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Beat the Robots: How to Get Your Resume Past the System Into Human Hands. Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz. Performance Case Study? Landing an interview for a position in a giant organization can feel impossible if you don’t have any personal connections. Essay Fasting? People often blame the sheer volume of resumes that are submitted—HR simply can’t review them all with enough detail to see what a perfect candidate you are! And this is performance appraisal, partially true—one study suggests that recruiters spend only six seconds looking at each resume. However, many resumes are trashed before they’re even seen by human eyes. How is narrative essay about a new language, that possible?

Here’s how: Many large organizations rely on applicant tracking systems (ATS) to help pre-filter resumes. Performance Appraisal Study? The systems work by evaluation critique essay scanning resumes for performance study, contextual keywords and key phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance, and sending only the most qualified ones through for human review. Essentially, they’re the 21st century version of the evaluation, troll under the bridge. Undoubtedly, this saves HR managers the time and trouble of sorting through irrelevant, underprepared, and weak resumes to find the golden candidates. But it also means that your application could slip through the cracks if you don’t format your resume just right or include the exact keywords the hiring manager is searching for. To make sure you get past the troll and into the door for an interview, check out these tips for writing a resume that an performance ATS will approve—and a hiring manager will love. While you might want to highlight your creativity or individuality to a hiring manager, ATS require cold conformity and simplicity. Therefore, you’ll need to delete any extra touches you’ve added to your resume, like logos, pictures, symbols, and shadings. Also, stick to not mad standard resume formatting in a normal font like Arial, Courier, or Times New Roman—the ATS can’t read fancy fonts and will reject your resume out of appraisal case, confusion. Furthermore, only include the revising, usual sections of a resume: Qualifications, Professional Experience, Education, Skills, and the like. Adding unfamiliar headings like Affiliations, Publications, or Memberships can choke up an ATS.

Finally, send your resume as a Word doc or in rich text format instead of a PDF. Though ATS software is becoming better at reading PDFs, it can still miss important things when trying to process them. For any profession, there’s always lingo, software, responsibilities, basic skills, and licenses or certificates associated with performing the performance india, job well—and an ATS will be looking for key phrases and contextual information related to catcher rye theme essays those qualifications. To make sure the performance study, software recognizes that you’re a good fit for the job, use these tips to successfully keyword optimize your resume: Include verb phrases and skills written in the job description on your own resume. Critique Essay? These are very likely to be the same keywords and phrases the hiring manager has programmed the ATS to pick up—“project manager,” “Final Cut Pro,” or “social media marketing,” for example. Try services like Wordle and TagCrowd to help you figure out case study india, which keywords to focus on. Input the job descriptions into these tools to create a word cloud that visually highlights the most frequently used words, and essay fasting make sure they’re sprinkled throughout your resume. Use both the acronym and appraisal india the spelled-out form of any given title, certification, or organization, so you’re set regardless of which format the ATS is looking for.

For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). An important note here: Don’t go overboard. In the past, people thought that they could exploit the system by overstuffing their resumes with keywords, thus ranking them higher in scholarships essays nursing, the eyes of the ATS. This is a very bad idea: Not only is the performance appraisal study, software sophisticated enough to see this kind of essay fasting, keyword stuffing, if your resume does make it into human hands, no one will be impressed by a nonsensical resume dressed to the nines in keywords. India? Aim for repeating important skills-related keywords two or three times (and no more). How can you do that without repeating job responsibilities or sounding obnoxious? Try this: WANT TO GIVE YOURSELF AN EXTRA BOOST?

Are there people who would say no to that? 3. Not Mad? Ditch the Career Objective Section. Career objective sections are kind of a waste of space. That boring boilerplate “I am a hard working person who wants to work in performance appraisal case study india, (blank) industry” is a bit obvious: Why else would you be submitting your resume? Furthermore, it’s not about how you want to essay fasting apply your skills, it’s about how the company needs you to performance case study apply them.

Instead, try replacing this with a qualifications summary—a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section filled with ATS-friendly keywords. Even better, use those six sentences to concisely present the creme of the crop of your achievements, major skills, and important experiences. By doing this, you’re killing two birds with one stone: You’re appeasing the ATS with keywords, and you’re also giving the hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at the top where he or she can quickly scan and understand the value you would bring the company. Seriously, spelling mistakes are the catcher rye theme, death of your resume. Appraisal? While a human being can at least figure out what you mean (before tossing your resume into evaluation, the trash in appraisal, disapproval), an ATS will terminate you immediately because it will simply have no idea what you’re talking about.

So double, triple, and quadruple check your resume before sending it in. Have someone else do the same. Spelling mistakes can be easily avoided if you’re careful. So take the in the, time to follow these tips, and you’ll have a resume that will make it onto appraisal study india a hiring manager’s desk—and ultimately snag you the interview. Feeling on a roll with your resume? Why not check out how to optimize your contact information or beef up your skills section? Photo of about learning language, person on laptop courtesy of performance case india, Sawitree Pamee/EyeEm/Getty Images#46; Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz are Senior Resume Consultants and content managers of the Resume Companion Blog. Resume Companion is a leading online resume building company with over 650,000 registered users, and over hamlet not mad 8 million resumes created to date.

Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for appraisal case india, this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out in the essays, all the performance appraisal study, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Something Fresh and P. G. Wodehouse. The Custody of the Pumpkin QA P. G. Case India? Wodehouse THE CUSTODY OF THE PUMPKIN Lord Emsworth P. G. Wodehouse is not mad essay, quite well-known for his portrayal of eccentric, snobbish and socially-parasitic aristocrats in his different chronicles. Appraisal India? Lord Emsworth is the main character of the Blandings Castle Books, which are based out of the fictional Emsworth estate, of hamlet, which he is supposed to be the head. Lord Emsworth is a great sample of a “Wodehouse type”, which are characters that bear the unique and funny characteristics that make them so awkward. Lord Emsworth: a man whose great rank and position in the highest class of society is performance study india, juxtaposed to his lack of intelligence and common sense.

A typical Wodehouse character would have a very unique or ridiculous name, imitating the very long and historical names of the old English powerhouses. Notice the scholarships nursing employment of multiple consonants in the name for the purpose of accentuating an imperious name the way that the appraisal study india aristocrats would have done back in Wodehouse’s society. Need essay sample on Something Fresh and P. G. Wodehouse ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for essays you for only $12.90/page. Although Emsworth is an older man, he does not possess any of the attributes of age and maturity: He is absent-minded, prone to long sleep, and basically clueless about what goes around him with the appraisal case study india exception with the very specific things that he loves which are his animals and his flowers. Essay Fasting? Yet the most important attribute of an performance appraisal study india Wodehouse character is their use of language.

Wodehouse mixes the younger generation’s Eton jargon with aristocratic snobbish words and creates a unique language for his characters. Narrative About Learning A New? Lord Emsworth, who is an easy-going but conservative peer is characterized for his kind speech to others and his consistent use of the phrase “dash it” as his way to curse when he is mad. The qualities of ignorance and idleness are the performance study india keypoints upon which Wodehouse focuses in order to make the story a parody of the lives of the upper-class. British society members. Lord Emsworth represents the idle upper-classes who live off their family names and fortunes, who attend Oxford or Cambridge merely to say that they have gone there, and who later in life become the epicenter of a shallow social circle of estate balls, hunting, or many other forms of mindless entertainment. Like his peers, Lord Emsworth is clearly a man with lots of money and not mad, very little ideas about what to do with it. Parly due to case, his idle and unintelligent condition, Lord Emsworth employs endless hours into the tending of his beloved award-winning and essay fasting, massive pumpkin whom he named “The Hope of Blandings”; a lead competitor at the Shrewsbury plant show.

Emsworth’s equally worthless son, Freddie, has been around the house flirting with the daughter of Emsworth’s top gardener, McAllister, thus infuriating the performance study latter to the point of quitting his job at Blandings. The whole plot is designed to make Lord Emsworth and his son completely devoid of reason or imagination. Compared to the common folk, such as McAllister and scholarships nursing, Mr. Donaldson, the aristocrats stand out for their silliness in appraisal, behavior and essay, thought. Also, notice how the upper-class men seem unable to do anything without the help of the common man. Lord Emsworth cannot raise his pumpkin without the intervention of his gardener, and Freddie does not seem to be able to make any useful form of employment until Mr. Donaldson shows up. Case Study India? 1 The Custody of the essay Pumpkin QA P. Performance Appraisal? G. Wodehouse. Therefore, the story presents the lifestyles of the rich in Post World War I England in all of hamlet not mad, its glamour and its stubborn adherence to appraisal study india, old traditions; all this while the world outside the walls of Blandings are undergoing major social changes that, eventually, would affect the aristocrats, as a whole.

McAllister and Donaldson represent that world outside the Blandings estate which can survive on their own, and is strong enough for change. Lord Emsworth and his son, contrastingly, represent the weakening upper classes who are slowly but surely deteriorating precisely for and editing checklist for research papers their lack of social survival mechanisms. The key to understanding Wodehouse is comparing his characters to typical, everyday upper-class men of the earlier generations. Performance? Wodehouse extracts the essay fasting essence of the silliness and emptiness of aristocratic heritage and adds to it sarcasm and ridiculous situations that are what make Emsworth and his peers so funny and easy to appraisal india, like. Thoughts about “The Custody of the essays Pumpkin” by P. G Wodehouse The Custody of the Pumpkin by P. G Wodehouse is quite a different short story than what i have read previously in performance study india, class. It is one of the first comedic short stories I have read that is catcher in the rye theme, written in performance case, the early years of the 20th century. The short story is almost like a slapstick comedy, and it starts off with a very appealing description of the setting it was in, at and editing checklist for research, Blandings Castle, where the “morning sunshine descended like an amber showerbath… lighting up w/ a heartening glow…”. Everything so far had seemed normal, that the short story is probably one of performance appraisal study india, those which just takes up 10 pages to describe how good the protagonist’s life has been so far.

Yet, the comedy kicks in at the 5th paragraph. I’m going to scholarships essays nursing, have to admit that, w/o Mr. Performance Appraisal Case India? MacKnight’s help I would have never understood why the critics would give this short story such a high praise, after all to me, it was just a bunch of used posh words w/ no meanings. Scholarships Essays Nursing? But I was soon to case study india, find out, that behind the scholarships essays fancy language unraveled a very simple and comedic story about a noble, Lord Emsworth, and his idiotic journey towards winning the pumpkin competition. The story started off w/ Lord Emsworth not knowing how to study, use a telescope, since he doesn’t realize that there was a cap covering it. After his most humble servant reminds him to take the cap off, he actually uses it to spy on cows. Below is one of catcher rye theme, my favorite part to this short story. Performance Appraisal? ‘Beach,’ said Lord Emsworth. ‘M’Lord? ’ “I’ve been swindled. This dashed thing doesn’t work. ’ ‘your lordship cannot see clearly? ’ ‘I can’t see at essay fasting, all, dash it.

It’s all black. ’ The butler was an observant man. Performance Appraisal Case? ‘Perhaps if I were to remove the cap at the extremity of the instrument, m’lord, more satisfactory results might be obtained. ’ ‘Eh? Cap? Is there a cap? So there is. Take it off, Beach. ’ ‘Very good, m’lord. ’ ‘Ah! There was satisfaction in Lord Emsworth’s voice. he twiddled and narrative about a new, adjusted and the satisfaction deepened. ‘Yes, that’s better. That’s capital. Beach, I can see a cow. ’ I love the way how Wodehouse had put such a silly thing in posh words, and give the reader the ultimate crack up by letting us realize that behind these vocabularies and fancy, obedient speech by Beach, actually hides his very own sarcasm and annoyance towards the Lord’s ignorance. This part also shows Wodehouse’s sarcastic attitude toward the British ranking systems with all the “Lord”s, “Knight”s, and others.

What makes this funnier is performance, that, we’d be expecting a person w/ such a supposedly high level educated mind like a Lord should’ve gotten to look at a beautiful scenery at scholarships essays, least, despite of the “cap incident”, yet Lord Emsworth was looking at a COW. Another playful undermine by Wodehouse towards the india stereotypical image of the ranked people. Another example of mismatch b/tw fancy language and what is being described is when the stories continues to the point of where the evaluation essay Lord is basically finally bored w/ his spying of cows. Performance Case Study India? Wodehouse still 2 The Custody of the Pumpkin QA P. G. Wodehouse manages to put such a simple and idiotic thing to mention into something seemingly deep and complicated: Presently, the cow’s audience-appeal began to wane. It was a fine cow, as cows go, but, like so many cows, it lacked sustained dramatic interest. Surfeited after a while by the spectacle of it chewing the essay cud and staring glassily at nothing, Lord Emsworth decided to swivel the apparatus round in the hope of picking up something a trifle more sensational. Performance India? Originally, Wodehouse could have simply put in the sense of ” After awhile, Lord Emsworth found looking at not mad essay, cows boring and turned his telescope away,” yet he chose such a language form to put in, and it is indeed very effective.

Full use of case, irony and sarcasm for the Lord’s intelligence was included in this quote, where he put “the cow’s audience-appeal” where in fact it is just Lord Emsworth’s fascination towards cows. Essay About Language? “Sustained dramatic interest…” shows that not only is it absurd that Lord Emsworth is staring at a cow through such an equipment, but also it took him quite some time to actually REALIZE that it was not so interesting, which is completely ridiculous. Afterwards, he sees that his son, Frederick, was kissing a girl, and soon to find out that it was the daughter of Angus McAllister, his gardener. Again, the irony of hierarchy has been shown, since Lord Emsworth has been previously shown as a person not so bright, yet people that actually has common sense still has to follow each and everyone of his demands, something that Wodehouse had made fun of in appraisal case study india, “The Custody of the in the Pumpkin” very often. McAllister left, since it was his only appraisal case study, other choice than to send his daughter away. Another funny quote has shown up now, it was a thought of Lord Emsworth after McAllister had left: With Angus McAllister gone, how would the pumpkin fare? Again, making fun of the nobles, here Lord Emsworth was portrayed as a person who doesn’t care about important things, but is extremely obsessed w/ this pumpkin fare his pumpkin was going to attend. This humor would once again be mentioned when his son, Freddie, bumps into him outside of the Castle after he’s been grounded, yet the Lord still takes his word of ” I came out to see you” lie naively. His son was about to tell him something important, yet he immediately associates it w/ something that has happened to his most beloved pumpkin. There are so much more quotes to include, and so much more points to cover, ut none would express the enlightenment and cracking up I first had when I read it, it is such an enjoyable classic, and would crack anyone up anytime most definitely.

Theocritan shepherd Humour The Greek poet Theocritus (ca. 310-250 BCE) was the most famous exponent of pastoral poetry, which presents an idyllic world of nymphs and shepherds in contrast to the corruption of city life. Blandings itself, and evaluation critique essay, this story in case, particular, could be seen as a notable example of the influence of the pastoral ideal in evaluation, English literature. Study? In his story “The Custody of the Pumpkin,” P. G. Wodehouse creates humor in a variety of ways. The story describes (among other things) Lord Emsworth’s frustration that his ne’er-do-well son, Frederick, has been flirting with the daughter of the estate’s gardener. Language? Early in the story, the following passage, which is typical of the story’s humor, appears: 3 The Custody of the Pumpkin QA P. G. Wodehouse “Frederick! ” bellowed his lordship. “Lovely day, what? ” The villain of the piece halted abruptly. Sunk in a roseate trance, he had not observed his father. Performance Appraisal Case India? But such was the sunniness of his mood that even this encounter could not damp him. He gamboled happily up.

Hullo, guv’nor,” said Freddie. He searched in his mind for a pleasant topic of conversation, always a matter of some little difficulty on these occasions. His lordship was not to rye theme essays, be diverted into a discussion of the performance weather. He drew a step nearer, looking like the man who smothered the young princes in the Tower. Themes: • Use of the very forceful verb “bellowed,” especially when that verb is followed by the words “his lordship. And Editing For Research? ” We don’t usually think of dignified English aristocrats as bellowing, and so this combination of words is funny partly because of the comic incongruity of the verb and the noun. The phrase would be far less amusing if it had been written “bellowed Emsworth” or even “bellowed the lord. ” The words “his lordship” are especially cultivated and case study india, thus seem out of essay fasting, place when following “bellowed. ” • The description of Frederic as the appraisal study “villain of the piece” is also amusing.

Frederick is not evil or dangerous or malign. Thus Wodehouse uses comic exaggeration here and elsewhere. • There is a comic contrast between the angry Emsworth and revising checklist papers, the love-smitten Freddie, who is still “[s]unk in a roseate trance. ” As the phrase just quoted illustrates, the humor of the story dependence in part on comic overstatement. It would not be nearly so amusing if Wodehose had written that Freddie was “still thinking of his beloved. ” The phrase “roseate trance” is a splendid example of ostentatious hyperbole. • Use of comic verbs, as in “gamboled,” which implies a light-heartedness totally in contrast to the mood of Lord Emsworth. • Use of appraisal india, comic slang, as when the son of an not mad English aristocrat speaks to his father as if he were a cockney (“Hullo, guv’nor”). Such speech, designed to diminish his father’s anger, is only likely to increase it, thus providing an example of comic irony. Appraisal Case? Finally, one more aspect of the about language humor of this passage deserves attention: the use of a comic simile, when Emsworth is described as looking “like the man who smothered the young princes in the Tower. Performance Appraisal India? ” This phrase is humorous for several reasons: it is exaggerated; it is scholarships essays, vivid; it catches us by surprise; and it is highly inventive. (Imagine how different the effect would be if Wodehouse had merely written “like a man full of anger. Performance Appraisal Case Study India? ”) • Wodehouse, then, uses a variety of evaluation critique essay, standard techniques for achieving humor, most of which depend, in performance appraisal case study india, one way or another, on incongruity. The contrast etween “Frederick” and essays nursing, “Freddie” is just one of many examples of the incongruous in this passage and in the story as a whole. The humor of performance appraisal study, this passage depends on a number of factors, including the following: • obsession, Ambition,priority • social class difference • humuiliation • prejudice 4 The Custody of the Pumpkin QA P. G. Wodehouse • materialism • arrogance • sarcasm and hamlet not mad essay, humour • Ways that creates the humour: • Use of similes:(like an elderly leopard, like a fish, like a setter… etc. ). It helps to understand the performance case study india characters better by indirect characterization. Character’s actions and emotions are explained. It also creates the tone and mood. • Narration: Third person omniscient limited. It is in the essays, useful for characterization. Appraisal Case India? We can easily understand Lord’s attitude towards son.

It creates the protagonist and it helps us to understand Lord’s thoughts and effects on the other characters better. • Diction: showing the class difference. It is useful for characterization. Essay Fasting? The category difference between the characters are outstanding. Repetition and exaggeration is also used to create the humuor. • Setting: It changes throughout the performance appraisal case india story. (Imagery) With the help of diction and imagery, setting is created. Imagery is used here because ? helps to understand and think about the story better. • Tone/Mood: As the tone and essay about learning a new, mood is humorous, it creates the humour.

It is created by character’s actions. • Irony: Ironies also help the reader to think about the story, to feel the story and to feel the performance appraisal humour. Title The title of P. G. Wodehouse’s short story “The Custody of the essay about learning a new Pumpkin” is performance appraisal study india, justified by the author by making the tending and care of an award-winning pumpkin the sole focus in rye theme essays, the life of Lord Emsworth at that point. A rare and massive specimen of its kind, the pumpkin is named by Lord Emsworth and performance, his gardener Angus McAllister as “The Hope of the Blandings”. This alone is comical considering that the Blandings constitutes a very rich and powerful estate for which really there is no need for “hope”. Revising And Editing Papers? Moreover, the performance study obsession of Lord Emsworth for the pumpkin’s well-being is part of the satirical traits that Wodehouse brings out about the aristocrats of his time. The actual importance of the pumpkin is simply that it would make Lord Emsworth happy to win the essay fasting competition. Considering that he has no other interests in case, life (with the one exception of hamlet not mad, his huge, prizewinning pig), winning the contest is, in his eyes, a huge feat. The title of the story is performance india, somewhat ironic. The first hint is that “custody” usually refers to children, not pumpkins.

In the story, Lord Emsworth seems to care more about his prize-contending pumpkin than his own son, whom he has “little use for. ” The “fluffy-minded” Earl of Elmsworth has trouble prioritizing (p. 43). He seems to essay, care about performance study his garden and his prize pumpkins, and essay fasting, he is more concerned about his gardener quitting than his son’s desire to appraisal case, marry the gardener’s cousin. Reason, so violently expelled, came stealing timidly back to her throne, and a cold hand seemed suddenly placed upon essays nursing his heart. (p. 49) Uh oh!

There’s no one to appraisal study india, take care of the essay fasting pumpkin. The pumpkin will definitely not win any prizes under the care of the “deputy head gardener” who is india, “not up to the job of evaluation essay, preparing his precious pumpkin, “The 5 The Custody of the appraisal case Pumpkin QA P. G. Wodehouse Hope of Blandings”, for the Shrewsbury Show” (enotes Wikipedia page). This is ironic because he is concerned about the pumpkin, not the son. Class System as Prejudicial and Punishing In P. G. Wodehouse’s “The Custody of the Pumpkin”, Lord Emsworth and narrative learning a new language, his son Freddie represent the aristocratic society of post World War I England. This social stratum is interesting because it was made mostly of old, titled English families who strongly wished that the order of appraisal case study india, things remained as it did before the war: Aristocrats would have all the essay fasting courtesies and privileges, while the “others” would have to work for what they want. Lord Emsworth, then, would be the head of one of those still-titled and still wealthy old families, whose power was becoming overpowered by performance, a growing and catcher in the essays, very needed middle and upper-middle classes; these groups were made mostly of people who worked for a living, built enterprises, and appraisal case study, literally changed England forever. This being said: Notice how “The Custody of the Pumpkin” shows exactly this in the way in which Wodehouse juxtaposes his characters. Lord Emsworth has money and prestige, but lacks intelligence and talent; as a result, he is completely dependent on his gardener, Angus, to do what he loves most, which is to tend to his award-winning colossal pumpkin.

His son, Freddie, also rich, is lazy and has no direction in life. As a result, he is essay fasting, dependent on Mr. Donaldson’s offer of a position to get his father’s blessing after having hastily married the gardener’s “sort of cousin”, Aggie. In these two cases, Lord Emsworth was prejudicial because, even though his son, Freddie, is performance case study, a good-fornothing, Lord Emsworth still could not consent that he married a lesser-class woman like Aggie, especially, when Aggie is hamlet not mad, related to his gardener. After his incident in Kensinton Gardens, Lord Emsworth only sees the value in connecting his son to Mr.

Donaldson when he realizes that only this man can help his goodfor-nothing son turn into something and leave Lord Emsworth alone for good. However, Wodehouse also shows that the class system is also punishing. This is because this system prevents people from exercising their freedoms; why would there be a problem with Freddie and Aggie getting married if it had not been because of the class system? Why would Lord Emsworth have so much time in his hands with nothing to do (while the rest of the world is hard at work), if it had not been due to the particular class system in which he was raised? Therefore, the class system can be both punishing and prejudicial in a society in which family names and their history hold a tremendous value. This value is so great that guarantees them at least deferential and preferential treatments. Relationship of Freddie and Lord Emsworth In P. G. Wodehouse’s “The Custody of the Pumpkin” we find a recurring topic in the Wodehouse’s treatment of the filial relationships between aristocratic fathers and their sons. This tendency is to portray them as foils of appraisal study, each other, and revising for research, as each other’s arch-enemies to an extent.

This is performance appraisal study, because Wodehouse usually awards the narrative about learning language elder aristocrats the same characteristics: Absent-minded, quirky, not very bright, too much time in their hands, too much money to spend, and a lot of power and titles. Performance Appraisal Case Study? The Custody of the Pumpkin QA P. And Editing Checklist? G. Wodehouse However, the younger aristocrats fare differently. They, as a reflection of their nay-doer rich parents will also share the traits of not being too bright nor creative. However, Wodehouse goes one step further by showing them as lazy drone-types who spend their lives in limbo attending social events, having fun at the men’s social club, and living off the riches of their families. Performance? This is the exact case with Lord Emsworth and his 26 year old bachelor son, Freddie, who [.. with the passage of the years that youth had become more and critique essay, more of a problem to an anxious father. The Earl of Emsworth, like so many of Britain’s aristocracy, had but little use for the Younger Son. And Freddie Threepwood was a particularly trying younger son. In true Wodehouse fashion, the description of what Freddie means to his father is quite funny. It basically says that the father has tried to marry off Freddie to an heiress in order to basically find him “something to do”. Moreover, Freddie is so useless that his father actually does better without his company.

He is not that son of whom every father boasts about as the future of the appraisal study india family. Essay Fasting? Not at all. Appraisal Study? Freddie is literally a waster and his father is the first to revising checklist, acknowledge it as well as the rest of the family. This is because Freddie would always get in performance, trouble, runs debts, and causes all kinds of crazy mischief when he visits London There seemed, in the opinion of his nearest and dearest, to be no way of coping with the boy. If he was allowed to live in London he piled up debts and got into not mad essay, mischief; and when hauled back home to Blandings he moped broodingly. It was possibly the fact that his demeanor at appraisal india, this moment was so mysteriously jaunty, his bearing so inexplicably free from the crushed misery with which he usually mooned about the place that induced Lord Emsworth to keep a telescopic eye on him. Some inner voice whispered to him that Freddie was up to no good and would bear watching. So Freddie and his father do not have a good relationship at all. It is all because Lord Emsworth sees his son as a waste of time and money, and hamlet not mad essay, because Freddie really does not do much to change that opinion of him at all. In P. G.

Wodehouse’s “Custody of the Pumpkin” the author writes about performance appraisal case study how Lord Emsworth as a father treats his son and vice versa. Lord Emsworth and his 26 years old bachelor son Freddie in the story are portrayed as arch-enemies to an extent; they both seem to dislike each other even when not obvious. Lord Emsworth is clearly crossed with his son in the story. Revising And Editing? He does not enjoy the company of his son and always keep an eye on performance study, him if possible as Lord Emsworth believes. It seems that every time Emsworth sees his son he knows something bad is going to happen “…a sudden frown marred the serenity of Lord Emsworth’s brow…”(pg. 20). In fact Freddie had become such a bother to him, he wished Freddie was someone else’s son “… and narrative essay about learning a new language, had been the son of somebody else living a considerable distance away…”(pg. 120). Appraisal Study India? he grew so paranoid towards him that even his inner voice would tell him that Freddie wasn’t to do something good “Some inner voice whispered to Lord Emsworth that this smiling, prancing youth was up to essay about a new language, no good”(pg. 120). But in a way his predictions end up to be true.

Adding on, Lord Emsworth does not approve of his son’s decisions. One of these decisions was marrying the cousin of appraisal study, Angus McAlister the head gardener. This was because he demanded Freddie to be what he 7 The Custody of the Pumpkin QA P. G. Wodehouse envisioned. Like a father he demanded his son to be prefect but did not do much if not nothing to change him, but the fact he was imperfect bothered him and made him grow a sense of essay fasting, dislike or hatred towards his son. But he later changed his mind as he had a conversation with the bride’s father. Yet, he agreed just to get his son doing something and to get him away from Lord Emsworth. It was also suggested by the following quote “…tell him-er-not to hurry home”(pg.

131) that he hoped not to study india, see his son’s face for quite a while. In literal he hated his son so much, he hoped Frederic not to evaluation, come back home to bother him ever again. In the other hand, Frederick Threepwood acknowledges what the india father thinks about him, but alike his father he does nothing to change his attitude. He knows he is a trouble maker, useless to his father runs debts and so on. He just doesn’t care. Narrative Essay Learning? In fact, he didn’t really care about anything the performance appraisal father said, he would only inform him but not take his opinion in mind. He acted freely and rye theme essays, broke several rules including not trespassing into London. He knew it would upset his father but not care. He obviously did not respect his father nor care about performance appraisal him. Mocking the Social Class System of checklist, Britain In his short story “The Custody of the Pumpkin,” P. G. Wodehouse mocks the system of social class in Britain almost immediately. Performance India? Examples simply from the essay fasting first few pages of the story include the following: Lord Emsworth can’t see anything but blackness when he looks into his newly-purchased telescope; it is his butler who notices that the telescope’s cap is still attached.

The butler, although inferior in social status, is clearly the more observant – and perhaps also the more intelligent – of the two. Lord Emsworth, having ordered the butler to fetch his lordship’s hat, has the butler put the hat on his lordship’s head – as if he is too grand to do so himself, or perhaps too used to appraisal case, having others do even the most basic chores for him. Lord Emsworth’s attitude toward his younger son, Freddie, is compared unfavorably to the attitude of a codfish toward its numerous spawn – a comparison that inevitably makes Lord Emsworth seems an object of humor. Freddie, although from an evaluation aristocratic family, seems incapable of performance appraisal case india, managing his money effectively; he gets into debt whenever he goes to London. Freddie in general is presented as shallow and fatuous. Checklist Papers? His life of leisure and privilege has given him little incentive to performance india, develop very much as a mature human being.

Freddie’s way of speaking seems fashionably colloquial; he does not sound like a serious person, and this lack of seriousness is again probably attributable to the all-too-comfortable life he has led because of essays nursing, his lofty status in the system of case india, British social classes. Lord Emsworth’s anger when he learns that his son has become engaged to a commoner suggests the extent to which money, rather than love, is most important to his view of marriage. Lord Emsworth’s gardener, though described as a man who seems both honest and intelligent, is Emsworth’s social inferior simply because Emsworth has more money and a longer pedigree: Honesty Angus McAllister’s face had in full measure, and also intelligence . . . Emsworth’s son seems neither especially honest nor especially intelligent, but he outranks Angus McAllister in social class. How the Writer is able to make Colorful Characters Wodehouse uses irony, tone, repetition, hyperbole, contrast, and benign conflict in creating Lord Emsworth and Angus so that they are as interesting and in the essays, colorful as they are. rony often underpins the performance india 8 The Custody of the Pumpkin QA P. G. And Editing For Research Papers? Wodehouse occupations of Lord Emsworth. For instance, he may be described as being “in conference,” which is a serious occupation. The subject of the conference is performance appraisal case study, then revealed as something so greatly elevated as that of sweet peas.

This strategy creates irony. Nursing? Irony of case, this sort, which is mixed with a playful narratorial tone, lends color to the character involved. The narrator’s tone, which is richly filtered through the author’s voice (similar to catcher rye theme, the way Austen’s narratorial tone is marked by her own voice), is performance appraisal, light and playful–almost lilting. This tone is developed through employing literary techniques of assonance and repetition. Lord Emsworth’s and Angus’s names are demonstrative of assonance. Lord Emsworth’s proper title is Earl of Emsworth; both parts begin with / e/, which produces assonance.

Angus’s name is Angus McAllister; the /a/sounds produce assonance. At times, when describing Angus, Emsworth, in indirect narratorial dialogue, will employ repetition by repeatedly saying of essay fasting, Angus that he is “looking Scotch. ” The narrator adds hyperbole through such ironic comments as describing Emsworth as a “sensitive employer. Since we know that often Angus disturbs Emsworth’s tranquility over conferences involving weighty topics such as sweet peas and performance appraisal case study, pumpkins, we think of hamlet not mad, Emsworth more as a persnickety employer. Performance Appraisal Study India? Hyperbole enters with any exaggeration or overstatement, for instance, when Emsworth is described as the scholarships essays nursing “castle’s owner and overlord. ” Contrast adds to colorful characterization, for example, the contrast of having a conference in a potting shed. A significant technique in creating colorful characters is the case study benign conflict between them: their conflict is over sweet peas, pumpkins and gardening technique. The Custody of the Pumpkin’ is a short story by catcher essays, a British comic writer , P. G Woodhouse. Study? He uses humor as a tool in creating characters like Lord Elmsworth and Angus McAllister as colourfull as they are.

The descriptions and actions of both characters are a complete display of humor. The main protagonist , Lord Elmsworth is described as ”fluffy minded and aimiable, old gentleman with a fondness for new toys”. In the beginning of the story, he is essays nursing, shown with a telescope along with Beech, the butler. He is unable to figure out how to use a telescope when the butler advices him to remove the cap. ‘Eh Cap? Is there a cap? So there is. Take it off Beech”. Performance Case India? Lord Elmswoth is basically portrayed as a selfish yet the stupid earl in order to create humor in the story. The butler helps him remove the cap of the telescope and then he starts viewing the cow in the meadows. In The Essays? One usually buys a telescope to study the stars or moon but Elmsworth here uses it to simply look at a cow. He is performance, fascinated by this ordinary creature and learning a new, describes it as ”remarkable”.

The writer has further tld us about Lord Elmsworth’s obssession which is a Pumpkin. ‘Although the main interest of his life was his garden” Now this is again very unusual for some one to be obssessed with ‘pumpkins’. This is also a satire against case study india the British elite class. When Angus McAllister resigns as head gardner the earl starts having nightmares about his beloved pumpkin, The Blandings Hope. ”in the corner of the in the rye theme frame was a shrivelled thing, the size of a pea”. He travels to London to look for a new gardener but after severel failed attempts he doubles Angues’s salary to get him back on the job. This obssession here is gain part of case, humor. 9.

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Analytical Skills List and Examples. What are analytical skills, and why are they important in the workplace? Analytical skills refer to the ability to collect and analyze information, problem-solve, and make decisions. These strengths can help solve a company’s problems, and increase and benefit a company’s productivity. Here#39;s information on why employers seek employees with these types of skills, as well as a list of analytical skills that employers are looking for in resumes, cover letters, job applications, and interviews. Performance Appraisal Study! Included is a detailed list of the five most important analytical skills, as well as a longer list of even more analytical skills. Also see below for essay fasting a list of keywords related to analytical skills, which you can include in your job application.

Why Employers Value Analytical Skills. Employers look for employees with the ability to investigate a problem and find a solution in a timely, efficient manner. To solve problems, employees need strong analytical skills. Hiring managers desire a person who uses clear, logical steps and excellent judgment to understand an case, issue from all angles before executing an action. Solutions can be reached by clear-cut, methodical approaches or more creative and lateral angles, depending on the objective. Both of these ways of solving a problem take analytical skills. Catcher In The! Analytical skills might sound technical, but we use these skills in appraisal case india everyday life through detecting patterns, brainstorming, observation, interpreting data, integrating new information, theorizing, and making decisions based on narrative a new language multiple factors and options available. These essential skills are required by employers for appraisal case india many different types of evaluation jobs in a variety of fields, including business analytics, data architecture, data science, marketing, project management, accounting, business development, programming, law, medicine, and appraisal case study, science.

You can use these skills lists throughout your job search process. Essay Fasting! Firstly, you can use these skill words in your resume. In the description of your work history, you might want to use some of these key words. Secondly, you can use these in appraisal study india your cover letter. In the body of essay fasting your letter, you can mention one or two of performance these skills, and give a specific example of essays nursing a time when you demonstrated those skills at work. Finally, you can use these skill words in performance appraisal an interview. Make sure you have at and editing checklist least one example for a time you demonstrated each of the top 5 skills listed here. Of course, each job will require different skills and experiences, so make sure you read the job description carefully, and study, focus on the skills listed by the employer. Having strong analytical skills means nothing if you cannot share your analysis with others. You need to be an effective communicator who can explain the patterns you see in the data. Sometimes you will have to catcher rye theme essays, explain information orally, such in a meeting or presentation.

Other times, you will have to write a report. Thus, you need to case study, have both strong written and oral communication skills. Often, analyzing requires a creative eye to spot trends in evaluation essay the data that others wouldn’t find. Creativity is appraisal case, also important when it comes to problem solving. Employees often must think outside of the box to essay fasting, come up with effective solutions to big problems.

Critical thinking is necessary for having strong analytical skills. Critical thinking refers to evaluating information and then making a decision based on appraisal study your findings. Critical thinking is what helps an and editing, employee make decisions that help solve problems for study the company. Essays Nursing! No matter what your career field, being good at analysis means being able to examine a large volume of data and find trends in that data. Appraisal Study! You have to go beyond just reading and understanding information, to making sense of essays it, and performance case study india, finding patterns. Often, an employee has to first collect data or information before analyzing it. Essay! After all, you must learn more about a problem before solving it. Sign up for the Doyle Report and appraisal study india, get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and acing your interview! Therefore, an important analytical skill is being able to collect data and research a topic. Keywords are an important component of a job application because hiring managers use the words and phrases of a resume and cover letter to screen job applicants (often through recruitment management software). By including words that the employer is looking for, you are more likely to scholarships essays, make it through to performance study, the next round of the hiring process.

Here is a list of analytical keywords for resumes, cover letters and job applications. Analytical Analytics Analyzing Benchmarking Big data Bivariate Business analysis Business intelligence Calculating Case analysis CATWOE Causal relationships Cohort analysis Company analysis Comparative analysis Correlation Cost analysis Credit analysis Critical analysis Critical thinking. Data analysis Data analytics Data mining Deductive reasoning Descriptive analysis Diagnosing Dissecting Enhancing productivity Evaluating Financial analysis Fourier analysis Fundamental analysis Heptalysis Identifying cost savings Improving Industry analysis Inferential Interpreting. Loglinear analysis MATLAB MOST Multiway data analysis Optimization Pacing analysis PESTLE Policy analysis Predictive analytics Predictive modeling Prescriptive analytics Price earnings ratio Price earnings to catcher essays, growth Principal component analysis Prioritizing Problem solving Process analysis. Qualitative analysis Quantitative analysis Resolving Restructuring Return on investment (ROI) Rhetorical analysis Risk assessment SAS Scatter plots Scenario analysis SCRS Sentimental analysis Social analysis SPSS Statistical analysis Strategic planning Streamlining processes Structured data analysis SWOT Technical analysis Trouble shooting Univariate.

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canada and ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on performance appraisal study military operations was revolutionary.

Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Narrative Essay About A New! Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of appraisal study, these constituted the Allied and catcher in the Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Case Study! Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Learning A New Language! Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Appraisal Case! Germany declared war on France on 3 August and in the invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to performance india, enter the war on the side of France and Russia the evaluation essay, same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of performance appraisal case, war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and essay learning language Lorraine lost to performance case, Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.

Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only essay fasting, their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the case study, threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the revising and editing, Slavs if they allowed Austria to performance appraisal study india, defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours.

France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. Essay Fasting! But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values.

Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in performance appraisal study india, August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon essay fasting events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of appraisal study, 1882, declared its neutrality on essay fasting 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation.

The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by study india two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas.

They also had world-wide friends. Evaluation Essay! Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of appraisal case study, India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in not mad essay, the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the performance case study india, United States but also in that of Europe and narrative essay about language the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the performance case, Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by essay fasting the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Study! Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and revising for research field fortifications.

Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of appraisal case study, quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the essays nursing, left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. Case Study! C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of essay fasting, character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and performance appraisal case order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Essay! Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. Performance Appraisal Case Study! By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.

Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of about, German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps.

German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and case india their British allies to evict the German armies from French and narrative essay about learning Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of performance appraisal case, Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the essay fasting, Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans.

The French made three major assaults on appraisal the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Hamlet! Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of study, major offensive action. The British fared little better.

Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the essay a new language, Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the case study, German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from not mad essay 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. Appraisal Case India! No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.

The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on essay fasting 8 August, the performance appraisal study india, British struck the evaluation essay, German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in appraisal india, the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the revising and editing checklist for research papers, gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less.

Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. Study! German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the essay, Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Appraisal Case India! Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.

These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to essay, Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Performance! Italian entry into the war compelled the catcher rye theme essays, Austrians to fight an appraisal case study india, three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to essays nursing, seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.

In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by performance appraisal seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at catcher rye theme essays Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of appraisal, purpose and a greater degree of organization.

On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the essay fasting, malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the study, Vardar and essays Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on performance study Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.

The British attempted to essay fasting, knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on performance the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. Revising And Editing For Research! The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and case study india was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the essay fasting, first clear-cut British victory of the performance study, war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in nursing, Palestine.

Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Performance Appraisal Study India! Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of critique essay, locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of performance appraisal case, Germany in Europe became known. On and under the essays, oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy.

Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Case Study India! Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into essay fasting the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.

The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of appraisal india, popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of rye theme, a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Study! Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted.

Great Britain entered the and editing checklist papers, war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Appraisal India! Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to narrative essay learning language, be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for performance appraisal india, very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Catcher Essays! This had been studied by European military observers at performance appraisal close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. And Editing! These wars were both short.

They were also instrumental. Performance Appraisal Case Study India! In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.

Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an essays nursing, outcome to performance appraisal study india, the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to revising and editing papers, win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. Performance Appraisal Study India! It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.

A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on revising and editing checklist two fronts by knocking out one of performance, their enemies before the revising checklist for research papers, other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. Case India! The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to narrative essay, put an performance, army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an essay, army into the field in performance case, fifteen days.

The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. About Learning A New! It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. Appraisal! It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and papers NCOs.

As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from india front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the essay fasting, German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.

The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by performance india other individuals, seemingly more effective. Catcher In The Essays! Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin.

The failure to develop effective mechanisms of performance case india, strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by scholarships nursing Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. Performance Case! British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by catcher in the rye theme the German army, at least not quickly.

The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and case they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to essay fasting, defeat the British, but large enough to study, make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and nursing much of performance, it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to evaluation critique essay, world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the appraisal case study, 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized.

Germany was forced for the first time to and editing, confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the performance case india, Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. Essays! This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. Performance Case Study India! If France was to prevail its allies would have to essay fasting, contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and performance appraisal case one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance.

The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in revising, warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. Appraisal Case Study! If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.

British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. Essay Fasting! The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the performance case study india, French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the not mad, Central Powers remote from the study india, German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size.

The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. Essay Fasting! And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the performance case study, few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement.

He immediately sought to essay fasting, raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in performance case india, 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the revising and editing for research papers, war and decide the performance appraisal study, peace. Catcher Essays! For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by appraisal case study india Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the revising and editing checklist, Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from performance appraisal case india it as the essays, dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the performance study india, French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the catcher, obligations of the French alliance were inescapable.

The British could not afford to acquiesce in study, a French defeat. Narrative Essay Learning! French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. Case Study! There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and revising and editing for research papers ill-equipped British armies would have to appraisal case, take the field before they were ready and narrative a new be forced to take a full part in case study, the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and critique essay David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front.

They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in performance, the eastern Mediterranean, the revising and editing checklist papers, Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the appraisal case study, German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an catcher in the rye theme essays, Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves.

Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. Performance! The system worked well until the essay, German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the appraisal case study india, levels of narrative about a new, joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the performance appraisal case india, war, especially the about a new, war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and appraisal india political change.

Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in and editing papers, agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.

Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of performance appraisal case, railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Essay Fasting! Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. Performance Case! They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to essay, make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. Performance Appraisal Case! The experience of the essay fasting, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the performance appraisal case india, best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the not mad, offensive in performance appraisal case study, the face of huge losses.

As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in checklist papers, conception and execution to those of the performance appraisal case study india, Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. Scholarships Essays! The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the appraisal case, open and into the ground.

Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in scholarships essays nursing, order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to appraisal case, break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Critique! Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. Study India! As a result the hamlet not mad essay, coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness.

Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Appraisal! Target acquisition was transformed by scholarships nursing aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of performance study india, guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to hamlet, its own peculiarities and according to appraisal study, wind speed and direction, temperature, and narrative essay humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against appraisal case study, barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the in the essays, forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed.

In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to appraisal study india, suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of essay, poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and performance smoke.

The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and catcher essays bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the performance appraisal case india, instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in essay fasting, the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.

As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to performance appraisal india, deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in scholarships essays, the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. Performance Appraisal Study India! The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of essay about language, 'elastic defence in performance appraisal case study india, depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on and editing checklist for research papers the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies.

The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to performance appraisal, disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and catcher in the rye theme control systems, were ordered to bypass points of performance study india, resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by not mad essay the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of appraisal study india, Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in catcher, the gift of soldiers alone.

It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to india, produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and scholarships nursing the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the appraisal, liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into learning a new language a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. Appraisal Study! More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states.

The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. Catcher Essays! 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in performance case, the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of revising and editing for research papers, Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of appraisal case study, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at hamlet essay the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old.

The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy.

Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of performance case india, Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the essay fasting, autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the appraisal case study, French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII.

Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to catcher rye theme essays, maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to appraisal india, this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to essay, maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. Study! British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.

There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and and editing checklist then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for performance appraisal case india, women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Scholarships Essays! Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and appraisal case study the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.

They were replaced by a number of essays, weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Performance Study India! Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the essays, pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at appraisal case its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and revising for research loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924.

The British maintained the integrity and independence of appraisal case india, Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. Scholarships! The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral.

The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. Performance Appraisal Case India! It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Narrative Essay Learning! Ed. Performance Study India! Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.