects of Military Corruption (an Opinion by Emil Jurado Published at the Manila Standard, February 9, 2011) A Reaction Paper . Essay On Smoking. Submitted by RAQUEL G. DE LEON A Reaction Paper on guidelines grade “Effects of full essay, Corruption in the Military ” It is surprising to customized hear from the full essay on smoking, news nowadays that the essay questions on science, Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) tops the list of the country’s most corrupt organizations. It seems like gone were the days when the Philippine National Police (PNP) hugs the limelight as the most. Armed forces , Filipino people , Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo 1499 Words | 4 Pages. Rehling-Rodriguez ENG 098R 1053 FINAL DRAFT Military Child: ‘Brat’ Pure hell took its course on me as a young innocent . girl. Being a military brat definitely impacted my life in full essay many challenging ways. The term military brat is usually misunderstood by tipes of essay, non- military population.
A military brat is a child from a parent who is in the military . My mother was a commanding officer which made me and full on smoking my siblings labeled “ military brat” The word brat (by itself) may seem negative. Girl , Love , Military 871 Words | 3 Pages. Advancements in Military Technology Military technology is defined as the collection of vehicles, equipment, structures, . and communications that are used for essay questions warfare. Warfare has always pushed back technologies boundaries, from the first tanks to stealth bombers like the B2. Advancements in essay military technology keeps the essay, military “on the top of their game”. Full Essay On Smoking. Most countries use military technology to gain power,wealth, and land, as well as, protect their people along with protecting the power. Armed forces , Military , Military history 1415 Words | 4 Pages. brief summarize of Napoleon life, and river essay reason why I choose him to be the greatest leader. Napoleon was born on august, 15/1769, at Ajaccio, Corsica. He was . the second child of the eight-child family (Mc,lynn, 1998).
Napoleon was one of the essay, greatest military minds in human history. Under his control, France became one of the strongest countries. Napoleon put a lot of effort into extending his empire all over on science Europe. He was a master in leadership, and tactics in warfare. Full. He knew the best way to motivate.
Adolf Hitler , Army , Eleanor Roosevelt 1029 Words | 3 Pages. Room Inspections in the Military SGT Davis, Ronald E. The Army Field Manual 7-22.7 states that, “Sharp appearance, efficient performance, . and excellent maintenance are important considerations that affect you directly. They are the earmarks of a good organization and tipes of essay one you should be a proud member of. First line leaders should inspect their soldiers daily and should regularly check soldiers’ rooms in the barracks.” A task in which, I, as PFC Kennedy’s first line supervisor, failed to accomplish. Army , Corporal , Health 1015 Words | 3 Pages. Should the essay, U.S. Book For 4th. Have Military Conscriptions? ?Wyatt Should the US have Military Conscriptions? Since, the full essay on smoking, beginning of society people have always had conflicts with neighboring . tribes, cults, invaders. Violence and fighting has always been a part of the world.
Leaders have always called upon their citizens to fight the battles on the ground. The first world war brought the United States out the depression while millions suffered in Europe, but the conflict with the tipes of essay, United States and the Taliban/Al-Qaeda had killed millions of Arabs. Army , Conscription , Conscription in the United States 1976 Words | 5 Pages.
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18th EN BDE Newcomers Brief - PowerPoint PPT Presentation. To view this presentation, you'll need to enable Flash. Essay On Smoking? PPT 18th EN BDE Newcomers Brief PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3e2661-NjQ0N. The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. Mission.
The 18th Engineer Brigade plans, integrates, and provides command and control of full spectrum engineer missions in support of expeditionary, joint or . PowerPoint PPT presentation. Title: 18th EN BDE Newcomers Brief. 18th EN BDE Newcomers Brief. Agenda Mission / Focus Vision / Individual Focus Whats Expected Form You 18th Engineer Brigade Patch and Crest 18th Engineer Brigade History Subordinate Units and Locations Standards and Discipline I Can Save My Own Life Individual Risk Management Process Hot Issues Within the Brigade Family Readiness Group Army Virtual Family Readiness Group. Brigade Mission / Focus. Mission The 18th Engineer Brigade plans, integrates, and provides command and control of. full spectrum engineer missions in support of. expeditionary, joint or combined operations for. the on science, Regional Combatant Commander. Focus Next 90 Days Best Sapper Competition (16-26 FEB 10) Bagram VII Support (1-11 MAR 10) 18th Engineer Brigade 2010 Maneuver Support. Conference (24-26 MAR 10) ENFORCE 2010 (18-21 APR 10) Focus on Combat PREPARE AND TRAIN FOR COMBAT. On Smoking? capabilities Conduct general engineering operations. River Essay Questions? Vision / Individual Focus My Vision Provide engineering excellence to the maneuver. force Meet the essay on smoking, needs of the units we support in. River Essay? training or combat operations High standards, strong discipline Expertly trained in combined arms engineering Share in on smoking the success of the 18th Engineer. Brigade Safeguard the reputation of our unit High expectations of each other and trust our. leaders, our subordinates, and our comrades.
Area you need to focus on FAMILY and family readiness Physical training Standards discipline Personal readiness Spiritual mental readiness Safety. What I Expect From You DO YOUR JOB (We are at War!) Know and book for 4th grade, EXCEED the standard Be discipline! indiscipline includes - Drugs - DUI/DWI - AWOL - Sexual harassment - Gangs/extremist groups Be a part of the full essay, PROUD SWORD TEAM (Swords Up!) Treat everyone w/ dignity and respect BE SAFE Use the BUDDY SYSTEM approach (on and off duty) 18th En Bde Patch and Crest. Shoulder Sleeve Insignia Description On a red. square, one point up, 2 1/2 inches (6.35 cm) in. height and book report guidelines for 4th grade, 2 1/2 inches (6.35 cm) in width a. white stylized fortress, embattled on its outer. edges and voided of the field, surmounted by a. vertical white sword, point up and hilted yellow, all within a white 1/8 inch (.32 cm) border. Symbolism Scarlet and full on smoking, white are the. colors used for customized essays, the Engineers. The four corners. On Smoking? of the crenelated square allude to their four. campaigns in customized essays World War II, Normandy, Northern. France, Rhineland and on smoking, Central Europe. The four. Guidelines? sides of the central red square stand for. On Smoking? planning, training, construction and combat.
support. The sword symbolizes preparedness in. peace and unrelenting fulfillment of Engineer. missions in time of war. The white outer border. symbolizes unit integrity. Background The. Tipes Of Essay? shoulder sleeve insignia was approved on 10. February 1966. (TIOH Dwg. No. A-1-409) Combat. Service Identification Badge Description A. silver color metal and enamel device 2 inches. (5.08 cm) in height consisting of a design. similar to the shoulder sleeve insignia. On Smoking? Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.
Combat Service Identification Badge (CSIB) Distinctive Unit Insignia Description A silver. color meal and enamel device 1 1/8 inches (2.86. cm) overall, consisting of a four bastion fort. one point down silver, the interior in customized red. On. top of full essay on smoking, this is placed two crossed swords. saltirewise in silver. Under the essay questions on science, design is on smoking a. silver motto scroll bearing the tipes of essay, legend ESSAYONS. ET EDIFIONS in black. Symbolism Scarlet and. white (silver) are the colors used for the.
Engineers. The four sides of the fort stand for. Essay? planning, training, construction and combat. support. The crenelations of the fort represent. the Brigades participation in campaigns of World. War II Normandy, Northern France, Rhineland and. Geographical Features Essay? Central Europe. The crossed swords symbolize. Essay On Smoking? preparedness in peace, and unrelenting. River? fulfillment of Engineer missions in time of war. The motto Essayons et Edifions emblazoned on. the scroll is translated as Let Us Try and Let. Us Build. Background The distinctive unit.
insignia was approved on 3 August 1966. Distinctive Unit Insignia. Essay? 18th Engineer Brigade History. River? Normandy, Northern France, Rhineland, Central. 14 of 17 Offensives and Named Campaigns, 1965 - Consolidation I, 2005 - 2006. National Resolution, 2005 - TBD. POC BDE S3 OPS, DSN (314) 379-5162. Full Essay? Standards and Discipline Be where your supposed to questions be Know your limits Do execute and make a difference LEAD BY EXAMPLE Lead with actions vs. talk Entire chain involved - At all levels (PVT-LTC) - Corrections on the spot ACCOUNTABILITY OF SELF OTHERS. Essay On Smoking? 18th Engineer Brigade. I can save my own life. Because I AM important, My family and friends. love me My unit needs me My nation is depending.
I am responsible for my own safety both on and. off duty, on and off post. Aggressive Driving Speeding and driving too. Essay Questions? fast for the conditions. Full? Fatigue Trying to drive too far without rest. Seats Belts ITS THE LAW. Drugs and Alcohol Germany law and UMCJ. Report Guidelines For 4th Grade? Soldier and Leader Indiscipline Not enforcing. published laws / regulations / guidance / INDIVIDUAL RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS. Step 1 Confirm the essay on smoking, Risk Indicators and ID the. China Geographical Essay? Hazards that causes the SM to be at risk.
Step 4 Implement Plan. This puts the plan into. Step 5 Review plan with SM and essay on smoking, Leader. Customized Essays? Conduct. Essay On Smoking? follow-up based upon tipes of essay, Individual Risk Assessment. Step 2 Assign Initial risk level based on essay on smoking Risk. Tipes Of Essay? Assessment Matrix. Counsel SM on Hazards. Step 3 Develop plan to reduce risk. Plan must. lower or eliminate hazard/risk to SM. Step 6 Continually monitor the hazard/risk . RISK DECISION AUTHORITY LEVEL Low Squad. Leader Moderate Platoon Sergeant/Leader High.
Company Commander Extremely High Battalion. Hot Issues Within the Brigade Customs and courtesies Uniform policy PT policy Barracks Housing areas Payday activities Retreat and reveille Off-limits establishments (currently, there are. Essay? no off limit establishments according to the. FRG Provides I A FRG Is Not Official information flow Meetings Newsletters E-mail contact Telephone contact A loan agency A social work agency A babysitting service A taxi service Lawn service A gossip forum Exclusive all family members are welcome Rank oriented Official organization responsible to narrative for english class the. commander Provides a mutual support and communications. network Opportunity for VTC Social opportunities. Army Virtual Family Readiness Group. www.armyfrg.org Access up-to-date family readiness information. from any terminal Link to other virtual tools (militaryonesource.c. 18th EN BDE Newcomers Brief. Essay On Smoking? This Is How I Think Soldiers embody discipline and teamwork. without it, they arent Soldiers Our NCOs are our standards bearers - especially. senior NCOs, they form the foundation of what. gets done the NCO Creed is their template Leadership tenants havent changed since Sparta. and Rome Caring for Soldiers means all Soldiers not just. the junior ones My expectations? Think about the expectations. of your Soldiers parents? We say families are important but we can do. better our unit will be successful because of. their support Discipline imbued in narrative essay for english class our leaders and units. Full Essay? results in garrison duties and functions being. completed with the same philosophy they intend to. use in the field during tactical operations Accountability is the same in essay questions on science mission. accomplishment, Soldier care, and essay on smoking, care for. equipment Our Army will continue to demand much from all.
Engineer Units we must continually train for. our role in combat this includes training our. families Planning makes everyones job easier early. and tipes of essay, simple is better Soldiers want to be on a winning team and they. all aspire to succeed they use NCOs as their. model for what RIGHT looks like. Comments For Senior Leaders Brigade staff 50/50 Battalion staff 90/10 Ill be taking a comprehensive look at how we. plan and essay on smoking, execute training Positive/Encouraging/Learning Climate beat. Tipes Of Essay? up on essay the higher/lower HQ expect to get. beat-up Our Army Values, Army Traditions, and protocol. matter to me Only the DCO or I can tell a BN commander no. and only the DCO, BDE CSM, or I can tell a BN CSM. no Leadership Development with Company Commanders, Majors, ECCC Captains, E7/E8, and BC/CSMs Sponsorship is more important that anyone. thinks at all levels Accountability Buddy, Leader, Equipment, and. Maintenance How do we communicate the success of our. Essay Questions? Brigade? Im eager to hear your thoughts. Full Essay? Reset is our Mission focus on taking care of. people first and establishing systems well get. Narrative Essay? Our Current Position I realize the brigade has been divided well. work on that together to further build pride in. our Brigade and our patch our higher HQ may. change often Were one Brigade made up of several units Our future deployments are uncertain but Im. Full Essay? working to have this brigade deploy together. Customized Essays? instead of in parts not normally done in recent. past I intend to be the commander of the whole. Brigade and engage each unit equally Heidelberg. is where the Brigade HHC HQ/Staff is, NOT the. Brigade Plan to see me where you work, deploy, train, and interact on a social level Brigades must be Value Added and not just. another layer of essay on smoking, command SWORDS UP STAY SHARP!
ONE Brigade, several. units Be proud of your previous service elsewhere - The Foreseeable Future. 60th GPC Misison Support to EUCOM AFRICOM. EMAT Mission Support to EUCOM. 60th GPC EMAT Support to USAREUR Exercises. Lessons Learned Who we are History Capabilities Training Resources History Achievements Future How we are assisting / can assist What our Soldiers are doing Lessons Learned How we are supporting the maneuver Commander.
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essay on essay, media news Robert G. Kaiser. I n 1998, Ralph Terkowitz, a vice president of The Washington Post Co., got to know Sergey Brin and Larry Page, two young Silicon Valley entrepreneurs who were looking for backers. Terkowitz remembers paying a visit to the garage where they were working and keeping his car and driver waiting outside while he had a meeting with them about the idea that eventually became Google. An early investment in Google might have transformed the Post 's financial condition, which became dire a dozen years later, by which time Google was a multi-billion dollar company. But nothing happened. “We kicked it around,” Terkowitz recalled, but the then-fat Post Co. had other irons in china geographical features other fires. Such missteps are not surprising. Essay. People living through a time of revolutionary change usually fail to grasp what is going on around them. The American news business would get a C minus or worse from any fair-minded professor evaluating its performance in the first phase of the Digital Age. Book Report Guidelines For 4th. Big, slow-moving organizations steeped in full essay on smoking their traditional ways of doing business could not accurately foresee the next stages of a technological whirlwind. Obviously, new technologies are radically altering the ways in which we learn, teach, communicate, and are entertained.
It is impossible to narrative for english class, know today where these upheavals may lead, but where they take us matters profoundly. How the digital revolution plays out over time will be particularly important for journalism, and therefore to the United States, because journalism is the craft that provides the lifeblood of essay, a free, democratic society. The Founding Fathers knew this. Essay. They believed that their experiment in full essay self-governance would require active participation by essay questions an informed public, which could only be possible if people had unfettered access to information. James Madison, author of the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of speech and of the press, summarized the proposition succinctly: “The advancement and diffusion of knowledge is the only guardian of full essay, true liberty.” Thomas Jefferson explained to tipes of essay, his French friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, The only full essay on smoking security of for 4th, all is in a free press. The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to be expressed.” American journalists cherish another of Jefferson's remarks: “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the on smoking latter.”
The journalistic ethos that animated many of the Founders was embodied by a printer, columnist, and editor from Philadelphia named Benjamin Franklin. The printing press, which afforded Franklin his livelihood, remained the engine of American democracy for more than two centuries. But then, in the second half of the 20th century, new technologies began to undermine long-established means of sharing information. First television and then the essay questions on science computer and the Internet transformed the way people got their news. Essay. Nonetheless, even at the end of the century, the business of providing news and analysis was still a profitable enough undertaking that it could support large organizations of professional reporters and editors in print and broadcast media. Now, however, in the first years of the 21st century, accelerating technological transformation has undermined the business models that kept American news media afloat, raising the possibility that the great institutions on which we have depended for news of the river essay world around us may not survive. These are painful words to write for someone who spent 50 years as a reporter and editor at essay The Washington Post . For the first 15 years of my career, the Post 's stories were still set in lead type by linotype machines, now seen only in museums.
We first began writing on computers in the late 1970s, which seemed like an unequivocally good thing until the rise of the Internet in the 1990s. Essay For English. Then, gradually, the ground began to shift beneath us. By the time I retired earlier this year, the Graham family had sold the Post to Jeff Bezos, the founder of essay on smoking, Amazon, for $250 million, a small fraction of its worth just a few years before. Donald Graham, the chief executive at report guidelines for 4th the time, admitted that he did not know how to full essay on smoking, save the newspaper. In fact, digital technology has flummoxed the river owners of traditional news media, especially newspapers, from the beginning. For example, in 1983, in the early years of computerized production of essay, newspapers when almost no one knew what was coming, The New York Times almost committed digital suicide.
The Times decided it only needed to retain the essay questions rights to on smoking, the electronic versions of its stories for 24 hours after publication. To make a little extra money, the Times sold rights to narrative class, everything older than 24 hours to full essay, Mead Data Central, owners of the china geographical features essay Lexis-Nexis service. Mead Data Central then sold electronic access to essay on smoking, Times stories to law firms, libraries, and the public. By the early 1990s, as the Internet was becoming functional and popular, this arrangement was a big and growing problem: newspapers, including the Times , were planning “online,” computerized editions, but the Times had sold control of its own product to essay, Mead Data. Luckily for essay the country's best newspaper, the Anglo-Dutch firm Reed Elsevier bought Mead Data in 1994. The sale triggered a provision in the original Times -Mead contract that allowed the Times to essay questions, reclaim the full essay on smoking electronic rights to geographical essay, its own stories.
That enabled the Times to put its journalism online in on smoking 1995. But putting newspapers online has not remotely restored their profitability. For the moment, The New York Times is making a small profit, but its advertising revenues are not reassuring. The Washington Post made profits of more than $120 million a year in the late 1990s, and narrative today loses money—last year more than $40 million. Newsweek magazine failed, and Time magazine is essay on smoking teetering. Essay Questions On Science. Once-strong regional newspapers from full essay, Los Angeles to Miami, from Chicago to Philadelphia, find themselves in desperate straits, their survival in doubt.
News divisions of the major television networks have been cutting back for more than two decades, and are now but a feeble shadow of their former selves. Overall the customized economic devastation would be difficult to exaggerate. One statistic conveys its dimensions: the advertising revenue of all America's newspapers fell from $63.5 billion in 2000 to essay, about $23 billion in 2013, and is still falling. Traditional news organizations' financial well-being depended on the willingness of advertisers to pay to reach the mass audiences they attracted. Advertisers were happy to pay because no other advertising medium was as effective.
But in the digital era, which has made it relatively simple to target advertising in very specific ways, a big metropolitan or national newspaper has much less appeal. Internet companies like Google and Facebook are able to sort audiences by the most specific criteria, and thus to offer advertisers the geographical features possibility of spending their money only on ads they know will reach only full essay on smoking people interested in what they are selling. So Google, the master of targeted advertising, can provide a retailer selling sheets and towels an china features audience existing exclusively of full, people who have gone online in the last month to shop for geographical sheets and towels. This explains why even as newspaper revenues have plummeted, the ad revenue of Google has leapt upward year after year—from $70 million in essay on smoking 2001 to narrative for english class, an astonishing $50.6 billion in 2013. On Smoking. That is essay on science more than two times the combined advertising revenue of every newspaper in America last year. And the situation for full on smoking proprietors of newspapers and magazines is likely to get worse. One alarming set of statistics: Americans spend about 5 percent of the time they devote to media of essays, all kinds to essay, magazines and river essay questions newspapers. But nearly 20 percent of full essay, advertising dollars still go to narrative for english, print media. So print media today are getting billions more than they probably deserve from advertisers who, governed by the inertia so common in human affairs, continue to full essay on smoking, buy space in publications that are steadily losing audience, especially among the young. When those advertisers wake up, revenues will plummet still further.
King County Journal. Union City Register Tribune. Halifax Daily News. Rocky Mountain News. News organizations have tried to adapt to the new realities. Tipes Of Essay. As the Internet became more popular and more important in the first decade of the 21st century, newspaper proprietors dreamed of paying for full on smoking their newsrooms by mimicking their traditional business model in the online world.
Their hope was to create mass followings for customized essays their websites that would appeal to advertisers the full on smoking way their ink-on-paper versions once did. But that’s not what happened. The news organizations with the most popular websites did attract lots of narrative essay for english, eyeballs, but general advertising on their sites did not produce compelling results for advertisers, so they did not buy as much of it as the papers had hoped. And the price they paid for essay it steadily declined, because as the Internet grew, the number of sites offering advertising opportunities assured that “supply” outstripped “demand.” Advertising revenues for the major news sites never amounted to even a significant fraction of the revenues generated by printed newspapers in china geographical features essay the golden age. There seems little prospect today that online advertising revenues will ever be as lucrative as advertising on paper once was. The other online innovation that has devastated newspapers is Craigslist, the full free provider of tipes of essay, what the newspapers call “classified advertising,” the small items in small print used by individuals and full essay businesses for essay class generations to full essay, buy and geographical features essay sell real estate and merchandise, and to hire workers. Essay On Smoking. Twenty years ago classifieds provided more than a third of the revenue of The Washington Post . Craigslist has destroyed that business for customized essays the Post and every major paper in on smoking the country. The Philadelphia Inquirer/Daily News headquarters building on Broad Street in Philadelphia, October 6, 2005. The paper is one of many major newspapers facing cutbacks and dwindling circulation. D espite two decades of trying, no one has found a way to china features essay, make traditional news-gathering sufficiently profitable to assure its future survival. Serious readers of America's most substantial news media may find this description at odds with their daily experience.
After all, The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , and The Washington Post still provide rich offerings of good journalism every morning, and they have been joined by numerous online providers of both opinion and news—even of classic investigative reporting. Digital publications employ thousands of reporters and editors in new and sometimes promising journalistic enterprises. Is this a disaster? Of course not—yet. Full Essay. But today's situation is customized probably misleading. The laws of economics cannot be ignored or repealed. Nor can the actuarial tables. Only about a third of full essay on smoking, Americans under 35 look at a newspaper even once a week, and the percentage declines every year. A large portion of report guidelines for 4th, today's readers of the few remaining good newspapers are much closer to the grave than to high school. Today's young people skitter around the Internet like ice skaters, exercising their short attention spans by looking for fun and, occasionally, seeking out full essay serious information. Audience taste seems to be changing, with the customized result that among young people particularly there is a declining appetite for the sort of information packages the great newspapers provided, which included national, foreign and local news, business news, cultural news and criticism, editorials and opinion columns, sports and obituaries, lifestyle features, and science news.
Alas for those who continue to want access to that kind of full essay on smoking, product, there is no right to reliable, intelligent, comprehensive journalism. We only get it when someone provides it. Guidelines For 4th Grade. And if it doesn’t pay someone a profit, it’s not likely to be produced. New York City. 1959. TV news anchorman Walter Cronkite. © Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos. B efore digital technology changed the world, the full essay news was quite orderly and predictable. To find out what was happening, you bought a paper, listened to the radio, or watched television.
Most people relied on one or two sources for all their news—a newspaper and a TV network, for example. A few institutions and a few individuals dominated the provision of news: Walter Cronkite and John Chancellor; The New York Times and The Washington Post ; Time and questions Newsweek . The universe of news providers was small and also remarkably homogeneous. David Brinkley could move from NBC to full, ABC without causing much of a stir. When Roone Arledge, whose first big accomplishment was to make ABC the leading network for sports, was empowered to build a new ABC News, he did it by raiding the essay questions on science staffs of NBC and CBS. Similarly, when Ted Turner launched CNN, he poached talent from the networks.
This small, nearly-closed world rarely provided any surprises. Politically, the full essay on smoking big news organizations cast themselves as fair-minded and even-handed, never partisan. Time magazine may have been somewhat more conservative, The New York Times more liberal, but none drifted far from the center of the political spectrum. For nearly four decades after World War II, mainstream journalism was notably non-ideological. At the height of their success, all the best news organizations shared two important qualities: a strong sense of narrative essay for english, responsibility about their roles as providers of full essay, news and analysis, and plenty of money to river essay, spend on those missions.
In their heyday, roughly the last third of the 20th century, these institutions tended to unify American society. News anchors like Cronkite, Chancellor, Tom Brokaw, Dan Rather, and Peter Jennings were reassuring, avuncular figures with whom millions of Americans shared the dramas of the day. All the mainstream print and full broadcast media sought to provide an information supermarket whose aisles—from sports to tipes of essay, business to politics, foreign affairs, entertainment news, and gossip—would hopefully attract mass audiences across all classes of society. And they made money—a lot of it—by selling those mass audiences to advertisers. NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images.
The money allowed for an extravagant approach to full essay, news. Editors and producers could put their news instincts ahead of essays, other considerations, including profits—at least occasionally. I did this myself, dispatching reporters around the full essay on smoking country and the world with something awfully close to abandon when I was a senior editor of The Washington Post . The best newspapers—the best of a much more crowded field than exists today—invested in Washington bureaus, foreign correspondents, and investigative reporting teams, not to tipes of essay, mention luxuries almost unheard of now. For years, for example, no reporter for the Los Angeles Times had to suffer the indignity of flying in coach; business or first class was the full on smoking norm. Customized Essays. The broadcast media enjoyed even more extravagance. In the 1970s the three television networks each maintained large corps of full, foreign correspondents stationed in bureaus across the globe, and essay class also domestic bureaus in the major American cities. Full Essay. They all did serious documentaries and showed them in prime time. Editors and producers pursued stories that interested them, without much concern for book report guidelines grade how readers or viewers might react to the journalism that resulted. Members of this tribe of journalists shared a sense of essay, what “the news” was. The most influential of them were the editors and reporters on the best newspapers, whose decisions were systematically embraced and class echoed by other editors and writers, as well as by the producers of full essay on smoking, television news. As many have noted now that their power has declined, these news executives were gatekeepers of a kind, deciding which stories got the essays most attention.
The most obvious examples of their discretionary power came in the realm of investigative reporting. One of the cardinal events of this era was Walter Cronkite's decision in late October 1972 to on smoking, report in detail on the CBS Evening News the findings of two young Washington Post reporters, Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, on the developing Watergate scandal. Cronkite’s decision highlighted the strength of the news culture, while also helping to put the Post —then still emerging as a leading newspaper—at the center of national attention. This was a golden era in journalism, a time when a prosperous and widely-respected press demonstrated an unprecedented willingness to confront a sitting president. Watergate and the Vietnam War both made it much easier to river essay, challenge authority. Newspapers especially began to full on smoking, show increasing self-confidence—sometimes it felt like arrogance—by moving away from reactive journalism that focused on the events of the previous day and devoting more space and energy to “enterprise” journalism, which included not just in-depth investigations, but stories about trends in society, profiles, and feature stories. Thanks to for english class, this new boldness, the relationship between reporters and government deteriorated and became quite contentious. Deference gave way to skepticism and, often, cynicism about the full believability of public officials and government agencies.
One of the great symbolic moments of this era was the decision by the Nixon administration to seek a court order to stop The New York Times from publishing details of a secret Pentagon history of the essays Vietnam war that a disgruntled official had leaked to the paper. Initially a federal district court accepted the government’s argument that publication endangered “national security,” and issued an order to the Times to cease publication of stories based on the “Pentagon Papers.” The Times 's source, Daniel Ellsberg, then leaked another set of the papers to The Washington Post , which hurriedly began preparing stories about them. Full Essay On Smoking. The government sought court action to block the Post as well. The Supreme Court agreed to take the case. The Times and customized essays Post hired some of the best (and most expensive) lawyers in the country to argue for publication. Essay On Smoking. The court quickly decided in favor of the newspapers' right to essay, publish. Full Essay On Smoking. Nixon's attempt to impose “prior restraint” on the American press had failed. Two private corporations, the Times and questions on science Post companies, had defied the government and full essay on smoking then persuaded the Supreme Court to let them get away with it. Journalists still remember this as a critical moment in the history of river, their business. 1902-03: Ida Tarbell profiles John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company The progressive era of the essay on smoking late 19th and early 20th centuries was a time of customized essays, social activism as Americans and their president, Theodore Roosevelt, fought corruption and monopolistic practices in government and industry.
Tarbell, a former school teacher, wrote a series of articles for McClure’s Magazine about the giant Standard Oil Company and its owner John D. Rockefeller. The series was published in book form in 1904, and in 1911 the U.S. Supreme Court found the company to be in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, causing its breakup. Ironically, Tarbell didn’t like the term “muckraker,” which was applied to her and other reform-minded journalists of the era. 1906: Upton Sinclair exposes conditions in Chicago's meatpacking plants Chicago was America’s center of meat processing and packing around the turn of the century in essay 1900. Although Sinclair’s famous 1906 work, The Jungle , was a novel, he based it on seven weeks in disguise working in questions Chicago’s meatpacking plants. His exposé of conditions that immigrant workers faced in the stockyards and the unsanitary practices of the industry coincided with passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of essay on smoking, 1906 and the Federal Meat Inspection Act of essay, 1906.
Sinclair later focused on American journalism itself, calling attention in 1920 to the practice of “yellow journalism” in his book The Brass Check . 1953: Murrey Marder dogs Sen. Joseph McCarthy's witch hunt In February 1950, U.S. Full Essay On Smoking. Senator Joe McCarthy declared that more than 200 Communists were working at the U.S. State Department. After his re-election in 1952, McCarthy conducted a series of hearings on the matter and implicated Army personnel in espionage. In 1953, Murrey Marder, writing for The Washington Post , began full-time coverage of Sen. China Geographical Essay. McCarthy and full his hearings. Marder investigated the senator's accusations against Army personnel stationed at Fort Monmouth in New Jersey, finding that the senator's charges against them were all false. Marder later opened the narrative London bureau of the The Post , and after his retirement, helped create the Nieman Watchdog Project.
1962-64: David Halberstam calls foul on on smoking, the U.S. military's rosy Vietnam claims In October 1963, President John F. Kennedy was so upset about David Halberstam’s reporting from Saigon that he asked Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, the publisher of The New York Times , to geographical features, transfer David Halberstam out of Vietnam. Since the previous year, Halberstam had offered dogged and skeptical coverage of U.S. government officials’ optimistic portrayals of on smoking, their and the South Vietnamese government’s efforts against North Vietnam. “The job of the reporters in narrative essay class Vietnam,” Halberstam wrote in 1965, “was to report the news, whether or not the full on smoking news was good for America.” In 1964, Halberstam earned a Pulitzer Prize for his Vietnam reporting. 1969: Seymour Hersh exposes the My Lai massacre and cover-up In March 1968, U.S. River Questions. Army soldiers massacred hundreds of civilians in My Lai, a South Vietnamese village. Essay On Smoking. In the months following, Army commanders downplayed the incident, keeping it hidden from the public. However, due to pressure on customized essays, the chain-of-command from a soldier in the infantry company involved, Lieutenant William Calley, Jr. was court martialed in essay on smoking September 1969 for his role. The public wouldn't learn of essay questions, My Lai until Hersh, acting on a tip, interviewed Calley and his lawyer. Full Essay On Smoking. Hersh's story was published by Dispatch, a small news agency with a tiny staff, and essay on science then picked up nationally. Calley was the only soldier convicted in relation to the massacre. Hersh won the 1970 Pulitzer Prize for his reporting. 1971: The Pentagon Papers leaked and published.
In 1971, with the full essay on smoking Vietnam War still going after almost a decade, a military analyst named Daniel Ellsberg leaked a seven-thousand page history of U.S.-Vietnam relations that had been prepared for internal use by river the Pentagon. Lengthy sections of these “Pentagon Papers” were published in The Washington Post and The New York Times , revealing the essay covert origins of a war that was exceedingly unpopular at essay home. The Nixon administration ordered the newspapers to essay on smoking, cease publication of any of the documents. This led to a Supreme Court case ( New York Times Co. v. United States ) that eventually ruled in guidelines grade favor of the press. 1972: Woodward and Bernstein expose the Watergate break in In June 1972, five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate Complex in Washington, DC.
Two young reporters at The Washington Post , Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, were intrigued that one of the burglars was on the payroll of President Richard Nixon’s reelection committee and began digging further. Woodward and Bernstein uncovered a series of political crimes and “dirty tricks” that connected the burglary back to the White House. Their reporting led to indictments of 40 administration officials and the eventual resignation of President Nixon. The paper won the 1973 Pulitzer Prize for full essay on smoking the investigative reporting. 1992: Florence Graves reveals sexual misconduct in Congress In 1992, shortly after the essay for english class Anita Hill controversy, Florence Graves, founder of Common Cause magazine, began an full investigation into sexual misconduct on guidelines grade, Capitol Hill.
She quickly found a pattern of charges pointing to full on smoking, Senator Bob Packwood. Tipes Of Essay. In the fall of 1992, The Washington Post published Graves'story detailing allegations from 10 women of full, sexual misconduct by the Oregon senator. The story not only led to the first-ever Senate Ethics Committee investigation of sexual misconduct and the eventual resignation of Senator Packwood, but also to the passage of the landmark Congressional Accountability Act, subjecting Congress to the same discrimination laws as the rest of the nation. 2010: Dana Priest and William Arkin detail secret government organizations On July 19, 2010, Washington Post reporters Dana Priest and William Arkin published “Top Secret America,” a series of investigative articles revealing the massive and what they characterized as mismanaged post-9/11 growth of the U.S. intelligence community. The series, benefiting from the work of more than a dozen other journalists at The Post , compiled hundreds of thousands of records over two years, identifying 45 government organizations (1,271 sub-units) and 1,931 private companies engaged in top-secret intelligence work. The series highlighted the oversight challenges facing such a fast-growing and secretive system with such an important agenda: maintaining the safety of American citizens. Reuters/Jason Reed JIR.
2013: The Washington Post and essay on science The Guardian report on full, NSA surveillance In early June 2013, The Post and The Guardian broke nearly-simultaneous stories about National Security Agency surveillance activities being conducted on customized, U.S. citizens and foreign officials. Both sets of articles, led by Barton Gellman at The Post and essay on smoking Glenn Greenwald at The Guardian , along with Laura Poitras and report guidelines grade Ewan MacAskill, initially relied on full essay, a confidential source who was a former NSA analyst and then-employee at a private sector consulting firm. The source had told Gellman that he was operating out of conscience and knew that he would be exposed. That person was Edward Snowden. Both newspapers shared the Pulitzer Prize this year for their articles.
Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein (center) and Bob Woodward (left), the team who broke the Watergate story. Washington, D.C., 1974. © Wayne Miller/Magnum Photos. T he golden era had its shortcomings, to be sure. A herd mentality too often prevailed, especially in customized Washington coverage. Self-important journalists were too common. And both the conventional wisdom and conventional attitudes remained strong. So, for example, when confronted by a story like the AIDS epidemic, the great news organizations reacted slowly and clumsily. Few journalists paid serious attention to the rising disparities in American society.
Toward the end of the era, in the first years of the 21st century, the news media succumbed to on smoking, the national anxieties produced by the 9/11 attacks and failed to challenge effectively the Bush administration's rush to war in Iraq. Many journalists joined the rush. This was an embarrassment for our major journalistic institutions and a disservice to the country. Nevertheless, America's best news organizations have proved their value again and again, even in recent years, as their fortunes have declined. The culture of journalistic skepticism born in the 1960s and 1970s has continued to serve the country well. Repeatedly, journalists have broken significant news stories that government officials hoped would never be revealed, from accounts of Americans torturing terror suspects to river, revelations of the systematic mistreatment of veterans at Walter Reed Hospital; from accounts of the government's eavesdropping programs to descriptions of its vast, post-9/11 intelligence apparatus. The major journalistic revelations of the last decade altered the country's image of itself. They mattered.
And society has benefited in less tangible ways, too. “How would this look on the front page of The Washington Post ?” has been a question asked in offices in Washington ever since the full essay time of Watergate, to good effect. Of course this deterrent to illegal, unethical, or embarrassing behavior is unevenly effective; many miscreant public officials have ignored it, and will in customized the future, whether or not there continues to be a front page of on smoking, The Washington Post . But this sense of accountability has had a salutary effect. The best journalism has most often been produced by those news organizations that have both the resources and tipes of essay the courage to full on smoking, defend their best work when it offends or alarms powerful institutions and tipes of essay individuals. The public may perceive journalism as an individualistic enterprise carried out by lone rangers of essay, rectitude, but this is rarely the case. The best work is usually done by a team that has the backing of an organization committed to maintaining the essay on science highest standards of seriousness and integrity, and to nurturing talented reporters and editors. On Smoking. In the trickiest realms of investigative reporting on matters that touch on “national security,” the team—including the writers and editors as well as the lawyers and often the publisher too—can be critically important.
News organizations that can afford to support such teams are now at customized essays risk. A healthy democratic society requires referees—authority figures with whistles they can blow when they perceive infringements of the rules. Prosecutors and judges fulfill this role in matters of law enforcement, but their writ is limited by the scope of the law. “I am not a crook,” insisted Richard Nixon, and perhaps he wasn't, but he was a kind of political criminal nevertheless, and he was first called to account by journalists. Will such whistle blowers be on the job to confront the next Nixon? Paul Starr, the distinguished Princeton scholar, has put the matter succinctly: “By undermining the economic basis of professional reporting and by fragmenting the public, [the digital revolution] has weakened the ability of the press to act as an effective agent of public accountability. If we take seriously the idea that an on smoking independent press serves an essential democratic function, its institutional distress may weaken democracy itself. And that is the danger that confronts us.” Bill O'Reilly vs. Jon Stewart 2012: The Rumble In The Air-Conditioned Auditorium at George Washington University on October 6, 2012.
Jamie McCarthy/Getty Images for china The Rumble 2012. I f today's providers of the best journalism—often referred to these days, somewhat ominously, as “legacy media,” meaning the old stuff—cannot survive their continuing tribulations, what will take their place? Predicting the future is a fool's errand, but some trends are clear. The Internet promotes fragmentation by full on smoking encouraging the customized essays development of full essay on smoking, like-minded communities, from you and your Facebook friends to avid Tea Party supporters who love Breitbart News, a highly readable, relentlessly ideological right-wing news site. Surveys by the Pew Research Center for the People the Press show that increasing numbers of American get their “news” from ideologically congenial sources. The news media are fragmenting just as American society is fragmenting—by class, by region, by religious inclination, by generation, by ethnic identity, by narrative essay for english class politics and more. The rise of the fragmented news media is quite a recent phenomenon. It really became significant after the inauguration of Barack Obama in January 2009. President Obama came into the White House in full the midst of the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. He had run as a unifier who would bring a new era of bipartisan collaboration: “Yes we can!” But no, he couldn't. Republicans in Congress decided at river the outset of his administration that they would try to full essay, deny the new president any victories.
Obama's early legislative successes, based on the big Democratic majorities in the House and Senate produced by the 2008 election, disguised the book guidelines fact that partisan gridlock lay just around the corner. After 2010, when Republicans regained control of the House, the gridlock set in. Full Essay On Smoking. The politicians made an uneasy peace with the idea of essay, perpetual partisan warfare. Voters also took increasingly ideological positions, and looked with increasing suspicion on those who disagreed with them. Today's politicians, especially on the right, communicate to “their” voters through “their” media, most notably, of course, Fox News. Similarly, liberal Democrats like to appear on full essay on smoking, MSNBC. More ideological politicians like a world without Cronkites—without recognized gatekeepers and arbiters. So “the news” that once helped unify the country is now just another source of division.
Daniel Patrick Moynihan used to argue that “everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.” No longer. Politicians and commentators now seem perfectly happy inventing their own reality when it suits their political or ideological purposes. Fox News's determination to ridicule the Affordable Care Act—”Obamacare”—had nothing to do with traditional journalistic truth-seeking. Rather, it was part of a propaganda campaign. The MSNBC cable network, part of NBC, which used to be a serious news organization, saw a business opportunity in making itself a liberal alternative to Fox, the most profitable cable news network, and now unabashedly propagates a liberal view of the news. Fox and MSNBC have both decided to cater to tipes of essay, their audiences not with original reporting of the full news (which is expensive), but with commentary on essay for english, the news interspersed with broadcasts of set-piece events like presidential news conferences. Curiously, or revealingly, there is on smoking little outrage in tipes of essay the culture about these developments. We seem to have adapted to essay on smoking, the demise of the old expectations about accuracy, fairness, and reporting without much of essays, a fight. Some of the new online products produce interesting and informative journalism, but none has the ambitions or the sense of responsibility of the best publications. They couldn't afford those luxuries. A great news organization is expensive.
The newsroom of The New York Times costs about $230 million a year. The news operation of The Washington Post , already substantially diminished from the height of its profitability and influence, still costs more than $90 million a year. Without the revenues to support them, newsrooms all over the country have been decimated. Newspapers employed 59,000 journalists in 1989, and 36,000 in 2012 (and fewer since then). Once-formidable institutions including The Baltimore Sun , Chicago Tribune , Los Angeles Times , and Miami Herald are vastly diminished. Others have gone out of business altogether. The significant news organizations that have survived are under terrific pressure now. A revealing document emerged this spring from The New York Times , a 96-page report written by a committee of Times employees on the digital future. Reading it makes clear the extent to essay on smoking, which even Times reporters and editors now see the demands of the digital age as incompatible with their traditional pursuits.
The committee argues that The New York Times must become a “digital first” organization. River Essay. “That means aggressively questioning many of our print-based traditions and their demands on our time, and essay determining which can be abandoned to free up resources for digital work.” One example cited in the report: “Packaging, promoting and questions sharing our journalism” on the Internet—three activities that have nothing to do with reporting and writing news stories—must become a priority for the newsroom. Even when journalists are allowed to pursue traditional reporting, the requirements of online journalism limit their opportunities to do so. Before the big papers had websites, a reporter could take all day to on smoking, cover an event, talk to sources to get background information, consider the implications of the new developments, and write a story for the next day's paper. Today the same reporter has to file multiple versions of the same story as the day progresses, adding new tidbits as she acquires them. Tipes Of Essay. There is much less time available to dig into a story and discover its ramifications.
The quantity of full essay, original reporting has surely declined as the importance of the Internet has grown. One immediate effect of all these changes and cutbacks is essay questions on science that there's no paper in America today that can offer the same coverage of its city, suburbs, and state that it provided 20 or even 10 years ago, and on smoking scores of city halls and book report guidelines for 4th state legislatures get virtually no coverage by full essay any substantive news organizations. Television remains the primary source of news for most Americans, but local stations have dramatically reduced their reporting staffs, and the networks no longer try to cover the world and the country as they once did. It’s true that the federal government in geographical features essay Washington still gets a lot of attention from essay on smoking, reporters. But one large category of Washington coverage has virtually disappeared: journalism about members of Congress by news organizations “back home.” A generation ago scores of china geographical features essay, local newspapers and television stations employed Washington correspondents who kept an eye on the members of the House and essay on smoking Senate from their cities and river states. Senator Christopher Dodd recalls that in his early years in full essay the Senate, in the 1980s, a dozen reporters from Connecticut outlets were based in Washington and reported regularly on his activities. Book Guidelines Grade. By the time he retired in 2010, that number had fallen to zero.
No Connecticut newspaper or television station had a reporter in the nation's capital. Facade of The Newseum, incorporating the text of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. David Monack/Wikimedia Commons. A re there no grounds for optimism, or even hope? Of course there are. In this age of creative destruction, the essay on smoking destruction is more obvious than the creativity, but some of the new, online providers of news are doing interesting work that helps compensate for the shrinkage of traditional outlets' reporting staffs.
For example, in Connecticut there are now several bloggers reporting on the state's members of Congress, and CT Mirror, a non-profit news site, has a full-time Washington reporter. Around the country dozens of news websites have sprung up to provide some local coverage, many of them employing their own reporters, and a few of them are quite good. There are also several web-based operations that sometimes break important national stories. River. The very best of them is ProPublica, a non-profit organization founded by Paul Steiger, the former managing editor of The Wall Street Journal , that is devoted to investigative reporting, an essay expensive specialty that has suffered in the era of disappearing newspaper profits. ProPublica provides pro bono journalism of the highest quality, as good as the investigative projects of the major newspapers. Its budget of river essay questions, $12 million a year, nearly all raised from donors, funds a staff of 45 reporters and editors. But as its journalists acknowledge, the ProPublica stories that have the greatest impact are those done in collaboration with legacy news media that publish or broadcast them. Its own excellent website has a relatively small audience. AP Photo/Jason DeCrow.
Other non-profit organizations are also providing reporting at a level that only the major news organizations used to offer. The winner of the essay on smoking 2014 Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting was Chris Hamby of the Center for Public Integrity in tipes of essay Washington, a non-profit watchdog organization that maintains vast electronic files tracing the flow of money into our politics. Full On Smoking. Marcus Brauchli, who has served as the senior editor of both The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post , observed recently that thanks to Internet offerings, the quantity of American journalism has never been greater. It used to be the case that newspapers like the river Times and essay on smoking Post offered their readers what was usually the very best coverage available in a wide range of news categories—there were no serious competitors. Today there are competitors in every one: ESPN in essay for english sports, Politico in Washington coverage, BuzzFeed in the world of popular culture, and so on. We at the Post used to have a corner on the market in Washington—no competitor could challenge us in any of full on smoking, our major categories. No corners are available now.
New York Times Building. Jleon/ Wikimedia Commons. I f there is some good news, it's hardly enough to be reassuring. Something more substantial has to happen to sustain the kind of journalistic excellence that a democracy requires. Of course there can be technological surprises. A group of young people could be working in customized essays a Silicon Valley garage right now on an idea that could re-establish a healthy revenue stream for major news organizations. I certainly hope so. Efforts to save serious journalism enjoy one natural advantage: smart people playing influential roles in society know that they need good information about many subjects.
It is conceivable that these citizens, who are a significant audience albeit a small fraction of the essay total population, will be willing to customized essays, pay the full cost of the journalism they consume. Essay. At first blush this may sound painfully obvious. Don't people usually pay for the services they use? Not the news. Before websites, readers paid a pittance for their news in newspapers that were deliberately priced below the cost of essay questions, a cup of coffee to try to maximize circulation (and therefore advertising dollars). Full. And then for the better part of two decades—the first decades of the World Wide Web—online consumers got used to the idea that news was not just cheap but free. In the United States The Wall Street Journal was the only major publication that charged for online access to its journalism. Everyone else gave their work away on the theory—or hope—that this was the way to build the audiences that advertisers would eventually pay to reach. Then in March 2011, The New York Times announced a paywall that required regular online readers to pay for its journalism, a risky gambit that has proven remarkably successful.
At the beginning of April the river questions Times had 800,000 “digital subscribers,” people paying to read the paper on electronic devices only. Full Essay. (The daily ink-on-paper Times is bought by 680,000 people, and 1.2 million on Sundays.) Digital subscriptions currently bring in more than $150 million a year, money that has saved the narrative class company from the grave financial crisis caused by declining revenues for the print edition. Full Essay On Smoking. The Washington Post and most other large newspapers followed the Times , if they were not already charging for online access. Though none of the others has had as much success signing up digital subscribers as the Times , the newspaper’s ability to essay questions on science, persuade online readers to pay is heartening. It suggests at least the possibility that over time, consumers of news might follow the path of television viewers, who once thought—before the arrival of cable television—that TV was free, but eventually got used to paying substantial monthly cable bills. On Smoking. Some version of that transition could save the traditional news business—if some clever inventor can figure out how to make it happen. Until now no one has, and even the Times 's encouraging numbers fall short of a solution that could save its $235 million-a-year newsroom. A morning edition of the Washington Post- August 6, 2013. Amazon.com Inc founder Jeff Bezos bought the newspaper in a surprise deal that ended the Graham family's 80 years of book grade, ownership. “Design the electronic classifieds now.” see the full memo. L ast fall, when he met the essay staff of The Washington Post soon after buying the paper, Jeff Bezos of Amazon spoke about the importance of “the bundle,” as he called the variety of news, opinion, useful information, and customized essays entertainment that the Post offers each day. The goal in the digital age, Bezos said, had to be to make the full bundle attractive to a lot of narrative for english class, people—so attractive that they would be willing to pay for on smoking it.
The average age of the readers of the narrative class printed paper, Bezos noted, goes up “about one year every year.” It's no secret where that leads, he quipped. Now that he owns the money-losing Post , Bezos faces the challenge of essay, how to sell that bundle. Michael Moritz of Sequoia Capital, one of the china geographical country's most successful venture capitalists, summarized the problem: “How [can] an Internet property, dedicated to broad-based news and information, ever generate a lot of money? Without solving that riddle, there is no path to full essay on smoking, prosperity.” Of course, a large organization offering “broad-based news and information” is not the only conceivable model. Essay. Personally I am convinced that our society will be best served by the survival of a few distinguished news organizations committed to holding powerful people accountable for the ways they use their power.
This view is on smoking certainly a product of my lifetime's service in one such organization. But there are other possibilities. The news supermarkets we are used to may not survive, but “disaggregated” news organizations specializing in specific subjects might, over time, provide the accountability journalism we need. Tipes Of Essay. One interesting example is the SCOTUS blog, which provides excellent coverage of the full Supreme Court. It makes no profit, but is supported by Bloomberg. Politico's coverage of Washington and politics, though uneven, is better than that of any but the very best news organizations. And Politico, thanks to narrative essay class, revenue from its Capitol Hill newspaper edition, actually makes money. It is also possible that “prosperity” won't be necessary.
The $250 million Bezos paid for The Washington Post was a tiny sliver of his $30 billion net worth. For him to cover the Post 's losses now costs the essay on smoking equivalent of lunch money for an ordinary mortal—something Bezos could easily afford for decades to china geographical features, come, if he chooses to play the angel's role indefinitely. The money-losing Boston Globe , sold at a huge loss by full essay on smoking The New York Times in 2013, has a deep-pocketed new owner in John Henry, principal owner of the Boston Red Sox, who similarly could keep the paper afloat indefinitely if he wants to. There might be comparable angels in river the futures of full essay on smoking, other news organizations. New Yorkers have speculated for years that their former mayor, Michael Bloomberg, worth $34 billion, might play that role some day for essays The New York Times . The wealthiest giants in this brave new world are companies that did not exist 20 years ago, inventive outfits that have capitalized on full essay, digital technologies most effectively. River Essay Questions. Facebook and Google, for example, bestride the globe like modern-day King Kongs, catering to billions of people and earning scores of billions of dollars. Both exploit the essay on smoking work of traditional providers of news that create information useful to Facebook friends and Google searchers. They lead large numbers of essay, readers to the journalism of the legacy media. But they contribute relatively little to the survival of full essay, those providers. These firms were created by a new generation of young people whose self-interest may lead them either to realize the importance of the narrative for english legacy institutions, or figure out how to create new ways to do what the essay on smoking old news organizations did in the past.
Financially, it would be easy for Google to rescue The New York Times . Essay. The annual cost of the Times 's newsroom represents less than 2 percent of Google's 2013 profits. Full On Smoking. Google, or someone else, could also create new news organizations dedicated to excellent coverage of narrow fields. The future, in Mort Sahl's wise words, lies ahead—but remains invisible. News as we know it is at risk. So is democratic governance, which depends on an effective watchdog news media. Both have been undermined by changes in society wrought by digital technologies—among the most powerful forces ever unleashed by mankind. We have barely begun the narrative for english class Digital Age, and there is no point in trying to essay, predict just where it will take us. News certainly has a future, but what that will be is china features unclear. All that we know for full essay on smoking certain is that we are lighting out for new territory. Join the conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on Facebook . This Essay is also available as an eBook from these online retailers: Amazon Kindle, Barnes Noble, Apple iTunes, Google Play, and on Kobo.
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