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On knowing and not knowing about obeah. This essay introduces Obeah: knowledge, power, and writing in the early Atlantic World , a special issue responding to recent scholarly interest in obeah and related creole and African-derived medical and religious practices common among enslaved Africans in how to write day the pre-emancipation Caribbean. Annotated Essay? It describes obeah and the epistemological conundrum it posed for write nursing report day by colonists in the global Atlantic world, outlining possibilities for how scholars might study the texts that represent these practices. We position this special issue at black folders the confluence of several recent interdisciplinary scholarly conversations: the reconfiguration of relations between religion and how to nursing report, science, reconsiderations of for masters, colonial archives and their representation of subordinated peoples, and new scholarship about obeah, a medical and religious complex employed by enslaved Africans, primarily in the West Indies. Nursing Report? In recent years, scholars of the early Atlantic world have demonstrated the inseparability of religion and science for the inhabitants of that world.
Historians of science have reconceived the disciplines as fields that were not stable and separate by free essay tutorials, the end of the Enlightenment but as stabilizing entities that defined themselves by drawing upon techniques from other fields. 1 1. Write Nursing Day? On the disciplines, see the essays in Siskin and cheap essay to buy, Warner, This is Enlightenment and Lenoir, “Discipline of Nature.” View all notes Indeed, recent studies of key religious and scientific figures, from Jonathan Edwards and Cotton Mather to Benjamin Franklin and how to day by, Francis Daniel Pastorius, have shown that these men integrated multiple fields to produce their intellectual work. 2 2. See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the annotated bibliography, Spirits . View all notes And, as James H. Sweet’s study of African healer Domingos Alvares shows, lesser known healers likewise combined what we could now call medicine and religion. These fields were mutually constitutive and interconnected, shaping and partitioning the Atlantic World in its denominational and epistemological contours. 3 3. See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to current scholarly work on these intersections, see “Religion and Medicine in how to nursing day American Literature,” a recent special issue of Literature and Medicine coedited by Kelly Bezio and Ashley Reed. View all notes.
Meanwhile, other scholars have begun to resume folders explore new methods for reading colonial archives and new strategies for how to write day by day recovering and studying the knowledge and deviantart sim dates, beliefs of unfree and minority peoples. Scholars such as Ann Laura Stoler, Joseph Epstein, and write nursing, Betty Joseph – the latter two focusing in particular on Caribbean archives – position archiving as an ongoing process that produces documents with histories and itineraries of their own rather than stable, complete entities with secure meanings. Thus, these scholars, as Stoler puts it, read “along the grain,” in order to uncover how “[c]olonial archives were sites of command – but of countermand as well.” 4 4. Black Folders? See Stoler, Along the Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of write nursing report day, Colonial Rule and Joseph, Reading the East India Company . View all notes While maintaining a skeptical awareness of the ways that imperial archives sought to define and discipline its subjects and sources, these scholars also show that archives represent moments in which attempts at discipline failed, when people were caught off guard, anxious, and uncertain. One culmination of these insights about disciplinarity and essay to buy, colonial archives is found in studies of obeah, which have instigated a vibrant, interdisciplinary conversation about forms of power and knowledge in the Caribbean. Scholars from anthropology, history, literary studies, and religious studies have recognized the key role that obeah played in shaping the world that colonists and Africans inhabited and the texts that represented that world. Revising earlier scholarship that, utilizing a transparent reading of colonial texts, dismissed obeah as African superstition and black magic, scholars from Jerome Handler and Kenneth Bilby to Tim Watson and day by, Diana Paton have shown how obeah and its representations allowed colonists and Africans alike to claim rhetorical, legal, and epistemological power. 5 5. For early studies of obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and Patterson, Sociology of cbse class 11 economics case, Slavery. These scholars, to varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of revealing accurate information about African belief and knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against European epistemological categories, from “religion,” to “witchcraft,” to “Africa.” They also emphasized the essential Africanity of obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Handler’s and Bilby’s co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by showing that the term “obeah” and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans’ practices. See Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use” and “Obeah.” Their studies established the foundation for scholarship of the past decade or so, which has developed Handler’s and Bilby’s methodological skepticism of colonial texts to examine the ways in which colonial accounts of obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and legal aims.
See, for example, Aravamudan, “Introduction”; and Richardson, “Romantic Voodoo”; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, “Witchcraft, Law, Poison”; the essays in Paton and Forde, Obeah and Other Powers ; and Browne, “‘Bad Business’ of Obeah.” View all notes. Co-edited by two literary scholars whose scholarly work focuses on medicine and on religion, respectively, this special issue joins and expands these conversations, by analyzing previously unconsidered archives about obeah, by accounting for the disciplinary work that colonial accounts of obeah performed by managing African women’s bodies, and by tracing how the how to nursing report day, power of cheap essay, religion and write day by day, science manifests itself in the Atlantic World. As all of the articles in resume folders this special issue demonstrate, the archive on obeah contains accounts, reports, and documents that register and circulate epistemological anxieties that sometimes remained outside colonists’ textual and political control. Report Day By? The texts recording such anxieties occupy a space that is pacthesis deviantart, part of how to write, this archive yet that also extends beyond it. It is this space – one that is experiential, bureaucratic, material, and textual – that the articles in this special issue investigate and that, we argue, manifests colonial attempts to black resume folders transform obeah into a set of nursing day by day, knowable practices, on the one hand, and the range of free, practices, beliefs, and knowledge that Africans employed as a form of write nursing report day by, power in the Atlantic World, on the other. In this introduction, we describe obeah and the epistemological conundrum it posed for colonists in the global Atlantic World before discussing some of the ways in which obeah and textual forms are entangled.
As we think this special issue demonstrates, this entanglement offers a particularly productive site at which to analyze obeah’s powers and the representation of those powers. Black Folders? How to write the history of obeah. “Obeah” refers to nursing day a set of with, practices employed by Africans for ends that enslaved peoples perceived as socially useful, from write report healing and revenge, to protection and rebellion. These practices were constituted by what we would now designate as separate medical and religious components: the knowledge and application of herbal remedies; singing or chanting prayers or powerful words; a diagnosis of physical ailments; and mediation with non-human powers. For Africans, however (and for many European colonists as well), these practices did not belong in separate categories but were mutually constitutive. Class? This was the case because natural and supernatural, human and nonhuman realms were not perceived as separate but as realms that mutually influenced one another. Neither were the practices associated with obeah simply “good” or “bad”; obeah practitioners accessed neutral supernatural forces and attempted to employ those forces to accomplish various goals. As Dianne Stewart points out, obeah is a “protean institutional structure encompassing ethnic and Pan-African religious cultures, which co-author an African-derived understanding of mystical power as the capacity to use energy dynamically.” 6 6. Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. How To Write Report Day? View all notes Indeed, Stewart finds that obeah took a variety of forms, even being “reasserted under the mask of Christianity” during the 1831 Baptist Rebellion in Jamaica. 7 7. Stewart, Three Eyes , 103–104. Cheap To Buy? View all notes.
While obeah had a material existence among African communities, it also possessed separate but related meanings in write nursing day colonial texts. There, the term “obeah” originated in the early eighteenth century as a word Europeans in annotated bibliography responsibility the Caribbean applied to African practices that, they acknowledged, acted powerfully on peoples’ bodies and minds. As Jerome Handler and Kenneth Bilby have pointed out, “‘Obeah’ became a catch-all term for a range of supernatural-related ideas and how to report day by day, behaviors that were not of European origin and which [whites] heavily criticized and condemned.” 8 8. Cheap? Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use,” 87. Write Report? View all notes In the cbse case study, early eighteenth century, colonists variously compared obeah to folk medicine, superstition, and healing practices; after Tacky’s Rebellion in 1760 (in which an obeah man allegedly gave rebels a potion to protect them from write report day planters’ bullets), they increasingly connected obeah to cbse class 11 economics case witchcraft and to poison in the British and French West Indies, respectively. As Diana Paton has shown, different European epistemologies and encounters with African practices are responsible for these varying definitions of obeah. 9 9. See Paton, “Witchcraft, Poison, Law.” View all notes. Colonists primarily experienced obeah through its effects: ill or frightened slaves, people who refused to work, and outright rebellions inspired by seemingly mysterious leaders. As they sought to explain these phenomena, they recounted Africans’ reports that an obeah practitioner was behind a particular event and, later, speculated that obeah was to blame for unusual happenings. In doing so, colonists also sought to incorporate obeah into European epistemologies, with the goal of identifying the natural causes that, they argued, were the primary powers at how to write work in the world. In the British West Indies, they applied natural philosophical methodologies for describing preternatural phenomena, or those with occult – hidden or unknown – causes in order to essay account for obeah practitioners, their actions, and the resulting effects. The analysis of preternatural phenomena had a long history in England, where such events had possessed a reputation for being aligned with magic and divination since the sixteenth century.
Because preternatural phenomena had invisible causes, they fell somewhere between supernatural, or divine, phenomena (which also lacked visible causes) and how to report day by, natural phenomena (which were also said to be result of to buy, actions by created beings, from nursing day by humans to angels and devils). In the course of the seventeenth century, however, preternatural phenomena were “naturalized”; that is, their angelic and demonic causes were excluded, leaving only annotated responsibility essay natural or human causes as possibly responsible for how to write nursing the preternatural, even when those causes were undiscoverable (and they often were). 10 10. Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. View all notes At the sim dates, same time, preternatural phenomena came to play a key role in the Baconian project of collecting unusual natural particulars in order to gain insights into the hidden workings of nature. By the nursing report day, eighteenth century, philosophers began to argue that their work did not extend to free essay seeking out supernatural causes; one’s focus was more properly restricted to how to day by natural causes, those that could be verified by multiple witnesses and tests. Black Folders? Preternatural phenomena could be part of write nursing report day, such projects, for their natural causes could, ideally, be discovered and analyzed.
Notwithstanding this confidence in the possibility of discovering hidden natural causes, philosophers found it no easy or straightforward task to locate and decipher them. Cheap Essay? As Lorraine Daston points out, natural and how to nursing day by day, supernatural causes were not mutually exclusive, and natural causes were not mechanistic (but indeed could seem quite unnatural, extending to include the imagination and wondrous events). 11 11. See Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. View all notes As a result, philosophers worried less about whether they would mistake divine and demonic causes for one another than whether they would be deceived into categorizing a phenomenon as supernatural when it was not. Thus if colonial writers drew on established natural philosophical methods to guide them in analyzing preternatural phenomena and in cbse class 11 economics case study locating their natural causes, the discovery of the causes for such events was by no means a straightforward process with an assured end. And, unlike their counterparts in Europe, colonists were immersed in worlds with ontologies that did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural worlds but whose explanations for phenomena extended to include non-human as well as human agents.
12 12. See Brown, Reaper’s Garden , and report day by day, Wisecup, “Knowing Obeah.” View all notes Colonists faced the challenge of incorporating obeah into eighteenth-century empirical epistemologies and pacthesis deviantart sim dates, consequently of discovering and nursing report day, representing its natural causes in a context in to buy which those practicing and drawing on obeah did not recognize divisions between natural and supernatural causes. Report Day? As Katharine Gerbner explains in her contribution to this issue, Afro-Caribbean people likewise faced the challenge of incorporating colonists into their epistemologies: enslaved Africans in Jamaica called Moravian missionary George Caries “obea,” a term that he defined as a “Seer,” a seemingly surprising turn given obeah’s connotations with Afro-Caribbean practices, especially witchcraft. Significantly, as Gerbner shows, Caries’ case shows that obeah was not only a practice but also the “frame through which Afro-Caribbeans interpreted European religious and medical practice,” a frame that requires us to understand European natural historical and religious practices as encompassed within the category of obeah. Colonists addressed the challenges of representing obeah by pacthesis deviantart, arguing that even if enslaved people ascribed obeah’s powers to supernatural forces, a natural cause for how to day by its effects existed and could be discovered. They developed several strategies for discovering and describing these causes: they linked obeah’s apparent power to Africans’ allegedly faulty understandings to suggest that Africans mistook as supernatural what were only sim dates hidden natural causes. Colonists also represented themselves as capable of discovering these true, if invisible, natural causes in write report day by day obeah men’s materials. Black Resume Folders? For example, Edward Long suggested that, while Africans feared obeah men’s ability to wield “magic,” such alleged “supernatural powers” were “only the natural operations of how to write report day by, some poisonous juice, or preparation.” 13 13. Long, History of cbse 11 economics case study, Jamaica , 416.
View all notes Similarly, James Grainger noted that Africans believed in “magic spells,” and he called on poetry to: “Transpierce the gloom, which ignorance and fraud/Have render’d awful; tell the how to write report day, laughing world/Of what these wonder-working charms are made.” 14 14. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384–386. View all notes By exposing the natural causes behind “wonder-working charms,” colonists would prove obeah to be a phenomena that could be brought into the light, studied, and explained with recourse to natural causes. Such knowledge of obeah would likewise allow colonists to control its effects – to limit the circulation of and knowledge about “some poisonous juice,” for example. However, colonists also discovered that investigating and describing obeah practitioners’ materials rarely led them to natural causes. Free Essay Tutorials? For example, after confidently charging the muses with revealing the components of how to, obeah practitioners’ “wonder-working charms,” Grainger went on to list those components: Colonial accounts of obeah from the mid-eighteenth to the nineteenth century exhibit this same pattern: an insistence that obeah is decipherable in terms of natural causes and an enumeration of material objects with ostensibly natural properties, in addition to help with for masters a description of report day, those objects as obtaining power as a combination or mixture. 16 16.
For an important reading of cheap essay to buy, obeah’s combinatory powers, see Dillon, “Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment.” View all notes These powerful mixtures exist both within colonial texts and in the material practices of enslaved Africans. For example, in one of the earliest British printed accounts of obeah, Griffith Hughes described the “Magical Apparatus” of an “Obeah Doctor”: “two Earthen Basons, a Handful of how to write day by day, different Kinds of Leaves, and a Piece of essay, Soap.” 17 17. Hughes, Natural History , 15. View all notes By the end of the eighteenth century, lists of nursing, obeah materials had become a trope in British colonial descriptions of obeah. Free? Bryan Edwards wrote that obeah included the practice of how to nursing day by day, “hanging up feathers, bottles, eggshells, c. Class 11 Economics Study? c. in order to intimidate Negroes of a thievish disposition from plundering huts, hog-styes, or provision-grounds.” 18 18. Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial , 87. View all notes Meanwhile, in a text that spawned numerous accounts of obeah and write report day by day, that has been central to scholarly analyses, including several in black resume folders this introduction and in this special issue more broadly, physician Benjamin Moseley explained that “OBI, for the purposes of bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is made of grave dirt, hair, teeth of how to report day by day, sharks, and tutorials, other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in how to write day wax.” 19 19. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171.
View all notes. Writing in the 1750s, Hughes suggested that the obeah man used his “Magical Apparatus” as a cover for his real strategy of hiding “Pieces of broken Glass, Nails, and Splinters of Stones” on the woman’s body and pretending to pull them out with the strength of help dissertations, his concoction. 20 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. View all notes For Hughes, obeah entailed using various material objects to deceive one’s patients; the true source of obeah’s power was the woman’s mind or imagination, which was convinced first that she was ill and second that the obeah man had successfully cured her. Interestingly, by the 1790s when Edwards and Moseley were writing, accounts of the how to write nursing, process with which obeah practitioners deceived patients had all but disappeared from colonial reports, leaving only the list of the materials in the obeah man’s magical apparatus.
Colonists’ focus on the objects in obeah practitioners’ apparatuses can be seen as enacting the empiricist principle that nature could be known by a close and careful examination of things themselves. Knowledge was produced not through recourse to texts but by experiencing or interacting with things in the world. 21 21. Free Essay Tutorials? See Mack, “Horace Walpole.” View all notes The lists in colonial texts attempt to how to nursing report day by day make obeah into something that readers can sense, observe, and thus convert into help with dissertations for masters, knowledge, and these lists further suggest that obeah’s causes are available through an observation of its materials. However, far from demystifying obeah, the texts attest to the ways in which obeah exceeds empiricism: as the examples above show, the nursing report day by, lists do not uncover obeah’s hidden natural causes but instead display something of how obeah’s power works, that is, how the objects that constitute obeah have a power that exceeds their individual parts. Considering the “grave dirt, hair, teeth of annotated responsibility essay, sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax” was unlikely to lead observers to any conclusions about obeah’s natural causes. 22 22. Moseley, Treatise on write nursing day by day, Sugar , 171. View all notes Instead, these textual collections mirrored the help with, process whereby obeah practitioners gathered objects into mixtures whose power exceeded the sum of their parts and that drew on both natural and supernatural worlds for their efficacy. Colonists’ representations of obeah, intended to demystify and discover its causes, remained in thrall to those practices, replicating them and circulating their representations throughout the Atlantic World. Indeed, as J. Alexandra McGhee shows in her article, obeah could “infect” colonial minds, texts, and performances, and these representations of obeah highlighted concerns about the effects of tropical climates on colonial bodies and minds and about the difficulties of maintaining order on nursing day, plantations.
Writers attempted to allay these fears by aligning obeah with multiple physical diseases, including yaws and yellow fever, even as doing so further transmitted dangerous representations of obeah and indicated obeah’s power over colonists. Colonists’ failure to locate obeah’s natural causes is manifested formally, in hybrid texts whose generic mixtures reflect the assemblages out of help with for masters, which obeah was constituted – its collections of natural objects, chants, “jargon,” and write day by, ceremonies. 23 23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. View all notes In The Sugar-Cane , for example, Grainger added scientific footnotes to his poetic text, in which he stated that obeah men carried a staff marked with “frogs, snakes, c. The blacks imagine that its blow, if not mortal, will at least occasion long and troublesome disorders.” 24 24. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143–144.
View all notes Grainger attributed the power of the obeah man’s staff to Africans’ “belief in magic,” thus contradicting his poetic description of obeah as composed of black folders, natural and supernatural elements to support instead the argument that obeah’s powers could be attributed to write nursing report day by day Africans’ imaginations. But Grainger also admitted that obeah men could “do good” on annotated for personal responsibility, plantations as long as they were supervised by plantation owners. 25 25. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. View all notes By placing prose footnotes that acknowledged obeah’s usefulness and that attributed it to Africans’ imaginations alongside his poetic list of obeah’s materials and description of their preternatural powers, Grainger formally represented the debate over obeah’s powers and the ways in which obeah escaped Euro-colonial epistemological categories.
The poetic and how to write, scientific forms in The Sugar-Cane register colonists’ attempts to discover obeah’s natural causes and to categorize obeah as irrational knowledge that preyed on unsuspecting or naive Africans even as these forms also represent colonists’ recognition that obeah was a powerful, valuable phenomena constituted out of mixtures of natural and preternatural powers. Similarly, in his 1800 novel Obi: or the History of Three-Fingered Jack, William Earle mixed the form of the epistolary novel with footnotes, in order to deviantart represent multiple explanations of obeah’s powers. The novel depicts the capture and execution of an obeah man, and report, Earle inserted 11 pages of footnotes below the obeah man’s story. 26 26. See Earle, Obi , 72. The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the 1800 London edition (published by Earle and Hemet) or the bibliography responsibility essay, 1804 Worcester edition (published by Isaiah Thomas). View all notes These footnotes include a long description of how to write day, obeah’s qualities copied from the accounts of historians Bryan Edwards and Edward Long. While the footnotes allow the narrative of Euro-colonial triumph over obeah to proceed undeterred, they also represent moments when colonists failed to essay categorize obeah or to explain it in write nursing report terms of natural causes, thus introducing preternatural powers into the novel.
In Earle’s novel, the obeah man is successfully captured and executed, and annotated bibliography for personal essay, obeah is a practice that can be eradicated by killing its practitioners. However, in how to day by the footnotes, which recount instances in which colonists failed to control or explain obeah, it remains a power that exceeds and escapes colonial epistemologies, one that cannot be controlled by attending to natural causes. As Janelle Rodriques argues in her contribution to resume folders this issue, obeah appears in colonial narratives as a strongly disruptive force, one that unravels the categories and forms of social authority it often is how to nursing day by, invoked to support. Finally, we might see the novels in essay which obeah plays a key role, such as Maria Edgeworth’s gothic novel Belinda (1801) and romances such as Victor Hugo’s Bug-Jargal (1826) and Cynric Williams’s Hamel, the Obeah Man (1827) as evidence of colonists’ failure to how to write day account for obeah in natural or civil histories or legal reports. As Tim Watson has pointed out, the “attempt to sim dates narrate the Caribbean from the how to write nursing report day by day, point of view of plausibility, verifiability, and reason – realism, in cbse class 11 economics other words – turns into write report day by, the very forms it seeks to avoid: romantic narrative and its cognates, the help dissertations for masters, gothic, the sentimental, and the melodrama.” 27 27. Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. View all notes As obeah moved from nursing report medical treatises and natural histories into gothic novels and romances, its formal trajectory attested to colonists’ failure to locate natural causes for the forms of power they encountered in the Caribbean.
The formal mixtures that define the literatures of obeah replicate textually the ontological mixture that constituted obeah for both colonists and enslaved peoples. For colonists, combining poetic verses or the novel with footnotes allowed them to represent the confusing set of practices they confronted in obeah: the presence of objects with properties that could be identified in terms of natural causes alongside practices and powers that they categorized as preternatural. Africans’ bodies were central to these contests over power: as Jeffrey Cottrell’s contribution shows, colonial writers responded to the material practices and powers of African women’s bodies by imagining obeah as an increasingly powerful force and by free, developing ever more complex strategies for maintaining control over enslaved women’s bodies. As each text imagines the removal of obeah from the Caribbean, it both acknowledges obeah’s immense power and attempts to subordinate it by exercising control over African bodies. So, too, did writing about obeah offer colonial authors the chance to meditate on the vulnerability of white bodies; as Justine Murison demonstrates in this issue, representing obeah forced these writers to confront the conflicted relation between the disenchanted minds they imagined themselves to possess and the unsettling openness that marked the bodies of those inhabiting the pre-emancipation Caribbean world. The literatures of obeah represent and recirculate, for nursing report their readers in cheap to buy Europe and for colonists in the Caribbean, some of those powers even as they seek to identify and categorize (and thus reduce) them. The power of obeah in the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Atlantic World thus resided both in the natural and supernatural worlds that Africans accessed with material and spiritual practices and in the formal mixtures of write report day by day, colonial texts. Help With Dissertations For Masters? Indeed, for colonists and for European readers, obeah’s power was located precisely in the assemblage of obeah practices and colonial representations of obeah – at a point that Stephan Palmie describes as “a singularly dense mesh of social praxis with its representation.” 28 28. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 317. View all notes.
What, then, does it mean to try to account for obeah’s power in the eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Atlantic World, located as it is at write nursing report the intersection of social practice and literary and cultural representation? Like other subaltern formations, obeah’s early history was largely chronicled in print by colonial writers, 29 29. Discussions of obeah could be found in colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and pacthesis deviantart, missionary writings, many of which circulated in excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and chapbooks and served as the basis for fictional and theatrical works about obeah in write nursing day the colonies. Sim Dates? Many of these discussions figured within larger accounts of the escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for write day by a detailed survey of the many iterations of Jack’s story, see Paton, “The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack.” Srinivas Aravamudan’s introduction to William Earle’s Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an extensive overview of literary accounts of obeah. Diana Paton’s online archive Obeah Histories (www.obeahhistories.org) also offers an essential introduction to obeah’s textual record, past and present. View all notes many of help dissertations for masters, whom had complex, limited, or frankly hostile relations to the practices they described. How To Report Day By? 30 30.
While obeah’s colonial chroniclers often used discussions of obeah to advance stridently negative ideas about pacthesis deviantart sim dates, enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans’ knowledge of herbal and medicinal preparations – which were often classed with obeah – with respect and how to write nursing report day, even deference. Colonial dismissals of obeah took multiple and varied forms in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from free tutorials knowing dismissal of enslaved Africans’ supposed credulity, to how to write nursing report day by panicked fear of a well-camouflaged poison, to open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as “the slave fully initiated into the secrets of nature,” persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies’ natural and sometimes supernatural worlds. See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. View all notes Any attempt to access the social practices that colonial observers called “obeah,” then, has to contend with the limits of these source materials, the ways in which their “dense mesh” of practice and representation entangles historical fact in colonial fantasy. As Palmie puts it, “much of cheap essay to buy, what our evidence actually tells us is that their masters or social superordinates (including anthropologists) strongly believed that slaves, peasants, and how to report, workers might believe in such things.” 31 31. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 326. View all notes Seeking evidence of folders, obeah in the historical record, in other words, scholars find instead a prototype of the write day by day, colonial mind and the fears that animated it.
This enmeshment of practice and representation enjoins those who would seek to trace obeah’s powers to adopt a radical modesty; since those who believed in and practiced obeah did so “in ways that largely escape the documentary record,” 32 32. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. View all notes Palmie argues, one of the most important things we can learn about obeah is “what we, in fact, do not (and possibly cannot) know about annotated essay, it.” 33 33. Day By Day? Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333. View all notes. We find ourselves in full and enthusiastic agreement with Palmie, and with others like him, in annotated bibliography for personal essay his insistence that we not take the source materials that record obeah’s presence in how to write the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Atlantic as transparent accounts of obeah practices or the beliefs that motivated them. Yet we are also motivated by study, recent scholarly work that insists, as Simon Gikandi does, that “the figure of the slave could come to write nursing complicate what an archive meant.” 34 34. Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and Hopwood, “Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive,” in this special issue.
View all notes As the cbse 11 economics case, founders of the Early Caribbean Digital Archive observe in their contribution to this issue, we must attend both to the knowledges these sources seek to create and the ones they seek to nursing day by make inaccessible. We think that it might be possible to work modestly with these sources while also recognizing their limits – to turn to this archive for free essay tutorials something other than an account of praxis that can stand apart from the representation that harbors it. If these representations do not offer direct transcripts of the social practices they claim to chronicle, their formal failures register the pressure of obeah’s powers, the ways in which genres such as natural history and romantic and gothic fictions were pushed to their epistemological limits as colonial authors tried to render social formations they only dimly understood. 35 35. Here we think of Christopher Iannini’s insistence that genre forms have an epistemology.
See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 23–25. View all notes Likewise, the fact remains that the source materials that remain for contemporary scholars also served as loci at which European, Caribbean, and American audiences came into nursing report day, relation with obeah and powers like it. As they read about obeah in medical treatises, newspaper articles, and cbse class 11 economics case, chapbooks, or saw it travestied in pantomimes or cartoons, audiences throughout the how to report day by day, Atlantic found their bodies assembled together with obeah’s unfamiliar powers, through the conduit of the medium that brought obeah to them. Holding a newspaper or a chapbook in their hands, or joining the audience of free essay, one of the how to write, pantomimes that told of slave revolutions fueled by obeah rituals, readers and viewers opened themselves, if only for a moment, to experiencing obeah as part of the material world in which they read and that they shared with others. 36 36. Here we’re interested in the way in which obeah works like the empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes – crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. Class Case? See Bennett, 21–22. We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the many misuses to which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations.” View all notes Obeah may have been something they rejected or accepted, something to how to write nursing report day by which they turned for practical knowledge of West Indies life or simply for gothic amusement, but in bibliography for personal each of these cases coming to know it meant enacting the habits and postures and behaviors that fit newspapers and pantomimes into their worlds. How To Write Report? If these sources can never give us obeah practices in pure, unadulterated form – obeah in its own right, in its intimate connection to the historical actors who used it, revised it, and annotated bibliography for personal essay, believed in it – what they may offer us is a portrait of report day, how those practices and beliefs registered within the cheap essay, Atlantic World, of the entanglements and affiliations that grew up around them.
We can find in these sources, in write nursing report day by day other words, the outlines of the assemblages they sought to generate – the felt texture of the 11 economics study, common world into which they imagined readers, colonial authorities, and obeah practices and practitioners. 37 37. Our thinking on write nursing report, this point has been spurred by help, the scholarly turn toward the new materialisms and actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in work by nursing day by, Jane Bennett and Bruno Latour. This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to write about obeah shares with Bennett’s assemblages the essay, sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the agency of an assemblage might arise from “the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of many bodies and forces”; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latour’s insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of associations (see, for instance, Reassembling the Social ). View all notes. We would suggest, then, that the assemblages that grew up around and through these colonial accounts might themselves offer one way to learn more about obeah and powers like it. Here we think that literary and literary-historical scholarship of the kind this special issue presents has something distinctive to offer interdisciplinary-minded scholars who are interested in write nursing report day by these questions. Essay? 38 38. Literary scholars who have written extensively about obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and both of the editors of this special issue, among others. View all notes Our turn in this direction is motivated, at least in part, by the by write day by, now well-recognized asymmetries between historians’ and annotated for personal responsibility, literary scholars’ treatment of each other's’ work.
Eric Slauter has argued that the differences between literary scholars and how to nursing report day, historians – and, in recent years, the willingness of literary scholars to essay cite historians compared to the general paucity of citations from historians to literary scholars, a differential he terms the day, “trade gap” – depend at least in part on a differing approach to source materials (they historicize different things). Yet Elizabeth Maddock Dillon insists that what’s really at black resume play here is “a large area of noncoincidence between the aims and desires of nursing day by, literary studies and tutorials, historical studies,” one that focuses literary scholars’ attention on “an essential aspect of the community generated by how to report, the advent of an Atlantic World: namely a set of 11 economics case study, signifying practices (and erasures) that shaped the world we inhabit today.” 39 39. Report? Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. View all notes Dillon’s insistence on case study, the primary concern of literary scholars with aesthetics – in particular, with “the analysis of form and genre” – registers her insistence on report day by day, two twinned principles: that the political realm in which we come to live together is strongly shaped by free, signifying practices, and how to write report, that literary scholars are particularly well positioned to explain these practices’ power and significance. 40 40. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. View all notes For Dillon, as for many other literary scholars, the structures and pacthesis, patterns that guide representation matter because they shape the terms on which people sensed and perceived the world they shared in common, the how to nursing report day, sites at which they could become social beings. As Cindy Weinstein and Chris Looby put it: “ aesthetic [becomes] a usable term precisely because its history involves the discipline of cheap to buy, a careful attention to surfaces and how to nursing day, appearances, to the sensible textures of things, and its history also preserves the for personal responsibility essay, conviction that social and how to report, political life always has a sensory and perceptual dimension.” 41 41. Weinstein and Looby, “Introduction,” 8. View all notes. We are interested, then, in the ways in annotated essay which these archives record how colonial writers sought to make obeah sensible – to weave it into the Atlantic World readers and practitioners shared. Take again, for instance, one of the most widely circulated late-eighteenth-century accounts of obeah and its powers, Benjamin Moseley’s description of obeah in his 1799 Treatise on Sugar . 42 42.
In addition to its appearance in the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in how to nursing day multiple iterations of longer works published in London, excerpts of Moseley’s discussion of obeah appeared in newspapers in pacthesis sim dates Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . See Carey and Paton, “Histories of Three-Fingered Jack” and Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations,” 737 n. Write? 21. View all notes As we discuss above, Moseley’s account offers a classic representation of obeah-as-assemblage, listing the ostensibly natural objects that an obeah might contain and making visible the ways in which obeah’s powers confound empiricist modes of for personal responsibility, observation. Moseley’s text also , and paradoxically, opens up the write nursing day by, possibility that we can see how colonial authors sought to orient their readerships to the phenomenon they were describing – the way that the tenuous project of making obeah knowable, with all its limits, also sought to teach audiences how to understand how obeah figured into the world in which they lived. Here is the full passage in which Moseley’s list of an help dissertations for masters, obeah’s contents appears: OBI, for write day by the purposes of bewitching people, or consuming them by lingering illness, is annotated, made of grave dirt, hair, teeth of write day by day, sharks, and other creatures, blood, feathers, egg-shells, images in wax, the hearts of birds, and some potent roots, weeds, and bushes, of which Europeans are at cheap this time ignorant; but which were known, for the same purposes, to the ancients. Certain mixtures of these ingredients are burnt; or buried very deep in the ground; or hung up a chimney; or laid under the threshold of the door of the how to write report day by day, party, to suffer; with incantation songs, or curses, performed at midnight, regarding the aspects of the moon … A negro, who thinks himself bewitched by OBI, will apply to an Obi-man, or Obi-woman, for annotated for personal responsibility essay cure. […] I saw the how to day by, OBI of the famous negro robber, Three fingered JACK, the terror of Jamaica in 1780 and 1781. […] His OBI consisted of the free essay, end of a goat’s horn, filled with a compound of write day by, grave dirt, ashes, the blood of a black cat, and human fat; all mixed into a kind of paste. A black cat’s foot, a dried toad, a pig’s tail, a slip of parchment of kid’s skin, with characters marked in blood on it, were also in his Obian bag. 43 43. Essay Tutorials? Moseley, Treatise , 171–173. View all notes. Nursing Report Day? In moments such as these we see not what obeah was in its own right, but rather the web of relations to which colonial authors thought it belonged. Turning an eye toward these texts’ aesthetic properties shows how they seek to invest their audiences in help with what is, at how to nursing report day by its heart, an orienting project: one in black folders which the powers that these texts struggle and sometimes fail to how to nursing report day by trace back to the natural world are still brought into their readers’ everyday lives in some form.
When he lists the raw ingredients that compose an obeah, Moseley asks his readers to black see the single objects he has extracted from it – a slip of parchment, an eggshell, a feather – as individual representatives of larger categories of familiar objects. As he makes the obeah’s disaggregated components available to sense perception, Moseley renders obeah, in how to write report day some senses, ordinary – part of the background of objects one encounters in one’s everyday life. Yet mixed into these moments of recognition are a set of descriptions that cannot be directly verified through the senses: one has no way to know that what Moseley describes as “the blood of essay, a black cat” came from how to nursing report day by day a cat that was not brown or gray, or that it came from a cat at with for masters all. Write Nursing? These are the moments at which, as we’ve noted above, the text veers toward the romantic and especially gothic modes that Tim Watson discusses. And they are the moments in which obeah’s recognizability as a part of the material world metropolitans and colonials shared relied both on sim dates, the familiarity of material objects and the legibility of particular genres and report day by day, tropes: the mythical powers of grave dirt, the magical efficacy of a black cat. Reading obeah, in help dissertations other words, meant knowing it as a part of other stories, as something that could be recognized in write nursing day by day the fictions and narratives that circulated in one’s culture.
As they cross-pollinated obeah with the gothic, in particular, these texts aligned it with a cluster of possibly-real, possibly-imaginary dangers, horrors, and thrills that, when they appear in fictive texts, become at once part of how the bibliography responsibility, world might be and something that might be imaginary, unreal. In other words, they teach readers to adopt an attitude of provisionality, to perceive obeah as something of interest that may or may not be real. At first glance, this provisionality might appear to how to write report day by day be something obvious, something secular moderns can take for granted. Yet here we do well to remember that the forms of essay tutorials, recognition and orientation Moseley’s text chronicles had to be brought into being. Report Day By? And this, we think, is part of help with dissertations for masters, what a distinctively literary take on obeah may offer scholars interested in the legacy of these and other powers – a better understanding of the write nursing day by, social formation and embodied orientations that grew up, tenuously and imperfectly, to try to integrate them into the Atlantic World. If we agree with Palmie that “the ‘other powers’ wielded by class case study, the subaltern other do not easily yield to ‘objective knowledge,’ unless the write nursing report day by, observer herself … agrees to come under its influence,” then one way we might begin to apprehend those powers is within the web of influences, literary and otherwise, that shaped those who would have encountered them in the past.
45 45. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 325. View all notes To do so may be to recognize, as the contributors to this special issue do, that our knowledge of obeah’s past may be a particularly entangled history – one in cheap essay to buy which praxis and representation can never stand fully apart. We thank the editors of Atlantic Studies for fostering and supporting this special issue, as well as Kelly Bezio, Tim Cassedy, Gabriel Cervantes, Nora Gilbert, Melissa Gniadek, Lucia Hodgson, Giffen Maupin, Dahlia Porter, Debapriya Sarkar, and report day by day, Daniel Walden for their feedback on dissertations, this introduction. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author. Toni Wall Jaudon is an assistant professor of English at Northwestern University. Her essays have appeared in American Literature and American Literary History . Currently, she is at work on a study of the liveliness of religious objects in the nineteenth-century Americas. Kelly Wisecup is an assistant professor of English at Northwestern University. She is the how to nursing day, author of black resume folders, Medical Encounters: Knowledge and Identity in Early American Literatures (University of Massachusetts Press, 2013) and the editor of “Good News from New England” by how to day by day, Edward Winslow: A Scholarly Edition (University of Massachusetts Press, 2014). 1. On the disciplines, see the essays in Siskin and Warner, This is Enlightenment and dissertations for masters, Lenoir, “Discipline of Nature.” 2. See, for a few examples, Rivett, Science of the Soul ; Delbourgo, Most Amazing Scene ; Watson, Angelical Conjunction ; Erben, Harmony of the Spirits . 3. How To? See Sweet, Domingos Alvares . For a compelling introduction to current scholarly work on with for masters, these intersections, see “Religion and Medicine in American Literature,” a recent special issue of Literature and Medicine coedited by Kelly Bezio and Ashley Reed. 4. Nursing Day By? See Stoler, Along the Archival Grain , especially 50, as well as Epstein, Scandal of Colonial Rule and Joseph, Reading the East India Company . 5. Dissertations For Masters? For early studies of obeah, see Williams, Psychic Phenomena ; Bastide, African Civilizations ; and Patterson, Sociology of Slavery.
These scholars, to varying degrees, read colonial texts as capable of write nursing day by day, revealing accurate information about African belief and knowledge that could be fruitfully juxtaposed against essay tutorials, European epistemological categories, from write nursing day “religion,” to “witchcraft,” to black resume “Africa.” They also emphasized the essential Africanity of obeah; for example, after interviewing practicing obeah men, Williams concluded that obeah was African witchcraft that had been imported into the West Indies. Handler’s and Bilby’s co-written work usefully complicated such positivist approaches by showing that the term “obeah” and its definitions as witchcraft were colonial constructions, with some material correspondents in Africans’ practices. Nursing Report Day By Day? See Handler and Bilby, “On the Early Use” and “Obeah.” Their studies established the foundation for scholarship of the past decade or so, which has developed Handler’s and annotated responsibility, Bilby’s methodological skepticism of colonial texts to examine the ways in which colonial accounts of write nursing report day by, obeah served larger social, aesthetic, and legal aims. See, for example, Aravamudan, “Introduction”; and Richardson, “Romantic Voodoo”; Watson, Caribbean Culture; Paton, “Witchcraft, Law, Poison”; the essays in Paton and Forde, Obeah and Other Powers ; and Browne, “‘Bad Business’ of Obeah.” 6. Stewart, Three Eyes , 42. 7. Stewart, Three Eyes , 103–104. 8. Handler and Bilby, “On the free tutorials, Early Use,” 87. 9. See Paton, “Witchcraft, Poison, Law.” 10. Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. 11.
See Daston, “Marvelous Facts,” 107. 12. See Brown, Reaper’s Garden , and Wisecup, “Knowing Obeah.” 13. Long, History of how to report day, Jamaica , 416. Pacthesis? 14. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.384–386. Write? 15. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.387–392. 16. For an important reading of cheap, obeah’s combinatory powers, see Dillon, “Obi, Assemblage, Enchantment.” 17.
Hughes, Natural History , 15. 18. Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial , 87. 19. Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171. 20. Hughes, Natural History , 15. 21. See Mack, “Horace Walpole.” 22. How To Write Day By Day? Moseley, Treatise on Sugar , 171.
23. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , IV.392. 24. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 143–144. 25. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 144. 26. See Earle, Obi , 72.
The Broadview edition omits some of Earle's original footnotes; scholars interested in these should consult the 11 economics case study, 1800 London edition (published by Earle and write nursing report day, Hemet) or the 1804 Worcester edition (published by Isaiah Thomas). 27. Essay? Watson, Caribbean Culture , 6. 28. Palmie, “Other Powers,” 317. How To Nursing Day By? 29. Discussions of free, obeah could be found in colonial histories, medical treatises, governmental documents, and missionary writings, many of which circulated in excerpted forms in newspapers, novels, and chapbooks and write nursing, served as the sim dates, basis for fictional and theatrical works about obeah in the colonies. Many of these discussions figured within larger accounts of the how to report day by day, escaped slave turned bandit Jack Mansong; for a detailed survey of the many iterations of Jack’s story, see Paton, “The Afterlives of Three-Fingered Jack.” Srinivas Aravamudan’s introduction to William Earle’s Obi (Broadview Press, 2008) also offers an extensive overview of literary accounts of cbse 11 economics case study, obeah. Diana Paton’s online archive Obeah Histories (www.obeahhistories.org) also offers an essential introduction to obeah’s textual record, past and present. 30.
While obeah’s colonial chroniclers often used discussions of obeah to advance stridently negative ideas about enslaved Africans, we would also note that some natural historians also treated enslaved Africans’ knowledge of how to report, herbal and medicinal preparations – which were often classed with obeah – with respect and even deference. Colonial dismissals of obeah took multiple and for masters, varied forms in write nursing report day by day the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, from knowing dismissal of with dissertations, enslaved Africans’ supposed credulity, to panicked fear of a well-camouflaged poison, to how to write day by open respect for what Susan Scott Parrish describes as “the slave fully initiated into the secrets of essay, nature,” persons who could skillfully negotiate the West Indies’ natural and sometimes supernatural worlds. See Parrish, American Curiosity , 262. 31. Write Nursing Day By Day? Palmie, “Other Powers,” 326. 32. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 326. 33. Grainger, The Sugar-Cane , 333. Class Case? 34.
Quoted in Aljoe, Dillon, Doyle, and how to write report, Hopwood, “Obeah and the Early Caribbean Digital Archive,” in this special issue. 35. Here we think of Christopher Iannini’s insistence that genre forms have an epistemology. Help With For Masters? See Iannini, Fatal Revolutions, 23–25. 36. Write Nursing Report? Here we’re interested in the way in case which obeah works like the empowered assemblages Jane Bennett describes – crucially, ones that may enlist their members without their consent. See Bennett, 21–22. We are aware, as well, that there are as many possible relations with texts (and pantomimes) as one can imagine uses; for one important account of the many misuses to write nursing report which Britons put their books, see Leah Price, How to 11 economics Do Things with Books . On this world-sharing, see Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations.” 37. Our thinking on this point has been spurred by the scholarly turn toward the day by day, new materialisms and free, actor-network theory, especially as it has figured in work by Jane Bennett and Bruno Latour.
This second form of assemblage generated by the errand to write about obeah shares with Bennett’s assemblages the sense that its members might not be willingly enlisted (for instance, her suggestion that the agency of an assemblage might arise from “the collaboration, cooperation, or interactive interference of many bodies and forces”; see Vibrant Matter , 21), as it also follows Latour’s insistence that sociality consists in an ever-changing network of associations (see, for instance, Reassembling the Social ). 38. Literary scholars who have written extensively about obeah include Srinivas Aravamudan, Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, Alan Richardson, Candace Ward, Tim Watson, and both of the nursing day by, editors of this special issue, among others. 39. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. Help With Dissertations For Masters? 40. Dillon, “Atlantic Practices,” 185. 41. Weinstein and Looby, “Introduction,” 8. 42. In addition to nursing report day its appearance in the Jamaican newspaper The Royal Gazette and in multiple iterations of longer works published in London, excerpts of black resume, Moseley’s discussion of obeah appeared in newspapers in Boston ( Boston Gazette , 26 March 1801), Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania ( The Gleaner , 21 January 1814), New York City ( New-York Courier , 9 October 1816), Albany, New York ( The Albany Advertiser , 12 October 1816), Washington, D.C. ( Washington City Weekly Gazette , 19 October 1816), and Newport, Rhode Island ( Rhode-Island Republican , 30 October 1816), sometimes as reprints from The Royal Gazette . See Carey and how to write report, Paton, “Histories of Three-Fingered Jack” and resume folders, Jaudon, “Obeah’s Sensations,” 737 n. How To Write Report Day By Day? 21. 43. Moseley, Treatise , 171–173.
44. Writing about the minkisi used among the BaKongo, Wyatt MacGaffey underscores how ritually empowered African objects garnered their force from deliberate processes of assemblage. See “African Objects,” especially 126, and “Fetishism Revisited,” 173. For an account of the cross-pollination between Kongo minkisi and conjuring practices among Atlantic Africans in the Georgia and South Carolina Lowcountry, see Young, “ Minkisi ”. Note also, however, the concerns Stephan Palmie raises about attempts to divine the African origins of the diverse and historically specific practices that evolved among enslaved Africans in the Americas (see, especially, the annotated essay, introduction to Africas of the how to write day, Americas ). What is clear from Moseley’s account is how deeply invested he was in disassembly as a way of working against help dissertations for masters, the power that the how to report day by day, obeah seemed to bear. 45.
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Little Albert and Classical Conditioning. To understand it clearly, there is need to recall the experiment performed by write nursing report day by, John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner in 1920. Watson suggested that psychological researches should be based merely on apparent behaviors and due to this viewpoint, his research was related with conditioning of fear (learned). He demonstrated above conditioning via usual procedures including association of cheap essay stimuli, and research subject chosen by him for the purpose was an 11-month old child Albert. Albert was an extremely firm infant who hardly ever exhibited fear of anything involving the white rat present in laboratory, but Watson and write nursing day by, Rayner noticed that he was afraid of help dissertations for masters loud noises (Unconditioned Stimulus). They decided to implement this innate fear response (Unconditioned Response (UR)) shown by Albert as a tool in their study. How To Nursing! So; they created piercing sound by striking a big steel pipe with hammer. In fact, they were trying to observe whether Albert can be conditioned to fear the white rat if his access up to rat is coupled with production of thunderous sound. After seven paired presentations of rat and deafening noise, a strong fear of rat got developed in Albert. This fear could be identified from the reaction (crying and moving in opposite direction) shown by him (also known as;.
. Classical Conditioning Paper PSY 390 September 19, 2011 Chelsea Hansen Classical Conditioning Paper The primary premise of psychology is the cbse 11 economics case study of one’s behavior through mental research as well as physical experiments. Classical Conditioning is the study of one’s behavior through research and nursing report day by, experiments and trying to identify the conditions one put themselves in or are put in to study their behavior. “Classical Conditioning is a technique used in behavioral training.” (http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/g/classcond.htm) A Russian physiologist by the name of Ivan Pavlov is believed to be the igniter to cheap to buy, classical conditioning though his intense research and how to write nursing report day by, experiments with dogs and his saliva theoretical presentations and experiments. Pavlov also believed that “classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.” (http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classcond.htm) Theory of Classical Conditioning and Scenario The theory of classical conditioning that was most famous by Ivan Pavlov was the digestive system where he then accidently had his attention drawn to “psychic reflexes.” (http://www.learning-theories.com/classical-conditioning-pavlov.html) The scenario that will be used in this paper will be how prisoners are classically conditioned with “chow time” (time to eat) in resume, the prison system. In the prison systems inmates and their natural reflex. Words: 756 - Pages: 4. . Classical Conditioning Paper Accidently founded by how to write day by day, Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is basically learning by association behavior.
A better definition would be “A process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response” (Farlex, 2011). This paper will describe the theory of classical conditioning and demonstrate how one would apply the classical conditioning in bibliography for personal, everyday life. Theory of Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, was performing research on the digestive system of a dog by using the data from the dog’s salivation when in how to day by, the middle of these tests he by free essay tutorials, accident noticed that certain behaviors can be conditioned (Alloy, Riskind, Manos, 2005). First, one must understand that behaviorism in psychology is based on the belief that learning happens through relations with the environment (Cherry, 2011). Pavlov found that several of the reactions were occurring due to prior learning. He obtained this important information by noting that the how to nursing day dogs would salivate even before they were offered the meat. Pavlov concluded that the dogs were conditioned and deviantart, learned from the entrance of the lab assistant, who was generally the person who brought in the meat. He expanded his experiment further by introducing a bright light or a loud sound to see if the dogs would salivate when seeing.
Words: 829 - Pages: 4. . Classical Conditioning PSY/390 November 2, 2011 Elizabeth Alexander-Bernard Classical Conditioning * Ivan Pavlov was born on write nursing report day by day, September 14, 1849 in Russia. He was studying to become a priest, but then change his mind and annotated bibliography essay, study physiology for most of his life. His model was a behaviorist and the things involved with this model are response and stimuli. Ivan Pavlov is considered the write nursing day by day father and founder of classical conditioning. He won the Nobel Prize in deviantart, 1904 for physiology of the digestion. Pavlov discovered classical conditioning through studying the how to report day digestive tracts of a dog on accident. During the conditioning the dogs would salivate at the click of a metronome. This established the basis for deviantart condition reflexes and how to write nursing report, classical conditioning.
This paper will describe the theory of bibliography for personal responsibility classical conditioning. Pavlov study focus on how to day, observing the organism not by the mental thought process. Black Resume Folders! I will explain a scenario in how to nursing report day by, which you would apply classical conditioning theory. Pacthesis Deviantart! Describe my selected scenario and how to nursing report, prepare a chart in which you illustrate how I would apply classical conditioning theory to the scenario. * The theory of classical conditioning as you can see in black resume, the picture below. Before conditioning if the dog is given food the response is report day by day, that the dog starts to salivate this is considered an unconditioned stimulus with an unconditioned response this just happen naturally.
With a neutral stimulus if the dog hears a bell the bibliography essay response is he does not salivate. Words: 705 - Pages: 3. . How To Write Day By Day! Identifying classical conditioning in life situations and class 11 economics case, biblical situations Chrystal Walker Liberty University Classical conditioning in life and biblical situations Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events (David Myers, comp Psychology 10th. Holland, Michigan: worth publishers, 2010.p268). Classical conditioning brings me to a time when my dad got me to take my cold medicine for a cold that I acquired from playing in the rain. Our normal family doctor was away on vacation, so my aunt suggested her children’s doctor. The doctor asked me what flavor of medicine I wanted; his options were bubble gum, cherry, and licorice. At that time and age I had no idea what licorice was, so I chose it.The doctor came back in with the medicine he gave it to how to nursing report day by, my father and told him to give it to me every four to eight hours, and he could give me some right now as well. As the spoon got closer to my face I could smell the stench of rotten eggs.
I guess my dad saw the look on my face and quickly shoved the spoon into my mouth.My eyes watered a lot and then came the vomit all over the place.From that day on licorice was not my friend. Comparing my experience with Ivan Pavlov’s experiments, I now know that my experience was a common case of essay classical conditioning. The neutral stimulus or (NS) was the doctor that my aunt suggested, because I had no. Words: 414 - Pages: 2. . Homework: Little Albert. 1. Did the results of Watson and Rayner's experiment support their hypothesis? - Yes, it did. The hypothesis was that most human behaviours and emotional reactions are built up on conditioned response. The result from the conditioning Watson and how to nursing day by day, Rayner subject Albert to proves this hypothesis because Albert responded to the unconditioned stimulus which was brought around by the unconditioned response that is also known as fear. After combining these specific factors, the rat became the conditioned stimulus and that elicited a conditioned response from Albert. A conditioned response in deviantart, this case, is fear. 2. How did Albert's response become generalised? - Albert’s response became generalised after he was subjected to ‘conditioning’ by Watson and Rayner when he was eleven years old. They instill the fear of rats within Albert and not soon after, they present him with the same toys back when he was nine years old.
Albert was afraid of the toys that look even remotely furry such as a dog, a rabbit and a Santa Claus mask. However, Albert was not afraid of the blocks that were presented to him and from there, both Watson and Rayner have concluded that Albert is afraid of furry objects and report, therefore they have generalised his fear based upon the results of their experiment that was conducted on him. 3. How were the principles of classical conditioning used to reduce Peter's fear of rabbits? - The principles of classical conditioning were used to. Words: 620 - Pages: 3. . RUNNING HEAD: Classical Conditioning Paper Classical Conditioning Paper PSY/390 Dr. Gerald Thauberger July 9, 2012 Theory of classical conditioning The theory of black resume folders Classical conditioning is the how to day process of an unconditioned stimulus becomes conditioned. Classical conditioning was illustrated by cbse class 11 economics study, Ivan Pavlov by using dogs as the subjects, to show the association of food, dogs and a bell. Pavlov used the bell to sound when it was time to feed the dogs to better understand if the dogs would be able to associate the sound with feeding time. So if we look a little further we are able to associate classical conditioning with involuntary behavior, because the behavior is how to day by day, something that we are trained to act out?
So for instance in the morning when we get up to black resume folders, brush our teeth this is something that we were trained to do since toddler age. Our parents bought us a toothbrush and conditioned us to get up every morning and brush our teeth. Scenario We have three dogs that my wife really adores very much and how to write nursing report day by, spends most of pacthesis sim dates her time with. All the dogs seem to be very attached to nursing day by day, my wife and show her by jumping on her and giving her kisses on a regular basis. But because all of the dogs are attached to her they seem to get jealous of folders one another and will start to how to nursing report day, fight instantly if she is around all of them at the same time. Each dog seems to have their own personality like Bear which is a lab and her first dog is class case study, very spoil, Sheba who is the only girl is a boxer mixed with. Words: 839 - Pages: 4. . Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are forms of associative learning.
Classical conditioning is defined as a learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response. In classical conditioning the stimulus triggers the response of an organism. There are four concepts created by Pavlov that give classical conditioning a better understanding. The unconditioned stimulus triggers the unconditioned response. This means that without learning a stimulus can produce any reflex. The Neutral stimulus is a stimulus that does not affect the unconditioned response. The unconditioned stimulus is then paired with the neutral stimulus and presented to the organism. Write Nursing Report Day By! This transforms into a conditioned stimulus. This means that the previous neutral stimulus is presented to the organism it causes an unconditioned response. Whereas operant conditioning is a form of associative learning in annotated for personal responsibility essay, which the consequences of how to nursing a behavior change the probability of the behaviors occurrence.
In operant conditioning there is positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement that are both used to increase good behavior. There are also negative reinforcers and negative punishment to decrease bad behavior. These types of pacthesis deviantart learning are part of our everyday lives and many times we fail to notice. Here are some of the examples of classical and operant conditioning that are used in the media. Many ads and commercials. Words: 1001 - Pages: 5. Little Albert and Classical Conditioning. . Little Albert and Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning may be defined as; a kind of how to nursing report day associative learning where two stimuli happen in a combined as well as frequent manner because of which, they ultimately become linked with each other. The outcome of this union is that each stimulus sooner or later generates an cbse 11 economics identical response. Report Day By! In fact, this technique is applied in behavioral training in which Unconditioned Stimulus (US) is paired with and leads towards the help with Conditioned Stimulus (CS) until the conditioned stimulus unaccompanied is enough to how to write report day by day, bring out the response (Abell et al., 1999).
To understand it clearly, there is need to recall the experiment performed by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner in 1920. Watson suggested that psychological researches should be based merely on apparent behaviors and due to this viewpoint, his research was related with conditioning of fear (learned). He demonstrated above conditioning via usual procedures including association of essay to buy stimuli, and research subject chosen by him for how to nursing report day the purpose was an 11-month old child Albert. Albert was an tutorials extremely firm infant who hardly ever exhibited fear of anything involving the write report day by white rat present in laboratory, but Watson and with, Rayner noticed that he was afraid of how to loud noises (Unconditioned Stimulus). They decided to implement this innate fear response (Unconditioned Response (UR)) shown by Albert as a tool in pacthesis deviantart sim dates, their study. So; they created piercing sound by striking a big steel pipe with hammer.
Words: 964 - Pages: 4. . In order to how to day by day, fully comprehend classical and with dissertations for masters, operant conditioning , first we need to understand what exactly behaviourism is and what it focuses on. This essay will outline behaviourism and look at the explanations for write how we learn, these include classical and operant conditioning. Both learning methods have several practical applications used to treat people, these will also be discussed. Behaviourist’s believe that when you are born your mind is blank and behaviorism focuses on learning based on free essay, the concept that all actions are acquired through conditioning processes. John Watson who was considered “the father of behavioursim”, argued that conditioning occurred through interaction with the report day by day environment and cbse, our responses to the environmental stimuli shape our behaviours.
Conditioning can be separated into two types, classical and how to nursing day by day, operant. Classical Conditioning is black resume, defined as the conditioning of reflexes so that they occur in how to write report day by day, response to new situations. Tutorials! It was first discovered by Ivan Pavlov when he was working on dogs, studying their digestive systems. He noted that the dogs produced saliva when a bell(auditory stimulus) and food (unconditioned stimulus) were presented together. Eventually the bell alone(conditioned stimulus) would come to how to report day by day, evoke the salivating response(conditioned response) . The link between the saliva and the bell is defined as conditioned stimulus and response because the dogs were conditioned to help dissertations for masters, associate the bell with receiving the day by food. However if. Words: 706 - Pages: 3. . Header: THE ROLE OF LEISURE IN AGING 1 The Role of Leisure in Aging Cassandra Pugh Canadore College THE ROLE OF LEISURE IN AGING 2 Age is both an observable and help for masters, a universal demographic; a country like Canada is facing this issue. How To Report Day By! Canada’s population has aged steadily throughout the 20th century, and it is only expected to to buy, rise. Consequently, how to take care of the aging people is a critical issue, especially in leisure. Leisure is important for people of how to write nursing day all ages, but is especially so for the elderly since they are likely to retire and have more time to engage in leisure activities.
The following is an explanation of participation patterns between three seniors, identifying their roles in leisure now, and in adulthood, in free, these four categories: education, travel, volunteering, fitness and sport. The first interviewee is an 86 year old male from a nursing home. He and his wife have resided in the home for five years. In adulthood, Lloyd was very active. Although he was raised during the depression, having little money, there were always things to do. Whether that be working on the farm, having a game of how to report day by day ball hockey out on the road, or hunting. Lloyd was always doing something.
He enjoyed leisure activities whenever he wasn’t working, which was sometimes hard working seven days a week. Essay To Buy! Especially the walk, 6 miles one way. But Lloyd always seemed to find time for his lady to take her square dancing, and bowling. Lloyd also enjoyed snowmobiling. Words: 1504 - Pages: 7. . and real-worlds settings: Classical Conditioning a Fear Response One of the most famous examples of classical conditioning was John B. Watson's experiment in which a fear response was conditioned in a young boy known as Little Albert. The child initially showed no fear of a white rat, but after the day presentation of the rat was paired repeatedly with loud, scary sounds, the child would cry when the rat was present. The child's fear also generalized to other fuzzy white objects. Let's examine the black folders elements of this classic experiment. How To Nursing Day! Prior to the conditioning, the white rat was a neutral stimulus. The unconditioned stimulus was the loud, clanging sounds and the unconditioned response was the fear response created by the noise. By repeatedly pairing the rat with the unconditioned stimulus, the white rat (now the conditioned stimulus) came to evoke the fear response (now the conditioned response).
You can learn more about this famous study in this overview of the Little Albert experiment as well as some more information on class 11 economics study, the controversy about Little Albert. This experiment illustrates how phobias can form through classical conditioning. In many cases, a single pairing of a neutral stimulus (a dog, for example) and nursing day, a frightening experience (being bitten by the dog) can lead to a lasting phobia (being afraid of dogs). Classically Conditioning Taste Aversions Another example of classical conditioning can be seen in the development of conditionedtaste aversions. Researchers. Words: 1123 - Pages: 5. . Essay! Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is an influential process. Two unrelated stimuli when they are repeatedly paired lead to a situation where a response to the second stimulus can be achieved by write report, initiating only the first stimulus. This theory involves learning a new behavior through the process of dissertations association. In this theory, we assume that the surrounding shapes behavior and also those mental or internal states of a human or animal like feelings or thoughts are not relevant in behavioral explanations. How To Write Nursing! Part I For a classically conditioned learning process in my life, I always study and do my academic activities normally homework on my desk.
After a long, hard semester; I realize that the sight of that desk or sitting on resume, it depresses me. I always associate the desk with not only huge but also difficult academic tasks hence being at how to write it, even if I am free after the semester, it reminds me of books to read or simply hard tasks to be done. This has a panic and fear effect on black resume folders, me because the desk is associated with strenuous tasks. A classically conditioned learning process has got several stages or steps which include: neural stimulus (NS), Unconditional stimulus (UCS), Unconditional response (UCR), Conditioned stimulus (CS) and Conditioned response (CR). Write Nursing Day! Neural stimulus (NS) has no effect on class study, behavior or person unless it is paired with the day unconditioned stimuli. It can be a person, event, object etc. In my case, the neural stimulus is the free tutorials study desk. This is because. Words: 1039 - Pages: 5. . Classical Conditioning Chad D Zollo PSY/390 March 4, 2013 Kay Rubin Abstract Classical conditioning (also referred to write, as “Pavlovian conditioning”), is a theory from the psychology school of behaviorism which states environmental and physical interactions cause the process of learning.
First argued by Ivan Pavlov, the theory of classical conditioning is study, one of the most widely accepted (and laboratory tested) aspects of behavioral learning theory involving associations of stimuli and response as the means of a process of learning; these stimuli and write nursing report day by day, responses can be either conditioned (intentionally learned) or unconditioned (naturally occurring). Classical conditioning principles can be used in a number of ways including curing phobias, the extinction of bad habits, and black folders, applications for creating positive work or school environments. All aspects of classical conditioning begin with a neutral stimuli before conditioning can occur in a subject and responses generated. Classical Conditioning Learning is the process of receiving stimuli and information, coding the information, and storing it for later recall. One form of learning is conditioning – using stimuli to generate responses in order for a subject to how to write nursing report, associate specific stimuli with a paired response. Of the pacthesis deviantart types of conditioning, classical conditioning is how to write nursing report day by, a behaviorism theory first argued by free essay, Ivan Pavlov in which responses may be produced as a conditioning of a given.
Words: 1079 - Pages: 5. . Lilienfeld et al.(2011), defines learning as “a change in an organism’s behaviour or thought as a result of experience” (p. How To Report! 261). Annotated! Classical conditioning is “learning in write nursing, which the conditioned stimulus is paired with and precedes the unconditioned stimulus until the conditioned stimulus alone is sufficient to elicit the response” (Spielberger, 2004, p. 655). Sim Dates! When I joined the Israeli Army in 1999, after fishing high school in Israel, classical conditioning was a key strategy to train everyday students to how to report, become Israeli soldiers. During the recruit training our commander screamed at us and essay, scrutinised our behaviour, to nursing report, set an environment of discipline and obedience. Sim Dates! The screaming and how to report day by day, yelling of cheap orders triggered the fear reflexes, which led to a change in mindset from being a freewill teenager to report, an obedient soldier. Screaming is the unconditioned stimulus (US), which led to the unconditioned response (UR) reflex of black resume fear.
The unconditioned reflex of write nursing fear evolved to the conditioned response (CR) of obedience. Commander’s green uniform and shoulder marks served as natural stimulus (NS) that later became conditioned stimulus (CS), which once seen by the recruits triggered a response of obedience, whether or not the commander was shouting. Natural stimuli of commanders green uniform repeatedly paired with screaming and yelling is the essay to buy US which later became CS that naturally elicit a response of how to write report fear and obedience of cbse case UR that evolved to CR. Stimulus generalization (SG. Words: 525 - Pages: 3. . Nursing Day By! Classical conditioning is black, defined in Psychology as “a type of write report day by learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings that response” (Feldman, 2010, p 163). Having to do with reactions and to buy, learning, the definition of classical conditioning can be abbreviated into report day, the idea of involuntary behavior. The example of Pavlov’s dog illustrates this as the dog came to associate the sound of a bell with food, causing a reflective action of salivating even when the bell was not paired with food. Ivan Pavlov a Russian physiologist that never intended to do psychological research is best known for his intricate work with the drooling dog experiment that leads to his further research in conditioning. His experiment to demonstrate classical conditioning and essay to buy, how much a dog salivates when the animal thinks food is going to be given; Pavlov attached a tube on the dogs’ mouth to measure precisely salivation. What’s learned with Pavlov’s experiment is a conditioned stimulus to a condition response. From the moment we are born to day by, the day we pass on, we are currently learning new things day by responsibility essay, day.
A person often learns through some form of conditioning in life. Some people associate learning with school or another kind of educational institutes, but we learn in different places and situations in our life. Learning is the result of the consequences of write report day by inappropriate behavior. Respect, discipline, and good manners are what we.
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Some reactions showing conversion of primary pollutant to secondary pollutant are described below: Primary pollutant Reactant Secondary Pollution. Just like primary pollutants, the secondary pollutants have significant detrimental effects on animals, soil, vegetation#8217;s, crops and materials. The Principal sources of air pollution can either be natural or anthropogenic. The natural sources of air pollution are: (iii) Soil Erosion, (v) Evaporation of volatile organic matter, and. (vi) Bacterial decomposition products. (b) Anthropogenic Sources: (i) Automobile Exhaust: These contain carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen, ethane, ethylene, 3, 4- benzpyrine. These gases are due to incomplete combustion of petrol and diesel. (ii) Industrial Exhaust: The industries mainly Chemical Factories, Paper and day by day Pulp, Sugar, Petroleum Refineries, Steel Plants etc. are the chief air polluting agents. Cheap! The industrial exhaust contain gases like CO, CO 2 , SO 2 , NO, (iii) Release of organic substances : The processes like biological decomposition of organic matter, seepage from natural gas and oil fields, volatile emission from write report day by plants, sewage gas etc. are the causes for the release of organic substances like CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , C 6 H 5 NH 2 , C 2 H 4 etc. (iv) Release of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): The chlorofluorocarbons are released to the atmosphere from air conditioners, refineries, pre cooler systems of cold storage etc. (v) Photochemical oxidants: These are ozone and class case peroxyacylnitrate (PAN) formed by certain photochemical reactions. (vi) Tobacco smokes; it is produced by cigarette and bidis. Day By Day! (vii) Particulate Pollution: Solid and liquid aerosols suspended in atmosphere are referred as particulate matters. These arise from grinding of ores, spraying and soil erosion.
Aerosols are chemicals, which are released into the air in the form of vapours. For example lead containing gasoline fumes from automobiles, constitute the chief source of lead contamination. (viii) Agricultural Chemicals: The agricultural chemicals like pesticides, insecticides, fungicides, herbicides etc. are also released into the air as pollutants. (ix) Explosives in War: A number of poisonous gases are released in the atmosphere during the explosions of sophisticated explosives in war. (x) Photochemical Smogs: When different gases like SO 2 , NO, N 2 O, NO 2 and un-burnt hydrocarbons are released into atmosphere, these form photochemical smog by combining with dust and moisture. (xi) Mining Activity: During mining activities i.e. crushing and help with grinding of ores, a lot of write report, particulate matters are released to atmosphere. (xii) Release from fertiliser plants: Ammonia gas is released from ammonium fertilizer plants. (xiii) Emission from jets and aircrafts: A significant quantity of carbon monoxide gas and un-burnt hydrocarbons are released from jets and aircrafts. (xiv) Domestic burning: Domestic burning of coal, kerosene oil, cow dung cakes etc. releases CO 2 , CO, SO 2 , etc. Pollutants are the annotated for personal responsibility essay various harmful chemicals present in the atmosphere in how to nursing, concentrations that disturb the dynamic equilibrium in the atmosphere and thereby affects the living organisms and their environment. These are released to the environment partly or completely by cheap essay to buy, anthropogenic activities or natural processes. Some potent chemical pollutants, their sources, mechanism of action in environment, detrimental effects and how to nursing report day by their control measures are described below. Natural process like volcanic action, electrical discharge during storm or lightening, seed germination, marsh gas production etc. release small quantity of Carbon monoxide to the atmosphere. The significant contribution of class, carbon monoxide is from anthropogenic activities.
For example out of the how to nursing report day by annual emission of 350 million tonnes, human activities contribute 275 million tonnes and natural processes contribute only 75 million tonnes. Some important CO producing processes are: It contributes about 74% of CO through motor vehicles aircrafts, rail, roads etc. (ii) Agricultural burnings: These include forest fire, burning of crop residues, brush, weeds etc. Free! (iii) Industrial processes: These are the third largest contributors of CO. Industries like iron, steel, paper, petroleum etc. release large quantity of CO to the atmosphere. The release of write nursing day by, CO to the atmosphere is taking place in such a large scale that the concentration is supposed to pacthesis deviantart sim dates be doubled in every five years. But the actual increase in ambient global CO concentrations is much less. The lowering of the concentration of CO is atmosphere may be due to: (i) The oxidation of CO to write nursing report day by day CO 2 in the atmosphere by atomic oxygen, hydroxyl radical, NO 2 , singlet O 2 etc. (ii) Some micro-organisms present in the soil help in the oxidation of CO to CO 2 . (iii) Green plants also fix and metabolize CO with the help of chlorophyll in light or in dark, photosynthetically and non-photosynthetically. C. Detrimental Effects: CO interferes with oxygen carrying function of hemoglobin by forming carboxy hemoglobin complex. Bibliography! (i) When carboxy haemoglobin (CO-Hb) content reaches 5% oxygen transport gets inhibited. (ii) When carboxyhaemoglobin (CO-Hb) level exceeds 5%, cardiac and pulmonary functions are also affected, specially with mycocardial interactions.
The poisonous effect of CO is due to write nursing report day by the fact that it prevents the R.B.C., saturated with CO from absorbing oxygen and carrying it into different parts of the body. Death is caused by asphyxiation. Annotated For Personal Responsibility Essay! (iii) When CO concentration becomes 400-500 ppm, it leads to loss of fertility, premature birth, spontaneous abortion and deformed babies in nursing, pregnant women. Free Tutorials! Plants are insensitive to basal level of CO. However, prolonged exposure of plants to how to day by higher concentrations of CO causes hazards in plants. (i) CO inhibits nitrogen fixing ability of bacteria when these are exposed to CO level of 2000 ppm for 33-38 hours. Essay To Buy! (ii) CO level within 100 to 10000 ppm causes lead drop, premature aging, leaf curling, reduction of leaf size, etc. (iii) CO also at higher concentration, inhibits cellular respirations in plants by reacting with cytochrome oxidise. D. Control of nursing day by, Co-Emission: Extensive investigations suggest that about 74% of class case study, all the CO emission is from automobiles. So control efforts must be focused on automobile emission. The following approaches can be made to control automobile emission: 1. Modification of how to nursing report day, internal combustion engines are needed to reduce the quantity of CO during fuel combustion. 2. Black Folders! Development of exhaust system reactors which will complete the combustion without forming CO. 3. Development of substitute fuels for gasoline which will give low concentration of CO on combustion. 4. Development of pollution free power source as a substitute for internal combustion engine.
5. Use of catalytic converters in two compartments which help in preventing emission of exhaust gases into the air. Sulphur-dioxide is the second potent air pollutant as it accounts for 29% of the total weight of all pollutants. There are two sources of SO 2 — (1) Natural Source, and. (2) Anthropogenic source. Natural processes like volcanic eruption provide 67% of the S0 2 pollution which is distributed all over how to write day by, the globe. Anthropogenic source contribute about 33% of SO 2 pollution which is localised mainly in urban areas. The different man made activities are: (1) Fuel combustion (coal) account for 74%, (2) Industries account for 22%, (3) Transportation accounts for 2%. Specifically, burning of fossil fuels in thermal power plants, manufacture of sulphuric acid and fertilizers, smelting industries etc, account for 75% of total SO 2 emission while automobiles and refineries contribute to the rest 25%. The quantity of SO 2 in atmosphere is very small as compared to sim dates its annual emission. This may be due to its reaction in atmosphere. Actually there are four possible roots for the removal of SO 2 from environment: (i) It may undergo photo-chemical oxidation reaction with atmospheric oxygen.
(ii) It may undergo photochemical and chemical reaction with nitrogen oxide and/or hydrocarbon. Write Nursing! (iii) It may undergo chemical reaction with moisture and become sulphuric acid or sulphurous acid. On further reaction with metals or their salts, these are converted into metal sulphates. (iv) It may undergo reaction with solid particles in the atmosphere. C. Detrimental effects of SO 2 : Sulphur dioxide is class 11 economics case study perhaps the write most dangerous air pollutant affecting both living and non-living world. (1) It causes irritation to eye and respirating tract even at 2.5 ppm. (2) It causes swelling of nasal system and stimulates mucus secretion. (3) It causes lung cancer at high level. (4) It induces desquamation or peeling off of the surface epithelium in the mucosa. (5) Presence of S0 2 in deviantart, moisture and fog becomes more dangerous due to formation of H 2 SO 4 and H 2 SO 3 which are 5 to 20 time more irritating than SO 2 alone. (6) Its inhalation causes symptoms of bronchitis, emphysema and other lung diseases. (b) Effects on plants: (1) It affects plant growth and nutrient quality of products. (2) It kills leaf tissues causing leaf necrosis. How To Write Nursing Day By Day! (3) It causes chlorosis and dwarfing when the concentration exceeds 1 ppm. (4) Its chronic exposure to plants causes bleaching of plant pigments. Responsibility Essay! (5) At high concentration, it decreases PH of leaf tissues of some plants increasing the sulphur content #8216;n plants. (6) It affects stomatal pores, stomatal frequency, cholorplast and transpiration through stomata. (c) Effect on non-living materials: (1) It attacks marble, limestone, roofing state, electrical contacts, textiles and buildings, (2) It reacts with leather reducing its strength and inducing it s disintegration. (3) The acid rain produced by the reaction of SO 2 corrodes metals, attacks fibres, and washes out basic material from soil. The reaction of H 2 SO 4 on marble is known as stone leprosy. (4) It affects durability in paint films. Write Nursing Report! (5) SO 2 polluted air accelerates the corrosion rate of metals such as iron, zinc, copper etc. The oxides of cbse case study, sulphur can be reduced and controlled by the following methods: 1. Removing sulphur from fuel before burning. 2. Using low content sulphur fuels. 3. Removing the sides of sulphur from fuel gases as soon as these are formed. 4. Using non-sulphur containing fuels such as natural gases.
5. How To Day! Using nuclear power to generate electricity from power plants. NO x exists as nitrous oxide (N 2 O), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen trioxide (N 2 O 3 ), nitrogen peroxide (NO 2 ) and nitrogen pentoxide (N 2 O s ). Amongst all these nitrogen oxides, nitrogen peroxide (NO 2 ) and nitric oxide (NO) are the two main reagents causing air pollution. About 95% of NO x is released to the atmosphere mainly as NO as remaining as NO 2 . Tutorials! NO x is released to the atmosphere mainly through anthropogenic activities and partly through natural processes. 1. Anthropogenic sources: Anthropogenic activities release about 5 x 10 7 tonnes of NO x every year. Some important activities include: 1. Combustion of coal, oil, natural gases and gasoline. 2. By-products of some chemical industries like HN0 3 am H 2 SO 4 . 3. Thermal power plants. 4. Supersonic aircraft exhaust. 5. Nuclear explosion. 6. Manufacture of write nursing day by, nylon intermediates.
2. Natural Sources: Natural processes release about 5 x 10 10 tonnes of NO x every year. Some natural processes include: 1. Bacterial action or microbial action on earth surface: Microorganisms reduce N 2 0 under anaerobic condition producing potent pollutants, NO and NO 2 . 2. Photo-chemical reaction in the atmosphere mediated by cosmic rays. With For Masters! 3. Volcanic eruption. B. Consequences of NO x Accumulation: The accumulation of nursing, NO x in the environment causes varieties of hazards such as acid rain, depletion of free tutorials, ozone layer, smog formation etc. NO x causes acid rain by reacting with atmospheric moisture giving acids like nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and nitrous acid (HNO 2 ) (b) Depletion of ozone layer: NO x released to the atmosphere moves up and reacts with ozone layer causing its depletion. Such a process allows the passage of UV radiation into earth surface.
The presence of how to write nursing report day by day, excess quantity of NO and NO 2 induces smog formation and generates a number of harmful species like free radicals, PAN (Peroxy acetyl nitrate) etc. C. Detrimental Effects of cbse 11 economics case, NO x on Living Organisms: The accumulation of NO x is toxic to both plants and animals. The toxic action is attributed to their interference with the course of a number of biochemical reactions possibly through their modulating action over how to write nursing day, a number of cellular enzymes and production of a number of secondary pollutants like OH, HO 2 , O 3 , PAN etc. 1. Loss of photosynthetic activity. The threshold limit value (TLV) of NO and NO 2 for annotated bibliography for personal essay, human beings are 25 and 5ppm respectively.
Although NO (Whose value is less) does a not cause major health hazard NO 2 causes serious health hazards. Some serious health hazards are: 1. Inflammation of how to write nursing report day by day, lung tissues. Annotated Bibliography Responsibility Essay! 2. Respiratory diseases like lung cancer, pulmonary haemorrhage. 3. Destruction of oxygen transport efficiency of blood. In view of the detrimental and adverse effects of NO x on the entire living and non-living world, it is necessary to keep the level of NO x below the threshold value. Some important control measures are outlined as below: 1. To remove HO x from stack gases, one of the approach is the chemical absorption process (H 2 SO 4 solution or alkaline shrubbing solution containing calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) is used. How To Report Day! 2. Catalytic converters should be used to control automotive emission of NO x . Essay! Catalytic converter acts in two ways: (i) It decomposes HO x to nitrogen and oxygen in presence of suitable catalyst. (ii) It reduces NO x to how to nursing day by nitrogen in presence of suitable catalyst and reducing agent. 3. Annotated Responsibility! NO x emitted from power plants (about 50-1000 ppm) can be reduced up to 10% by two stage combustion process. How To Nursing! (i) The fuel is fired at high temperature mixing with 90-95% of stoichiometric air. (ii) Fuel burn out is essay completed at a relatively low temperature in excess of air. 4. Nursing Day By Day! Public awareness should be created to educate the common man about the hazards of NO x . 5. Government should take stringent action against industries discharging higher quantity of NO x into annotated bibliography for personal responsibility environment than the level prescribed by pollution control board.
Some more common chemical pollutants, then source and detrimental effects are described as in the table given below: In addition to different gases, a series of hydrocarbons are released to the atmosphere either through natural processes or through human activities. These hydrocarbons sometimes behave like primary pollutants and some other times induce the formation of other potent secondary pollutants. Natural sources of hydrocarbon release into air includes emission from trees, liberation from anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in presence of bacteria, liberation from domesticated animals etc. The main hydrocarbon in natural sources is methane whose residence time in air is 3 to 7 years. Anthropogenic activities contributes nearly 20% of the hydrocarbon emitted to the atmosphere every year.
The major anthropogenic sources are: (i) automobile exhaust, (ii) industrial processes like processing, storage, transfer of products, (iii) incinerator and refuse burning, (iv) solvent , and. (v) burning of coal and wood etc. Global emissions of pollutant hydrocarbons is given in table 7.5. Table 7.5 : Global Emission of Pollutant Hydrocarbons. The level of hydrocarbon in atmosphere is usually reduced by how to nursing day, several reactions and photo-chemical reactions. Being thermodynamically unstable, these are oxidised in a series of steps to carbon dioxide. Besides, the hydrocarbons are also settled either by the action of gravity or by rain water. c. Detrimental effects of hydrocarbons: (a) Effect on annotated for personal essay, human beings: (i) It has carcinogenic effects on lungs due to its swelling at how to day by, higher concentration. (ii) Aromatic hydrocarbons causes irritation to muscus membrane. (iii) Hydrocarbons induce formation of PAH (peroxy acyl nitrate) which causes irritation of eyes, noses, throat etc. (iv) Excess of hydrocarbon causes blocking or respiratory tract. (v) Benzpyrene induces cancer. (vi) Methane at higher concentration causes narcotic effects. (vii) Black-lung disease of coal miners, pulmonary fibrosis of asbestos workers and employsema of urban peoples are due to particulate accummulation. (viii) The lodged particles in the lungs (3µ) can cause severe breathing trouble by physical blockage and irritation of lung capillaries. (b) Effects on cheap essay to buy, plants: (i) Hydrocarbons retard the growth of plants. How To Day By Day! (ii) These along with ozone cause chlorosis. (iii) Ethylene hydrocarbons damage leaf tissues and flowering plants. (iv) Acetylene and free essay tutorials propylene bring about early maturity of plants. (c) Effects on materials: (i) Hydrocarbons even at a very low concentration attack paper, rubber, synthetics etc. (ii) These attack long chain polymers losing tensile strength of how to day by, polymers. 11 Economics Study! (iii) These lower the elastic nature of plastics thereby making them more brittle. d. Control of Hydrocarbons: The level of hydrocarbons can be reduced by controlling their emission from the source.
The emission from automobile exhaust and how to report day by industrial exhaust can be controlled through processes like incineration, absorption, adsorption, condensation etc. Particulates are the small solid particles and liquid droplets present in the atmosphere in fairly large numbers. The dimension of particulates range from 0.0002 µ to 500 µwith life time varying from a few seconds to several months. The presence of these particulates in air causes serious environmental consequences. The release of particulates into atmosphere is both natural and anthropogenic.
The natural processes include volcanic eruption, blowing of dust and sim dates soil by wind, spraying of salt and other solid particles by the seas and oceans etc. The contributions from manmade activities are: fly ash from power plants, melters and mining operations, smokes from incomplete combustion processes etc. The incomplete combustion processes are fuel combustion from stationary sources (wood, coal, oil, natural gas etc.), industrial processes and other sources like forest fire, structural fires, agricultural burning etc. How To Write Nursing Report Day! b. Pacthesis! Types of particulates: The particulate matter may be inorganic particles or organic particles. The inorganic particles include metal oxides (e.g. CaO, Fe 3 O 4 , V 2 O s , CaCO 3 etc.), Metal halides (e.g. PbCl 2 , PbBr 2 , Pb BrCl etc.), salts (e.g. How To Nursing Report Day By Day! (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , CaSO 4 etc.), fly ash asbestos particles etc.
The organic particles are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as benzo (?-) pyrene, Chrysene, benzofluoranthene, soot etc. c. Detrimental effects: (a) Effects on tutorials, human beings: (i) Asbestos particles cause lungs disorder. (ii) Lead containing particulates affect children#8217;s brain and interfere with the development and maturation of red blood cell. (iii) Particulates of less than 1 µ reach alveoli of lungs and damage lungs tissues. How To Write Nursing Report Day By Day! iv. Soluble aerosols get absorbed into blood from alveoli while the insoluble aerosols are carried to the lymphatic stream and to buy get deposited in write nursing day by, the pulmonary, lymphatic depot point or lymp glands. (b) Effects on plants: (i) The deposition of particulates on soil makes the soil unsuitable for plant growth. (ii) Deposition of particulate on leaves prevents CO 2 absorption and hence decreases the rate of photosynthesis. (iii) Particulates deposited on plant leaves block the stomata of plants and thus inhibiting the rate of transpiration from the free soil. (iv) In case of some plants which are sensitive to how to write report day traces of toxic metals, their enzyme activity is disturbed in presence of particulates containing trace elements. (c) Effects on materials: (i) Particulate fumes and mists react directly with painted surfaces and cause cracks on it. (ii) Particulates induce corrosion of metals. (iii) Particulates accumulate on the soil surface causing soil erosion. (iv) Particles including fumes, dust, soot, mists and aerosols can bring about cheap essay, severe damage to buildings, sculpture and how to nursing report monuments. (d) Effect of essay tutorials, solar radiation: (i) Particulates reduce visibility by absortion and scattering of nursing day, solar radiation. (ii) Particulates disturb the delicate heat balance of the help dissertations for masters atmosphere. (iii) Particulates compensate the climatic effects due to increased CO 2 concentration. (iv) Particulates influence the climate through the how to formation of help dissertations for masters, clouds, rains and snow, by acting as nuclei upon which water condensation can take place. d. Control of how to write report day by day, particulate emission: The quantity of particulates in the air can be minimised by the following techniques: (i) By using gravity settling chamber. (ii) By using cyclone collector. (iii) By using cyclonic separators and trajectory separators. (iv) By using filters and scrubbers. (v) By using electrostatic precipitators. Some air pollutants, their sources and detrimental effects are outlined in table 7.7. Table 7.7: Some Chemical Pollutants, Their Sources and Detrimental Effects. The important effects of air pollution are as follows: 1. With Dissertations For Masters! Atmospheric particles, due to fuel combustion for industrial and household heating purposes, can scatter and absorb sunlight and thus reduce visibility.
2. Increased level of CO 2 causes greenhouse effect. 3. Chlorofluoro carbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides cause ozone layer depletion and ozone hole. 4. The effect of particulate matter includes corrosion of metals, erosion and soiling of buildings, sculptures and painted surfaces and soiling of clothing and how to write nursing day draperies, damages of electric equipment#8217;s etc. 5. The toxic effects of particulate matter on animals and human beings can be classified as: (i) Intrinsic toxicity due to chemical or physical properties. For example, CO can combine with hemoglobin and reduce its oxygen carrying capacity. Since CO has greater affinity than oxygen to occupy the co-ordination position of oxyhaemoglobin, it can remove oxygen even at low partial pressure. Interference with clearance mechanism in the respiratory tracts. For example, chronic bronchitis and emphysema have also been found to class 11 economics case study be caused by SO 2 . Toxicity due to how to write nursing report day by absorbed toxic substances. For example, lead particles from help with dissertations for masters vehicle exhaust, in higher dose, can kill outright but in lower dose shortens life span and causes deterioration of nervous system.
6. The oxides of sulphur and how to nursing report day nitrogen combine with water vapours of the atmosphere and with for masters cause acid rain. 7. Benzpyrenes play an important role in higher cancer rates in urban areas even at a very lower concentration. 8. The small solid particles can serve as carrier for microorganisms and other infective agents and thereby spreading diseases. The accumulation of pollutants in air causes a number of disasters to the living world. How To Nursing Report Day By! Some important consequences of air pollution are as follows: Ozone layer present in the stratosphere strongly absorbs UV radiation of cbse class case study, 220-203 nm and thereby protects life on earth from nursing report day by severe radiation damage.
But due to continuous and non- interrupted release of chloroflurocarbons, oxides of cheap to buy, nitrogen etc. by write nursing report, the civilised world, the ozone layer is constantly depleted. Black Resume! The reaction is medicated through a number of free radicals like CI + , CIO + , + OH etc. and a number of portent species like (O, NO, SO 2 NO 2 etc.) The mechanisms of some important reactions causing ozone depletion are given below. (i) Depletion through CFCs: Each CFC is capable of destroying 1 lakh of how to write nursing day by day, 0 3 molecules in chain reactions. It is also calculated that 1 kg of CFC can deplete 3.5 tonnes of ozone. (ii) Depletion through MO (Nitric oxide) Since residence time of NO in atmosphere is black folders longer, it is a potent agent causing depletion. (iii) Depletion through N0 2 (nitrogen peroxide) (iv) Depletion through Cl 2 gas: (v) Depletion through nascent oxygen: (vi) Depletion through + OH (Hydroxyl radical) (vii) Depletion through SO 2. (viii) Depletion through N 2 O (Nitrous oxide) Due to the depletion of ozone layer, the harmful solar radiations easily penetrate into the environment and cause the following detrimental effects: In the early sixties (1963) scientists have reported a large hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica where ozone level dropped by 30 per cent. The ozone hole covers an area as large as USA. CFCs were considered to be prime suspect for how to report day by, causing ozone depletion. It was also established that one molecule of CFC is capable of destroying 3 lakh ozone molecules. Subsequently a similar hole was discovered over the thickly populated northern hemisphere.
A study by NASA scientists (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA) revealed that the area of class, ozone over northern hemisphere decreased by 3 per cent between 1969 and 1986. The overall reduction in the O 3 layer is nursing now estimated to be about 8 per cent. Under the auspicies of the resume folders United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 34 countries have signed an agreement at Montreal, Canada, in 1986 called #8220;Montreal Protocol#8221;. Day By Day! The scientists have agreed to reduce the production and use of CFCs upto 50 per cent by the year 1999. In a second meeting at Helsinki held in for masters, 1989, it was agreed upon write report day by a total phaseout of cheap essay, CFCs by 2000 A.D. Effects of Ozone Depletion: Due to the depletion of ozone layer in the stratosphere, the harmful UV radiation will reach the surface of earth causing mass destruction. Some of the how to write day by day harmful effects of UV-radiation may be outlined as below: 1. Pacthesis! UV-radiation can cause skin burns, melanoma skin cancer, leukemia, breast cancer, lung cancer, photo keratitis, cataracts etc. Nursing Report Day! 2. Tutorials! UV-radiation may damage the how to write genetic material, DMA leading to mutation. 3. UV-radiation injures plant proteins and essay causes depletion of chlorophylls and mutations. 4. The depletion of ozone layer will induce eye cancer in cattle.
5. The depletion of ozone layer leads to the loss of various plants from terrestrial and aquatic habitats. How To Write Nursing Day! 6. It will reduce the crop productivity. 7. It will bring about significant changes in the climate. 8. Due to depletion of black resume, ozone layer, UV-radiation may cause Green House effect changing the global energy. Protection of ozone layer: By protecting the ozone layer of the stratosphere, we can protect the human beings, all plants and animals, eco-system and finally biosphere from destruction. Some protective and controlling measures of ozone layer depletion may be outlined as given below: 1. Report Day! The production and use of with dissertations for masters, CFCs should be banned and their substitutes should be found out.
2. The use of plastic foam has to be boycotted. Nursing Report Day By Day! 3. The use of CFCs in aerosol, spray cans, egg crates etc. should be banned and available substitutes be used. 4. Case Study! Suitable procedures should be adopted to recapture the CFCs released from the air-conditioner and refrigerator servicing units. 5. Report Day! Stringent international and national laws are to be promulgated to see that ozone layer remains intact without destruction. Mow the scientists are trying to phase out CFCs by injecting different alkanes (ethane, propane, etc.) into Antarctica Atmosphere. These alkanes are capable of annotated bibliography responsibility, capturing the chlorine radicals, responsible for ozone depletion obtained from CFCs. How To Write Report! (i) It causes skin cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, eye cataracts etc. (ii) It causes damage of the black folders genetic materials like DHA and how to report day RNA leading to mutations. (iii) It inhibits the cbse class 11 economics study protein synthesis and causes the depletion of write nursing report day by day, chlorophyll in plants. (iv) It induces eye cancer in cattle. (v) It reduces the crop productivity. The green house is that body which allows short wavelength solar radiation to pass through it but does not allow the long wavelength infrared radiation to escape.
Due to rapid and unplanned industrialization the gases like CO 2 , chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), ozone (O 3 )/etc. Black Resume Folders! accumulate in write report day by day, the atmosphere. The layer of pacthesis deviantart, these gases behave like wall of a green house and nursing report day by transmit short wave solar radiations but does not allow the free essay longer wavelength heat radiation (infrared) to be reflected back into how to write nursing report day by day outer space. That is green house are transparent to solar radiation but not to heat radiation. Thus, the green house effect may be defined as the progressive warming up of the atmosphere at the surface of earth due to blanketing of infrared radiation from the earth#8217;s surface by the green house gases. (G.H. gases) + hv (Solar radiation) > (G.H. Pacthesis Deviantart Sim Dates! gases) + hv (solar radiation) (G.H. gases) + hv 1 (infrared) > (G.H.gases) + The green house effect is nursing report based on principle of infrared absorption characteristic of gases. Free Essay Tutorials! AH the green house gases are infrared sensitive.
It is seen that higher the concentration of green house gases, higher will be the magnitude of IR-radiation trapped and re-emitted back to earth#8217;s surface increasing the mean global temperature. The contribution of nursing report day, different gases inducing green house effect is as follows: The intensity of the effect increases in presence of dust, aerosols, etc. The green house effect was for the first time suggested by J. Bibliography For Personal Responsibility! Fourier (1827). Report Day By! This effect is help with for masters also known as Global Warming or Carbon dioxide enrichment or atmospheric effect. The green house effect was initially essential for colder climates to grow few plants in winter, which require higher temperature for their growth and survival. But, now-a-days, it is how to write report day by seen that enrichment of green house inducing gases in the atmosphere also cause global warming because their concentration is far above the class 11 economics case study normal. The fundamental principles underlying green house effect are: (i) Absorption of infrared radiation by the green house inducing gases, (ii) Re-emission back toward the earth surface which results in heat trap and increases the nursing mean global temperature. Sources of green house gases: Some major sources of green house inducing gases may be described as given below: (i) CO 2 gas is released into the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gases etc.), industrial activities, thermal power stations, automobiles, aircrafts, etc. (ii) CFCs and halons are released during the operation of coolants and refrigerant, burning of tutorials, plastic foam products and from spray cans. (iii) Methane (CH 4 ) gas is released from domestic waste and sewage. How To Write Nursing Day By! (iv) Reduction of ground cover and deforestation indirectly enrich CO 2 gas in for masters, the atmosphere. (v) Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is released to the atmosphere due to forest Fire, burning of grassland and how to write nursing day by natural oil and bio-decomposition of essay tutorials, nitrogenous fertilisers. (vi) The concentration of how to nursing report, ozone in the atmosphere increases due to the formation of photo-chemical smog.
Effect of Green House Gases on Climate Change: A number of predictions have been made about the change in global climate due to green house effect. Some of these may be outlined as given below: 1. It is reported that between 1960 and 1986, the deviantart sim dates average global level of CO 2 has increased by 26 per cent (from 275 ppm to 346 ppm. and this level may reach upto 550 ppm by the end of next century). Such an increase in CO 2 concentration will lead to an average increase in global temperature by 1.5°C to 4.5°C. Warming will be more pronounced in polar region than in the equatorial regions. Write Report Day By Day! 2. Increase in temperature in the poles will result in the melting of glaciers and polar ice caps and raising of the level of sea water by about 1.5 metres. 3. Increase in temperature will evaporate terrestrial water content leading to shortage of drinking water. 4. Increase in temperature changes the rainfall pattern. 5. The snowing period will be reduced as a result of which the rate of decomposition of organic matter will increase. Effect on Agriculture: Global warming has significant impact on agricultural productivity. Essay Tutorials! Some of these effects are discussed as given below.
1. Global warming will decrease in cereal production of the world due to reduction of soil moisture. However, the productivity may increase in the polar region. 2. The changes in write nursing report day by day, climatic conditions may shift the cropping pattern. 3. Tutorials! An increase in temperature will increase the rate of development of report day, insect pests. Effect on Human Health: Global warming has significant effect on human health and black folders human diseases: 1. It may favour spreading of diseases like malaria and filaria.
2. It may favour the how to write nursing report day breeding and growth of insect vectors. 3. Essay To Buy! It may favour the spreading of insect vectors from one latitude and altitude to other, thereby extending the boundaries of the diseases. How To Write Day! Control of Green House Effect: In order to reduce the concentration of different green house gases including gases in the atmosphere and to cope with green house effect, the following strategies should be adopted : 1. Free Tutorials! Reduction in the consumption of fossil fuels drastically, 2. Increase of the how to write nursing report day efficiency of internal combustion engines used in automobiles so that the pollutants in the exhaust will be reduced. 3. Use of cbse 11 economics case study, scrubbers to remove CO 2 from the emissions of coal burning power plants and industries. 4. Methanol as a substitute to be used in write nursing day, transport sector. 5. Use of pacthesis sim dates, biogas for domestic purposes, as conventional energy. 6. Nursing Day By! Use of cbse 11 economics, unleaded petrol in how to report, vehicle. 7. Banning of the use of Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs). 8. Banning of annotated for personal responsibility essay, deforestation. 9. Developing greeneries by how to write day by, undertaking massive afforestation programmes.
Smog is a combination of essay tutorials, two words smoke and nursing day fog. The word smog was for the first time suggested by H. A. For Personal Essay! Vocus in 1905 but first came into limelight in Belgium in 1930 as smoky fog. How To Write Nursing Report Day By Day! In 1952, the smog became a deadly pollutant killing few thousands in London. Smoke is produced as a result of the incomplete combustion of fuels. The smoke contains various gases and suspended particulate matter. In addition, another substance responsible for smog formation is dust. Dust is nothing but small particle of solid matter that can be carried in suspension.
Dusts are produced from forest fires, automobile exhaust, industrial combustion process, soil blowing by wind, ocean spray, mining areas, etc. Dust combines with smoke and later with fog to produce #8216;smog#8217;, which appears in the form of cloudy layer in the atmosphere. Cbse Class 11 Economics! A thick cloud of smog is produced where smoke instead of escaping, the area to outer atmosphere stays nearer to the surface due to temperature inversion. The smog is caused either due to the presence of oxidising pollutants or due to reducing pollutants. If the smog is caused due to write day oxidising pollutants, it is known as oxidising smog and if it is cheap caused due to reducing pollutants, it is known as reducing smog. Besides, the smog can also be classified according to its pollutant content or nature of the reactions shown by the pollutants or the source from which the pollutants are generated etc. Let us discuss various types of smogs and their characteristics: 1. How To Nursing Day By! Sulphurous Smog: It is a mixture of fog, smoke and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) gas.
This type of smog was marked in black resume folders, London in how to nursing day by day, 1952 where the sim dates smog prevailed for five days killing few thousands. The pollution was caused due to sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and smoke during temperature inversion. The effects were more severe in morning hours and nursing report day by day became deadly after sunrise because of for personal essay, photochemical oxidation. The smog caused bronchitis, pneumonia, respiratory distress, and eye diseases. How To Write Nursing Day! Since it is a mixture of reducing pollutants, it is also known as reducing smog. 2. Los Angeles Smog: Such type of smog was recorded at Los Angeles in 1944 and thereafter it#8217;s known as Los Angeles smog. It is a type of photo-chemical smog. The smog contains different compounds at different times of a day. In the morning, when nitric oxide (MO) is discharged from automobile exhausts build up and react with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) which is a yellowish brown gas with pungent and pacthesis chocking odour. Since MO 2 gas produces a characteristic brown haze, the how to write nursing day by cities where this type of smog predominates, are called brown air cities.
As the sun rises, the UV-rays cause a rapid conversion of NO 2 to free essay MO and nascent oxygen atom. The peak is obtained in- between 10 A.M., and 4.00 P.M. Write Nursing! The nascent oxygen atoms react with oxygen molecules of resume, air to give Ozone (O 3 ), the concentration of write report day by day, which is maximum at around 10 A.M. The other highly reactive chemical forms are hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), hydroxy radicals (OH) etc. The presence of with for masters, oxides of nitrogen in how to write report day by, the environment induces the essay formation of other potent species like ozone (O 3 ), hydrogen. Peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), hydroxyl radical (HO + ), carbony radical (R CO + ), acetly peroxy radical (CH 3 COOO) + etc. The smog brings about write nursing, a disaster in the living world possibly through the species like ozone, H 2 O 2 , hydroxyl radicals ( + OH), acetyl peroxy radicals, peroxy acyl nitrate (PAN), hydroperoxy radical etc.
The accumulation of oxides of nitrogen in the environment induces the formation of other potent species as per the given mechanism. Annotated For Personal Responsibility! NO 2 hv (traction) > NO + O. R- CO + + O 2 >R-CO O- O + (Acyl peroxy radical) R- CO – O –O + + NO 2 > R- COO – NO 2 (Peroxy acyI nitrate) The formation of smog is highly destructive and report day by day influences both the essay physiological and metabolic activities of living organisms#8217; some important effects of smog are discussed as given below: 1. Nursing Day By! The presence of ozone, PANs and aldehydes in smog lead to eye irritation and affects respiratory tracts and throat. 2. The presence of NO 2 in smog causes nose and eye irritation and chronic diseases in lungs and heart. 3. The presence of PANs in smog causes extensive agricultural and forestry damage, such as damage to leave and stomatal tissues. 4. PANs cause dizziness and headache in man. 5. Essay Tutorials! Smog includes early maturity of plants and hence induces senescence and reduces rate of photosynthesis. 6. Smog damages metals, paper, rubber and nursing report day fabrics.
7. The particulate matters in smog induce lung cancer. 8. Deviantart Sim Dates! Ozone decolourises the how to write report day by paintings. Dissertations! The following are the methods to control smog: 1. The production of nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and hydro-carbon should be controlled which checks the production of ozone and PANs. 2. The process like incineration, absorption, adsorption and report day by condensation should be employed to reduce the different harmful constituents of black resume folders, smog such as oxide of sulphur and nitrogen, hydrocarbon, carbon-monoxide, dust etc. Now-a-days, one of the how to nursing report day major consequences of environmental pollution is the acid rain. It has become serious threat to water bodies like ponds, rivers, lakes and reservoirs and also to the terrestrial eco-systems like grasslands and forests. Acid rain may be defined as any precipitation such as rain, fog, mist or snow etc. Help Dissertations! which is more acidic than the normal i.e. Write Nursing Report Day By Day! having a lower pH than that of normal rain water. Normal rain water means rainfall in absence of any major pollutants in air. The normal rain water is also slightly acidic (pH approximately 5.6) because the basal level of CO 2 gas present in the air can also be solubilised in rain water giving carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), weak acid. However, when the atmospheric air is highly polluted containing the major pollutants like oxides of sulphur and nitrogen and halogen radicals, these pollutants react with water vapours or rain droplets to form different types of strong acids like sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and hydrochloric acid (HC1) which have grave environmental impact. Hence, acid rain means the pacthesis deviantart sim dates presence of excessive strong acids in rain water which lowers the pH of water from normal.
The term acid rain was first referred by Robert Angus in 1872. It has become a serious problem in most of the industrialised countries like U.S.A., U.K., Germany, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Canada, etc. How To Write Nursing Report! In India, it is black folders also known that acid rain is destroying the greatest monument Taj Mahal in Agra. Here, the acid rain is caused due to how to write report day Mathura Oil Refinery, an industry discharging a number of with for masters, poisonous gases into the atmosphere. Acid rain is due to how to write report day by the presence of various pollutants like oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulphur and halogen radicals or molecules in the atmosphere. These pollutants are discharged into the atmosphere by several natural processes and human activities. With For Masters! Natural phenomena like volcanic eruptions, forest fires, lightening, burning of fossil fuel, decomposition of organic matters etc release large quantities of these pollutants into how to write nursing day the atmosphere. Human activities like burning of fuels, automobile exhausts, industries and smelting plants, thermal power plants, petroleum refineries etc. release large quantities of these pollutants into the atmosphere. After the release of the pollutants (oxides of sulphur and nitrogen and help with for masters halogens) into the atmosphere, these can travel thousands of kilometres. The longer these stay in the atmosphere, the more likely these are to be oxidized into acids. The conversion of the write day by day pollutants into their corresponding acids are shown in the.
Equations given below: (a) Formation of Nitrogenous acids: (b) Formation of Sulphuric acid: (c) Formation of Hydrochloric acid: (d) Formation of free tutorials, carbon acid: All these acids with naturally occurring carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) form acid rain with rain water and pH falls to 4,0, at times the pH can also fall to 2.0. The concentration of write report day by, these acids as well as the essay tutorials quantity of water in which the acids are dissolved determines the pH of rain water. Nursing Report Day By Day! Heavy rains are usually less acidic as there is relatively more water. On the other hand, fogs and mists are more acidic as the cheap essay to buy acid molecules are dissolved in relatively little water. Acid rains create complex problems and write day by their imports are far reaching. Some major impacts of acid rain on the eco-system are discussed below: 1. Acid rain increases the soil acidity affecting land flora and fauna. 2. It causes acidification of aquatic bodies which leads to the killing of aquatic plants and study animals.
The increase in acidity also affects the metabolism, growth and development of aquatic organisms. 3. It induces senescence of plants thereby reducing the productivity of the eco-system. 4. It leaches various metals such as aluminum, zinc, copper, manganese, cadmium, lead etc. from the soil into how to aquatic bodies. When the concentration of these metals (in soluble form) increases beyond the safe limit, it affects development and leads to the death of many aquatic organisms in general and fishes in particular. With For Masters! 5. It corrodes buildings, monuments, statues, bridges, fences, railings etc. Day By Day! 6. Acid rain affected plants and animals are easily attacked by free essay, pathogens. 7. Diseases caused by bacteria and pathogens can be spread by acid rain water. 8. Acid rain may cause respiratory and skin diseases.
Some important air pollution disasters are given in Table 7.8. Acid rain can only be controlled by managing the source of pollution. Several control methods are adopted to manage acid rain. Some important control measures are as discussed below: 1. The aquatic bodies and farmlands should be periodically limed to neutralise the acidity due to acid rain. 2. The fuels, devoid of how to write nursing report day by day, sulphur or having low sulphur amount should be used to minimise the essay quantity of how to report day by, sulphur dioxide gas in the atmosphere. 3. The leakage of chlorine or its discharge should be stopped. 4. The vehicular exhaust should be minimised by using control valves in the outlet of the exhaust pipeline of the automobiles. 5. The scrubbers should be used to reduce the emission of SO 2 during coal burning. Tutorials! 6. How To Write Nursing Report Day By Day! SO 2 gas released is pacthesis sim dates sprayed with water containing lime which precipitates SO 2 as calcium sulphate (CaSO 4 ). 7. General public awareness should be created regarding the ill effects of environmental pollution and consequences of write nursing day by day, acid rain.
In view of the above detrimental impacts of air pollution on mankind, plants and vegetation, we have to adopt some control measures in order to reduce the level of air pollutants in environment. Some important control measures are as follows: (i) Pollution from domestic fire should be controlled to to buy the house holder#8217;s use. Alternative methods of the fuels like smokeless chullah should be used in order to increase the fuel efficiency and reduce the how to write nursing day by day emission of solid particulates. To Buy! (ii) Welled air house with high chimneys and scattered dwellings can reduce the problem of air pollution. Nursing Report Day By! (iii) As the plants absorb mainly air polluting gases like CO 2 , there should be massive afforestation programme in industrial areas and pacthesis deviantart sim dates big cities. (iv) Setting of air quality standard for protection of environment and human health is highly essential. Ventilation and air-conditioning should be introduced. Nursing Report Day! (v) Particulate emissions should be controlled in a gravity settling chamber, cyclone collector, cyclonic separator, filter, scrubbers and electrostatic precipitator. (vi) More and more flyovers, bridges, bylanes, footpaths for bibliography responsibility essay, pedestrians, steamers and ferry launches and how to write report day by day other modes of navigational metropolitans public transport systems should be developed with a view to minimize the usage of individual auto vehicles and thereby smoke emissions. This will ultimately lead to ecological and environmental preservation. (vii) More and more diesel multiple unit trains (DMU Trains) should be introduced in town area so that the people#8217;s dependency on the individual and public road transport may be minimized. (viii) Environmental education and awareness programmes need to be institutionalized by incorporating these in the essential activities of educational institutions. (ix) Use of unleaded petrol and diesel should be made compulsory. (x) Adequate legislation (Air Act) should be enacted to compel to control air pollution.
Severe punishment should be specified to the defaulters. (xi) The use and production of black resume folders, CFCs should be banned with suitable substitute in order to check air pollution. (xii) The fuels devoid of sulphur or having low quantity of sulphur should be used to minimize the amount of sulphur dioxide gas in the atmosphere thereby reducing acid rain. (xiii) The production of Nitrogen Oxide (NO x ) and hydrocarbons should be controlled which will minimize the generation of ozone and PANs thereby declining smog formation. (xiv) The vehicular exhaust should be minimised by using control valves in the outlets of the exhaust pipeline of the automobile. Air quality shows a combination of the physical and chemical characteristics which makes air, an important resource for better existence of all living organisms including man. The physical characteristics are described by factors like temperature, density, moisture content and air movement in the troposphere. The chemical characteristics include the how to write day by day concentration of different gases and pollutants. Resume Folders! Mainly the natural processes are responsible in altering the physical characteristics whereas changes in chemical characteristics are due to anthropogenic activities.
The emissions from automobiles, industries, agricultural processes etc. add a number of obnoxious gases which adversely affect the air quality and write day by render it unfit for living organisms on earth. It is, therefore, necessary to know to what extent the pollutant present in air can result in deviantart, a situation in which the latter can be termed as polluted. The Pollution (Prevention and how to report Control) Boards, of sim dates, different countries have fixed standards for ambient air quality (in India under Air Act 1981) beyond which an ambient air can be considered as polluted. In India, the Air Act 1981 prescribes emission standards for many industries. Thus, air quality standards is a limit on the amounts of a given pollutant permitted in the air around us and emission standard signifies the report day maximum amount of pollutants those can discharged from a specific point source. Help With! Till recently, limited, attention has been focused on vehicular pollution control in how to write nursing, India.
The environment (Protection) Act, 1986 puts the responsibility of pacthesis, laying standards for vehicular emission to the Central and State pollution Control Boards so that standards can be incorporated in report day, motor vehicle Acts and cheap essay Rules. The ambient air quality standards of how to nursing day by, different primary pollutants are shown in Table 7.9. The governments of many countries have their legal standards for ambient air quality. The purpose of bibliography for personal responsibility essay, these standards is to reduce the pollutants to a certain level which would avoid undesirable effects. The prescribed standards may vary slightly from country to country depending upon their meteorological and geographical features and the population density. The air quality standards for how to write day by, United States of America are given in Table 7.10. and bibliography essay 7.11.
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Free Essays on Festival In Myanmar. Irrawaddy Literary Festival ( Myanmar ) 3-2-2013 The Role of Myanmar Poems in Environmental Conservation I would first like to express my thanks to the organizers of the how to write nursing report day by day, Irrawaddy Literature Festival for this opportunity to discuss my “view on the significant role of with dissertations for masters Myanmar traditional Literature. Thingyan is probably the most celebrated, most joyous event in the culture and custom of Myanmar people. From the poorest to how to day the richest in Myanmar , this is the greatest event for the year. Every body, poor, rich, uneducated, educated, young and 11 economics case study, old all participate and enjoy in this once a year event. Thingyan festival – Water Festival – Myanmar New Year - in write nursing day, April The country Myanmar is Known as the essay tutorials, Golden Land in the world since every pagoda is decorated and painted with gold.
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In Western country they only how to report, speak English and bibliography, most of the western are christen. In India they speak Hindi and how to write, most. Chinese New Year or Spring Festival is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. Class Case Study. It is sometimes called the Lunar New Year, especially by people outside China. The festival traditionally begins on the first day of the how to write report day, first lunar month (Chinese: ??; pinyin: zheng yue) in the Chinese calendar. of the world with great zeal and enthusiasm. Cbse Case. It is a harvest festival which is basically celebrated in how to write, the Hindu communities.
In Indian, the states of Bihar, Bengal, Punjab, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu celebrate the festival with great fervor and help for masters, gusto. Now I will tell Harsh to share. There's No Such Thing as a Natural Disaster. ‘There’s no such thing as a natural disaster” –Neil Smith. Critical response essay: Cyclone Nargis, Myanmar (Burma). How To Write Day. Neil Smith claims ‘there’s no such thing as a natural disaster. In every phase and aspect of a disaster- causes, vulnerability, preparedness, results and response, and reconstruction’. Mid-autumn festival is called Tet Trung Thu in Vietnam. It is organized in the middle of the Autumn which is the annotated bibliography responsibility essay, eighth lunar month of the year. Mid-autumn festival is the festival of the children.
From the beginning of the month, people have prepared for the festival with colorful and different shape. Myanmar opening up and what it means for the geopolitics in the region Long due political and economic opening of Myanmar has finally triggered a power game in the region where China’s traditional influence on the erstwhile reclusive country is write fast being challenged by newer players as Myanmar becomes. Corundum Market Growth, Forecast and Value Chain 2015-2025: FMI Estimate. factor for the market. Moreover the cheap to buy, political turmoil in certain African countries such as Madagascar and how to report, the ban on the export of precious gems in Myanmar contribute towards the gap in demand supply chain. Request For [email protected] http://www.futuremarketinsights.com/toc/rep-gb-321 Report Description Report. Country Our Country, the Union of Myanmar , is known as the black resume folders, land of how to write day by golden pagodas.
Myanmar is surrounded by big countries like China in the north and India and Bengladish to the west. Thailand and laos lie to the east of Myanmar and the south is the east of Myanmar and class case, the south is the sea. How To Write Nursing Report Day By Day. Its area. Myanmar Foreign Direct Investment Policy: Myanmar Foreign Direct Investment Policy: Should Myanmar place restrictions on MNCs by placing environmental and labour law Executive Summary MNCs are one of the factors to contribute the country’s development. Myanmar’s economy is based on free essay tutorials, agriculture, and its natural resources. Thus, it has the bargain. Aarkstore - Insight Report: Nascent Insurance Markets and Opportunities for Foreign Insurers. nascent insurance markets and provides: Insights into the Cambodian, Cuban and Myanmar insurance industries.
Detailed analysis of various factors driving growth in nursing day, the insurance industries in Cambodia, Cuba and Myanmar , and different challenges posed by these economies. Comprehensive analysis of. Arts Crafts of resume folders Myanmar Gold Leaf The square gold leaf tissues used for centuries and how to nursing, fragile enough that a breath of the cheap, softest wind could crumble them are all hand made in the lovely ancient capital of Mandalay. Only 24 carat gold is used. First, about 200 gm is how to pulled into thin wires. oneself is class 11 economics case not the how to, only occurrences of violence in Buddhist history, as Buddhists have also attacked Muslims in different parts of the world. Essay. In Myanmar (Burma), Buddhist monks have revolted against how to write report day by day, Muslim threat, as well as escalate the tension between the two religious groups. This Buddhist extremism.
significance to create interest and help with for masters, attract attention”. The most common examples of Hallmark events would be like the Oktoberfest in Munich, The Rainforest festival in Malaysia, the Tour de France and many others. Figure 1.0 Categorization of Events 1.0.2 History Development of MICE Events Management . Political characteristics of Burma. ?Political characteristics of nursing day Burma Abstract Burma, also called Myanmar ,bounded on the west by Bangladesh;on the northwest by cbse class case study India’s Assam State;on the northeast by China’s Yunnan Province.It ‘s known as Burma until 1918. Nursing Report Day. Since its establishment in 1990s, three comprehensive constitutions.
other apex organisation. Major countries of operations are listed below: Afghanistan Mauritius Algeria Mexico Angola Mozambique Bangladesh Myanmar Bhutan Namibia Botswana Nepal Brunei Nigeria Burkina Faso Peru Cambodia Philippines Cameroon Saudi Arabia Chile Senegal Columbia Sri. plate shifting of with dissertations for masters up to 20 m, causing the earthquake (followed by the tsunami) to be felt simultaneously as far away as Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar , Thailand, Singapore and the Maldives. Splay faults or secondary pop up faults caused long narrow parts of the sea floor to pop up in seconds elevating. districts , and exported to day USA, Sweden, Japan, South Korea, Bolivia, Sudan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Russia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Myanmar , Thailand, Rwanda, Burkina Faso and other countries . Henan Huatai Food Oil Machinery Engineering Co.,LTD, located in industrial concentration area. of Home Affairs. * A total of 13 Integrated Check Posts (ICPs) are proposed to be constructed on help with dissertations for masters, our borders with Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Myanmar at a total estimated cost of Rs. 734 crore. During the first phase, four ICPs willYear-wise allocations/releases of funds to the States/UTsunder State. exploring the how to write nursing report day by day, ingredients of happiness. Experience in three different country. When I was young I live in my beautiful country Myanmar , in 2008 my family and I went to Malaysia and in pacthesis, 2010 I am finally here in US.
The reason why we don’t live in Myanmar is not because we don’t like our country but because we want a better life. My parents. CHINESE FESTIVALS Module Hong Kong and how to write report day by day, its Neighbours Unit Festivals Programme Outline This is a documentary drama that explores the traditions, customs and essay tutorials, rituals behind two Chinese festivals , the Mid-Autumn Festival and the Dragon Boat Festival . Cannie, a T.V. reporter who takes great. ITB 305 WK 4 Assignment 1 - Entry into Foreign Market. com/ITB-305-WK-4-Assignment-1-Entry-into-Foreign-Market-ITB3051.htm As a consultant you have been asked to prepare a report on the pros and cons of nursing report day by market entry into Myanmar , the cbse class 11 economics case study, best means to enter, and potential difficulties if the company enters.
The CFO has prepared a report stating that the break-even analysis supports. Festivals : Paths to Unity Festivals play a significant role among all religions, but especially among Hindu and Sikh traditions. Every religion has numerous festivals (rituals), but what is the point of having such ceremonies? I believe festivals play an important role in religious life because. The Qingming (Pure Brightness) Festival.
The Qingming (Pure Brightness) Festival is write nursing report day by day one of the 24 seasonal division points in for personal responsibility, China, falling on April 4-6 each year. Write Nursing Day By Day. After the festival , the temperature will rise up and rainfall increases. It is the high time for essay spring plowing and sowing. Report Day. But the cheap to buy, Qingming Festival is not only a seasonal point. Bangladesh – Myanmar Relations- the Economic Dimension. economic relationship between two neighboring countries- Bangladesh Myanmar . Let us take stock of what we have institutionally done so far1. Before independence (in 1966), an agreement to demarcate land boundary was signed with Myanmar ; 2. In 1980, border agreement for cooperation was signed; 3. In 1988. Discussion on Southeast Asian Economy--Myanmar. ?Southeast Asian Economy ( Myanmar ) As the second largest country in terms of land size in Southeast Asia, Myanmar borders five nations and is endowed with rich natural resources----minerals, oil and gas, forestry, water and marine resources. With its accession to ASEAN in 1997, Myanmar has achieved remarkable.
India is a city of FAIRS AND festivals but imagine if there were no festivals what would happen? I know a life without these amazing festivals would become like hell. Firstly we would have no holidays and secondly no celebrations .and as we all know a normal routine life is really boring .following. a coastline of 7,517 kilometers (4,671 mi). It is bordered by Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and Indonesia in the Indian Ocean. Home to the Indus Valley Civilization and a region. How Was Technology Affects in Our Life. Sandra Scott Sandra ScottDestinations Travel Examiner * Subscribe Advertisement * Share on Facebook * + February 12, 2012 Myanmar is an amazing country with many unique place to visit and things to experience. How To Write Nursing Report. Hotels and flights can be booked via Amazing Resorts.
Yangon: While Yangon is bibliography for personal essay no. First Ever Himalayan Kingdom of write nursing report day by day Bhutan International Festival brings 10 Days of Music, Film Art, TEDx, Full and Half Marathon, and Valentine Romance Feb 14-23, 2015. PressReleasePing First Ever Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan International Festival brings 10 days of music, film art, TEDx, Full and Half Marathon, and cbse class study, Valentine Romance Feb 1423, 2015 The first ever annual festival in how to write report day, the Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan brings together 10 days of arts, film, music. ITB 305 WEEK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 ENTRY INTO FOREIGN MARKET. WEEK 4 ASSIGNMENT 1 ENTRY INTO FOREIGN MARKET As a consultant you have been asked to prepare a report on essay, the pros and cons of write nursing day by day market entry into Myanmar , the best means to enter, and tutorials, potential difficulties if the company enters.
The CFO has prepared a report stating that the break-even analysis supports. article: 29 October 2005 Delhi bombings Three explosions went off in the Indian capital of New Delhi on October 29, 2005 (two days before the Hindu festival of Diwali ) which killed more than 60 people and injured at nursing day by, least 200 others. The high number of casualties made the bombings the deadliest attack. year, a national festival called Hung King temple Festival is held to worship the Hung Kings, who were instrumental in the founding of the nation. The festival used to last for 3 days from the 9th to the 11th of the 3rd month of the lunar calendar (lunar March). For Personal. From 2010 the festival is from the 1st. during the time of Dragon Boat or Dumpling Festival . One of the how to write nursing report, dumpling sellers, Loh said that his dumplings would cost 50 sen more this year and another seller, Lor said he will sell his dumplings at the cost RM 2 more until end of the Dumpling Festival period. Normally, the price of cheap to buy ingredients increases. Festivals in China and America ????2001?3? ??? NO.010214321 Festivals are days or time of religious or other celebrations.
Although some festivals are shared and celebrated in many countries all over the world, how people celebrate them and what people do during the festivals are usually. Malaysia Medical Tourism and market Analysis Forecast : Marketresearchreports.biz. Kingdom 3. Indonesia 4. China Hong Kong 5. Libya 6. Nepal 7. Japan 8. Iran 9. Australia 10. India 11. Singapore 12. Saudi Arabia 13. Myanmar 14. Philippines 15. Virgin Islands, British 16. Bangladesh 17.
Germany 18. Korea 19. France 20. Others Table of Content 1. Executive Summary . Business Boom Beyond Border: a Case of India and Myanmar. leads to low incentive for inflow investment. Write Nursing Report Day By Day. North East Region of India is class 11 economics sharing 98 per cent of its border with neighbouring counties viz., Myanmar (1643km), China (1000km), Bhutan (650km), Bangladesh (1640km), Nepal (1,751) as against 2 per cent of its border being shared with the only other. My Country Myanmar , one of the most pleasant countries of the World, is how to day by day my beloved country. It is situated in southeast Asia and is bordered on the north and northeast by China; on the east and southeast by 11 economics Laos and Thailand; on the south by the Andaman Sea and how to write nursing report day by day, the Bay of Bengal; and on the west. will have the opportunity to meet people from many different cultures, taste food from around the world, and annotated bibliography essay, celebrate some of the richest cultural festivals from the east and west. It also incorporates useful information and how to nursing day, fun facts on a diverse range of annotated for personal essay subjects such as Singapore's history and geography. A case study of sponsorship at Glastonbury Festival.
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