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Business Groups Looted by thumbnails Controlling Families, and the Asian Crisis. The uthor recommends that concerned governments should adopt as their primary policy focus the strengthening of corporate governance mechanisms and transparency so as to essay flat, counter this abusive behavior by some controlling owners. To a large extent, the Asian financial crisis is a corporate governance crisis. This was particularly so in Korea, where a series of bankruptcies of thumbnails thesis large business groups, called chaebols, was mainly responsible for the triggering of the crisis. Doll By Marge Analysis Essay. The mismanagement of auto thumbnails thesis foreign exchange assets and barbie doll essay, liabilities was another critical factor for auto, the loss of confidence in the Asian economies.

However, even with substantial improvement in their liquidity conditions, these economies are hardly out of the trouble, indicating the seriousness and tenacity of the structural weaknesses in poncho's mexican food and cantina south central avenue az these economies (Nam, 2001). The main problems of the corporate sector are widely believed to thumbnails thesis, have been attributable to weak corporate governance that could not check over-leveraged business expansion and inefficient investment. Effective internal mechanisms for the supervision or monitoring of management were virtually absent; neither did creditor banks nor the capital market play their proper roles. At the center of the software quality paper, crisis and a still lingering problem in each of the crisis-hit Asian economies are family-based business groups exerting extensive control over national wealth. However, these groups had actually been the engine of growth in the previous decades of rapid economic development. We could not adequately explain the thumbnails, Asian crisis without due account of the nature and behavior of the family-based business groups in these economies, which is the primary purpose of this paper. Lacking a solid theoretical basis, there have often been confusions and inconsistency in interpretation of the behavior and performance of ra essay business groups as well as proposals for associated reform. For instance, it has usually not been made clear whether some of the problems can be attributed to their organizational structure (diversified conglomerate) or their governance type (family-based). This distinction has to be made clear when advice is given to some of the transitional economies including the People's Republic of China (PRC) that are interested in fostering business groups for auto, their industrial development. The group structure with its clear multi-divisional form facilitates business diversification, though diversification can be pursued within a firm to a considerable degree.

A more important difference between diversification within a firm and essay about, within a group has to do with the thumbnails thesis, difference in their ownership structure. Each of the subsidiaries of a business group, being a legally independent company, has its own set of shareholders, with varying ownership shares held by the controlling owner. This could enable the controlling shareholder to get personal benefits by transferring resources from one subsidiary to another where he has a bigger stake. On My Flat. Incentives for thumbnails, expropriation are strong since, through devices like ownership pyramiding, controlling owners usually have much smaller cash flow rights than voting rights. Expropriation of outside shareholders by controlling owners may actually be an important motivation for forming a business group in addition to maximizing the potential benefits of business diversification. In Section 2, our attention is directed to family-based groups a dominant form of business groupings in East Asia with the discussion of their advantages and risks. Several explanations as to questions, why business groups are dominantly owned and controlled by families are also discussed, even though this is a rather universal phenomenon except for a few countries. Then, after a brief review of motivations for forming business groups, a hypothesis is thumbnails thesis presented concerning the primary objective of family-based business groups. It is argued that these groups pursue the essay about, goal of long-run wealth maximization of the auto thumbnails thesis, controlling families. Essay. This goal would generally deviate from the auto thesis, profit or equity-value maximization of a business group or its member subsidiaries. It is so because the interests of essay on my controlling families can be furthered at the expense of outside shareholders mainly through the internal transactions among subsidiaries.

If the deviation is auto thumbnails substantial, efficiency in group-wide resource allocation will be greatly compromised and their competitive position weakened. The above hypothesis is evaluated in Section 3 by discussing the behavior and poncho's south central phoenix az, performance of Korean chaebols before the crisis. Business groups with the auto thumbnails thesis, objective of maximizing the interests of on my flat controlling families are expected to show a set of distinct behavior. First of all, the controlling families would make every effort to keep their management control by directly involving themselves in managerial functions or tightly controlling managers. In order to avoid substantial ownership dilution that might endanger management control, the groups will mainly depend on debt for financing their ambitious investment plans.

They will also aggressively diversify their businesses adding new subsidiaries, which may be utilized as tools of abusive internal transactions. Entry into the financial industry should be of strategic importance, since it further opens a large room for internal resource reallocation. The consequence is poor profitability and fragility of their financial structure making them extremely vulnerable to shocks. These predictions are borne out strongly by thesis the behavior and performance of Korean chaebols. The discussions and existing empirical evidence seem to confirm the concern that the real corporate governance challenge is the agency problem of how to jack thesis statment, protect outside shareholders from the expropriation of controlling owners. The expropriation is not just a distribution problem between controlling and outside shareholders, since much of the distorted resource allocation is occurring before corporate profits are determined. It is imperative to put basic corporate governance mechanisms in place and ensure their effectiveness. Auto. Some governments of crisis-hit economies have directly intervened in reforming the organizational structure of business groups and imposed outright bans on some of their problematic behavior. These policy responses can be counterproductive, since the main source of the problem is poor governance in family-controlled businesses. Thus, primary policy efforts should be better directed to corporate governance reform and let the strengthened governance mechanisms deal with the dubious behavior of controlling owners.

2017 Asian Development Bank Institute. Terms of Use. Kasumigaseki Building 8F, 3-2-5, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-6008, Japan. The Asian Development Bank Institute was established in about influential 1997 in Tokyo, Japan, to help build capacity, skills, and knowledge related to thumbnails, poverty reduction and other areas that support long-term growth and competitiveness in developing economies in Asia and the Pacific. Subscribe to our newsletter to get the essay flat, latest news and find out auto thesis, about our upcoming events and job openings.

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How to Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for auto a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers–and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on essay on my flat a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the auto thesis opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. Jack Statment. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the thumbnails market for the venture’s product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive?

Then, in addition to questions demonstrating an understanding of the context in thesis, which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Essay Parents. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the thumbnails thesis new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of jack kerouac thesis statment, what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to thumbnails thesis mention a better shot at on my, success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it. Few areas of business attract as much attention as new ventures, and few aspects of new-venture creation attract as much attention as the business plan. Countless books and articles in the popular press dissect the topic.

A growing number of annual business-plan contests are springing up across the United States and, increasingly, in other countries. Both graduate and thesis, undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject. Indeed, judging by all the hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and a decade of month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the truth. In my experience with hundreds of entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2—on a scale from 1 to 10—as a predictor of a new venture’s success. And sometimes, in fact, the more elaborately crafted the document, the more likely the venture is to, well, flop, for essay about influential parents lack of a more euphemistic word. What’s wrong with most business plans? The answer is relatively straightforward. Thumbnails Thesis. Most waste too much ink on numbers and devote too little to the information that really matters to intelligent investors. As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for a new company—especially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for more than a year—are an act of imagination. Barbie By Marge. An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to predict revenues, let alone profits.

Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and time will be required to accomplish their objectives. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections. Investors know about the padding effect and therefore discount the figures in business plans. These maneuvers create a vicious circle of inaccuracy that benefits no one. Don’t misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers.

But those numbers should appear mainly in the form of a business model that shows the entrepreneurial team has thought through the parents key drivers of the venture’s success or failure. In manufacturing, such a driver might be the yield on a production process; in magazine publishing, the anticipated renewal rate; or in software, the impact of using various distribution channels. The model should also address the break-even issue: At what level of sales does the thumbnails business begin to make a profit? And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in any business plan. Near the back. What goes at the front? What information does a good business plan contain? If you want to speak the language of investors—and also make sure you have asked yourself the right questions before setting out on the most daunting journey of a businessperson’s career—I recommend basing your business plan on the framework that follows.

It does not provide the kind of “winning” formula touted by by marge some current how-to books and software programs for entrepreneurs. Nor is it a guide to auto thumbnails thesis brain surgery. Rather, the framework systematically assesses the ra essay questions four interdependent factors critical to every new venture: The People. The men and women starting and thesis, running the venture, as well as the outside parties providing key services or important resources for it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers. The Opportunity.

A profile of the business itself—what it will sell and to whom, whether the business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and what stand in the way of success. The Context. The big picture—the regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and influential, the like—basically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by the entrepreneur. Risk and Reward. An assessment of everything that can go wrong and thumbnails thesis, right, and a discussion of how the entrepreneurial team can respond. Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about business plans in jack, a familiar context, as a tool for entrepreneurs. Thesis. But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies. Flat. Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the auto plans entrepreneurs put together? The answer to the first question is an emphatic yes; the answer to the second, an equally emphatic no.

All new ventures—whether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the case with intrapreneurial businesses, by shareholders—need to pass the same acid tests. After all, the marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on who is pouring money into them behind the scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it. Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in the form of capital-budgeting requests. These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the ra essay questions project wends its way through the chain of command, what I call the “neutron bomb” model of project governance.

However, in the history of such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in excess of corporate hurdle rates. It is only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at the organization’s front door. That problem could be avoided in large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the guidelines set out in the accompanying article. For instance, business plans for such a venture should begin with the thumbnails résumés of all the people involved. What has the team done in the past that would suggest it would be successful in the future, and so on? In addition, the new venture’s product or service should be fully analyzed in terms of its opportunity and software, context. Going through the process forces a kind of discipline that identifies weaknesses and strengths early on and helps managers address both.

It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the intrapreneurial venture lifts off. When professional venture capitalists invest in new companies, they track performance as a matter of course. But in large companies, scrutiny of thumbnails, a new venture is often inconsistent. That shouldn’t or needn’t be the case. A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the new venture doing relative to projections? What decisions has the team made in response to new information?

Have changes in the context made additional funding necessary? How could the team have predicted those changes? Such questions not only keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an organization learn from its mistakes and triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the help of venture capitalists. Many of the underlying opportunities could have been exploited by large companies. Why weren’t they?

Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by studying the on my flat world of independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the framework is auto thumbnails thesis that great businesses have attributes that are easy to identify but hard to assemble. They have an experienced, energetic managerial team from the top to food and cantina central phoenix the bottom. The team’s members have skills and auto thumbnails, experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing. Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past. The opportunity has an attractive, sustainable business model; it is possible to create a competitive edge and software paper, defend it. Many options exist for expanding the scale and scope of the business, and these options are unique to the enterprise and its team.

Value can be extracted from the business in a number of ways either through a positive harvest event—a sale—or by scaling down or liquidating. The context is favorable with respect to thesis both the regulatory and the macro-economic environments. Risk is doll understood, and auto thumbnails, the team has considered ways to software quality research mitigate the thumbnails thesis impact of difficult events. In short, great businesses have the four parts of the framework completely covered. If only reality were so neat. When I receive a business plan, I always read the résumé section first. Not because the people part of the new venture is the flat most important, but because without the right team, none of the other parts really matters. I read the résumés of the venture’s team with a list of questions in mind. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. (See the insert “Who Are These People, Anyway?”) All these questions get at the same three issues about the venture’s team members: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known?

Fourteen “Personal” Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer. Where are the founders from? Where have they been educated? Where have they worked—and for whom? What have they accomplished—professionally and personally—in the past?

What is their reputation within the business community? What experience do they have that is directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing? What skills, abilities, and barbie doll by marge, knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the venture’s chances for success and the tribulations it will face? Who else needs to be on the team? Are they prepared to recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to adversity? Do they have the mettle to make the inevitable hard choices that have to be made? How committed are they to this venture? What are their motivations? What and whom they know are matters of insight and experience.

How familiar are the team members with industry players and dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the block a few times. A business plan should candidly describe each team member’s knowledge of the new venture’s type of product or service; its production processes; and the market itself, from auto thesis competitors to customers. It also helps to indicate whether the team members have worked together before. Not played—as in roomed together in college—but worked . Investors also look favorably on a team that is known because the real world often prefers not to deal with start-ups. They’re too unpredictable. That changes, however, when the essay flat new company is run by people well known to thumbnails suppliers, customers, and employees. Their enterprise may be brand new, but they aren’t. The surprise element of working with a start-up is somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the people part of software engineering research paper, a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, that’s where most intelligent investors focus their attention. Thumbnails. A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per year.

These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for new products and ra essay questions, services that will change the world and reap billions in the process—or so they say. But the fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only execution skills count. As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the formation of auto thesis, such companies as Apple, Intel, and Teledyne, states, “I invest in people, not ideas.” Rock also has said, “If you can find good people, if they’re wrong about the product, they’ll make a switch, so what good is it to about parents understand the product that they’re talking about in the first place?” Business plan writers should keep this admonition in mind as they craft their proposal. Talk about the people—exhaustively.

And if there is nothing solid about their experience and abilities to herald, then the entrepreneurial team should think again about launching the venture. When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by focusing on two questions: Is the auto thumbnails thesis total market for the venture’s product or service large, rapidly growing, or both? Is the industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive? Entrepreneurs and investors look for large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is often easier to obtain a share of a growing market than to fight with entrenched competitors for a share of a mature or stagnant market. Smart investors, in ra essay, fact, try hard to identify high-growth-potential markets early in auto thumbnails, their evolution: that’s where the big payoffs are. And, indeed, many will not invest in a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools. As for attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for markets that actually allow businesses to make some money. On My. But that’s not the no-brainer it seems. Auto Thesis. In the late 1970s, the on my computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. Thumbnails Thesis. The technology was new and exciting.

Dozens of companies jumped into the fray, aided by an army of professional investors. Twenty years later, however, the thrill is questions gone for managers and investors alike. Disk drive companies must design products to meet the perceived needs of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users. Thumbnails Thesis. Selling a product to OEMs is complicated. The customers are large relative to most of essay about parents, their suppliers. There are lots of auto thumbnails, competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings. Piercy Essay. Moreover, product life cycles are short and ongoing technology investments high. The industry is subject to major shifts in technology and customer needs. Intense rivalry leads to lower prices and, hence, lower margins. In short, the disk drive industry is simply not set up to make people a lot of money; it’s a structural disaster area.

The information services industry, by contrast, is paradise. Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and auto, First Call Corporation, which provide data to the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side. Software Engineering. First, they can assemble or create proprietary content—content that, by thesis the way, is like life’s blood to poncho's and cantina south thousands of money managers and stock analysts around the world. And although it is often expensive to develop the thumbnails thesis service and to acquire initial customers, once up and running, these companies can deliver content to customers very cheaply. Also, customers pay in advance of receiving the service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed. In short, the about influential structure of the information services industry is beyond attractive: it’s gorgeous. The profit margins of Bloomberg and First Call put the disk drive business to shame. The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It? Nine Questions About the Business Every Business Plan Should Answer. Who is the new venture’s customer?

How does the customer make decisions about buying this product or service? To what degree is the product or service a compelling purchase for the customer? How will the auto thumbnails thesis product or service be priced? How will the venture reach all the identified customer segments? How much does it cost (in time and resources) to acquire a customer? How much does it cost to produce and deliver the product or service?

How much does it cost to support a customer? How easy is it to retain a customer? Thus, the first step for entrepreneurs is to make sure they are entering an industry that is large and/or growing, and one that’s structurally attractive. The second step is to barbie piercy analysis essay make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the auto case. And if it isn’t the case, their business plan needs to essay influential specify how the venture will still manage to make enough of a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for that matter) will want to thumbnails participate.

Once it examines the new venture’s industry, a business plan must describe in detail how the mexican food and cantina phoenix company will build and launch its product or service into the marketplace. Again, a series of questions should guide the discussion. (See the insert “The Opportunity of auto thumbnails, a Lifetime—or Is It?”) Often the answers to these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business. I’ve seen entrepreneurs with a “great” product discover, for example, that it’s simply too costly to find customers who can and will buy what they are selling. Economically viable access to doll by marge piercy analysis essay customers is the key to business, yet many entrepreneurs take the Field of auto, Dreams approach to this notion: build it, and they will come. Essay Flat. That strategy works in auto, the movies but is not very sensible in the real world. It is not always easy to answer questions about the likely consumer response to new products or services. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. Essay. (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to introduce an auto, electronic news-clipping service. He made his pitch to a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the plan, stating, “I just don’t think the dogs will eat the dog food.” Later, when the entrepreneur’s company went public, he sent the venture capitalist an anonymous package containing an empty can of dog food and a copy of his prospectus. If it were easy to predict what people will buy, there wouldn’t be any opportunities.

The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell? Similarly, it is tough to guess how much people will pay for something, but a business plan must address that topic. Sometimes, the dogs will eat the influential parents dog food, but only at a price less than cost. Investors always look for opportunities for value pricing—that is, markets in auto, which the costs to produce the product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for questions it. No one is dying to auto thesis invest in a company when margins are skinny. Still, there is money to flat be made in auto thesis, inexpensive products and services—even in on my, commodities. A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to auto thumbnails the new venture’s pricing scheme. The list of questions about the new venture’s opportunity focuses on the direct revenues and the costs of producing and marketing a product.

That’s fine, as far as it goes. A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the business model from a perspective that takes into jack statment account the investment required—that is, the thesis balance sheet side of the ra essay questions equation. The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the cash flow implications of pursuing an opportunity: When does the business have to buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and people? When does the business have to pay for auto them? How long does it take to acquire a customer? How long before the customer sends the business a check? How much capital equipment is required to support a dollar of sales? Investors, of course, are looking for businesses in which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. The business plan needs to spell out ra essay questions, how close to that ideal the new venture is expected to come.

Even if the answer is “not very”—and it usually is—at least the auto thesis truth is out there to discuss. The opportunity section of a business plan must also bring a few other issues to the surface. First, it must demonstrate and analyze how an opportunity can grow—in other words, how the new venture can expand its range of products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Often, companies are able to create virtual pipelines that support the economically viable creation of new revenue streams. Questions. In the publishing business, for example, Inc. Auto Thumbnails. magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and essay on my flat, videos about entrepreneurship.

Similarly, building on the success of its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for electronic banking, small-business accounting, and tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and on-line information services—to name just a few of auto thumbnails thesis, its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs. Now, lots of software engineering, business plans runneth over on the subject of the new venture’s potential for growth and expansion. But they should likewise runneth over in auto thumbnails, explaining how they won’t fall into some common opportunity traps. Software Quality Engineering Research. One of those has already been mentioned: industries that are at their core structurally unattractive. But there are others. The world of invention, for auto thumbnails thesis example, is fraught with danger. Over the past 15 years, I have seen scores of influential, individuals who have devised a better mousetrap—newfangled creations from auto thesis inflatable pillows for use on essay flat airplanes to automated car-parking systems. Thumbnails Thesis. Few of these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however. I’m not entirely sure why.

Sometimes, the inventor refuses to spend the money required by or share the rewards sufficiently with the business side of the company. Food South Avenue. Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the customer. Auto. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of essay, malfunctioning. Another opportunity trap that business plans—and entrepreneurs in general—need to pay attention to is the auto thumbnails thesis tricky business of arbitrage. Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to software quality engineering research paper take advantage of some pricing disparity in the marketplace. MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at a lower price than ATT. Some of the industry consolidations going on today reflect a different kind of arbitrage—the ability to buy small businesses at a wholesale price, roll them up together into a larger package, and take them public at a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in thumbnails, the process. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an barbie doll by marge, uncanny way of malfunctioning. Taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities is auto thumbnails a viable and potentially profitable way to enter a business. In the final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. It is not a question of whether, only when.

The trick in these businesses is to use the arbitrage profits to build a more enduring business model, and business plans must explain how and when that will occur. As for ra essay questions competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and thoroughly cover this territory, yet some don’t. That is a glaring omission. For starters, every business plan should answer the following questions about the thumbnails competition: Who are the new venture’s current competitors? What resources do they control?

What are their strengths and quality engineering research, weaknesses? How will they respond to the new venture’s decision to enter the business? How can the auto thumbnails thesis new venture respond to its competitors’ response? Who else might be able to observe and exploit the same opportunity? Are there ways to co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances? Business is like chess: to be successful, you must anticipate several moves in advance. A business plan that describes an essay influential, insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by definition written by naïve people. Auto Thesis. That goes not just for the competition section of the business plan but for the entire discussion of the opportunity. All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities. Barbie Doll Piercy Analysis. A good business plan doesn’t whitewash the latter.

Rather, it proves that the entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and the ugly that the thumbnails thesis venture faces ahead. Opportunities exist in flat, a context. At one level is the macroeconomic environment, including the level of economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. At another level are the wide range of government rules and regulations that affect the opportunity and auto thumbnails thesis, how resources are marshaled to exploit it. Examples extend from tax policy to the rules about raising capital for a private or public company. Software Engineering. And at thumbnails, yet another level are factors like technology that define the barbie doll piercy analysis limits of what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on every aspect of the entrepreneurial process, from thesis identification of opportunity to harvest. In some cases, changes in some contextual factor create opportunity. More than 100 new companies were formed when the airline industry was deregulated in the late 1970s. The context for financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to go to the public market for capital even before starting operations. Conversely, there are times when the context makes it hard to start new enterprises.

The recession of the early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for statment new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the amount of capital raised in thumbnails, the public markets. (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for engineering research paper new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in context turns an thesis, unattractive business into questions an attractive one, and vice versa. Consider the case of a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to thumbnails be put on the block. Then came the Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in multiple deaths. The packaging company happened to have an efficient mechanism for installing tamper-proof seals, and in a matter of software research, weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular. Conversely, U.S. tax reforms enacted in 1986 created havoc for companies in the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to thumbnails invest. Software Quality Research Paper. Many previously successful operations went out of business soon after the new rules were put in place.

Every business plan should contain certain pieces of evidence related to context. First, the auto thumbnails entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the essay on my new venture’s context and thumbnails thesis, how it helps or hinders their specific proposal. Essay. Second, and more important, they should demonstrate that they know the venture’s context will inevitably change and describe how those changes might affect the business. Further, the thumbnails business plan should spell out by marge piercy analysis, what management can (and will) do in the event the auto thesis context grows unfavorable. Finally, the business plan should explain the ways (if any) in which management can affect context in a positive way. For example, management might be able to have an impact on engineering paper regulations or on thumbnails thesis industry standards through lobbying efforts. The concept that context is fluid leads directly to influential the fourth leg of the auto thesis framework I propose: a discussion of mexican food south central, risk and how to manage it.

I’ve come to think of a good business plan as a snapshot of an event in auto, the future. That’s quite a feat to begin with—taking a picture of the unknown. But the best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the ra essay questions future. They show the auto thumbnails thesis people, the opportunity, and the context from multiple angles. They offer a plausible, coherent story of what lies ahead. They unfold possibilities of action and reaction. Good business plans, in other words, discuss people, opportunity, and context as a moving target. All three factors (and the relationship among them) are likely to change over ra essay questions, time as a company evolves from start-up to ongoing enterprise. Therefore, any business plan worth the time it takes to write or read needs to focus attention on the dynamic aspects of the entrepreneurial process.

When it comes to the matter of thumbnails, risk and reward in a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the inclusion of two graphs. Perhaps graphs is the wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the essay about influential most likely relationship between risk and reward, that is, the relationship between the opportunity and its economics. High finance they are not, but I have found both of thumbnails, these pictures say more to investors than a hundred pages of charts and prose. The first picture depicts the amount of money needed to launch the new venture, time to jack kerouac positive cash flow, and the expected magnitude of the payoff. This image helps the investor understand the depth and duration of negative cash flow, as well as the auto relationship between the investment and the possible return. The ideal, needless to say, is to essay have cash flow early and auto, often. Essay Parents. But most investors are intrigued by the picture even when the cash outflow is high and long—as long as the cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the world of new ventures is populated by wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the picture to auto thesis display a shallower hole and a steeper reward slope than it should.

It usually does. But to be honest, even that kind of picture belongs in the business plan because it is a fair warning to investors that the new venture’s team is completely out of touch with reality and should be avoided at influential, all costs. The second picture complements the first. It shows investors the range of possible returns and the likelihood of achieving them. The following example shows investors that there is a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. Auto. The flat section reveals that there is a negligible chance of losing only a small amount of money; companies either fail big or create enough value to achieve a positive return.

The hump in software quality research, the middle suggests that there is a significant chance of thumbnails, earning between 15 % and doll piercy essay, 45 % in the same time period. Auto. And finally, there is a small chance that the initial outlay of cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of return, which might have occurred if you had happened to invest in Microsoft when it was a private company. Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of investment the essay about influential business plan is presenting. Is the new venture drilling for auto North Sea oil—highly risky with potentially big payoffs—or is research it digging development wells in Texas, which happens to be less of a geological gamble and thumbnails, probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of question. It’s then up to the investors to decide how much risk they want to live with against what kind of odds. Again, the people who write business plans might be inclined to skew the picture to make it look as if the probability of a significant return is downright huge and the possibility of loss is negligible. And, again, I would say therein lies the picture’s beauty.

What it claims, checked against the investor’s sense of reality and experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the future is hard to predict. Still, it is possible to give potential investors a sense of the kind and class of risk and reward they are assuming with a new venture. All it takes is a pencil and essay flat, two simple drawings. (See the insert “Visualizing Risk and Reward.”) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky. In reality, there are no immutable distributions of auto thesis, outcomes. It is questions ultimately the auto responsibility of management to change the distribution, to increase the likelihood and consequences of essay about parents, success, and to auto thesis decrease the likelihood and implications of problems. One of the great myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk.

As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to capture all the reward and give all the risk to others. The best business is ra essay questions a post office box to auto thumbnails thesis which people send cashier’s checks. Ra Essay Questions. Yet risk is unavoidable. So what does that mean for a business plan? It means that the auto plan must unflinchingly confront the risks ahead—in terms of people, opportunity, and context.

What happens if one of the poncho's food and cantina south phoenix new venture’s leaders leaves? What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected? What happens if there is a revolution in Namibia, the source of a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for an entrepreneur to pose, especially when seeking capital. Thumbnails Thesis. But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and then provide solid answers. Ra Essay. A new venture, for example, might be highly leveraged and auto thesis, therefore very sensitive to interest rates. Its business plan would benefit enormously by stating that management intends to hedge its exposure through the financial-futures market by essay on my purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up.

That is the equivalent of offering investors insurance. (It also makes sense for the business itself.) Finally, one important area in thumbnails thesis, the realm of on my flat, risk/reward management relates to harvesting. Venture capitalists often ask if a company is “IPOable,” by which they mean, Can the company be taken public at some point in the future? Some businesses are inherently difficult to take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). Some ventures are not companies, but rather products—they are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the greatest myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. Thesis. All sane people want to software engineering avoid risk. Therefore, the business plan should talk candidly about the end of the process. How will the thesis investor eventually get money out of the business, assuming it is successful, even if only marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of exit options.

They like companies that work hard to preserve and enhance those options along the way, companies that don’t, for example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them. Kerouac. Investors feel a lot better about risk if the venture’s endgame is discussed up front. There is an old saying, “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.” In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite is true: you had better know where you might end up and have a map for auto thumbnails getting there. A business plan should be the place where that map is drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is written, of course, the goal is to land a deal. That is a topic for another article in itself, but I will add a few words here. When I talk to young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to finance their ventures, they obsess about the poncho's food phoenix valuation and terms of the deal they will receive. Their explicit goal seems to be to minimize the dilution they will suffer in auto thesis, raising capital. Implicitly, they are also looking for investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about building their business. Jack Kerouac. On the food chain of investors, it seems, doctors and dentists are best and venture capitalists are worst because of the degree to auto thumbnails thesis which the latter group demands control and essay on my, a large share of the returns. That notion—like the idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are useful—is nonsense.

From whom you raise capital is thumbnails often more important than the terms. New ventures are inherently risky, as I’ve noted; what can go wrong will. When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and ra essay, often refuse to advance the company more money. Sophisticated investors, by contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the company solve its problems. Often, they’ve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. They understand how to craft a sensible business strategy and a strong tactical plan. Auto. They know how to recruit, compensate, and motivate team members. They are also familiar with the essay on my flat Byzantine ins and thesis, outs of going public—an event most entrepreneurs face but once in a lifetime. Barbie By Marge Analysis Essay. This kind of thumbnails, know-how is worth the money needed to buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to entrepreneurial finance: “Too clever by half.” Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of payoff and option schemes.

That usually backfires. My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from plan. They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to behave destructively. They are written on a pile of papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick.

But even these six simple rules miss an important point. A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the disposition of a lump sum. Instead, it is incumbent upon entrepreneurs, before they go searching for funding, to flat think about capital acquisition as a dynamic process—to figure out how much money they will need and when they will need it. How is that accomplished? The trick is for the entrepreneurial team to auto thesis treat the new venture as a series of experiments. Before launching the whole show, launch a little piece of it. About Influential. Convene a focus group to thumbnails thesis test the product, build a prototype and watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of a service. Essay Flat. Such an auto, exercise reveals the true economics of the about influential parents business and thumbnails thesis, can help enormously in determining how much money the new venture actually requires and in what stages.

Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and investors should invest enough, capital to fund each major experiment. Experiments, of course, can feel expensive and risky. But I’ve seen them prevent disasters and help create successes. I consider it a prerequisite of putting together a winning deal. Among the many sins committed by poncho's mexican food and cantina central avenue phoenix az business plan writers is arrogance. Thumbnails. In today’s economy, few ideas are truly proprietary. Essay On My. Moreover, there has never been a time in recorded history when the supply of capital did not outrace the thesis supply of opportunity. The true half-life of opportunity is decreasing with the passage of time.

A business plan must not be an albatross that hangs around the neck of the entrepreneurial team, dragging it into ra essay questions oblivion. Instead, a business plan must be a call for action, one that recognizes management’s responsibility to auto thumbnails fix what is poncho's mexican central broken proactively and in auto thesis, real time. Risk is inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. Risk management is the key, always tilting the venture in favor of reward and away from risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the mexican food and cantina central avenue az entire entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. Auto Thesis. It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from their money by hiding the fatal flaw. Barbie By Marge Piercy Analysis. For in the final analysis, the only one being fooled is the entrepreneur. We live today in the golden age of entrepreneurship.

Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in the past 20 years, the overall economy has added almost 30 million. Many of those jobs were created by entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and Microsoft. Each of those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is no knowing for sure. But there is little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and candidly addresses the auto thumbnails ingredients of jack kerouac thesis, success—people, opportunity, context, and the risk/reward picture—is vitally important. In the absence of a crystal ball, in fact, a business plan built of the right information and analysis can only be called indispensable.

William A. Sahlman is the Dimitri V. D’Arbeloff-MBA Class of 1955 Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.

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The Responsibility of auto thumbnails Intellectuals. TWENTY-YEARS AGO, Dwight Macdonald published a series of articles in Politics on the responsibility of peoples and, specifically, the responsibility of intellectuals. I read them as an undergraduate, in the years just after the quality engineering research, war, and had occasion to read them again a few months ago. They seem to me to auto, have lost none of their power or persuasiveness. Questions. Macdonald is concerned with the question of war guilt. He asks the question: To what extent were the German or Japanese people responsible for the atrocities committed by their governments? And, quite properly, he turns the question back to us: To what extent are the British or American people responsible for the vicious terror bombings of civilians, perfected as a technique of warfare by the Western democracies and reaching their culmination in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, surely among the most unspeakable crimes in auto thumbnails thesis, history. To an undergraduate in 1945-46—to anyone whose political and moral consciousness had been formed by poncho's mexican food south central az the horrors of the 1930s, by the war in Ethiopia, the Russian purge, the “China Incident,” the auto thesis, Spanish Civil War, the Nazi atrocities, the Western reaction to these events and, in part, complicity in them—these questions had particular significance and poignancy. With respect to the responsibility of intellectuals, there are still other, equally disturbing questions.

Intellectuals are in jack thesis, a position to thumbnails thesis, expose the ra essay, lies of governments, to thesis, analyze actions according to their causes and motives and often hidden intentions. In the barbie essay, Western world, at least, they have the power that comes from auto thumbnails political liberty, from access to information and freedom of expression. For a privileged minority, Western democracy provides the leisure, the facilities, and quality paper the training to seek the truth lying hidden behind the veil of distortion and misrepresentation, ideology and class interest, through which the events of current history are presented to auto thumbnails, us. The responsibilities of intellectuals, then, are much deeper than what Macdonald calls the “responsibility of people,” given the unique privileges that intellectuals enjoy. The issues that Macdonald raised are as pertinent today as they were twenty years ago.

We can hardly avoid asking ourselves to what extent the American people bear responsibility for jack thesis statment, the savage American assault on a largely helpless rural population in thumbnails thesis, Vietnam, still another atrocity in what Asians see as the “Vasco da Gama era” of world history. As for those of us who stood by in silence and apathy as this catastrophe slowly took shape over the past dozen years—on what page of essay on my history do we find our proper place? Only the auto thumbnails thesis, most insensible can escape these questions. I want to return to them, later on, after a few scattered remarks about the responsibility of intellectuals and mexican food central how, in practice, they go about meeting this responsibility in thumbnails, the mid-1960s. IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY of intellectuals to speak the truth and to expose lies. This, at about influential, least, may seem enough of auto thumbnails thesis a truism to ra essay questions, pass over without comment. Auto Thesis. Not so, however. For the modern intellectual, it is not at all obvious. Thus we have Martin Heidegger writing, in a pro-Hitler declaration of 1933, that “truth is the revelation of that which makes a people certain, clear, and strong in its action and knowledge”; it is only this kind of “truth” that one has a responsibility to influential parents, speak. Americans tend to be more forthright.

When Arthur Schlesinger was asked by The New York Times in November, 1965, to explain the contradiction between his published account of the auto thumbnails, Bay of Pigs incident and the story he had given the press at the time of the attack, he simply remarked that he had lied; and a few days later, he went on to compliment the Times for also having suppressed information on the planned invasion, in “the national interest,” as this term was defined by the group of arrogant and deluded men of whom Schlesinger gives such a flattering portrait in software engineering research paper, his recent account of the Kennedy Administration. It is thesis, of no particular interest that one man is quite happy to lie in behalf of a cause which he knows to be unjust; but it is significant that such events provoke so little response in the intellectual community—for example, no one has said that there is something strange in the offer of a major chair in the humanities to a historian who feels it to be his duty to persuade the essay, world that an thumbnails, American-sponsored invasion of essay on my a nearby country is nothing of the thumbnails thesis, sort. And what of the about influential parents, incredible sequence of lies on the part of our government and its spokesmen concerning such matters as negotiations in Vietnam? The facts are known to thumbnails thesis, all who care to know. The press, foreign and domestic, has presented documentation to refute each falsehood as it appears. But the power of the government’s propaganda apparatus is such that the citizen who does not undertake a research project on the subject can hardly hope to confront government pronouncements with fact. [1] The deceit and distortion surrounding the American invasion of Vietnam is by now so familiar that it has lost its power to shock.

It is therefore useful to recall that although new levels of cynicism are constantly being reached, their clear antecedents were accepted at home with quiet toleration. It is a useful exercise to compare Government statements at the time of the invasion of Guatemala in 1954 with Eisenhower’s admission—to be more accurate, his boast—a decade later that American planes were sent “to help the invaders” ( New York Times , October 14, 1965). Nor is questions, it only in moments of crisis that duplicity is considered perfectly in order. “New Frontiersmen,” for example, have scarcely distinguished themselves by a passionate concern for historical accuracy, even when they are not being called upon to provide a “propaganda cover” for auto thesis, ongoing actions. Jack Kerouac Thesis Statment. For example, Arthur Schlesinger ( New York Times , February 6, 1966) describes the bombing of auto North Vietnam and the massive escalation of jack military commitment in early 1965 as based on a “perfectly rational argument”: so long as the Vietcong thought they were going to win the war, they obviously would not be interested in any kind of negotiated settlement. The date is important. Had this statement been made six months earlier, one could attribute it to ignorance. But this statement appeared after the UN, North Vietnamese, and auto Soviet initiatives had been front-page news for months. It was already public knowledge that these initiatives had preceeded the escalation of ra essay questions February 1965 and, in fact, continued for several weeks after the bombing began.

Correspondents in Washington tried desperately to find some explanation for the startling deception that had been revealed. Thumbnails Thesis. Chalmers Roberts, for example, wrote in the Boston Globe on November 19 with unconscious irony: [late February, 1965] hardly seemed to Washington to be a propitious moment for negotiations [since] Mr. Johnson…had just ordered the software quality engineering research, first bombing of North Vietnam in an effort to auto thesis, bring Hanoi to a conference table where the research, bargaining chips on both sides would be more closely matched. Coming at that moment, Schlesinger’s statement is less an example of deceit than of contempt—contempt for an audience that can be expected to tolerate such behavior with silence, if not approval. [2] TO TURN TO SOMEONE closer to the actual formation and implementation of auto thumbnails policy, consider some of the reflections of software quality engineering research Walt Rostow, a man who, according to Schlesinger, brought a “spacious historical view” to auto thumbnails, the conduct of foreign affairs in the Kennedy administration. [3] According to his analysis, the guerrilla warfare in Indo-China in 1946 was launched by Stalin, [4] and essay on my flat Hanoi initiated the guerrilla war against South Vietnam in 1958 ( The View from the Seventh Floor pp. 39 and 152). Similarly, the Communist planners probed the “free world spectrum of defense” in Northern Azerbaijan and Greece (where Stalin “supported substantial guerrilla warfare”— ibid ., pp. 36 and 148), operating from plans carefully laid in thumbnails, 1945.

And in Central Europe, the Soviet Union was not “prepared to accept a solution which would remove the dangerous tensions from Central Europe at questions, the risk of even slowly staged corrosion of Communism in auto thumbnails thesis, East Germany” ( ibid ., p. 156). It is about parents, interesting to compare these observations with studies by thesis scholars actually concerned with historical events. Ra Essay. The remark about Stalin’s initiating the first Vietnamese war in 1946 does not even merit refutation. As to Hanoi’s purported initiative of 1958, the situation is more clouded. Auto Thumbnails. But even government sources [5] concede that in 1959 Hanoi received the first direct reports of what Diem referred to [6] as his own Algerian war and mexican and cantina south avenue phoenix that only after this did they lay their plans to involve themselves in this struggle. In fact, in December, 1958, Hanoi made another of its many attempts—rebuffed once again by Saigon and the United States—to establish diplomatic and commercial relations with the Saigon government on the basis of the status quo. [7] Rostow offers no evidence of Stalin’s support for the Greek guerrillas; in fact, though the historical record is far from clear, it seems that Stalin was by no means pleased with the adventurism of the Greek guerrillas, who, from auto his point of view, were upsetting the satisfactory post-war imperialist settlement. [8] Rostow’s remarks about engineering paper, Germany are more interesting still. He does not see fit to mention, for example, the Russian notes of March-April, 1952, which proposed unification of Germany under internationally supervised elections, with withdrawal of all troops within a year, if there was a guarantee that a reunified Germany would not be permitted to thumbnails thesis, join a Western military alliance. [9] And he has also momentarily forgotten his own characterization of the strategy of the Truman and Eisenhower administrations: “to avoid any serious negotiation with the Soviet Union until the West could confront Moscow with German rearmament within an organized European framework, as a fait accompli “ [10] —to be sure, in defiance of the Potsdam agreements. But most interesting of all is Rostow’s reference to Iran.

The facts are that there was a Russian attempt to impose by force a pro-Soviet government in Northern Azerbaijan that would grant the Soviet Union access to Iranian oil. This was rebuffed by superior Anglo-American force in 1946, at which point the more powerful imperialism obtained full rights to Iranian oil for itself, with the installation of a pro-Western government. We recall what happened when, for a brief period in the early 1950s, the only Iranian government with something of a popular base experimented with the curious idea that Iranian oil should belong to the Iranians. What is interesting, however, is the description of Northern Azerbaijan as part of questions “the free world spectrum of defense.” It is pointless, by now, to comment on the debasement of the phrase “free world.” But by what law of nature does Iran, with its resources, fall within Western dominion? The bland assumption that it does is most revealing of deep-seated attitudes toward the conduct of foreign affairs. IN ADDITION to this growing lack of thumbnails concern for truth, we find, in jack kerouac thesis, recent published statements, a real or feigned naivete about American actions that reaches startling proportions.

For example, Arthur Schlesinger, according to the Times , February 6, 1966, characterized our Vietnamese policies of 1954 as “part of our general program of international goodwill.” Unless intended as irony, this remark shows either a colossal cynicism, or the inability, on a scale that defies measurement, to comprehend elementary phenomena of contemporary history. Similarly, what is one to make of the testimony of Thomas Schelling before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, January 27, 1965, in which he discusses two great dangers if all Asia “goes Communist”? [11] First, this would exclude “the United States and what we call Western civilization from a large part of the world that is thumbnails thesis, poor and colored and potentially hostile.” Second, “a country like the United States probably cannot maintain self-confidence if just about the greatest thing it ever attempted, namely to ra essay questions, create the basis for decency and prosperity and democratic government in the underdeveloped world, had to be acknowledged as a failure or as an attempt that we wouldn’t try again.” It surpasses belief that a person with even a minimal acquaintance with the thesis, record of American foreign policy could produce such statements. It surpasses belief, that is, unless we look at about influential parents, the matter from thumbnails a more historical point of view, and place such statements in the context of the hypocritical moralism of the past; for example, of Woodrow Wilson, who was going to teach the software engineering research, Latin Americans the art of good government, and who wrote (1902) that it is auto thumbnails, “our peculiar duty” to teach colonial peoples “order and self-control…[and]…the drill and habit of questions law and obedience….” Or of the missionaries of the 1840s, who described the hideous and degrading opium wars as “the result of a great design of Providence to make the wickedness of men subserve his purposes of mercy toward China, in breaking through her wall of exclusion, and bringing the empire into more immediate contact with western and Christian nations.” Or, to approach the present, of A.A. Berle, who, in commenting on the Dominican intervention, has the impertinence to attribute the problems of the Caribbean countries to thumbnails, imperialism— Russian imperialism. [12] AS A FINAL EXAMPLE of this failure of skepticism, consider the remarks of Henry Kissinger in his concluding remarks at the Harvard-Oxford television debate on America’s Vietnam policies. He observed, rather sadly, that what disturbs him most is that others question not our judgment, but our motives—a remarkable comment by a man whose professional concern is political analysis, that is, analysis of the actions of doll piercy analysis governments in terms of motives that are unexpressed in official propaganda and auto thumbnails thesis perhaps only dimly perceived by those whose acts they govern. No one would be disturbed by south central avenue phoenix az an analysis of the political behavior of the Russians, French, or Tanzanians questioning their motives and thumbnails interpreting their actions by the long-range interests concealed behind their official rhetoric.

But it is an article of faith that American motives are pure, and not subject to analysis (see note 1 ). Although it is nothing new in American intellectual history—or, for mexican avenue phoenix az, that matter, in the general history of imperialist apologia—this innocence becomes increasingly distasteful as the power it serves grows more dominant in world affairs, and more capable, therefore, of the auto thumbnails, unconstrained viciousness that the mass media present to us each day. Ra Essay. We are hardly the first power in history to combine material interests, great technological capacity, and an utter disregard for the suffering and thumbnails thesis misery of the lower orders. The long tradition of naivete and self-righteousness that disfigures our intellectual history, however, must serve as a warning to the third world, if such a warning is needed, as to how our protestations of sincerity and poncho's mexican and cantina south az benign intent are to be interpreted. The basic assumptions of the “New Frontiersmen” should be pondered carefully by those who look forward to the involvement of academic intellectuals in politics. For example, I have referred above to Arthur Schlesinger’s objections to the Bay of Pigs invasion, but the reference was imprecise. True, he felt that it was a “terrible idea,” but “not because the notion of sponsoring an exile attempt to thumbnails, overthrow Castro seemed intolerable in itself.” Such a reaction would be the essay on my flat, merest sentimentality, unthinkable to a tough-minded realist. The difficulty, rather, was that it seemed unlikely that the deception could succeed. The operation, in his view, was ill-conceived but not otherwise objectionable. [13] In a similar vein, Schlesinger quotes with approval Kennedy’s “realistic” assessment of the situation resulting from Trujillo’s assassination:

There are three possibilities in descending order of preference: a decent democratic regime, a continuation of the Trujillo regime or a Castro regime. We ought to aim at auto thesis, the first, but we really can’t renounce the second until we are sure that we can avoid the third [p. 769]. The reason why the third possibility is so intolerable is explained a few pages later (p. 774): “Communist success in Latin America would deal a much harder blow to the power and influence of the United States.” Of course, we can never really be sure of avoiding the third possibility; therefore, in practice, we will always settle for the second, as we are now doing in Brazil and Argentina, for barbie doll analysis essay, example. [14] Or consider Walt Rostow’s views on thumbnails thesis American policy in Asia. [15] The basis on which we must build this policy is essay flat, that “we are openly threatened and we feel menaced by Communist China.” To prove that we are menaced is of course unnecessary, and the matter receives no attention; it is enough that we feel menaced. Our policy must be based on our national heritage and our national interests. Our national heritage is briefly outlined in the following terms: “Throughout the nineteenth century, in thumbnails, good conscience Americans could devote themselves to the extension of both their principles and their power on barbie piercy analysis essay this continent,” making use of “the somewhat elastic concept of the thumbnails thesis, Monroe doctrine” and, of course, extending “the American interest to Alaska and the mid-Pacific islands…. Both our insistence on unconditional surrender and the idea of post-war occupation…represented the ra essay, formulation of American security interests in auto, Europe and Asia.” So much for jack thesis, our heritage. As to our interests, the matter is equally simple. Fundamental is our “profound interest that societies abroad develop and strengthen those elements in auto thumbnails, their respective cultures that elevate and protect the dignity of the individual against the state.” At the same time, we must counter the “ideological threat,” namely “the possibility that the Chinese Communists can prove to Asians by progress in China that Communist methods are better and faster than democratic methods.” Nothing is said about those people in Asian cultures to whom our “conception of the proper relation of the individual to the state” may not be the software quality, uniquely important value, people who might, for example, be concerned with preserving the auto thumbnails, “dignity of the individual” against concentrations of foreign or domestic capital, or against semi-feudal structures (such as Trujillo-type dictatorships) introduced or kept in power by American arms.

All of this is flavored with allusions to “our religious and ethical value systems” and to our “diffuse and complex concepts” which are to the Asian mind “so much more difficult to grasp” than Marxist dogma, and are so “disturbing to some Asians” because of ra essay questions “their very lack of dogmatism.” Such intellectual contributions as these suggest the need for a correction to De Gaulle’s remark, in his Memoirs , about the American “will to power, cloaking itself in idealism.” By now, this will to power is not so much cloaked in idealism as it is drowned in fatuity. And academic intellectuals have made their unique contribution to this sorry picture. LET US, HOWEVER, RETURN to the war in auto, Vietnam and the response that it has aroused among American intellectuals. A striking feature of the recent debate on Southeast Asian policy has been the distinction that is commonly drawn between “responsible criticism,” on the one hand, and “sentimental,” or “emotional,” or “hysterical” criticism, on the other. There is much to be learned from a careful study of the terms in which this distinction is drawn. The “hysterical critics” are to be identified, apparently, by their irrational refusal to accept one fundamental political axiom, namely that the about parents, United States has the right to extend its power and control without limit, insofar as is feasible. Responsible criticism does not challenge this assumption, but argues, rather, that we probably can’t “get away with it” at this particular time and place. A distinction of auto thesis this sort seems to be what Irving Kristol, for example, has in mind in his analysis of the protest over Vietnam policy ( Encounter , August, 1965). He contrasts the responsible critics, such as Walter Lippmann, the doll piercy analysis, Times , and Senator Fulbright, with the “teach-in movement.” “Unlike the auto thumbnails, university protesters,” he points out, “Mr.

Lippmann engages in no presumptuous suppositions as to ‘what the Vietnamese people really want’—he obviously doesn’t much care—or in legalistic exegesis as to essay, whether, or to what extent, there is ‘aggression’ or ‘revolution’ in South Vietnam. His is a realpolitik point of view; and he will apparently even contemplate the possibility of a nuclear war against China in extreme circumstances.” This is commendable, and contrasts favorably, for Kristol, with the talk of the “unreasonable, ideological types” in the teach-in movement, who often seem to be motivated by such absurdities as “simple, virtuous ‘anti-imperialism,’ “who deliver “harangues on ‘the power structure,’ ” and who even sometimes stoop so low as to read “articles and thumbnails reports from the foreign press on poncho's mexican food and cantina avenue the American presence in auto thumbnails, Vietnam.” Furthermore, these nasty types are often psychologists, mathematicians, chemists, or philosophers (just as, incidentally, those most vocal in barbie by marge piercy analysis essay, protest in auto, the Soviet Union are generally physicists, literary intellectuals, and others remote from the exercise of power), rather than people with Washington contacts, who, of course, realize that “had they a new, good idea about Vietnam, they would get a prompt and respectful hearing” in Washington. I am not interested here in whether Kristol’s characterization of protest and dissent is accurate, but rather in the assumptions on which it rests. Poncho's And Cantina Central Avenue Az. Is the purity of American motives a matter that is auto, beyond discussion, or that is irrelevant to discussion? Should decisions be left to “experts” with Washington contacts—even if we assume that they command the necessary knowledge and principles to influential parents, make the “best” decision, will they invariably do so?

And, a logically prior question, is “expertise” applicable—that is, is there a body of theory and of relevant information, not in the public domain, that can be applied to the analysis of foreign policy or that demonstrates the correctness of present actions in thumbnails, some way that psychologists, mathematicians, chemists, and philosophers are incapable of ra essay questions comprehending? Although Kristol does not examine these questions directly, his attitude presupposes answers, answers which are wrong in all cases. American aggressiveness, however it may be masked in pious rhetoric, is a dominant force in world affairs and must be analyzed in terms of its causes and motives. Auto Thumbnails. There is no body of theory or significant body of on my relevant information, beyond the comprehension of the layman, which makes policy immune from criticism. To the auto thumbnails, extent that “expert knowledge” is applied to world affairs, it is engineering paper, surely appropriate—for a person of any integrity, quite necessary—to question its quality and the goals it serves. Thumbnails. These facts seem too obvious to jack kerouac thesis statment, require extended discussion. A CORRECTIVE to Kristol’s curious belief in the Administration’s openness to new thinking about Vietnam is provided by McGeorge Bundy in a recent issue of Foreign Affairs (January, 1967). As Bundy correctly observes, “on the main stage…the argument on thumbnails thesis Viet Nam turns on jack thesis statment tactics, not fundamentals,” although, he adds, “there are wild men in the wings.” On stage center are, of course, the President (who in his recent trip to Asia had just “magisterially reaffirmed” our interest “in the auto thesis, progress of the people across the Pacific”) and his advisers, who deserve “the understanding support of those who want restraint.” It is these men who deserve the parents, credit for the fact that “the bombing of the North has been the most accurate and the most restrained in modern warfare”—a solicitude which will be appreciated by the inhabitants, or former inhabitants of auto thesis Nam Dinh and Phu Ly and Vinh.

It is these men, too, who deserve the credit for what was reported by Malcolm Browne as long ago as May, 1965: In the South, huge sectors of the nation have been declared “free bombing zones,” in which anything that moves is ra essay questions, a legitimate target. Tens of thousands of auto thumbnails thesis tons of bombs, rockets, napalm and cannon fire are poured into these vast areas each week. If only by the laws of chance, bloodshed is believed to essay on my flat, be heavy in these raids. Fortunately for thumbnails, the developing countries, Bundy assures us, “American democracy has no taste for imperialism,” and “taken as a whole, the stock of essay on my American experience, understanding, sympathy and simple knowledge is now much the most impressive in the world.” It is true that “four-fifths of all the foreign investing in the world is thesis, now done by Americans” and that “the most admired plans and policies…are no better than their demonstrable relation to the American interest”—just as it is true, so we read in the same issue of Foreign Affairs , that the plans for armed action against Cuba were put into motion a few weeks after Mikoyan visited Havana, “invading what had so long been an almost exclusively American sphere of influence.” Unfortunately, such facts as these are often taken by kerouac thesis unsophisticated Asian intellectuals as indicating a “taste for imperialism.” For example, a number of Indians have expressed their “near exasperation” at the fact that “we have done everything we can to attract foreign capital for fertilizer plants, but the American and the other Western private companies know we are over a barrel, so they demand stringent terms which we just cannot meet” ( Christian Science Monitor , November 26), while “Washington…doggedly insists that deals be made in auto thesis, the private sector with private enterprise” ( ibid ., December 5). [16] But this reaction, no doubt, simply reveals, once again, how the Asian mind fails to comprehend the “diffuse and kerouac thesis statment complex concepts” of Western thought.

IT MAY BE USEFUL to study carefully the “new, good ideas about Vietnam” that are receiving a “prompt and respectful hearing” in Washington these days. The US Government Printing Office is an endless source of insight into the moral and intellectual level of this expert advice. In its publications one can read, for example, the auto thesis, testimony of Professor David N. Rowe, Director of Graduate Studies in International Relations at Yale University, before the thesis statment, House Committee on Foreign Affairs (see note 11 ). Professor Rowe proposes (p. Auto Thesis. 266) that the United States buy all surplus Canadian and Australian wheat, so that there will be mass starvation in China. These are his words: Mind you, I am not talking about this as a weapon against the Chinese people. Influential Parents. It will be. But that is only incidental. Auto. The weapon will be a weapon against the Government because the internal stability of that country cannot be sustained by an unfriendly Government in the face of general starvation. Professor Rowe will have none of the sentimental moralism that might lead one to essay on my, compare this suggestion with, say, the Ostpolitik of Hitler’s Germany. [17] Nor does he fear the impact of such policies on other Asian nations, for example, Japan. Thumbnails Thesis. He assures us, from his “very long acquaintance with Japanese questions,” that “the Japanese above all are people who respect power and determination.” Hence “they will not be so much alarmed by American policy in Vietnam that takes off from a position of power and intends to seek a solution based upon the imposition of our power upon poncho's mexican and cantina south central phoenix az local people that we are in opposition to.” What would disturb the Japanese is “a policy of indecision, a policy of refusal to face up to auto thumbnails thesis, the problems [in China and Vietnam] and to meet our responsibilities there in essay flat, a positive way,” such as the way just cited.

A conviction that we were “unwilling to use the power that they know we have” might “alarm the thumbnails, Japanese people very intensely and barbie doll analysis shake the degree of thumbnails thesis their friendly relations with us.” In fact, a full use of American power would be particularly reassuring to the Japanese, because they have had a demonstration “of the tremendous power in action of the mexican food and cantina south phoenix az, United States…because they have felt our power directly.” This is surely a prime example of the healthy, “ realpolitik point of view” that Irving Kristol so much admires. But, one may ask, why restrict ourselves to such indirect means as mass starvation? Why not bombing? No doubt this message is implicit in auto, the remarks to the same committee of the Reverend R.J. de Jaegher, Regent of the Institute of by marge piercy analysis Far Eastern Studies, Seton Hall University, who explains that like all people who have lived under Communism, the thumbnails, North Vietnamese “would be perfectly happy to be bombed to be free” (p. 345). Of course, there must be those who support the Communists. But this is really a matter of small concern, as the Hon Walter Robertson, Assistant Secretary of on my State for Far Eastern Affairs from 1953-59, points out in thumbnails, his testimony before the jack thesis statment, same committee. He assures us that “The Peiping regime…represents something less than 3 per cent of the auto thesis, population” (p. 402). Consider, then, how fortunate the Chinese Communist leaders are, compared to the leaders of the Vietcong, who, according to Arthur Goldberg ( New York Times , February 6, 1966), represent about “one-half of statment one percent of the population of South Vietnam,” that is, about thumbnails, one-half the number of food south central az new Southern recruits for the Vietcong during 1965, if we can credit Pentagon statistics. [18] In the face of auto such experts as these, the scientists and philosophers of whom Kristol speaks would clearly do well to continue to draw their circles in the sand.

HAVING SETTLED THE ISSUE of the political irrelevance of the protest movement, Kristol turns to the question of what motivates it—more generally, what has made students and junior faculty “go left,” as he sees it, amid general prosperity and under liberal, Welfare State administrations. This, he notes, “is a riddle to which no sociologist has as yet come up with an answer.” Since these young people are well-off, have good futures, etc., their protest must be irrational. About Influential Parents. It must be the result of auto thumbnails thesis boredom, of too much security, or something of this sort. Other possibilities come to mind. Doll By Marge Piercy Analysis Essay. It may be, for example, that as honest men the students and junior faculty are attempting to find out the truth for themselves rather than ceding the responsibility to “experts” or to government; and it may be that they react with indignation to what they discover. These possibilities Kristol does not reject.

They are simply unthinkable, unworthy of consideration. More accurately, these possibilities are inexpressible; the thesis, categories in which they are formulated (honesty, indignation) simply do not exist for essay about parents, the tough-minded social scientist. IN THIS IMPLICIT DISPARAGEMENT of traditional intellectual values, Kristol reflects attitudes that are fairly widespread in academic circles. I do not doubt that these attitudes are in auto thumbnails, part a consequence of the desperate attempt of the social and behavioral sciences to imitate the surface features of sciences that really have significant intellectual content. But they have other sources as well. Anyone can be a moral individual, concerned with human rights and quality engineering paper problems; but only a college professor, a trained expert, can solve technical problems by “sophisticated” methods. Ergo, it is only problems of the latter sort that are important or real. Responsible, non-ideological experts will give advice on tactical questions; irresponsible, “ideological types” will “harangue” about principle and trouble themselves over moral issues and thumbnails human rights, or over the traditional problems of man and society, concerning which “social and poncho's mexican and cantina avenue phoenix behavioral science” has nothing to offer beyond trivalities. Obviously, these emotional, ideological types are irrational, since, being well-off and auto having power in their grasp, they shouldn’t worry about such matters.

At times this pseudo-scientific posing reaches levels that are almost pathological. Consider the phenomenon of Herman Kahn, for example. Kahn has been both denounced as immoral and lauded for his courage. Questions. By people who should know better, his On Thermonuclear War has been described “without qualification…[as]…one of the great works of our time” (Stuart Hughes). The fact of the matter is that this is surely one of the emptiest works of auto our time, as can be seen by applying to it the intellectual standards of any existing discipline, by thesis tracing some of its “well-documented conclusions” to the “objective studies” from which they derive, and by following the line of argument, where detectable. Auto Thumbnails. Kahn proposes no theories, no explanations, no factual assumptions that can be tested against their consequences, as do the sciences he is poncho's food and cantina south central phoenix, attempting to mimic.

He simply suggests a terminology and provides a facade of rationality. When particular policy conclusions are drawn, they are supported only by thumbnails thesis ex cathedra remarks for which no support is food and cantina az, even suggested (e.g., “The civil defense line probably should be drawn somewhere below $5 billion annually” to keep from provoking the Russians—why not $50 billion, or $5.00?). What is more, Kahn is auto, quite aware of this vacuity; in his more judicious moments he claims only that “there is no reason to software, believe that relatively sophisticated models are more likely to be misleading than the simpler models and analogies frequently used as an aid to judgment.” For those whose humor tends towards the auto thesis, macabre, it is barbie doll by marge piercy analysis, easy to play the game of “strategic thinking” a la Kahn, and to thesis, prove what one wishes. For example, one of Kahn’s basic assumptions is that. an all-out surprise attack in which all resources are devoted to counter-value targets would be so irrational that, barring an incredible lack of questions sophistication or actual insanity among Soviet decision makers, such an attack is auto thumbnails, highly unlikely. A simple argument proves the opposite. Premise 1: American decision-makers think along the lines outlined by Herman Kahn. Premise 2 : Kahn thinks it would be better for everyone to be red than for everyone to software engineering research paper, be dead. Thumbnails. Premise 3 : if the Americans were to software quality engineering paper, respond to thumbnails thesis, an all-out countervalue attack, then everyone would be dead. Conclusion : the Americans will not respond to an all-out countervalue attack, and therefore it should be launched without delay. Of course, one can carry the argument a step further.

Fact : the Russians have not carried out an all-out countervalue attack. Software Engineering Paper. It follows that they are not rational. If they are not rational, there is no point in auto thesis, “strategic thinking.” Therefore,…. Of course this is all nonsense, but nonsense that differs from Kahn’s only in the respect that the argument is poncho's mexican food and cantina south avenue phoenix, of slightly greater complexity than anything to auto, be discovered in poncho's south phoenix, his work. Thesis. What is remarkable is that serious people actually pay attention to these absurdities, no doubt because of the facade of tough-mindedness and pseudo-science. IT IS A CURIOUS and depressing fact that the “anti-war movement” falls prey all too often to similar confusions. In the fall of 1965, for example, there was an International Conference on Alternative Perspectives on Vietnam, which circulated a pamphlet to potential participants stating its assumptions. The plan was to set up study groups in which three “types of intellectual tradition” will be represented: (1) area specialists; (2) “social theory, with special emphasis on theories of the international system, of social change and development, of conflict and conflict resolution, or of revolution”; (3) “the analysis of public policy in terms of basic human values, rooted in various theological, philosophical and humanist traditions.” The second intellectual tradition will provide “general propositions, derived from social theory and tested against mexican central az historical, comparative, or experimental data”; the thumbnails, third “will provide the framework out of ra essay questions which fundamental value questions can be raised and in terms of which the moral implications of societal actions can be analyzed.” The hope was that “by approaching the questions [of Vietnam policy] from the auto, moral perspectives of all great religions and philosophical systems, we may find solutions that are more consistent with fundamental human values than current American policy in Vietnam has turned out to be.” In short, the experts on values (i.e., spokesmen for the great religions and essay flat philosophical systems) will provide fundamental insights on moral perspectives, and the experts on social theory will provide general empirically validated propositions and “general models of conflict.” From this interplay, new policies will emerge, presumably from application of the thumbnails thesis, canons of scientific method.

The only debatable issue, it seems to me, is whether it is more ridiculous to turn to experts in social theory for about, general well-confirmed propositions, or to thumbnails thesis, the specialists in the great religions and philosophical systems for insights into fundamental human values. There is much more that can be said about this topic, but, without continuing, I would simply like to barbie piercy, emphasize that, as is no doubt obvious, the cult of the experts is both self-serving, for those who propound it, and fraudulent. Obviously, one must learn from social and behavioral science whatever one can; obviously, these fields should be pursued as seriously as possible. But it will be quite unfortunate, and highly dangerous, if they are not accepted and judged on their merits and according to thumbnails thesis, their actual, not pretended, accomplishments. In particular, if there is a body of theory, well-tested and verified, that applies to the conduct of software research paper foreign affairs or the resolution of auto domestic or international conflict, its existence has been kept a well-guarded secret. Jack Statment. In the case of Vietnam, if those who feel themselves to be experts have access to principles or information that would justify what the American government is doing in that unfortunate country, they have been singularly ineffective in making this fact known. To anyone who has any familiarity with the social and behavioral sciences (or the “policy sciences”), the claim that there are certain considerations and auto thumbnails principles too deep for the outsider to comprehend is barbie doll by marge analysis essay, simply an absurdity, unworthy of comment. WHEN WE CONSIDER the responsibility of intellectuals, our basic concern must be their role in the creation and auto thumbnails analysis of ideology. And, in fact, Kristol’s contrast between the unreasonable ideological types and on my the responsible experts is formulated in terms that immediately bring to mind Daniel Bell’s interesting and influential “The End of Ideology,” an essay which is as important for what it leaves unsaid as for its actual content. [19] Bell presents and discusses the Marxist analysis of ideology as a mask for class interest, quoting Marx’s well-known description of the auto thumbnails thesis, belief of the bourgeoisie “that the essay on my flat, special conditions of thumbnails its emancipation are the general conditions through which alone modern society can be saved and the class struggle avoided.” He then argues that the barbie doll by marge piercy, age of ideology is ended, supplanted, at least in the West, by a general agreement that each issue must be settled in its own terms, within the framework of auto a Welfare State in which, presumably, experts in the conduct of public affairs will have a prominent role.

Bell is quite careful, however, to characterize the precise sense of “ideology” in which “ideologies are exhausted.” He is poncho's south az, referring to ideology only as “the conversion of ideas into social levers,” to thesis, ideology as “a set of ra essay questions beliefs, infused with passion,…[which] …seeks to transform the whole of auto thesis a way of questions life.” The crucial words are “transform” and auto thesis “convert into social levers.” Intellectuals in the West, he argues, have lost interest in converting ideas into social levers for the radical transformation of society. Now that we have achieved the pluralistic society of the Welfare State, they see no further need for a radical transformation of society; we may tinker with our way of life here and there, but it would be wrong to about, try to modify it in any significant way. With this consensus of intellectuals, ideology is dead. There are several striking facts about Bell’s essay. Auto Thesis. First, he does not point out the extent to which this consensus of the intellectuals is self-serving. He does not relate his observation that, by and large, intellectuals have lost interest in “transforming the whole of a way of life” to the fact that they play an increasingly prominent role in running the Welfare State; he does not relate their general satisfaction with the Welfare State to the fact that, as he observes elsewhere, “America has become an affluent society, offering place…and prestige…to the jack kerouac thesis statment, onetime radicals.” Secondly, he offers no serious argument to show that intellectuals are somehow “right” or “objectively justified” in thumbnails, reaching the consensus to kerouac thesis, which he alludes, with its rejection of the notion that society should be transformed. Indeed, although Bell is fairly sharp about the thumbnails thesis, empty rhetoric of the “new left,” he seems to have a quite utopian faith that technical experts will be able to cope with the few problems that still remain; for example, the fact that labor is treated as a commodity, and the problems of “alienation.” It seems fairly obvious that the poncho's mexican food phoenix, classical problems are very much with us; one might plausibly argue that they have even been enhanced in auto, severity and scale. For example, the classical paradox of thesis poverty in auto thumbnails, the midst of plenty is now an ever-increasing problem on an international scale. Whereas one might conceive, at least in principle, of essay on my flat a solution within national boundaries, a sensible idea of transforming international society to cope with vast and auto thesis perhaps increasing human misery is hardly likely to develop within the framework of the intellectual consensus that Bell describes.

THUS IT WOULD SEEM NATURAL to describe the consensus of Bell’s intellectuals in somewhat different terms from his. Using the terminology of the first part of his essay, we might say that the Welfare State technician finds justification for his special and prominent social status in his “science,” specifically, in the claim that social science can support a technology of essay social tinkering on a domestic or international scale. He then takes a further step, ascribing in a familiar way a universal validity to what is in auto thesis, fact a class interest: he argues that the special conditions on which his claim to power and authority are based are, in fact, the and cantina central az, only general conditions by auto thumbnails which modern society can be saved; that social tinkering within a Welfare State framework must replace the commitment to the “total ideologies” of the past, ideologies which were concerned with a transformation of society. Having found his position of power, having achieved security and affluence, he has no further need for ideologies that look to ra essay questions, radical change. The scholar-expert replaces the “free-floating intellectual” who “felt that the wrong values were being honored, and rejected the society,” and who has now lost his political role (now, that is, that the auto thesis, right values are being honored). Conceivably, it is correct that the technical experts who will (or hope to) manage the “industrial society” will be able to cope with the classical problems without a radical transformation of society. It is conceivably true that the bourgeoisie was right in questions, regarding the special conditions of thumbnails its emancipation as the barbie doll by marge analysis essay, only general conditions by auto thesis which modern society would be saved. In either case, an argument is in order, and skepticism is justified when none appears. Within the same framework of general utopianism, Bell goes on to pose the issue between Welfare State scholar-experts and third-world ideologists in a rather curious way. He points out, quite correctly, that there is no issue of Communism, the content of that doctrine having been “long forgotten by friends and foes alike.” Rather, he says,

the question is an older one: whether new societies can grow by building democratic institutions and allowing people to make choices—and sacrifices—voluntarily, or whether the new elites, heady with power, will impose totalitarian means to transform their societies. THE QUESTION is an interesting one. It is odd, however, to see it referred to as “an older one.” Surely he cannot be suggesting that the West chose the ra essay questions, democratic way—for example, that in auto thumbnails, England during the industrial revolution, the farmers voluntarily made the choice of leaving the land, giving up cottage industry, becoming an industrial proletariat, and voluntarily decided, within the framework of the existing democratic institutions, to make the sacrifices that are graphically described in the classic literature on nineteenth-century industrial society. One may debate the question whether authoritarian control is necessary to permit capital accumulation in the underdeveloped world, but the Western model of mexican food and cantina central avenue development is auto thumbnails, hardly one that we can point to with any pride. It is perhaps not surprising to find Walt Rostow referring to “the more humane processes [of industrialization] that Western values would suggest” ( An American Policy in Asia ). Those who have a serious concern for the problems that face backward countries, and for the role that advanced industrial societies might, in about influential parents, principle, play in development and modernization, must use somewhat more care in interpreting the significance of the Western experience. Returning to the quite appropriate question, whether “new societies can grow by building democratic institutions” or only by totalitarian means, I think that honesty requires us to recognize that this question must be directed more to auto thumbnails thesis, American intellectuals than to third-world ideologists. The backward countries have incredible, perhaps insurmountable problems, and few available options; the United States has a wide range of doll essay options, and has the economic and technological resources, though, evidently, neither the intellectual nor moral resources, to confront at least some of these problems. It is easy for an American intellectual to deliver homilies on the virtues of freedom and liberty, but if he is really concerned about, say, Chinese totalitarianism or the burdens imposed on the Chinese peasantry in forced industrialization, then he should face a task that is infinitely more important and auto thumbnails thesis challenging—the task of creating, in the United States, the intellectual and moral climate, as well as the social and economic conditions, that would permit this country to participate in on my flat, modernization and development in a way commensurate with its material wealth and auto technical capacity. Large capital gifts to Cuba and China might not succeed in questions, alleviating the auto thumbnails, authoritarianism and terror that tend to accompany early stages of capital accumulation, but they are far more likely to have this effect than lectures on democratic values. It is possible that even without “capitalist encirclement” in essay on my, its various manifestations, the truly democratic elements in revolutionary movements—in some instances, soviets and collectives—might be undermined by an “elite” of bureaucrats and technical intelligentsia.

But it is almost certain that capitalist encirclement itself, which all revolutionary movements now have to face, will guarantee this result. The lesson, for those who are concerned to thumbnails thesis, strengthen the democratic, spontaneous, and popular elements in developing societies, is quite clear. Lectures on the two-party system, or even on the really substantial democratic values that have been in part realized in Western society, are a monstrous irrelevance, given the effort required to raise the level of culture in Western society to the point where it can provide a “social lever” for both economic development and the development of true democratic institutions in the third world—and, for that matter, at home. A GOOD CASE CAN BE MADE for essay about, the conclusion that there is indeed something of a consensus among intellectuals who have already achieved power and affluence, or who sense that they can achieve them by “accepting society” as it is and promoting the auto thumbnails thesis, values that are “being honored” in this society. It is also true that this consensus is most noticeable among the scholar-experts who are replacing the free-floating intellectuals of the past. On My Flat. In the university, these scholar-experts construct a “value-free technology” for the solution of technical problems that arise in contemporary society, [20] taking a “responsible stance” towards these problems, in the sense noted earlier. This consensus among the responsible scholar-experts is the auto thumbnails thesis, domestic analogue to that proposed, internationally, by those who justify the doll by marge piercy essay, application of American power in thumbnails, Asia, whatever the human cost, on the grounds that it is necessary to ra essay questions, contain the “expansion of auto thesis China” (an “expansion” which is, to barbie doll by marge piercy analysis, be sure, hypothetical for the time being) [21] —that is, to translate from State Department Newspeak, on the grounds that it is essential to reverse the Asian nationalist revolutions or, at least, to prevent them from auto thesis spreading. Ra Essay. The analogy becomes clear when we look carefully at the ways in auto thumbnails thesis, which this proposal is formulated. With his usual lucidity, Churchill outlined the general position in a remark to his colleague of the moment, Joseph Stalin, at Teheran in 1943: The government of the world must be entrusted to satisfied nations, who wished nothing more for themselves than what they had. If the software quality engineering, world-government were in auto, the hands of hungry nations there would always be danger.

But none of us had any reason to seek for anything more…. Our power placed us above the rest. We were like the rich men dwelling at peace within their habitations. For a translation of Churchill’s biblical rhetoric into the jargon of contemporary social science, one may turn to and cantina south central phoenix, the testimony of auto Charles Wolf, Senior Economist of the Rand Corporation, at the Congressional Committee Hearings cited earlier: I am dubious that China’s fears of barbie doll analysis encirclement are going to be abated, eased, relaxed in the long-term future. Auto. But I would hope that what we do in Southeast Asia would help to develop within the Chinese body politic more of a realism and willingness to live with this fear than to indulge it by support for mexican central avenue phoenix az, liberation movements, which admittedly depend on a great deal more than external support…the operational question for American foreign policy is thumbnails thesis, not whether that fear can be eliminated or substantially alleviated, but whether China can be faced with a structure of incentives, of penalties and rewards, of poncho's food and cantina central az inducements that will make it willing to live with this fear.

The point is auto thumbnails, further clarified by Thomas Schelling: “There is growing experience, which the Chinese can profit from, that although the United States may be interested in encircling them, may be interested in defending nearby areas from them, it is, nevertheless, prepared to paper, behave peaceably if they are.” In short, we are prepared to live peaceably in our—to be sure, rather extensive—habitations. And, quite naturally, we are offended by the undignified noises from the servants’ quarters. If, let us say, a peasant-based revolutionary movement tries to achieve independence from foreign powers and the domestic structures they support, or if the Chinese irrationally refuse to respond properly to thumbnails thesis, the schedule of reinforcement that we have prepared for them—if they object to being encircled by essay on my the benign and peace-loving “rich men” who control the territories on their borders as a natural right—then, evidently, we must respond to this belligerence with appropriate force. IT IS THIS MENTALITY that explains the frankness with which the United States Government and thumbnails its academic apologists defend the American refusal to permit a political settlement in Vietnam at a local level, a settlement based on the actual distribution of political forces. Ra Essay Questions. Even government experts freely admit that the NLF is the only “truly mass-based political party in South Vietnam” [22] ; that the NLF had “made a conscious and massive effort to auto thumbnails, extend political participation, even if it was manipulated, on the local level so as to involve the ra essay questions, people in auto thumbnails, a self-contained, self-supporting revolution” (p. 374); and that this effort had been so successful that no political groups, “with the possible exception of the Buddhists, thought themselves equal in on my, size and power to thumbnails thesis, risk entering into a coalition, fearing that if they did the whale would swallow the minnow” (p. 362). Moreover, they concede that until the poncho's food south, introduction of overwhelming American force, the NLF had insisted that the struggle “should be fought out at the political level and thesis that the use of massed military might was in itself illegitimate….

The battleground was to be the mexican food and cantina south avenue phoenix az, minds and loyalties of the rural Vietnamese, the weapons were to be ideas” (pp. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. 91-92; cf. also pp. 93, 99-108, 155f.); and, correspondingly, that until mid-1964, aid from Hanoi “was largely confined to two areas—doctrinal know-how and leadership personnel” (p. 321). Captured NLF documents contrast the enemy’s “military superiority” with their own “political superiority” (p. 106), thus fully confirming the analysis of American military spokesmen who define our problem as how, “with considerable armed force but little political power, [to] contain an adversary who has enormous political force but only modest military power.” [23] Similarly, the most striking outcome of both the Honolulu conference in February and the Manila conference in October was the frank admission by high officials of the Saigon government that “they could not survive a ‘peaceful settlement’ that left the Vietcong political structure in place even if the ra essay questions, Vietcong guerilla units were disbanded,” that “they are not able to auto thesis, compete politically with the Vietnamese Communists” (Charles Mohr, New York Times , February 11, 1966, italics mine). Thus, Mohr continues, the Vietnamese demand a “pacification program” which will have as “its core…the destruction of the clandestine Vietcong political structure and the creation of an iron-like system of government political control over the population.” And from statment Manila, the same correspondent, on October 23, quotes a high South Vietnamese official as saying that: Frankly, we are not strong enough now to compete with the auto thumbnails thesis, Communists on a purely political basis. They are organized and disciplined. The non-Communist nationalists are not—we do not have any large, well-organized political parties and we do not yet have unity.

We cannot leave the Vietcong in existence. Officials in Washington understand the situation very well. Thus Secretary Rusk has pointed out that “if the Vietcong come to essay influential, the conference table as full partners they will, in auto thesis, a sense, have been victorious in the very aims that South Vietnam and the United States are pledged to prevent” (January 28, 1966). Max Frankel reported from Washington in the Times on February 18, 1966, that. Compromise has had no appeal here because the Administration concluded long ago that the software, non-Communist forces of thumbnails South Vietnam could not long survive in a Saigon coalition with Communists. It is for that reason—and not because of an excessively rigid sense of jack kerouac statment protocol—that Washington has steadfastly refused to deal with the Vietcong or recognize them as an independent political force.

In short, we will—magnanimously—permit Vietcong representatives to attend negotiations only auto thesis if they will agree to identify themselves as agents of a foreign power and ra essay questions thus forfeit the right to auto, participate in a coalition government, a right which they have now been demanding for a half-dozen years. We well know that in any representative coalition, our chosen delegates could not last a day without the poncho's food south phoenix, support of auto thumbnails American arms. Therefore, we must increase American force and resist meaningful negotiations, until the day when a client government can exert both military and political control over its own population—a day which may never dawn, for as William Bundy has pointed out, we could never be sure of the security of kerouac statment a Southeast Asia “from which the Western presence was effectively withdrawn.” Thus if we were to “negotiate in the direction of solutions that are put under the label of neutralization,” this would amount to capitulation to the Communists. [24] According to this reasoning, then, South Vietnam must remain, permanently, an American military base. All of this is, of course, reasonable, so long as we accept the fundamental political axiom that the United States, with its traditional concern for thumbnails, the rights of the weak and downtrodden, and questions with its unique insight into the proper mode of development for thumbnails, backward countries, must have the courage and the persistence to essay about influential parents, impose its will by force until such time as other nations are prepared to accept these truths—or simply, to abandon hope. IF IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY of the intellectual to insist upon the truth, it is also his duty to see events in their historical perspective. Thus one must applaud the thesis, insistence of the Secretary of State on the importance of historical analogies, the barbie by marge, Munich analogy, for example. As Munich showed, a powerful and auto thesis aggressive nation with a fanatic belief in its manifest destiny will regard each victory, each extension of its power and authority, as a prelude to the next step.

The matter was very well put by Adlai Stevenson, when he spoke of “the old, old route whereby expansive powers push at more and kerouac statment more doors, believing they will open until, at auto thesis, the ultimate door, resistance is unavoidable and quality research major war breaks out.” Herein lies the danger of appeasement, as the Chinese tirelessly point out to the Soviet Union—which, they claim, is playing Chamberlain to our Hitler in Vietnam. Of course, the aggressiveness of liberal imperialism is not that of Nazi Germany, though the distinction may seem academic to a Vietnamese peasant who is being gassed or incinerated. We do not want to occupy Asia; we merely wish, to return to Mr. Wolf, “to help the Asian countries progress toward economic modernization, as relatively ‘open’ and stable societies, to which our access, as a country and auto thumbnails as individual citizens, is free and comfortable.” The formulation is appropriate. Software. Recent history shows that it makes little difference to us what form of government a country has so long as it remains an “open society,” in our peculiar sense of this term—that is, a society that remains open to American economic penetration or political control.

If it is necessary to approach genocide in Vietnam to achieve this objective, than this is the price we must pay in defense of freedom and the rights of auto thesis man. In pursuing the aim of helping other countries to progress toward open societies, with no thought of territorial aggrandizement, we are breaking no new ground. In the Congressional Hearings that I cited earlier, Hans Morgenthau aptly describes our traditional policy towards China as one which favors “what you might call freedom of competition with regard to the exploitation of China” ( op. cit ., p. 128). In fact, few imperialist powers have had explicit territorial ambitions. Thus in 1784, the British Parliament announced: “To pursue schemes of conquest and extension of dominion in India are measures repugnant to the wish, honor, and policy of this nation.” Shortly after this, the conquest of India was in full swing. A century later, Britain announced its intentions in Egypt under the slogan “intervention, reform, withdrawal.” It is obvious which parts of this promise were fulfilled within the next half-century. About. In 1936, on thumbnails thesis the eve of hostilities in North China, the Japanese stated their Basic Principles of National Policy. These included the use of moderate and peaceful means to extend her strength, to promote social and economic development, to eradicate the menace of essay about influential parents Communism, to correct the aggressive policies of the great powers, and to secure her position as the stabilizing power in East Asia. Even in 1937, the Japanese government had “no territorial designs upon China.” In short, we follow a well-trodden path. It is useful to remember, incidentally, that the thumbnails thesis, US was apparently quite willing, as late as 1939, to negotiate a commercial treaty with Japan and arrive at a modus vivendi if Japan would “change her attitude and practice towards our rights and interests in questions, China,” as Secretary Hull put it.

The bombing of Chungking and the rape of Nanking were unpleasant, it is true, but what was really important was our rights and interests in China, as the responsible, unhysterical men of the day saw quite clearly. It was the closing of the open door by Japan that led inevitably to the Pacific war, just as it is the closing of the open door by “Communist” China itself that may very well lead to the next, and no doubt last, Pacific war. QUITE OFTEN, THE STATEMENTS of thesis sincere and about devoted technical experts give surprising insight into the intellectual attitudes that lie in the background of the latest savagery. Consider, for example, the following comment by the economist Richard Lindholm, in 1959, expressing his frustration over the failure of thumbnails thesis economic development in “free Vietnam”: …the use of American aid is determined by how the Vietnamese use their incomes and their savings. The fact that a large portion of the Vietnamese imports financed with American aid are either consumer goods or raw materials used rather directly to essay on my, meet consumer demands is an indication that the Vietnamese people desire these goods. for they have shown their desire by their willingness to use their piasters to purchase them. [25] In short, the Vietnamese people desire Buicks and air-conditioners, rather than sugar refining equipment or road-building machinery, as they have shown by their behavior in a free market. And however much we may deplore their free choice, we must allow the people to have their way. Of course, there are also those two-legged beasts of burden that one stumbles on in the countryside, but as any graduate student of political science can explain, they are not part of a responsible modernizing elite, and auto thumbnails thesis therefore have only a superficial biological resemblance to software quality research paper, the human race.

In no small measure, it is attitudes like this that lie behind the butchery in Vietnam, and we had better face up to them with candor, or we will find our government leading us towards a “final solution” in Vietnam, and in the many Vietnams that inevitably lie ahead. Let me finally return to thumbnails thesis, Dwight Macdonald and the responsibility of intellectuals. Macdonald quotes an interview with a death-camp paymaster who burst into tears when told that the Russians would hang him. “Why should they? What have I done?” he asked. Macdonald concludes: “Only those who are willing to resist authority themselves when it conflicts too intolerably with their personal moral code, only kerouac thesis statment they have the right to condemn the death-camp paymaster.” The question, “What have I done?” is one that we may well ask ourselves, as we read each day of fresh atrocities in Vietnam—as we create, or mouth, or tolerate the auto, deceptions that will be used to ra essay, justify the next defense of thumbnails freedom.

[1] Such a research project has now been undertaken and published as a “Citizens’ White Paper”: F. Schurmann, P. D. Scott, R. Zelnik, The Politics of Escalation in Vietnam , Fawcett World Library, and Beacon Press, 1966. For further evidence of American rejection of UN initiatives for diplomatic settlement, just prior to the major escalation of February, 1965, see Mario Rossi, “The US Rebuff to barbie doll, U Thant,” NYR , November 17, 1966. There is further documentary evidence of NLF attempts to establish a coalition government and to neutralize the area, all rejected by auto the United States and its Saigon ally, in Douglas Pike, Viet Cong , M.I.T. Press, 1966. In reading material of this latter sort one must be especially careful to poncho's mexican food and cantina central phoenix az, distinguish between the evidence presented and the “conclusions” that are asserted, for reasons noted briefly below (see note 22 ). It is interesting to see the first, somewhat oblique, published reactions to The Politics of Escalation , by those who defend our right to conquer South Vietnam and institute a government of our choice. For example, Robert Scalapino ( New York Times Magazine , December 11, 1966) argues that the thesis of the book implies that our leaders are “diabolical.” Since no right-thinking person can believe this, the auto thesis, thesis is refuted. To assume otherwise would betray “irresponsibility,” in a unique sense of jack statment this term—a sense that gives an ironic twist to the title of this essay.

He goes on to point out the alleged central weakness in the argument of the book, namely, the failure to perceive that a serious attempt on our part to pursue the possibilities for a diplomatic settlement would have been interpreted by our adversaries as a sign of weakness. [2] At other times, Schlesinger does indeed display admirable scholarly caution. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. For example, in his Introduction to The Politics of Escalation he admits that there may have been “flickers of interest in negotiations” on the part of Hanoi. Ra Essay. As to the Administration’s lies about negotiations and auto thumbnails its repeated actions undercutting tentative initiatives towards negotiations, he comments only barbie piercy analysis that the authors may have underestimated military necessity and that future historians may prove them wrong. This caution and detachment must be compared with Schlesinger’s attitude toward renewed study of the origins of the cold war: in a letter to the New York Review of Books , October 20, 1966, he remarks that it is time to thumbnails, “blow the ra essay, whistle” on revisionist attempts to show that the auto thesis, cold war may have been the essay influential, consequence of something more than mere Communist belligerence. We are to thumbnails, believe, then, that the relatively straight-forward matter of the ra essay, origins of the cold war is settled beyond discussion, whereas the much more complex issue of why the United States shies away from a negotiated settlement in Vietnam must be left to future historians to ponder. It is useful to bear in mind that the United States Government itself is on occasion much less diffident in thumbnails, explaining why it refuses to contemplate a meaningful negotiated settlement. As is freely admitted, this solution would leave it without power to control the questions, situation.

See, for example note 26 . [3] Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., A Thousand Days; John F. Kennedy in the White House , 1965, p. 421. [4] The View from the thumbnails thesis, Seventh Floor , Harper and Row, 1964, p. 149. See also his United States in ra essay questions, the World Arena , Harper and Row, 1960, p. Thumbnails Thesis. 244: “Stalin, exploiting the disruption and weakness of the flat, postwar world, pressed out from the expanded base he had won during the second World War in an effort to gain the balance of power in Eurasia…turning to the East, to back Mao and to enflame the North Korean and Indochinese Communists…” [5] For example, the article by cia analyst George Carver placed in Foreign Affairs , April, 1966. See also note 22 . [6] Cf. Jean Lacouture, Vietnam between Two Truces , Random House, 1966, p. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. 21. Diem’s analysis of the situation was shared by Western observers at ra essay questions, the time.

See, for example, the comments of William Henderson, Far Eastern specialist and executive, Council on Foreign Relations, in R. W. Lindholm, ed., Vietnam: The First Five Years , Michigan State, 1959. He notes “the growing alienation of the intelligentsia,” “the renewal of auto thesis armed dissidence in essay flat, the South,” the fact that “security has noticeably deteriorated in auto thesis, the last two years,” all as a result of Diem’s “grim dictatorship,” and predicts “a steady worsening of the political climate in free Vietnam, culminating in ra essay, unforeseen disasters.” [7] See Bernard Fall, “Vietnam in the Balance,” Foreign Affairs , October, 1966. [8] Stalin was neither pleased by the Titoist tendencies inside the thumbnails, Greek Communist party, nor by the possibility that a Balkan federation might develop under Titoist leadership. It is, nevertheless, conceivable that Stalin supported the essay, Greek guerrillas at some stage of the rebellion, in spite of the difficulty of obtaining firm documentary evidence.

Needless to auto thumbnails, say, no elaborate study is necessary to document the British or American role in this civil conflict, from late 1944. See D. G. Kousoulas, The Price of Freedom , Syracuse, 1953; Revolution and doll by marge piercy essay Defeat , Oxford, 1965, for serious study of these events from a strongly anti-Communist point of view. [9] For a detailed account, see James Warburg, Germany: Key to Peace , Harvard, 1953, p. 189f. Thumbnails. Warburg concludes that apparently “the Kremlin was now prepared to accept the creation of an All-German democracy in the Western sense of essay that word,” whereas the Western powers, in their response, “frankly admitted their plan ‘to secure the participation of Germany in a purely defensive European community’ ” (i.e., nato). [10] United States and the World Arena , pp. 344-45.

Incidentally, those who quite rightly deplore the brutal suppression of the East German and Hungarian revolutions would do well to remember that these scandalous events might have been avoided had the United States been willing to consider proposals for neutralization of thumbnails Central Europe. Some of George Kennan’s recent statements provide interesting commentary on this matter, for example, his comments on the falsity. from the outset, of the assumption that the jack thesis statment, USSR intended to attack or intimidate by force the Western half of the continent and that it was deterred by American force, and his remarks on the sterility and general absurdity of the demand for unilateral Soviet withdrawal from Eastern Germany together with “the inclusion of a united Germany as as a major component in a Western defense system based primarily on nuclear weaponry” ( Pacem in Terris , E. Reed, ed., Pocket Books, 1965). It is thesis, worth noting that historical fantasy of the sort illustrated in Rostow’s remarks has become a regular State Department specially. Thus we have Thomas Mann justifying our Dominican intervention as a response to actions of the “Sino-Soviet military bloc.” Or, to take a more considered statement, we have William Bundy’s analysis of stages of development of Communist ideology in his Pomona College address, February 12, 1966, in which he characterizes the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s as “in a highly militant and questions aggressive phase.” What is frightening about fantasy, as distinct from outright falsification, is the possibility that it may be sincere and auto thumbnails thesis may actually serve as the basis for formation of policy. [11] United States Policy Toward Asia , Hearings before the subcommittee on the Far East and the Pacific of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, US Government Printing Office, 1966. [12] New York Times Book Review , November 20, 1966. Essay Parents. Such comments call to mind the remarkable spectacle of President Kennedy counseling Cheddi Jagan on the dangers of entering into a trading relationship “which brought a country into a condition of economic dependence.” The reference, of thumbnails thesis course, is to the dangers in commercial relations with the Soviet Union. Ra Essay Questions. See Schlesinger, A Thousand Days , p. Thesis. 776. [14] Though this too is jack thesis statment, imprecise. Thesis. One must recall the essay about parents, real character of the Trujillo regime to appreciate the full cynicism of Kennedy’s “realistic” analysis.

[15] W. W. Thesis. Rostow and R. W. Hatch, An American Policy in Asia , Technology Press and John Wiley, 1955. [16] American private enterprise, of jack kerouac thesis course, has its own ideas as to how India’s problems are to auto thumbnails, be met. The Monitor reports the insistence of American entrepeneurs “on importing all equipment and ra essay questions machinery when India has a tested capacity to meet some of their requirements. Thumbnails. They have insisted on questions importing liquid ammonia, a basic raw material, rather than using indigenous naptha which is abundantly available. They have laid down restrictions about thumbnails, pricing, distribution, profits, and management control.” A major post-war scandal is developing in essay about parents, India, as the United States, cynically capitalizing on India’s current torture, applies its economic power to implement what The New York Times calls India’s “drift from auto thesis socialism towards pragmatism” (April 28, 1965).

[17] Although, to barbie doll analysis essay, maintain perspective, we should recall that in his wildest moments, Alfred Rosenberg spoke of the elimination of thirty million Slavs, not the imposition of mass starvation on a quarter of the human race. Incidentally, the thumbnails, analogy drawn here is highly “irresponsible,” in the technical sense of ra essay this neologism discussed earlier. That is, it is auto, based on the assumption that statements and actions of Americans are subject to the same standards and open to ra essay questions, the same interpretations as those of anyone else. [18] The New York Times , February 6, 1966. Goldberg continues, the United States is thumbnails, not certain that all of these are voluntary adherents. This is not the first such demonstration of Communist duplicity. Another example was seen in the year 1962, when according to US Government sources 15,000 guerrillas suffered 30,000 casualties. Ra Essay. See Arthur Schlesinger, A Thousand Days , p. 982. [19] Reprinted in a collection of essays, The End of Ideology: on the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties , Free Press, 1960.

I have no intention here of entering into thesis, the full range of issues that have been raised in the discussion of and cantina south central avenue “end of ideology” for auto thesis, the past dozen years. It is difficult to see how a rational person could quarrel with many of the theses that have been put forth, e.g., that at a certain historical moment the “politics of civility” is appropriate and, perhaps, efficacious; that one who advocates action (or inaction) has a responsibility to assess its social cost; that dogmatic fanaticism and “secular religions” should be combated (or if possible, ignored); that technical solutions to problems should be implemented, where possible; that “ le dogmatisme ideologique devait disparaitre pour que les idees reprissent vie ” (Aron), and so on. Since this is sometimes taken to be an expression of an “anti-Marxist” position, it is worth keeping in mind that such sentiments as these have no bearing on non-Bolshevik Marxism, as represented, for piercy analysis essay, example, by auto thumbnails thesis such figures as Luxemburg, Pannekoek, Korsch, Arthur Rosenberg, and software quality engineering others. [20] The extent to which this “technology” is auto thumbnails thesis, value-free is hardly very important, given the clear commitments of software quality engineering paper those who apply it. The problems with which research is concerned are those posed by the Pentagon or the great corporations, not, say, by the revolutionaries of Northeast Brazil or by thumbnails SNCC. Nor am I aware of a research project devoted to paper, the problem of how poorly armed guerrillas might more effectively resist a brutal and devastating military technology—surely the kind of problem that would have interested the free-floating intellectual who is now hopelessly out of date. [21] In view of the auto, unremitting propaganda barrage on “Chinese expansion,” perhaps a word of questions comment is in order. Thesis. Typical of American propaganda on this subject is Adlai Stevenson’s assessment, shortly before his death (cf. The New York Times Magazine , March 13, 1966): “So far, the new Communist ‘dynasty’ has been very aggressive. Essay. Tibet was swallowed, India attacked, the Malays had to fight 12 years to resist a ‘national liberation’ they could receive from the auto thesis, British by a more peaceful route.

Today, the apparatus of infiltration and aggression is already at work in North Thailand.” As to Malaya, Stevenson is probably confusing ethnic Chinese with the government of China. Jack Kerouac. Those concerned with the actual events would agree with Harry Miller (in Communist Menace in Malaya , Praeger, 1954) that “Communist China continues to show little interest in the Malayan affair beyond its usual fulminations via Peking Radio…” There are various harsh things that one might say about Chinese behavior in what the Sino-Indian Treaty of 1954 refers to as “the Tibet region of China,” but it is no more proof of a tendency towards expansionism than is the behavior of the Indian Government with regard to the Naga and Mizo tribesmen. Thesis. As to North Thailand, “the apparatus of essay about parents infiltration” may well be at work, though there is little reason to suppose it to be Chinese—and it is auto, surely not unrelated to the American use of Thailand as a base of its attack on poncho's mexican south phoenix az Vietnam. This reference is the sheerest hypocrisy. The “attack on India” grew out of a border dispute that began several years after the Chinese had completed a road from Tibet to Sinkiang in an area so remote from Indian control that the Indians learned about this operation only from the Chinese Press. According to American Air Force maps, the disputed area is in Chinese territory. Auto Thumbnails. Cf. On My Flat. Alastair Lamb, China Quarterly , July-September, 1965.

To this distinguished authority, “it seems unlikely that the Chinese have been working out some master plan…to take over the Indian sub-continent lock, stock and overpopulated barrel.” Rather, he thinks it likely that the Chinese were probably unaware that India even claimed the auto thesis, territory through which the road passed. After the Chinese military victory, Chinese troops were, in most areas, withdrawn beyond the McMahon line, a border which the British had attempted to jack statment, impose on China in 1914 but which has never been recognized by China (Nationalist or Communist), the auto thesis, United States, or any other government. Quality Research Paper. It is thumbnails thesis, remarkable that a person in a responsible position could describe all of this as Chinese expansionism. In fact, it is absurd to debate the essay flat, hypothetical aggressiveness of a China surrounded by thumbnails thesis American missiles and on my flat a still expanding network of military bases backed by an enormous American expeditionary force in Southeast Asia. Auto Thesis. It is conceivable that at some future time a powerful China may be expansionist. Essay Parents. We may speculate about thesis, such possibilities if we wish, but it is American aggressiveness that is the central fact of current politics. [22] Douglas Pike, op. Software Engineering. cit ., p. 110. This book, written by auto thumbnails thesis a foreign service officer working at the Center for statment, International Studies, M.I.T., poses a contrast between our side, which sympathizes with “the usual revolutionary stirrings…around the world because they reflect inadequate living standards or oppressive and auto thumbnails corrupt governments,” and the backers of “revolutionary guerrilla warfare,” which “opposes the aspirations of people while apparently furthering them, manipulates the individual by persuading him to manipulate himself.” Revolutionary guerrilla warefare is essay on my flat, “an imported product, revolution from the outside”. (other examples, besides the Vietcong, are “Stalin’s exportation of armed revolution,” the Haganah in Palestine, and the Irish Republican army—see pp. 32-33).

The Vietcong could not be an indigenous movement since it had “a social construction program of auto such scope and ra essay questions ambition that of necessity it must have been created in Hanoi” (p. 76—but on pp. 77-79 we read that “organizational activity had gone on intensively and thumbnails thesis systematically for several years” before the Lao Dong party in barbie by marge analysis essay, Hanoi had made its decision “to begin building an organization”). On page 80 we find “such an effort had to be the child of the North,” even though elsewhere we read of the prominent role of the Cao Dai (p. 74), “the first major social group to begin actively opposing the Diem government” (p. Auto. 222), and of the Hoa Hao sect, “another early and major participant in the NLF” (p.

69). He takes it as proof of jack Communist duplicity that in the South, the party insisted it was “Marxist-Leninist,” thus “indicating philosophic but not political allegiance,” whereas in the North it described itself as a “Marxist-Leninist organization,” thus “indicating that it was int he mainstream of the world-wide Communist movement” (p. 150). And so on. Also revealing is the contempt for auto, “Cinderella and barbie by marge essay all the other fools [who] could still believe there was magic in the mature world if one mumbled the secret incantation: solidarity, union, concord”; for the “gullible, misled people” who were “turning the countryside into a bedlam toppling one Saigon government after another, confounding the Americans”; for auto, the “mighty force of people” who in their mindless innocence thought that “the meek, at avenue phoenix, last, were to inherit the thumbnails thesis, earth,” that “riches would be theirs and all in the name of justice and thesis virtue.” One can appreciate the chagrin with which a sophisticated Western political scientist must view this “sad and awesome spectacle.” [23] Lacouture, op. cit ., p. 188.

The same military spokesman goes on, ominously, to say that this is the problem confronting us throughout Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and that we must find the “proper response” to it. [24] William Bundy, in A. Buchan, ed., China and the Peace of Asia , Praeger, 1965.

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21 Free Family Things To Do In Ireland Summer 2017. Summer holidays can be a costly time with summer camps, stocking up for back to school, and auto thesis the long school holidays. Looking for ideas this summer for things to do with your child that won#8217;t cost a penny? We#8217;ve got you sorted! Here are 21 Free Family Things to do in Ireland with the Kids this Summer . And you might like to check out our 25 Fun Things To Do In Ireland with Kids for Summer 2017 also. Sign up for our free Newsletter stuffed full of ideas, competitions and essay flat offers.

PS Did we mention it’s free? #1. Enjoy Free Museums Free Family Events. The National Museums of Ireland in Dublin offer a great day out and auto are hosting an array of barbie essay, family workshops and events throughout July and thesis August. Admission is free. The award winning Museum of essay influential parents, Country Life in Mayo has lots of great free workshops and events throughout the year.

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In Merrion Square, Dublin from 7th 9th July, Fitzgerald Park, Cork from 15th 16th July 2017. #3. Find Prehistoric Footprints on Valentia Island, Kerry. Visit the Tetrapod Trackway on Valentia Island to see footprints that are older than dinosaurs! Valentia Island lies at the end of the Iveragh Peninsula, more familiar to many as the location of the Ring of Kerry. And on the island you will find one of only 4 sets of thumbnails, prehistoric footprints in the world!

The footprints give an invaluable view of the transition of life from water onto land. #4. See The Phoenix at SeaFest Galway. Ireland’s national maritime festival, SeaFest 2017 takes place in jack kerouac statment Galway from June 30th to July 2nd. Galway Harbour will be transformed into thesis, an ‘open air sea world’ for the three-day festival with a host of FREE family friendly entertainment and attractions on water and land. PowerFly’s world champion flyboarders will perform stunning aerial acrobatics and there will be a veritable flotilla of ships, many of which are open for public tours. Another top attraction will be the return of the thesis famous tall ship, The Phoenix, which was a huge draw at SeaFest 2016. The free festival also hosts exhibits on marine life and fun educational activities that bring children on a journey of discovery when it comes to the mysteries of the auto thumbnails thesis ocean.

Foodies can get tips from seafood cookery experts and sample some tasty bites. #5. Celebrate the Mighty Salmon in Ballina. Ballina Salmon Festival is the largest community-run festival in the West of Ireland with over 50 individual events. The 53rd annual festival takes place from essay July 9th to 16th 2017. Over a third of the programme is dedicated to children#8217;s events, with a number of free events included. There are also lots of fun events for adults! #6. Auto! Visit the Most Romantic Gardens in Ireland in Carlow. This Summer take the Carlow Garden Trail which features more than 21 gardening attractions including the most romantic garden in Ireland, Altamont. Near Tullow, Altamont is an enchanting blend of formal and informal gardens located on a 100 acre estate. Whilst still little known, it ranks in the top ten of Irish gardens and is often referred to as #8216;the jewel in Ireland#8217;s gardening crown#8217;.

The formal lawns slope down to a romantic lake, and there’s a fascinating walk, which kids love, through the kerouac statment Arboretum, Bog Garden and Ice Age Glen with its canopy of auto thesis, ancient oaks leading to the River Slaney. There’s a garden centre, tea-rooms during summer months, and questions picnic areas. #7. Find the auto thumbnails Gruffalo at Colin Glen Park, Belfast. Colin Glen Forest Park near Belfast is home to Northern Ireland’s only official Gruffalo Trail. Each character has been magically recreated by sculptor Andrew McIntyre and set against the backdrop of a stunning forest park. Enter through the Gruffalo Archway and walk through the leafy park to a beautiful Gruffalo themed seating area next to the cascading Colin river.

Your children will be completely amazed at meeting their favourite Gruffalo characters, whilst getting out in the fresh air. #8. Visit an OPW site on a Wednesday. During the Summer months, most OPW Heritage sites are free to visit on the first Wednesday of each month. About Parents! Tickets are allocated on auto thesis, a first come, first served basis. Cork Charles Fort, Desmond Castle (French Prison), Ilnacullin (Garinish Island) Donegal Donegal Castle, Glebe House and Gallery Dublin The Casino, Marino, Dublin Castle, State Apartments, Kilmainham Gaol Galway Athenry Castle, Aughnanure Castle, Dun Aonghasa, Portumna Castle and Gardens, Patrick Pearse#8217;s Cottage (Teach an Phiarsaigh) Kerry Ardfert Cathedral, Derrynane House, National Historic Park, Ionad an Bhlascaoid Mhoir, The Blascaod Centre, Ross Castle Kildare Castletown Kilkenny Dunmore Cave, Jerpoint Abbey, Kilkenny Castle Laois Emo Court Leitrim Parke#8217;s Castle Limerick Adare Castle Louth Old Mellifont Abbey Mayo Ceide Fields Meath Battle of the Boyne – Oldbridge Estate, Bru na Boinne Visitor Centre (Newgrange and Knowth) Please note that the ra essay monuments can only be accessed via the auto thesis Visitor Centre.

A: Exhibition B: Exhibition Newgrange C: Exhibition Knowth D: Exhibition, Newgrange Knowth Hill of Tara Trim Castle (including keep) Trim Castle (excluding keep) Offaly Clonmacnoise Roscommon Rathcroghan Sligo Carrowmore Megalithic Cemetery Sligo Abbey Tipperary Cahir Castle, Rock of Cashel, Roscrea Heritage (Castle and Damer House) and the Blackmills Swiss Cottage Waterford Reginald#8217;s Tower Wexford John F. Kennedy Arboretum, Tintern Abbey Wicklow Glendalough Visitor Centre. The Waterford Greenway is now open and essay on my encompasses 46km along a disused railway, and has been specially designed for cycling, walking and auto running. You can hire bicycles and stop at lots of interesting places along the route which has coastline views, viaduct, tunnel and even a spectacular gorge. Find out more and download an interactive map at and cantina south avenue phoenix, www.visitwaterfordgreenway.com. #10. Watch Giants Parade through the Streets of Galway. As part of the annual Galway International Arts Festival , which has events running from July 17th to 30th 2016, the parades through the streets have amazing sights such as fire-breathing insects, giant dragons and beautiful butterflies.

Prepare to be dazzled! Bagenalstown Summer Madness Festival 2017 is a family friendly festival, taking place from July 14th 16th. Events include free street entertainment, music, their ever popular duck race, raft racing along the auto thesis river and lots more family fun. #12. Take a Gallery Tour at Visual Centre for ra essay questions Contemporary Art, Carlow. Admission to the galleries at the Visual Centre for Contemporary Art in Carlow is free of charge, so why not take a trip and auto thumbnails see the latest exhibition. Gallery tours on on my, Sundays are also free of charge – they take place at 2.30pm 3.30pm and last 30 mins. Auto Thesis! No prior booking needed for families and small groups. #13.

Spot some Fairies in Tipperary and Kerry. Head to the lovely Town Park in Templemore, Co. Tipperary and walk past the lake, to find the barbie doll piercy essay fairy trail in the woods. Try and spot all the fairy doors, which are updated at seasonal times like Christmas and Halloween (there are about 38 we believe). Afterwards feed the ducks and swans and let the kids play in the playground, while you get a “workout” on auto thumbnails, the outdoor adult gym. Be sure to jack kerouac statment, pack a picnic and bring your teddy bears along for a great day of free family fun. Thesis! There are also two magical fairy trails to be found in Kerry : one in food south avenue phoenix the wooded surrounds of Derrynane House, Caherdaniel, and the other in the woods of the auto thumbnails Parknasilla Resort.

Both are free and open to all visitors. #14. Cycle or Walk the Greenway in Mayo. The Greenway in Co Mayo is the longest cycling and off-road walking trail in by marge piercy analysis essay Ireland. Spanning 42km from auto thumbnails Westport to Achill you are guaranteed traffic free routes which take you through some breathtaking scenery. Pack a picnic and take a stroll or cycle with the family this summer. #15. Enjoy Nature at quality paper, Clara Bog Nature Reserve, Offaly. Clara Bog Nature Reserve in Co. Offaly is free to thumbnails, visit and has many free events for children.

The bog itself is reputed to be the questions best remaining example of raised bog in thumbnails Western Europe. There is a boardwalked 1 km looped walk on Clara Bog which lets you see the wonderful plants, birds and animals which Clara Bog is about influential parents home to and to soak up the auto thumbnails thesis atmosphere of an exceptional raised bog in essay the heart of Ireland.(NB wear trainers or shoes).The Visitor Centre also organises walks, art and nature activities on a regular basis. #16. Explore the Festival of Curiosity, Dublin. Thesis! Head out to play at Festival of Curiosity this summer, in various Dublin venues from essay influential parents July 20th to 23rd 2017. From the free day time family programme to lively and auto curated curious nights, expect a programme full of surprise and delight. The Festival of poncho's food south avenue phoenix az, Curiosity is Ireland’s annual celebration at the intersection of art, science, technology and design and has quickly grown to auto thumbnails thesis, being one of the most exciting and software quality engineering paper innovative festivals of its kind in auto thumbnails Europe. #17. Hit the Trails at Curragh Chase, Limerick.

Curragh Chase Forest Park is located 22km west of Limerick on quality engineering research paper, the N69 coast road close to Kilcornan and thumbnails Askeaton. There are a number of looped way marked trails in the park to suit all visitors. They vary from the questions multi-access trails suitable for wheelchair users and family walkers to the longer Curragh and thumbnails Glenisca trails suitable for questions those looking for more demanding walking and cycling. Amenities include Public toilet, Picnic Site, Playground, Barbecue, Boat launch, Orienteering Course, Walking Trails, Cycling Trails, Arboreta/Gardens. Thesis! #18. Go Retro at Birr Vintage Week Arts Festival, Offaly. Birr Vintage Week Arts Festival runs from August 4th to 11th 2017 with free entertainment for children including music, markets, fairs, arts and craft activities a parade and much more. #19. Take a Day Out to Lough Muckno Leisure Park, Monaghan. A day out in Lough Muckno Leisure Park in Castleblayney is a must for all the family. There#8217;s plenty to keep the whole family occupied too, including walking trails, a Waterski Wakeboarding Club, fishing, nature walks and a lovely picnic area.

It is barbie by marge piercy essay open all year around and there’s no admission fee. #20. Spot a Deer at Phoenix Park, Dublin. At 1752 acres, the Phoenix Park is the largest urban park in Europe. It is home to Dublin Zoo, Aras an Uachtarain (President#8217;s residence), Farmleigh House, visitor centre, picnic spots and plenty of playgrounds. Free admission tickets are issued at the Visitor Centre to visit Aras an Uachtarain on Saturdays.

The park is thesis also home to a huge amount of wildlife, including a large herd of deer. Pack your bikes and questions scooters and enjoy some of the many cycling trails around the park while you see if you can spot a deer! Afterwards relax and enjoy watching play in the polo or cricket grounds. The playground and tearooms at the Visitor Centre are well worth a visit. Admission to the Visitor Centre exhibition is free, and visitors can enjoy a historical interpretation of the auto thumbnails thesis park from 3500BC, inlcuding the barbie by marge analysis essay history of thumbnails, Aras an Uachtarain. Ra Essay! Every Sunday morning free children’s workshops on nature awareness, history and heritage and arts and crafts take place, suitable for ages 6-12 years. #21. Discover your heritage at National Heritage Week, Nationwide. Thumbnails! National Heritage Week runs from August 19th 27th 2017 with free events for all ages across the country.

Events take place across the country , including opportunities for free guided tours of many of our heritage attractions. The perfect way to finish off the software quality research paper school holidays! A bonus one for you, the Bandon Walled Town Festival takes place from August 23rd to 27th with a family fun day on the 27th. There will be face painting, street entertainment, battle re-enactment, stall and loads more fun. And best of all, it is all FREE.

If you are looking for family friendly accommodation this summer, compare hotel prices to ensure you get the best rate possible for your chosen destination. If you have any other suggestion for auto thumbnails thesis free things to essay, do this summer that you#8217;d like us to share with other parents, let us know in the comments below. Auto Thumbnails Thesis! Have a Family Adventure at Delphi Resort this Halloween. Don#8217;t Be Afraid! 20+ Frighteningly Easy Halloween Nail Ideas. LEGO House Has Opened Its Doors Take a Peek Inside! Tap into our active engaged audience with tailored advertising to meet your marketing goals.

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T. Coraghessan Boyle Boyle, T. Thesis. Coraghessan - Essay. T. Ra Essay Questions. Coraghessan Boyle 1948– (Born Thomas John Boyle) American short story writer and novelist. The following entry provides criticism on auto thumbnails thesis Boyle's works through 1995. Engineering Research Paper. For further information on his life and works, see CLC , Volumes 36 and 55. An author of irreverent comic fiction, Boyle is auto thesis often likened to such absurdist writers as John Barth, Robert Coover, and poncho's mexican and cantina central avenue az Thomas Pynchon for his bleak vision and black humor, and for exuberantly stylized prose which blends the archaic with the contemporary and the erudite with the colloquial. Boyle has explained that he is fascinated by history as a means of understanding the present, and he has satirized diverse historical epochs as well as contemporary America. His fictional treatments of both past and present are praised for their intricate plots and their detailed evocations of the spirit of the times. Thumbnails. However, Boyle is most widely acclaimed for the manic energy of his prose, variously described as anarchic, bawdy, and lyrical. As Charles Dickinson has written, No one writing fiction today has his touch with the language, the inspired word, the kerouac thesis, sense of humor, the playfulness, the sheer weight of talent. Born in Peekskill, New York, a town located on the Hudson River, Boyle grew up in a working-class, Catholic family.

Although he claims that he did not read fiction until he was eighteen, he recalls being intrigued by the newspaper stories his mother read to him. Boyle, a self-proclaimed hellion who cut classes and abused drugs throughout his youth, enrolled at thesis the State University of barbie, New York at Potsdam intending to major in music, but didn't have the discipline to do the practicing. He began writing as a junior at Potsdam, when he enrolled in a creative writing course. Following his graduation from college, Boyle taught high school English in thumbnails thesis, Peekskill to avoid serving in mexican food and cantina central avenue, Vietnam. During this interval he published his first short story, The OD Hepatitis RR or Bust, in thumbnails thesis, The North American Review , and this piece won him admission to the University of Iowa Writers' Workshop. Once enrolled in the Workshop, Boyle became eligible to jack kerouac thesis, take classes in the English department and began work on a Ph.D. in literature. Auto Thumbnails. The minute I got there, he has written, I grew up. Instead of cutting classes, I sat in essay influential, the front row and took notes. Auto Thumbnails. Although his declared specialty was the Victorian period, Boyle received his doctorate in quality, 1977 for a collection of short fiction published two years later as Descent of Man, and Other Stories . He currently teaches English and creative writing at auto thesis the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Following his 1979 debut, Boyle published several collections of short stories, and many of the motifs introduced in quality research paper, Descent of Man recur throughout his short fiction. One of auto, these themes is his conviction that, beneath the technological innovations and ostensible sophistication of kerouac thesis statment, modern life, humans remain primitive beings who fall into thumbnails, one of two categories-predator or prey.

Boyle traces the parents, struggle between these two groups in Greasy Lake, Other Stories (1985), If the River Was Whiskey (1989), The Collected Stories (1993), and Without a Hero, and Other Stories (1994). Other themes in his short fiction include the tension between reason and instinct, the self-indulgent materialism that he considers endemic to consumer society, and thesis the jaded complacency that results, in his view, from media excesses. Software Engineering Research. Boyle has explained that his first novel, Water Music (1981), comes out of auto thumbnails, having done a Ph.D. in nineteenth-century British literature, citing the poncho's food south phoenix az, essays of John Ruskin and the novels of thesis, Charles Dickens as particular influences. Set in Africa at the beginning of the parents, nineteenth century and replete with the thumbnails thesis, historical and philosophical disquisitions that characterize much nineteenth-century fiction, Water Music —which took Boyle three and a half years to write—interweaves two plot strands, one involving the historical Scottish surgeon Mungo Park's quest for the source of the Niger River and the second concerning Ned Rise, a fictive criminal from the London slums who takes part in one of Park's expeditions. Barbie. For his second novel, Budding Prospects (1984), Boyle chose a more contemporary subject that required less laborious research. Set in thumbnails, Northern California, the novel concerns the experiences of a group of jack kerouac statment, marijuana farmers and satirizes the American myth that hard work guarantees success. In terms of both critical and auto thumbnails popular reception, World's End (1987) represented a watershed for Boyle. Recounting the tangled histories of poncho's mexican food south central phoenix az, three families living in the Hudson River valley, the narrative alternates between scenes featuring the seventeenth-century members of these clans and depictions of their descendants in auto thumbnails, the 1960s; the more recent passages also feature flashbacks to the 1920s and '30s. World's End , which won a prestigious PEN/Faulkner Award in 1988, drew many new readers to Boyle's work.

His fourth novel, East Is East (1990), first alternates between and then conjoins the stories of Ruth Dershowitz, an ambitious but untalented writer staying at software quality engineering research a South Carolina artists' colony, and Hiro Tanaka, a young Japanese sailor who considers himself a samurai warrior and who goes AWOL to search for his American father. Auto Thumbnails. In The Road to Wellville (1993), Boyle mocks the excesses related to the American infatuation with health food in a plot that entwines the stories of several characters with varying relationships to a turn-of-the-century sanitarium in Battle Creek, Michigan. Set in on my, southern California, The Tortilla Curtain (1995) contrasts the struggles of Candido Rincon and his wife America, a pair of illegal aliens from Mexico, with the privileged lifestyle of Delaney and Kyra Mossbacher, a pair of yuppies. Admiring the creative discipline that enabled Boyle to thumbnails, publish ten volumes between 1979 and 1994, critics have particularly appreciated the jack statment, substantial cultural and auto thumbnails thesis historical research evident in Water Music, East Is East , and The Road to Wellville . Many also have commended the inventiveness of Boyle's plotting, although some have charged that the structure of World's End remains too byzantine to follow. Others have contended that Boyle's enthusiasm for style further burdens the already cumbersome plots of his novels, and many have maintained that the essay flat, narrative pacing of World's End, East Is East , and The Road to auto thumbnails thesis, Wellville becomes especially tedious.

Commentators have also noted that the influence of such English comedic novelists as Henry Fielding and jack kerouac thesis statment Charles Dickens is evident in Boyle's reliance on ensemble casts; many, however, have charged that the thesis, predictable interaction of such casts reveals the latent determinism and kerouac statment reductiveness found in Boyle's application of ecological predator-prey models to human social dynamics. Moreover, critics often have maintained that Boyle utilizes ensemble casts because this broader focus facilitates his interest in mocking his characters' behaviors rather than exploring—or empathizing with—their motives. As Lorrie Moore has written, Boyle is not psychological. He's all demography and zeitgeist. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. [Boyle] can write, Bill Seligman has argued, and he can imagine, with more energy than any of his contemporaries. But energy isn't enough; there's only so far you can go on jack kerouac sheer technique. And until he goes further, he'll remain a satirist cut off from the oxygen of thesis, morality. Nevertheless, Boyle, whom Bill Marx has described as the self-styled wildman of American letters, is barbie doll by marge almost universally praised for consistently producing a humor unsurpassed in contemporary fiction, despite occasional lapses into adolescent crudity. Most critics have additionally praised Boyle's prose style, which they laud as supple enough to thumbnails thesis, evoke a far broader range of emotions.

Access our T. Coraghessan Boyle Study Guide for Free. Descent of Man, and Other Stories (short stories) 1979 Water Music (novel) 1981. Budding Prospects: A Pastoral (novel) 1984. Greasy Lake, Other Stories (short stories) 1985. World's End (novel) 1987. If the River Was Whiskey (short stories) 1989. East Is East (novel) 1990. The Collected Stories (short stories) 1993. The Road to Wellville (novel) 1993. Without a Hero, and Other Stories (short stories) 1994.

The Tortilla Curtain (novel) 1995. Geoff Dyer (review date 26 August 1988) SOURCE: A Collision with History, in New Statesman Society , Vol. 1, No. 12, August 26, 1988, p. 36. [ Dyer is an English critic. In the following review of World's End, he maintains that complex time shifts and elaborate familial relationships exacerbate the jack kerouac, novel's slow pace .] In his last two books—the novel Budding Prospects and Greasy Lake , a collection of stories—Coraghessan Boyle took off in the opening paragraphs like a sprinter exploding from the blocks.

For the first 150 pages of [ World's End ], by contrast, you are left flicking back to auto thumbnails, the list of characters trying to essay, grapple with dozens of almost identical names. (The entire section is 510 words.) Get Free Access to thumbnails, this T. Essay On My. Coraghessan Boyle Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and thesis essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere.

We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Barbie Doll. Download our handy iOS app for free. Michiko Kakutani (review date 2 May 1989) SOURCE: Stories In Which the auto thumbnails, Unusual Is the Usual, in The New York Times , May 2, 1989, p. C18. [ In the following review of If the River Was Whiskey, Kakutani contends that Boyle, now depicting yuppies rather than hippies, has here used his disparate talents to ra essay, produce showy, but shallow effects. ] The America of thumbnails thesis, T. Coraghessan Boyle is a wild and crazy place, where anything can happen.

In his most recent novel ( World's End ), a garrulous epic that chronicled the fortunes of several generations of a single family, the barbaric new world of America spawned ghosts and demons, not to ra essay questions, mention every imaginable variety of human eccentricity and prejudice. (The entire section is 1181 words.) Get Free Access to this T. Coraghessan Boyle Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to auto thumbnails, unlock this resource and thousands more. Elizabeth Benedict (review date 14 May 1989)

SOURCE: Having a Good Time with Our Worst Fears, in The New York Times Book Review , May 14, 1989, pp. 1, 33. [ Benedict is an American novelist, short story writer, and critic. In the following review of If the River Was Whiskey, she praises Boyle's humorous, satiric treatment of ra essay, contemporary society as entertaining but finds his somber stories more rewarding .] Half a dozen shysters, a talking three-foot-tall statue of the Virgin Mary, a mendacious adoption counselor, a Los Angeles public-relations man hired to upgrade Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's image, a woman who makes her lover wear a full-body condom when he goes to bed with her—even the Devil. (The entire section is 1340 words.)

Richard Eder (review date 21 May 1989) SOURCE: Short-Story Canvas Small for a Large-Scale Brush, in Los Angeles Times Book Review , May 21, 1989, p. 3. [ An American critic and journalist, Eder received the Pulitzer Prize for criticism in 1987. In the following review, he contends that the stories in thumbnails thesis, If the River Was Whiskey are flawed by Boyle's awkward plotting and maintains that novels provide a better vehicle for Boyle's talents .] The stories in If the essay, River Was Whiskey are for the most part short tales, many of them ironic or satiric, and thumbnails thesis with a touch of contemporary fable to poncho's food south central phoenix, them. T. Coraghessan Boyle, who wrote Budding Prospects , a fresh and funny novel about a. (The entire section is 987 words.) David L. Ulin (review date November-December 1989) SOURCE: Lost in thesis, the Funhouse, in The Bloomsbury Review , Vol. 9, No. 6, November-December, 1989, p. 5. [ Below, Ulin favorably reviews If the River Was Whiskey.]

T. Coraghessan Boyle has never been one to shy away from the challenges of his own imagination. Throughout the course of his career, he has written with astonishing energy and originality about a carnival of characters and situations; his work—and particularly his short work—is based on a willingness to be outrageous, to take risks, to essay, tap into the essential absurdity of the universe and let it run its course. It's no surprise, therefore, that like his previous story collections, If the River Was. (The entire section is auto thumbnails thesis 559 words.) David Stanton (essay date January-February 1990) SOURCE: An Interview with T. Coraghessan Boyle, in Poets Writers Magazine , Vol. 18, No. 1, January-February, 1990, pp. 29-34. [ In the following excerpt from an jack thesis essay based on an interview with Boyle, Stanton discusses Boyle's education and auto thesis provides an overview of his career up to the publication of East Is East.] A large part of what motivates a writer is essay influential parents a need to express oneself, Boyle says, but you don't want to express yourself in a closet.

You want to let the world know that you are alive in this time and age, and that you have something to say about it. And so the auto, next largest part of what motivates you is to get [your work] out to the public and to. (The entire section is 2099 words.) Gail Godwin (review date 9 September 1990) SOURCE: Samurai on the Run, in mexican and cantina central phoenix az, The New York Times Book Review , September 9, 1990, p. 13. [ Godwin is an American novelist, short story writer, and critic.

In the following review, she praises Boyle's virtuoso language and cross-cultural insights in East Is East.] This irresistible novel is T. Coraghessan Boyle's finest yet. It has the vital language and inventiveness of plot that we have come to expect from him, but this time there is a keener focus of intention, a more profound level of empathy than were evident in his previous novels—even the ambitious and highly imaginative World's End , which won the 1988 PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction. (The entire section is 1545 words.) Oliver Conant (review date 12-26 November 1990)

SOURCE: Nothing to Laugh About, in thesis, The New Leader , Vol. LXXIII, No. Essay Flat. 15, November 12-26, 1990, pp. 22-3. [ In the thumbnails, following review, Conant disparages East Is East' s plotting, characterization, and prose as superficial .] A young sailor in the Japanese Merchant Marine, Hiro Tanaka, jumps ship off the coast of Georgia, swims ashore and tries to essay on my flat, survive on his own as an illegal alien. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. Such is the engineering paper, unlikely premise of T. Thumbnails. Coraghessan Boyle's farcical, often crude and, on occasion, mordantly funny new novel [ East Is East ]. Despite its heavy does of unreality, the barbie doll by marge piercy, account of Hiro's brief, disastrous sojourn in the New World is at times strangely compelling.

(The entire section is 1173 words.) Tom Hymes (review date November-December 1990) SOURCE: A review of East Is East , in West Coast Review of Books , Vol. 15, No. 6, November-December, 1990, p. 23. [ In the following review of East Is East, Hymes asserts that Boyle's characterization and plotting serve short stories better than novels but notes that his wit prevents the book from becoming tiresome .]

T. Coraghessan Boyle is a writer who's hot, relatively new in town, and auto thumbnails very good. He has a glib wit and a superb attention to detail. Essay About Influential Parents. He is his best, though, when his talents are geared toward his short stories. His novels can have the feel of elongation and a certain weightlessness, as though they have been stretched a little too thin and. (The entire section is 433 words.) Robert Towers (review date 17 January 1991) SOURCE: Enigma Variations, in The New York Review of Books , Vol. XXXVIII, Nos. 1 2, January 17, 1991, pp. Thumbnails. 31-3. [ Towers is an American educator, novelist, and critic.

In the following excerpt, he observes that, although Boyle's satire is more farcical than witty, East Is East is poncho's mexican south phoenix az a funny book, particularly in its portrayal of the auto thumbnails, protagonist, Hiro Tanaka .] T. Ra Essay. Coraghessan Boyle's third novel, World's End , won the PEN/Faulkner Award for auto thesis, Fiction in 1988. It is jack statment a long, complex work, a kind of mock history of a Hudson River community that jumps backward and forward from the 1660s to the 1960s. Often satirical, full of grotesque and comically. (The entire section is 1051 words.) Andrew Rosenheim (review date 22 March 1991) SOURCE: A Crusoe in Georgia, in The Times Literary Supplement , No. 4590, March 22, 1991, p. 19. [ Rosenheim is an American novelist and critic.

In the following review of East Is East, he praises Boyle's vivid, humorous style .] T. Coraghessan Boyle writes a rich and thesis masterful prose which enhances his visceral attachment to essay, the story he tells. In East Is East , Hiro Tanaka is half Japanese, half American, bastard product of a hippie guitarist's union with a Tokyo bar hostess. Embittered by a Japanese childhood spent being ostracized as a half-breed, Hiro heads West, lured by the promise implicit in America's composition: polyglot tribe, mutts and. (The entire section is 777 words.) Jane Smiley (review date 25 April 1993) SOURCE: Snap, Crackle, Pop in Battle Creek, in The New York Times Book Review , April 25, 1993, pp. Auto. 1, 28. [ Smiley is an American educator, novelist, short story writer, nonfiction writer, and critic. In the review below, she discusses The Road to Wellville, focusing on Boyle's characterization as she compares the novel to software engineering, Boyle's previous works .] Throughout his career, T. Coraghessan Boyle has shown a special affinity for dirt and a special relish for thumbnails, depicting the feckless self-absorption of the essay, post-war generation.

In his early story Bloodfall, seven commune dwellers who wear only white are subjected to a rain of blood, then feces, but their response is to. (The entire section is 1434 words.) Robert Cohen (review date 30 May 1993) SOURCE: Flakes, Nuts and auto thumbnails thesis Capitalists, in Los Angeles Times Book Review , May 30, 1993, pp. 2, 11. [ Cohen is an American educator, novelist, and short story writer.

In the following review, he maintains that, despite Boyle's prodigious comedic gifts , The Road to Wellville proves too shallow and crude to sustain interest .] One of the more endearing and exasperating facets of the American appetite is its hunger for poncho's mexican and cantina south phoenix az, self-improvement. Think of Bill Moyers and his attentive, homespun, secular romanticism; he roams from coast to coast like a political candidate—our candidate—on an eternal campaign for thumbnails, betterness, for a philosophy or paradigm that will lend. (The entire section is thesis 1050 words.) Craig Seligman (review date 4 October 1993) SOURCE: Survival of the Cruelest, in The New Republic , Vol. 209, No. 14, October 4, 1993, pp. 43-5.

[ In the following review of auto thumbnails thesis, The Road to Wellville, Seligman surveys Boyle's career, contending that the novelist's pyrotechnical exhibitionism fails to research, conceal the black-hearted fatalism that ultimately renders all his works simplistic .] A sanitarium is a funny place to set a novel if you don't believe in cures. But the auto, Battle Creek Sanitarium, temple to healthy vegetarian living and stomping ground of Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (1852–1943), apostle of colonic hygiene and inventor of the cornflake, is essay flat where T. Coraghessan Boyle, a pessimist if there ever was. (The entire section is 3216 words.) Malcolm Bull (review date 6 January 1994) SOURCE: Corn, in auto thumbnails, London Review of Books , Vol. 16, No. Mexican Food South Central Avenue Phoenix Az. 1, January 6, 1994, pp. 19-20.

[ In the excerpt below, Bull comments on Boyle's The Collected Stories, nothing the opposition between body and thumbnails thesis reason and the prominence of such motifs as water and alcohol .] If Haile Selassie, whom some remember as a bit of a biker from his days of exile in the West of questions, England, had been stretched to 6?3? and given a part in Easy Rider , he would have looked rather like Tom Coraghessan Boyle as he appears on the front of the thesis, Collected Stories —an improbable confection of soulful eyes, hollow cheeks, frizzy facial hair and black leather. Jack Kerouac. But although the. (The entire section is auto thumbnails thesis 924 words.) John Mort (review date 15 February 1994) SOURCE: A review of Without a Hero , in barbie doll analysis essay, Booklist , Vol.

90, No. 12, February 15, 1994, p. 1035. [ In the following excerpt, Mort comments favorably on Without a Hero, and Other Stories.] If he wants to, Boyle can summon the auto thumbnails, angst for your standard realistic novel. In this collection's title story [Without a Hero], for example, he tells of a newly divorced fellow who inadvertently becomes the host of barbie piercy analysis essay, a young Russian woman who is auto thumbnails thesis awestruck by the bounty of America; our distinctly unheroic narrator won't marry her and thus forces her into prostitution. Boyle draws from this premise an indictment of capitalism as well as two engaging character studies. His mockery is. (The entire section is 242 words.) Publishers Weekly (review date 14 March 1994)

SOURCE: A review of Without a Hero , in Publishers Weekly , Vol. Jack. 241, No. 11, March 14, 1994, p. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. 68. [ Below, the critic presents a favorable review of Without a Hero, and Other Stories.] Most effective of the 16 technically ingenious and rudely funny, satirical stories in Boyle's fourth collection [ Without a Hero ] are the kerouac thesis statment, sketches of disaffected individuals who take refuge in hermetic surroundings, self-help programs, political causes and conspicuous consumption to hold at bay the auto thesis, banal world of convention and compromise. Software Engineering Research. In Big Game, Bernard Puff, impresario of Puff's African Game Ranch in Bakersfield, Calif., peddles a simulacrum of the African bush. (The entire section is 242 words.) Lorrie Moore (review date 8 May 1994) SOURCE: No One's Willing to Die for Love, in The New York Times Book Review , May 8, 1994, p. Auto. 9. [ Moore is an American short story writer, novelist, educator, and critic.

In the review below, she remarks favorably on essay on my the stories in auto thumbnails thesis, Without a Hero but laments Boyle's inability to go beyond sarcasm .] Readers of flat, T. Thumbnails. Coraghessan Boyle's amazing stories are probably most familiar with the salacious Lassie in Heart of questions, a Champion, the Bruce Springsteen song run amok in Greasy Lake or the updated Gogol of Overcoat II. Mr. Boyle situates his fictional ideas at auto thesis the center of an available culture and doll piercy analysis then bursts forth with strange, engaging narratives that neither. (The entire section is 1246 words.) Francine Fialkoff (review date 15 June 1995) SOURCE: A review of The Tortilla Curtain , in Library Journal , Vol.

120, No. Auto Thumbnails. 11, June 15, 1995, p. 92. [ In the review below, Fialkoff remarks favorably on The Tortilla Curtain.] Appearing after the wackiness of quality paper, The Road to auto, Wellville , Boyle's sixth novel [ The Tortilla Curtain ] is a dash of cold reality. Food And Cantina Central Az. The lives of two couples living in Topanga Canyon (Los Angeles) intersect when Delaney Mossbacher slams his car into Candido Rincon.

But the couples couldn't be more disparate: Delaney is a nature writer (Pilgrim at Topanga Canyon) whose wife, Kyra, is a successful realtor; the Rincons are illegal aliens camping out, looking for any work at all. (The entire section is 218 words.) Scott Spencer (review date 3 September 1995) SOURCE: The Pilgrim of Topanga Creek, in The New York Times Book Review , September 3, 1995, p. Auto. 3. [ In the following review, Spencer faults Boyle's presentation of the two story lines in The Tortilla Curtain as uneven .] Viking has somehow got the idea it has another Grapes of Wrath on its hands. Then again, T. Coraghessan Boyle may have contributed to the delusion by using a few lines from Steinbeck's novel as the food south avenue az, epigraph to his own meditation on the dispossessed and the American dream, California style. Auto Thumbnails Thesis. But while Steinbeck's tale of the Joad family was the very apotheosis of the proletarian novel, with its almost surreal emotional clarity and passages.

(The entire section is 1370 words.) Bell, Pearl K. Fiction Chronicle. Thesis. Partisan Review LVIII, No. 3 (1991): 482-92. Admires Boyle's imaginative resourcefulness, stylistic exuberance, and detailed research in auto, East is East , but criticizes the novel as shallow and cruel. Birnbaum, Jane.

To Live and Discriminate in barbie doll piercy essay, L.A. Los Angeles Times Book Review (24 September 1995): 4. Mixed review of The Tortilla Curtain . Blaise, Clark. Auto Thumbnails. Down the Natural Path. Poncho's Mexican Phoenix Az. Chicago Tribune Books (9 May 1993): 1, 9. (The entire section is 621 words.)

T. Coraghessan Boyle Homework Help Questions. T. Coraghessan Boyle’s story “Greasy Lake” presents three eighteen and nineteen year old boys looking for mischief at the beginning of the summer vacation after a year of auto thesis, college. Flat. The. Ask a question.

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