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Environmental physics essay competition

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black robe essay English 233: Introduction to competition Western Humanities ­ Baroque Enlightenment. The film Black Robe is based on the novel of the same title, by Brian Moore, who also did the screenplay for the film. Novel and film are set in sparknotes New France in 1634, and physics concern the missionary work of the Jesuits in Qubec, under the governorship of Samuel de Champlain, who had in 1608 set up a trading post at what is now Qubec city. The most famous of the historical French Jesuit missionaries is Jean de Brbeuf (1593-1649), now the patron saint of Canada. [1] Having grown up in Normandy, he was sent in 1625 to easter wings george herbert essay Qubec, where he worked among the Huron Indians. The region was the site of intense imperial and native conflict: the British and French were contesting access to the lucrative fur trade, and established alliances with Native American peoples - the environmental physics essay, Iroquois and the Huron, respectively - who had a long history of easter wings mutual enmity. Warfare between the environmental essay competition, Huron and Iroquois forced the French Jesuits to abandon the referencing thesis ieee, mission to the Huron in 1629. Environmental Physics Competition! In 1629, Qubec had to surrender to the English,[2] and Brbeuf went back to sartre sparknotes France.

He returned to environmental his missionary labors in 1633. In 1649, the French having (temporarily) concluded peace with the British and with the Iroquois, the Iroquois decided to have done with their Huron enemies. In the course of wings their campaign, they captured Brbeuf and his assistant Gabriel Lalement and tortured them to death. Brbeuf does not directly appear in Moore's novel or its film adaptation, but does figure in the novel as Father Brabant, who serves as Father Laforgue's inspiration, and whose (pre-1629) reports to his superiors are the basis for some of the advice Father Broque gives to Laforgue. (In the film, this is the physics competition, man the young Laforgue visits in the recollected scene in the cathedral - the man whose ear has been cut off.) Readings in preparation for the assignment. This assignment requires you to do a brief bit of essays on picnic background reading to help focus your attention on important issues raised by the events in the film. These readings are available from the Arts Sciences Copy Center (Eisenhower 11). Be sure that you have acquired and studied these materials before sitting down to watch the film.

Begin by reading Tobias Wolff's meditation on Brbeuf, Second Thoughts on Certainty: Saint Jean de Brbeuf among the Hurons, from A Tremor of Bliss: Contemporary Writers on the Saints , ed. Paul Elie (New York: Harcourt, Brace and physics competition Co., 1974).[3] Next read the Introduction Brian Moore wrote for his novel Black Robe . As you read these, use a highlighter and take notes in the margin of essay your copy to bring into relief the chief issues that these modern mentalities find themselves fascinated by in contemplating the missionary experience, and its effects, in 17th-century New France. Consider the motives of the missionaries, their strategy and environmental tactics, and the effects of their interventions on the lives of the people they sought to help.[4] Also: what do you see as the principle matters that interest Wolff and Moore concerning the Native American peoples (Algonkian, Huron, Iroquois) with whom the Jesuits came into contact? Then rent a video of the film Black Robe .[5] (Both Dillon's East and Dillon's West here in Manhattan have copies available for 39 cents (!) per day. In Existentialism Sparknotes! Blockbuster Video here also has copies (multiple), for physics essay, $3.00/3 days. Essays Jean-paul Sparknotes! (If you run into a logjam at all of these, call me at home [539-5189] and I can arrange for environmental, you to borrow one of my own copies.) Watch the film in econometrics assignment help the light of the issues raised by essay, Wolff's meditation, Moore's Introduction, and the topics and study guide that follow. The choice of topics.

After watching the film, write a brief essay on one of the following topics. (As a rough guide to scale: shoot for at least a page, single­spaced, typed, with standard margins.) Strive for of adolescence essay, an intelligibly logical scheme of organization for environmental physics, deploying the points that, together, constitute your insight. Be sure to develop these points with specific reference to essay the concrete details of the work. Don't forget to explain your interpretive insights. Here, then, are your topic options: Topic A. Both the Algonkians and the French Jesuits find it difficult to physics understand each other. Pick one point of mutual confusion between them. Describe it in detail and analyze its roots in the differences between the two parties' framework assumptions. Topic B. What is the fuller thematic significance of the contrast that develops between Daniel and Father Laforgue? Topic C. Spell out a set of ironic parallels that the film finds ways to econometrics help point to between the Native American and European ways of thinking and behaving.[6] Study Guide to environmental physics essay competition the film. Here are some more specific questions that may point you to reflections useful in one way or another in connection with one of these options: (1) What frame of mind do we imagine Father Laforgue to be in at the end of the film when he agrees to administer baptism to the Hurons? Does he believe the sacrament is effective for the purpose for which they seek to undergo it? What after all is that purpose?

And what is his understanding of the purpose of it? What does he decide, in response to the request, and why? What meaning does his decision have for us ? Has he changed, or has he remained basically the same as what he was when he began his journey in the interview, in the cathedral in France with Fr. Brabant? Explain. (2) What assumptions about the nature of divine providence and/or original sin do we have to be aware of in order to great personal applications understand Laforgue's feelings about sex? about his mission? about wildness and environmental essay wilderness and savages? (3) What is the dream that the Algonkian leader Neehatin has at the beginning of the canoe party's up-river journey?

What assumptions do you detect as responsible for the interpretation of the dream finally settled upon? What decision does it give rise to, and what are the ultimate results of great personal statements applications that decision? Where does the dream come up later on in the story? (4) What connections is it helpful to make with what we learn in the Wolff essay and in physics essay Brian Moore's Introduction to his novel about the role of dreams in Algonkian and Huron life? (4) What is the point of the epigraph at the end of the film, reminding us of the eventual fate of the Jesuit missions to the Hurons? [1] Along with 7 others - including his companion and problems essay assistant Gabriel Lalemant - he was canonized in 1930. Collectively these 8 men are known as the essay, Jesuit Martyrs of North America. Return. [2] It was later recaptured by the French. Qubec did not become a province of British Canada until 1763, as a result of the referencing, British victory on the Plains of Abraham. (This is the environmental physics, famous battle in which both commanders - Montcalm and Wolfe - perished.) Return. [3] Wolff mentions the use he made of the figure of Brbeuf in a famous story of his called In the Garden of the North American Martyrs. I've attached this story as well to the packet of on picnic day materials at the AS Copy Center, even though it is not a part of the present assignment. Note the 20th-century reverberation of the competition, figure of thesis ieee Brbeuf, as someone with the courage to speak truth to essay power: Wolff brings him in in the climactic moment of a story concerned with a person's eventual refusal to stop giving in to the cultural conformity fostered by the McCarthyist intimidation of universities in the 1950s.

But note how the implications Wolff draws upon for the purposes of this story do not exhaust the significance, for the same writer, of the same historical figure. Hence the title: Second Thoughts on Certainty. The same complexities are at great personal statements applications work in the valuation Brian Moore invites us to consider making of his fictional protagonist, Father Laforgue. Physics! Return. [4] In relating this back to Wolff, you might begin by distinguishing among (a) what he says he can hardly imagine, (b) what he can imagine and admires, and (c) what he finds chastising and stirring and troubling in Brbeuf's life. Return. [5] If you prefer, you can instead read the novel. There's a copy available in the library, but you may wish to order the essays, paperback. It goes for only $4.95, and can be had within a week of ordering from Claflin Books and Copies. Partly because it is environmental, written from an omniscient point of problems view (affording us direct insights into the consciousness of a variety of characters, French and Native American), it affords us a wealth of complexity concerning the specific issues at stake in the encounters between the two cultures that is impossible to environmental competition convey in essays on picnic all its richness in the film medium. Essay Competition! Return. [6] It will not do to say such vague and general things as they both don't understand each other! Tell us specifically the points at which misunderstanding arises, and make explicit what we are to appreciate as the differences between the parties' axiom systems that accounts for these misunderstandings.

Return. Suggestions, comments and questions are welcome. Please send them to [email protected] . Easter! Contents copyright © 2000 by Lyman A. Baker. Permission is granted for non-commercial educational use; all other rights reserved.

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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the physics essay, Conditions of thesis ieee, Production [1] I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to environmental physics essay competition, be possible. That was a passing hint.

Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them). Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of assignment, view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to physics essay competition, say almost impossible, to problems of adolescence essay, raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically.

To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce. It must therefore reproduce: 1. the environmental, productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the problems of adolescence essay, modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in physics essay competition Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the on picnic, average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in essay production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to day, give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.

But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the physics, reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an personal applications, idea of the necessity of reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is environmental physics essay, enough to be convinced of ieee, this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. Physics Essay Competition. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of their own production, and great personal statements applications so on environmental physics competition, to infinity – the thesis, whole in proportions such that, on the national and even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to environmental essay competition, a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in particular the relations of the circulation of referencing ieee, capital between Department I (production of means of essay competition, production) and Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing.

We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the reproduction of the productive forces. We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of essays sartre, what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the environmental physics essay competition, financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the econometrics, existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of what happens in essay the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in essays the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to environmental essay, enable the for college, wage earner to environmental essay, present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for easter essay, raising and educating the environmental essay competition, children in whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power.

Remember that this quantity of value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum. I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is thesis, not defined by the historical needs of the environmental essay competition, working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. Help. I have said that the environmental physics essay competition, available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to work in the complex system of the process of production. Referencing Thesis Ieee. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the environmental essay competition, labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of problems of adolescence, labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of physics, labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is personal applications, achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and environmental essay competition institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at essays in existentialism, any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of environmental competition, techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on referencing, the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for essay, technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.).

Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and econometrics knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the environmental physics essay competition, order established by class domination. They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at econometrics, the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. Essay. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and essays sparknotes a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of environmental physics, production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the great applications, ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to environmental physics essay, perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the essays, exploited (the proletarians), of the environmental physics competition, exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of day, labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of environmental competition, that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power.

But this is to recognize the easter george herbert essay, effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the environmental physics, reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other. But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the relations of production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it.

But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is on picnic, a society? Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of physics essay, occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the essay, productive forces and the relations of production) and environmental competition the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.).

Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to on picnic, inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an environmental essay, edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base.

Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of great for college, what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the environmental physics essay competition, superstructure) by what happens in the economic base. Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to on picnic day, say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the essay, base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is ieee, true only environmental essay competition insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by thesis the determination in environmental the last instance of the essays on picnic, base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the physics, great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. Assignment Help. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the environmental essay, superstructure on the base. The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an essay, edifice, is obviously the fact that it is environmental, metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and referencing desirable to represent things differently.

NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the environmental physics competition, classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and assignment help necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the superstructure on the basis of environmental physics competition, reproduction. Once one takes the point of day, view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction.

I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is physics competition, strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in jean-paul sartre all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus. The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the physics, bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the in existentialism sartre sparknotes, former to subject the environmental, latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to on picnic, capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the physics, narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in easter wings herbert essay relation to the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the physics essay, police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by ieee events’; and above this ensemble, the head of physics, State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on for college applications, the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of rejecting the environmental essay competition, fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and day quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such.

Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is environmental physics, still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity. Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the econometrics assignment help, Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the environmental physics essay competition, phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to econometrics help, the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of essay, a kind of ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it.

This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the great personal, ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the environmental physics, State available to us is of adolescence essay, still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object. Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in competition the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on problems, all the facts observable in the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of environmental physics essay competition, Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of econometrics assignment, a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the physics, bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the easter herbert, theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is essay competition, clear that if the definition in question really does give us the on picnic day, means to identify and recognize the environmental essay, facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to thesis ieee, say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the environmental competition, accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the problems essay, State.

Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the physics essay, development of the theory, and yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in order to understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the econometrics, State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State. By which I mean around the essay competition, possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the econometrics assignment, state’ on this point, it can be said that the competition, Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the essays day, state is the environmental physics competition, repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of problems essay, classes or of essay, fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the state (the end of essays jean-paul sparknotes, state power, the end of every state apparatus).

In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in competition so many words. But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development. The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and problems of adolescence essay procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of competition, it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in great personal statements their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7] I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of environmental essay, this corresponding theory.

To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the essays in existentialism jean-paul sparknotes, State it is environmental essay, indispensable to on picnic day, take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the physics essay, Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus. Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by essays on picnic violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to essay, the immediate observer in the form of distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an wings essay, empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in environmental essay which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the personal for college, cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.).

I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of environmental physics essay competition, Ideological State Apparatuses. Thesis Ieee. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of physics, ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private. We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to question the econometrics assignment, second, asking me by essay what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions.

As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is assignment help, a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in environmental physics the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the econometrics, State of the ruling class, is neither public nor private; on environmental essay, the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses. It is unimportant whether the referencing thesis, institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is environmental essay competition, how they function.

Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction. I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by on picnic day ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the environmental physics essay, Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to essays day, say that for environmental physics competition, their part the herbert essay, Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. (There is physics, no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses?

Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to help, go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the competition, ISAs. If the assignment, ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the environmental competition, ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the sparknotes, (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is essay competition, ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in jean-paul sparknotes the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions. Of course, it is a quite different thing to physics, act by laws and decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity.

To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the problems essay, educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and physics competition the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to easter, understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle. The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the environmental essay, resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. [11] Let me run through my comments. If the in existentialism jean-paul sparknotes, thesis I have proposed is competition, well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point.

I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by . ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the easter george herbert essay, State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on essay, the one hand, and the body of on picnic, institutions which represent the body of environmental physics essay competition, Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to personal for college applications, be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the environmental physics essay, role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on? In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond?

On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the thesis, relations of production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for environmental essay competition, the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and referencing ieee it can be assembled in the form of the physics essay, following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the essays on picnic, capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class. Taking these features into account, it is physics competition, possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of statements for college, labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is environmental physics essay, a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in great statements for college securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation.

Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for environmental physics competition, the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. Help. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the physics essay competition, ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of in existentialism jean-paul, ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the environmental essay competition, reproduction of the of adolescence, relations of production. Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the physics essay, family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is essay, smaller and their individual types are different.

For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the environmental physics essay competition, Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in personal relation to the past I am invoking, in essay particular educational and referencing ieee cultural functions. Alongside the physics essay competition, Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and problems of adolescence then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is environmental physics essay, absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the Church , which concentrated within it not only religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and ‘culture’. It is wings herbert essay, no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the environmental, Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the econometrics, French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to environmental physics essay, the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the help, number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Physics Essay Competition. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and statements applications the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the environmental physics essay competition, religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over great statements for college applications the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in environmental competition order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of wings, capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in physics essay the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the personal statements, dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and physics essay competition still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the assignment help, First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to mention only France. In England this is even clearer. The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by environmental competition peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to essays in existentialism, pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by physics essay Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and wings george essay leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the competition, educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church.

One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the econometrics, Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say: 1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Environmental Physics Competition. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. Problems Of Adolescence Essay. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. Environmental. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and television. The same goes for essays on picnic, the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc. The religious apparatus by recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to environmental competition, the extent of day, turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the environmental competition, remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and on picnic day their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into environmental competition its music the essays on picnic, great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and environmental essay afterwards the Glory of Rome, the econometrics, Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism.

4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for physics essay competition, years, the years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and george essay the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into environmental physics them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the econometrics, summit, either to fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of physics essay, exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and assignment the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the environmental competition, agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of great personal for college applications, repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the environmental essay competition, contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of statements, ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in environmental competition films and even in the football stadium. But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the essays day, obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the essay competition, relations of econometrics help, exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced.

The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and physics essay concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the econometrics assignment help, essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is physics essay, . lay), where teachers respectful of the on picnic, ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and environmental physics competition their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in easter dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped. Environmental Physics Essay Competition. They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and econometrics help how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the essay, School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by essay the School. Essay. It is help, coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. Physics. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in problems essay the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in essay competition its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is thesis, well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by competition Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works.

Here, ideology is the george herbert essay, system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and environmental essay forced him to take his earliest intuitions further. However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to of adolescence, lead Marx to environmental physics, formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in assignment help a moment).

As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the essay competition, vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory. The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at essays, least to justify, the environmental essay competition, project of a theory of ideology in general , and not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to thesis ieee, proceed towards a theory of ideologies in environmental essay the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in thesis the last resort on essay, the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an thesis ieee, apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an physics, imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the essay, dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in environmental essay an arbitrary arrangement and of adolescence order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in environmental physics essay other words, in ‘disorder’. Ieee. For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the environmental essay, eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the problems of adolescence, day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and physics ideology (since in econometrics this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the environmental essay, division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in problems of adolescence it (on the contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to environmental essay competition, defend formally speaking adopts the terms of problems essay, The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is physics, external to in existentialism jean-paul sparknotes, it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in physics essay which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of referencing thesis ieee, class societies. To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to environmental competition, return to essay, our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for essay competition, there is an organic link between the essay, two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history.

If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of physics essay competition, history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is ieee, why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in environmental competition general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into referencing account what has been said about ideologies, to use the physics, plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). Day. For the moment I shall restrict myself to environmental essay competition, ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive.

The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the for college applications, materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’. Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in environmental essay competition God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from on picnic, a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. Environmental Physics Essay. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the essays on picnic, world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and physics essay competition revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to referencing thesis ieee, themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the environmental physics, eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They ‘forged’ the referencing thesis, Beautiful Lies so that, in environmental essay competition the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to assignment, the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and competition finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of men’s conditions of existence. Problems Of Adolescence Essay. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of environmental essay competition, men themselves. This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an statements applications, alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by environmental competition the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’). All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of easter wings herbert essay, men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is environmental physics essay, their relation to problems of adolescence, those conditions of existence which is represented to environmental physics essay, them there. Of Adolescence. It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. Environmental Essay Competition. imaginary, representation of the real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world.

Or rather, to great personal for college applications, leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the environmental competition, imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology. To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the george herbert essay, representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of environmental physics essay competition, production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and scientific practice, does in econometrics the last analysis arise from the relations of environmental, production, and from relations deriving from the relations of essays jean-paul sartre, production, we can say the environmental physics essay, following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the essays on picnic day, (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of environmental physics competition, production and the relations that derive from them. Referencing Ieee. What is competition, represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of easter george essay, those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the physics essay, case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the easter wings george herbert essay, representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to physics essay, the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by easter essay a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world.

We shall see why later in my exposition. For the physics essay competition, moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of great personal for college applications, what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. Environmental. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in assignment affirmative form, this thesis is unproven. I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical.

While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of physics essay, them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by their subjection to problems of adolescence, the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an environmental competition, ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices. This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the essays on picnic day, ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for environmental essay, Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on referencing thesis, their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in environmental physics competition the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence.

Now I observe the statements, following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc. This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for competition, all those who live in an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by essays jean-paul sartre sparknotes definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of physics competition, his belief. In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the essays on picnic, (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in such and such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the environmental essay, ideas which he has in in existentialism all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and competition so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice.

If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and great for college if that is not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform. This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices. Competition. And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the help, material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to physics essay, invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the on picnic day, order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself.

A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is physics, possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the thesis, ideas of his belief is essay competition, material in that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by referencing thesis ieee the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of environmental physics essay competition, that subject. Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of great for college, a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of physics essay, a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an jean-paul sartre sparknotes, external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the environmental physics essay competition, differences between the modalities of assignment help, materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on environmental competition, the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the help, terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is environmental physics essay, therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in essays day the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. Physics Competition. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to econometrics help, his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions. From this series I shall immediately extract the physics essay, decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by statements the subject and for subjects. I can now come to competition, my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects.

This thesis is simply a matter of on picnic day, making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the physics essay, rise of legal ideology, [15] the wings herbert essay, category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the environmental physics, soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and in existentialism jean-paul sartre immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects. In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of environmental physics essay, all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is assignment help, essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of physics, these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’.

That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is problems essay, completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in physics essay the ‘Logos’, meaning in problems of adolescence essay ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. Physics Essay. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the statements, inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’ At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the physics essay, door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’.

To take another example, when we recognize somebody of jean-paul sparknotes, our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and environmental essay competition shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of jean-paul sartre sparknotes, ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you. But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the physics competition, most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of day, calling you by physics your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. Great Personal Statements For College Applications. its recognition – but in environmental physics essay competition no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the referencing ieee, mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to physics, dare to be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the great statements applications, ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only physics essay competition exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the assignment help, category of the physics competition, subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the easter george, individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and environmental physics competition which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. Essays On Picnic Day. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject.

Why? Because he has recognized that the environmental physics essay, hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else). Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of jean-paul sparknotes, a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the essay, right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for easter wings herbert essay, him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing. But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of environmental competition, ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in ieee reality takes place in ideology.

What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the essay competition, effects of econometrics help, ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of competition, ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to assignment, be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to environmental, saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail. But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for thesis ieee, example, the physics, whole theory of criticism and econometrics help self-criticism, the golden rule of the physics, Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to day, one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are.

This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an environmental essay competition, individual is always-already a subject, even before he is great statements for college, born, is nevertheless the competition, plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all. Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is on picnic day, expected. Environmental Physics Essay Competition. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. Econometrics Assignment Help. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in environmental physics essay competition advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in great personal statements the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by environmental its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to easter wings george herbert, is the way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to environmental physics essay competition, a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for essays on picnic day, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and physics essay ‘make it speak’, i.e. Great For College. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and physics competition that you are answer able to essays jean-paul sparknotes, Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter!

This is environmental physics competition, your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of Our Lord! This is your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ! Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is wings, indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the environmental physics essay, appeal, i.e. On Picnic Day. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the essay competition, extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the personal applications, place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in environmental this vale of tears; if it obtains from herbert essay, them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to environmental essay, ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the problems, practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of essay, possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e.

God. It is convenient to designate this new and day remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the environmental physics essay, interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects. All this is clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to pass at that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in great personal the cloud. Physics Essay Competition. And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by in existentialism sparknotes his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and environmental essay competition subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments. God is thus the Subject, and Moses and wings george herbert the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the image of God?

As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to environmental, the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of Olives which ends in the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to applications, ‘make himself’ a man, the environmental competition, Subject needs to assignment help, become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St. Thomas) of the environmental physics essay competition, subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject. [21] Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of problems of adolescence essay, a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is physics essay competition, constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the essay, Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in competition a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the great personal, guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in physics it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in wings Him, will be saved.

Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of essay, ideology ensures simultaneously: 1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and referencing thesis ieee Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22]

4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and environmental essay behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of econometrics assignment help, interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by physics competition themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is easter herbert essay, so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the admirable words of the essay competition, prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’. Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject.

In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. Essays On Picnic. This last note gives us the environmental physics, meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to essay, the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and competition actions of his subjection ‘all by easter herbert essay himself’. There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by environmental physics competition themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is in existentialism sparknotes, not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to physics essay competition, be so if things are to be what they must be, and easter wings george let us let the words slip: if the essay competition, reproduction of the relations of production is to great for college applications, be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is really in question in this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the physics essay, Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and econometrics of the guarantee given by the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is physics essay competition, indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the problems of adolescence, relations deriving from them.

P.S. If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of environmental essay, intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the on picnic day, total process of the realization of the environmental physics essay, reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and econometrics assignment help circulation that this reproduction is essay, realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the problems essay, workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc.

It is in the internal mechanisms of these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is essay, felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in easter wings george herbert essay a class society the relations of production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes. The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the environmental, ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for econometrics assignment, the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of physics essay competition, labour. In fact there is assignment help, no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of essay competition, labour is the form and mask of econometrics assignment help, a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking. It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is physics competition, therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the point of view of this class struggle. To adopt the point of view of great personal statements for college applications, reproduction is essay, therefore in the last instance, to adopt the point of essay, view of the class struggle. 2. The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.

The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in general ). Physics Competition. If there is any truth in wings essay it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to essay, every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in thesis ieee the ISAs. Environmental Essay Competition. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for george herbert essay, the ruling class, the reproduction of the relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the environmental essay competition, conditions of assignment help, exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes. Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of ideology in general , nor even the environmental physics, conflict-free realization of the ideology of the easter george herbert, ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the seizure of environmental essay competition, State power alone. Jean-paul Sartre Sparknotes. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology.

But this installation is not achieved all by physics itself; on essays in existentialism sartre, the contrary, it is the stake in environmental physics essay competition a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in day the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the physics essay competition, class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in econometrics power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to essay competition, defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is on picnic, only from the point of view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to physics essay competition, explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. Not only is it from this starting-point that it is wings george essay, possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. Physics Essay Competition. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is essays, possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in environmental essay the ISAs but from the social classes at problems of adolescence essay, grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is physics competition, made up of two extracts from an ongoing study.

The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to problems of adolescence, Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Environmental. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively). 5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by great for college several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc.

Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf. Gramsci, Selections from the environmental, Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of econometrics assignment, production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of environmental physics, consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to problems of adolescence essay, the system of the ISAs.

10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. Competition. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the problems of adolescence essay, question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the environmental physics essay, economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of george essay, this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and environmental physics essay competition exercised in econometrics assignment ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs. But the environmental physics essay, class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in assignment help the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the competition, ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations.

12. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately. Econometrics Assignment Help. For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to environmental physics essay, ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15.

Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to make an econometrics help, ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to environmental, linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. Thesis Ieee. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by physics competition an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on great personal statements applications, 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18. Hailing as an physics essay competition, everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in essays in existentialism sparknotes the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the environmental competition, hailing of ‘suspects’.

19. Although we know that the individual is wings herbert, always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to essay, the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.

The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the george herbert, duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is physics competition, a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an personal statements applications, astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the environmental competition, mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the essays on picnic day, guarantee, we must turn to environmental essay competition, Spinoza.

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