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obama padded resume Notes from the newsroom on grammar, usage and style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.) The Times’s stylebook cautions against use of the term “sexual preference,” with its implication of choice. We should routinely use “sexual orientation” instead. I thought this habit was well ingrained by now, but “preference” continues to crop up. Some recent lapses: He acknowledges that gay male race fans are attracted to stock car drivers the in turkey way straight female race fans are, but his agenda seems to be much simpler.
Race fans, no matter their sexual preference , just like to structure of a college, watch races. But the researchers also found that the gay profiles were shown ads that were not shown to education, straight people and nano, had no obvious connection to sexual preference like those for system in turkey essay a nursing degree at a medical college in case study on tata Florida, which appeared exclusively in the gay man’s account. Over her nine months and education, nine chapters, Paul touches on some highly charged subjects, like the potential effects of maternal lifestyle on profile for resume a child’s temperament, I.Q. and sexual preference . I’ve noted before the persistent superstition among some editors and writers that “over” can never be used with a number to mean “more than” or “in excess of.” In fact, despite Miss Thistlebottom’s insistence to the contrary, this sense of “over” is widely considered standard and education system, acceptable. While “over” and “more than” are interchangeable in format many cases, expressions like “just more than” or “well more than” are awkward and unidiomatic. Stick with “just over” and education in turkey, “well over.”
Vick, the Eagles’ starting quarterback, is one of the N.F.L.’s most electrifying talents and possibly its most valuable player in 2010. The fact that he is a convicted felon just more than a year out of prison simply makes him this season’s most complicated story. Yet so far, only 8,153 ballots have been challenged, meaning Ms. Murkowski would still lead by profile, well more than 2,000 votes even in the unlikely event that all the challenged ballots were set aside by the courts. Because inflation, at just more than 1 percent , is too low, and because the economy and the money supply are growing very slowly, “even from a strict monetarist perspective, we need to do more,” Mr. Bernanke said.
This week’s grab bag of grammar, style and other missteps, compiled with help from colleagues and readers. Mr. de Maiziere could not even rule out for system certain that a German agency was not behind the episode. Solved Study? “I consider that highly unlikely, but that is in turkey, one of the things we are looking into,” he said. This convoluted double negative didn’t say what we meant. Her mother, also a lawyer, is a special counsel to New York Lt. Gov. Richard Ravitch. “New York” is not part of the title; make it “Lt. Gov. Richard Ravitch of New York.” But the certainty with which she declaims (on gender, on connoisseurship, on study on tata Times Square and, all too reductively and even nonsensically, on race and politics) suggests that she isn’t afraid of writing because she worries she won’t be good enough. She is afraid of education in turkey essay writing because she worries that she won’t be Alex de Tocqueville enough.
Perhaps to his friends but “Alexis” to the rest of us. Saudi Arabia does not permit women to rome, represent it in international athletic competitions, and it is one of only three countries in the world that has yet to send women to the Olympic Games (the others are Qatar and education, Brunei). Agreement problem: make it “have yet.” (Also, are there any countries not “in the world”?) The announcement [in the study on tata case of education essay Representative Maxine Waters] came one day after the ethics committee recommended censure for Representative Charles B. Rangel, Democrat of profile for resume New York, a fellow African-American lawmaker whose own ethics trial just ended. The connection between Waters and Rangel is that they both faced House ethics charges. The fact that Rangel happens also to be black is irrelevant, and there was no reason to include it. If the Yankees and Jeter end up in an extended impasse over the number of years and the amount of dollars in a new contract, offering him equity in YES could bridge the gap and would not violate the rules of system in turkey essay Major League Baseball. The phrase would have to about, be “number of dollars” but what we really wanted was “amount of money.” Britain’s banks have greater exposure to Irish sovereign debt than any other country . The comparison isn’t parallel. Make it “than any other country’s.”
Ms. System Essay? Palin, you will recall, exploded into the national consciousness as a relatively inexperienced and rome, unformed politician, a small-town mayor who had served fewer than two years as Alaska’s governor. Her chief message, up to that point, had been about reform and good government. “Fewer” than two would be one. We really intended to describe an in turkey essay, extent of time, not a number of years, so we should say “less than two years.” Mr.
Lester was born on Aug. 14, 1935, in Durant, Okla., and grew up doing jobs like moving lawns and working as a bricklayer’s helper to bolster his family’s frayed finances. “Mowing,” of for resume course. Spell-check couldn’t help us here; we have to read every word. ROME Over the years, Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi has marveled Italians with his Houdini-like powers to escape the education system trickiest political traps and bounce back when all odds were against him. He has made them marvel, or has amazed them, but he hasn’t “marveled” them. In an article in The Staten Island Advance on Aug. 7, Dr. Lanting seemed nonplussed about a state-run database that would allow doctors to find out if patients have received prescriptions from multiple doctors, suggesting they could be addicts or dealers.
When patients seek prescriptions, Dr. Lanting told The Advance, “we take their word and we depend on utilitarianism the pharmacists’ computers.” “Nonplused” (the spelling preferred by our stylebook and our dictionary) describes a condition of perplexity that leaves someone speechless or unable to act. That is certainly not what we meant here. Or the system in turkey essay device could find even something weirder. The “even” wants to be immediately before “weirder.” With speculation about an engagement now over, a new round of speculation will replace it. What is the date of the wedding?
Who will design Miss Middleton’s wedding dress? Who will Prince Harry, William’s younger brother, bring as his date? In later versions, we avoided the grammar problem without relying on essay honoria “whom,” which might have seemed stuffy here: “Who will be Prince Harry’s date at the wedding?” Two reports from around the country raise the question: How far should a parent go when their child is bullied? The agreement problem would be easy to fix: make it “parents,” or make it “a child.” [Headline] A Place for education essay Socialites, or Look-a-Likes. After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and references, style encountered by writers and editors of The Times. It is adapted from a weekly newsroom critique overseen by Philip B. Corbett, the associate managing editor for standards, who is also in charge of The Times’s style manual. Notes from the essay newsroom on grammar, usage and for resume, style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.) The recent hoopla over the rising price of gold provides a news peg for system in turkey essay a broader reminder.
We should be very wary about dollar comparisons over time that don’t adjust for inflation. As David Leonhardt and others have pointed out, the talk of “record” gold prices isn’t just a bit hyperbolic; it’s fundamentally wrong. Gold has been rising recently, which is a legitimate business story. But it’s far below its real record price in 1980. As David wrote recently:
This isn’t simply a question of math. Anyone who says gold is at a record high (or who said oil was several years ago) is getting the story wrong. Why? Because $10 today is not more valuable than $9 a few decades ago. Essay? Claiming otherwise is tantamount to saying that 10 rupees is in turkey, more valuable than $9 because 10 is a bigger number than 9. Similar problems can arise in stories about box-office records, other sales figures, salaries and format, so forth. This handy inflation calculator from the Bureau of Labor Statistics can help. In a presentation some time ago to reporters and essay, editors, David pointed out another common problem in handling numbers in rocket boys essay contest the news: failing to provide context. Some numbers are meaningless or even misleading unless we explain the underlying trend or the big picture. For example:
1. Throwing out cost figures in the millions or billions without helping readers make sense of them. A cost of $5 billion over 10 years for a new federal program sounds like a lot, but it’s hard for education system readers to judge without some context. With budget numbers, we should try to references essay, use a comparison — to the cost of another program, for instance, or as a share of education system in turkey essay overall spending. 2. Reporting a rise in case study nano the number of homicides over time without factoring in population growth. It’s often better to use per capita crime rates, or both. Education In Turkey? (This same caveat applies to basic college essay, “increases” in education system in turkey essay many other categories — are they wholly or partly due to a rise in the overall population?) 3. Reporting a trend without accounting for all factors — like an references essay format, increase in the number of drunken driving deaths without accounting for increases in the number of education system essay miles driven. This week’s grab bag of college grammar, style and other missteps, compiled with help from colleagues and readers.
Mr. Education System In Turkey Essay? Gissen said that given his age and the duration of the coma, it seemed like Mr. Sharon was unlikely to essay, regain consciousness, but his sons remained hopeful. “Like” is misused as a conjunction here, contributing to an unnecessary tangle. We could simply have said “Mr. Sharon seemed unlikely to in turkey essay, regain ” [Op-Ed] What Mr. Obama should have said is that nations’ running huge trade surpluses and in China’s case, doing so thanks to currency manipulation on a scale unprecedented in world history have no business telling the United States that it can’t act to help its own economy. The possessive form nations’ suggests that “running” is a gerund serving as the subject of a clause. But it’s not; “nations” is the subject of “have no business,” and “running” is simply a participle modifying “nations.” So, no apostrophe.
It can be turtle chased by coconut milk, or pork chased by green-bean juice, or my favorite Zi Fi’s magnificent venison. The dish pranced between tradition and modernity, pairing nontraditional venison with the more traditional accompaniments of peppercorns, chilies, scallions and mushrooms and references essay, then serving the dish in a nest of system essay very nontraditional cotton candy, bits of which you eat to cool things off. This overstuffed sentence runs completely off track. For one thing, the dish does the “pairing” but not the “serving.” And four versions of “tradition” in one sentence seemed awfully awkward. In a five-page letter to state education officials, Mr. Bloomberg mentioned Joel I. Klein’s every possible brush with education, including his time at the Justice Department, his speeches on the rights of the mentally ill, and even a plaque on his high school’s wall of fame.
As with “the disabled,” this use of “the mentally ill” as a noun strikes many readers as insensitive or dehumanizing. When practical, “people with mental illness,” “mentally ill people” or similar phrases are preferable. Anthony Bayne, 41, was taken into custody in Coop City at 5:20 p.m. for the killing of a gas station attendant in a botched robbery on Oct. 28. Professor Bruck of essay Washington and Lee said one reason that jurors could be reluctant to essay, impose a capital sentence was because many people did not want the moral responsibility for a death, even of a criminal. “Reason because” is essay, redundant. Make it “one reason was that many” Mr. Zwilling said no school had been placed on the list based on how much the Archdiocese had spent on it, but rather on its record of enrollment and system, its prospects for increasing enrollment. Lowercase archdiocese here, and solved case nano, rephrase the tangled sentence.
Perhaps: “Mr. Zwilling said schools had been placed on the list based not on education system in turkey essay how much the archdiocese had spent on them, but rather on their enrollment records and prospects for an increase.” On Monday, a couple hundred people marched to the Los Angeles Times building, where they waved signs and chanted, demanding that the newspaper remove Mr. Ruelas’s name from the online database. The value-added assessments of teachers which use improvements in student test scores to evaluate teacher effectiveness has grown in popularity across the essay format country with support from the education system in turkey federal Department of Education, which has tied teacher evaluations to essay, the Race to the Top state-grant program. In the first paragraph, make it “a couple of essay hundred”; in solved case study on tata nano the second, make it “have grown.”
Here, near the quake’s epicenter, the wind delivered only an occasional howl, as Tomas, with 85-mile-an-hour winds at its peak, glided through the narrow passage between Haiti and Cuba a couple hundred miles away without zeroing in on either. Once again: We wanted “couple of ” It’s even in the stylebook. Mr. Education? O’Brien made his long-awaited debut on utilitarianism his new show, “Conan,” on education in turkey Monday in the same insurrectionist mood that he left NBC last January. Starting with an opening sketch that likened NBC executives to profile for resume, “The Godfather”-style hit men, almost every joke was a barb about the conflict with Jay Leno that led him to quit.
The grammar runs off track. We needed “in which” in place of “that” or better still, rephrase. The gulf in background, temperament, personality and education in turkey essay, philosophy make for an uncertain two years as they try to figure out whether they can work together. Agreement problem. Essay About Utilitarianism? Make it “gulf makes.”
A prominent Orthodox rabbi who founded a respected Jewish day school in Brooklyn was convicted on Wednesday of essay trying to essay utilitarianism, extort millions of dollars from education system in turkey essay, a giant hedge fund. … Mr. Rocket Boys? Balkany told the firm he would keep the inmate from sharing details of the supposed insider trades with the authorities if the firm handed over $4 million, half of system which would go to for resume, the school he founded, Bais Yaakov, prosecutors said. Even criminal rabbis are “Rabbi,” not “Mr.,” on second reference. Even Mr. Education In Turkey? Klein, who had spent eight years running the nation’s largest school system, did not know whom his successor would be until Monday. And in her spare time she , along with her husband, a lawyer, renovate and sell New York City apartments. The subject is rome, “she,” so the verbs should be singular. Education? (“Along with her husband” is a prepositional phrase, not half of a compound subject.) After Deadline examines questions of essay grammar, usage and education in turkey, style encountered by writers and editors of college essay The Times. It is adapted from education, a weekly newsroom critique overseen by Philip B. Solved Case On Tata? Corbett, the system associate managing editor for standards, who is also in charge of The Times’s style manual. Notes from the newsroom on grammar, usage and style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.) I guess those singulars and plurals are trickier than they seem.
Here are some new slips, as well as a familiar one. Dairy Management’s longtime chief executive, Thomas P. Gallagher, received $633,475 in compensation in 2008, with first-class travel privileges, according to federal tax filings. Annual compensation for two other officials top $300,000 each. Subject-verb agreement requires “compensation … tops.” (In this case, the past tense “topped” would probably have been smoother and easier.) On the right side of the patient’s brain, just over the eye, there was a bright circle of basic of a college white, the size of education in turkey essay a dime. Not a brain tumor. Honoria? No, the education system essay radiologist said, this was a tiny worm, a larvae , the young offspring of a tapeworm.
Not an agreement problem — perhaps just a spelling problem. This is the plural. The singular is “larva.” Such announcements [about rising numbers of references applications] tell a story in which colleges get better and students get more amazing every year. Education System In Turkey Essay? In reality, the narrative is profile for resume, far more complex , and education system in turkey, the implications far less sunny for students as well as colleges caught up in the cruel cycle of selectivity. Here we have a parallelism problem and an agreement problem combined. When the verb is omitted from the second part of a construction like this, the previous verb is understood to solved case study, stand in. But “is” won’t do as a verb after “implications,” so we should supply the verb, and it should be “are.” Like one of those wrestling matches that always seems to be ready to education essay, end until a seemingly vanquished wrestler gets off the basic of a college essay mat to fight again, the curious collision of wrestling gear and Connecticut voting took one more turn Monday. Recorded announcement: This construction requires a plural verb in education system in turkey essay the relative clause. The relative pronoun “that” is plural, agreeing with its antecedent “matches” (“one” is not the antecedent).
Dianna Agron, one of three members of the cast of “Glee” who is basic of a, featured in a racy cover shoot in GQ magazine, apologized on her blog for education essay the shoot while defending its contents. See recorded announcement above. This week’s grab bag of grammar, style and other missteps, compiled with help from essay, colleagues and education system in turkey, readers. After singing the references essay soprano role of Lady Macbeth in a landmark 1975 production of Verdi’s ”Macbeth” at La Scala in Milan, demanding Milanese critics and impassioned Italian opera fans called her La Negra Callas (the Black Callas) and flocked to her every performance. Two points. First, the modifying phrase is a dangler; it was not the critics and education in turkey, fans who were “singing.” Second, another reminder that we should always triple-check foreign phrases in this case, we needed a correction (“nera,” not “negra.”) Still, Mr. Fybish said that this was the earliest recorded snow-type event since 1984, when white stuff fell on Nov. 2. “Not bad,” he pronounced. All right, the tone of this blog post was light and humorous. Still, the “white stuff” for utilitarianism snow is a textbook journalistic cliche.
The bridegroom’s mother, an Episcopal priest, performed the ceremony at education the Episcopal Church of the structure of a Transfiguration in New York. The Right Rev. Andrew R. St. John, the church’s rector, took part. As The Times’s stylebook notes, we should generally use “Bishop” as the title for Episcopal and Catholic bishops. We do not normally use “the Right Rev.” (And if we did, it would be “the Rt. Education? Rev.”) A painter was working on columns behind the pulpit, which was covered in rome protective plywood, as was the famous mural of the ascension above the altar. Another religious style point. The stylebook says: Ascension . Education System Essay? Capitalize when the reference is to essay rome, Jesus.
WASHINGTON Part circus, part satire, part holiday parade, the crowds that flooded the National Mall for Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert’s “Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear” on Saturday made it a political event like no other. Another dangling construction, this time with an appositive. Presumably we meant that the education rally not the crowds were part circus, part satire, etc. How they did it is the profile story of one of the most remarkable Congressional campaigns in more than a half-century, characterized by careful plotting by Republicans, miscalculations by Democrats and a new political dynamic with forces out of both parties control . Needed an apostrophe, or better still, rephrasing. Both Mr. Brown and Mrs. Boxer provided victories for Democrats in the West on a night when swathes of the Midwest and the South went for Republicans. Mr. Education Essay? Perry has scrambled around the order of the poems, added his own connective tissue and characters, and shifted the boys time to the present, even while leaving resonant lines and swathes of passages intact.
The stylebook calls for “swath” as a noun. We should also be wary of overusing this term, which in precise use means a long, narrow strip. The starlets change, the story doesn’t. If a young female performer with a relatively straight-laced image wants to in turkey essay, take full charge of her brightest future, she apparently has to do some time on the pole. It is spelled “strait-laced,” and it’s even in the stylebook.
It was the second time in less than a year: on Dec. Essay Honoria Rome? 25, a Nigerian trained in Yemen tried to detonate a bomb on a commercial flight as it approached Detroit, and Al Qaeda took credit for the attempt. “Credit” has an in turkey, inherently positive connotation in this phrase. Better to say “claimed responsibility” or something similar. The psychiatrist called by the defense, Dr. Eric Goldsmith, brought a maudlin quiet to the courtroom as he described in of a essay detail the education in turkey bottomless feelings of boys essay guilt he said Mr. Hayes had revealed. This doesn’t seem to be the word we wanted; “maudlin” means “foolishly and tearfully or weakly sentimental.”
The rise of Mr. Cuomo, 52, fulfills the restoration of a political dynasty and marks the first time a son of a New York governor has been elected to that office. Mario M. Cuomo was elected in 1982 and served three terms. This smacks of hyperbole. The “dynasty” he’s supposedly restoring has till now consisted of system essay exactly one person, his father. When Mr. Moynihan came to inspect recently, he was particularly impressed with some excruciatingly delicate work by the mason, who was grounding the old mortar out of every single joint and brushing a new batch of nano chocolate “mud” with a careful hand. Presumably we meant “grinding”? Nolan Ryan, who caught the ceremonial first pitch from the education system in turkey former President George W. Bush , shifted uncomfortably in his seat, and again when Posey avenged his Game 3 encounter with Darren O’Day by mashing a ball onto basic structure college essay the grass in center field. No need for “the” here. (“Former President John Smith” is not considered a “false title.”) After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and in turkey, style encountered by writers and editors of The Times.
It is case nano, adapted from a weekly newsroom critique overseen by system, Philip B. Corbett, the associate managing editor for structure college standards, who is also in charge of The Times’s style manual. Notes from the newsroom on grammar, usage and style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.) Journalism is serious, but serious doesn’t have to mean dull. Essay? Wit and fun have their place, in both light features and more weighty stories. Don’t overdo it or strain for a joke that might prompt a groan rather than a smile. But flashes of humor are welcome and can draw readers in.
A few recent examples of solved study nano surprising and inviting lead paragraphs: Andrew Kramer’s starting point for a story about a Russian crackdown on spam (Business, 10/27): MOSCOW You may not have noticed, but since late last month, the world supply of Viagra ads and essay, other e-mail spam has dropped by an estimated one-fifth. Essay Honoria? With 200 billion spam messages in circulation each day, there is still plenty to go around. Jim Yardley’s look at a high-rise palace in education Mumbai, with a particularly clever touch highlighted (Foreign, 10/29): MUMBAI The newest and most exclusive residential tower for this city’s superrich is for resume, a cantilevered sheath of steel and glass soaring 27 floors into the sky. The parking garage fills six levels. Three helipads are on the roof. There are terraces upon terraces, airborne swimming pools and hanging gardens in a Blade Runner-meets-Babylon edifice overlooking India’s most dynamic city. Ariel Kaminer’s lead for a City Critic piece on education system jury duty that was full of irresistible touches (Metropolitan, 10/3): The rocky shores of a cold lake.
Soot-smudged medieval faces, twisted into grimaces. And then, from yonder trees, a desperate-looking villager being shoved to rocket boys essay contest, water’s edge, where he is bound at hand and foot and thrown in the water. That vivid little costume drama, from the video that greets prospective jurors in education New York City courthouses, is meant to evoke the essay contest horrors of unjust trials. In Turkey? But to many of the members of for resume its audience, it might just as easily evoke the system in turkey essay torture of being roped into jury duty dragged to a courthouse and confined to dingy waiting rooms if you’re lucky, or to a long trial if you’re not. An inviting start to a story about for resume, a debate over Halloween on a Sunday, by Mark Oppenheimer and Kim Severson (National, 10/29): The date of Halloween has always been one of the easy ones to education system, remember: Oct. 31, plain and rome, simple. Education? No first Tuesday-after-the-first-Monday-of-November nonsense (that’s Election Day), no fourth-Thursday-in-November (Thanksgiving), no second-Monday-in-October (if you don’t know, ask a Canadian). Just the last day of October.
A bit of a stretch, perhaps, but this opening by William Neuman still made me smile (Business, 10/22): Shoppers in the supermarket today can buy chicken free of nearly everything but adjectives . It comes free-range, cage-free, antibiotic-free, raised on references essay vegetarian feed, organic, even air-chilled. Coming soon: stress-free? When the pieces of a sentence don’t fit neatly together, readers can end up distracted, annoyed or confused. Here are a few recent lapses two involving the dreaded dangling participle and in turkey, two showing, yet again, the perils of “like.” But a page-by-page review of her expenses offered a glimpse of how she [Sharron Angle] poured out so much money so quickly. In the end, even after raising five times as much as Mr. Honoria Rome? Reid, the Senate majority leader, the pair began the campaign’s final stretch with similar amounts in education system essay the bank.
In a participle construction like this, the solved on tata person or thing described by the participle should come right after the education system description; otherwise, the participle “dangles.” Here, “raising” is supposed to refer to Angle, but the noun it appears to modify is “the pair.” Though born into an accomplished, well-to-do family, her parents’ early death (the children were taken in by an aunt with limited means) and her decision to pursue an acting career led to a hardscrabble existence that persisted through the early years of her marriage and life on a farm with three small children and no electricity and makeshift indoor plumbing. Ditto. “Born” refers to “she,” not to “her parents’ early death.” (Best to start over solved case study on tata with this long, convoluted sentence.) Like a Middle Eastern version of Las Vegas, Dubai’s biggest challenge is water, which may be everywhere in the gulf but is undrinkable without desalination plants. The Times’s stylebook says this: The items linked by education system, like must be parallel, and therefore comparable. Do not write Like Houston, August in New York is humid . That sentence compares August to Houston, not what its author meant. Make it Like Houston, New York is humid in August . In the current example, what is “like a Middle Eastern version of Las Vegas” is Dubai, not “Dubai’s biggest challenge.” Rephrase. Dessert? Nothing fancier than a plate of cheese, fresh cherries and cookies.
Like everything on solved the menu, the kitchen coaxed flavor out of even the simplest of items. Same problem. Maybe make it “as with everything ,” or rephrase entirely. This week’s grab bag of grammar, style and other missteps, compiled with help from colleagues and readers. Mr. Paladino may have low approval ratings downstate. But to some residents around Buffalo, Mr. System In Turkey Essay? Paladino , a prominent local real estate developer, is a hometown hero. High turnout in basic of a college essay Erie County, where Buffalo is, helped Mr.
Paladino win the Republican primary. A pronoun or two would have spared readers the jarring repetition of his surname in education in turkey three consecutive sentences. On eBirdsnyc, a listserv for reporting bird sightings around the city, he wrote: “Prothonotary warbler 40th and 5th. ” Capitalize Listserv, a trademark for the first software that was widely used to manage e-mail lists. But avoid generic uses; in this case, the mailing list for birders is part of Yahoo Groups. Lester K. Little, an expert on the Justinian plague at about utilitarianism Smith College , said in an interview from Bergamo, Italy, that the epidemic was first reported by in turkey, the Byzantine historian Procopius in 541 A.D. from the ancient port of Pelusium, near Suez in structure of a college essay Egypt. A reader asked when the system in turkey essay plague hit Smith College. (The print version more neatly placed the affiliation after the professor’s name.) Scott McAdams, the Democratic candidate in Alaska, has long been trailing the official Republican candidate, Joe Miller, and the write-in candidate, Lisa Murkowski, the incumbent Republican senator who Mr. Rocket Boys Essay Contest? Miller defeated in essay the party’s primary. [Blog post] We have inputted data from around 50 new surveys into our database.
Let’s avoid jarring jargon; this was later changed to “entered information.” And if we were to use “input” as a verb, the past tense would be “input.” (Also, the for resume informal use of “around” could have easily been avoided.) Since the middle of the decade, airline employees have given up more than $12 billion a year in wages, benefits, pensions and other work rules, according to estimates from industry analysts and union leaders. That certainly seems like a big number. But as a reader pointed out, without context, it’s hard to judge. Was this a 40 percent reduction? Five percent? In most cases, when reporting a reduction or increase, we should provide the total as well. Instead, she meandered the essay stadium’s concourse , wearing a comically oversize Snow White gown purchased last minute and on tata nano, accompanying four friends dressed as Marilyn Monroe. “Meander” is system in turkey essay, not a transitive verb that is, it should not be used with a direct object. (“Wander” can be transitive or intransitive, and essay rome, may have worked here.)
After showering one table with a blizzard of white truffles, Mr. Zakarian spotted a bit of soil on a black carpet runner in education system essay the kitchen. He sprung into action. As we’ve noted recently with “sink/sank,” our dictionary’s first choice for the past of essay contest “spring” is education system, “sprang,” so that’s what we should use. National, 10/27 (Web version) [Headline] Massive Windstorm Howls Across Nation’s Midsection. [Caption] The storm moved through Manteno, Ill., six miles south of study Peotone. The town names standing by themselves were meaningless to most readers. We needed to note Manteno, of education system in turkey course, but its location would have been better stated in relationship to a bigger city, perhaps Chicago. Also, note that we try to avoid this loose use of “massive” to mean “very big.” The Democrats’ inability to case study on tata nano, control the messaging during the legislative debate bled unstaunched into the campaign, as Republicans appealed to in turkey, base voters with a bumper-sticker pledge to repeal the law or, if unable, to drain its financing. The combination of jargon and mixed metaphors made for tough going here.
Also, the stylebook calls for “unstanched” for about utilitarianism this meaning. ARLINGTON, Tex. The Yankees lavished $243.5 million on starting pitching two winters ago, and the splurge returned them to glory. It restored that fall ritual in New York, the championship parade, but it might have had an expiration date. A common problem. In a construction like this, “might” emphasizes the doubt; we wanted “may.” After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and style encountered by writers and system in turkey, editors of The Times. Essay? It is adapted from a weekly newsroom critique overseen by Philip B. Corbett, the associate managing editor for standards, who is education system essay, also in charge of The Times’s style manual. Notes from the newsroom on grammar, usage and style. Essay? (Some frequently asked questions are here.)
After my recent discussion of parallelism problems, my colleague Ken Paul pointed out another frequent source of system in turkey such breakdowns: constructions with “both and” or similar phrases. In general, the phrase after “and” must match the phrase after “both” in rocket boys contest structure. For example, if a preposition follows “both,” it should be repeated after “and”; alternately, a single preposition can come before “both” and cover both halves of the parallel structure. Some recent missteps: Mr. Education In Turkey? Headley was known both to Pakistani and American security officials long before his arrest as a terrorist. The phrases after “both” and “and” are not parallel. Adding “to” before “American” would be correct, though it’s terser to say “to both Pakistani and essay about utilitarianism, American security officials.” (Here, I assume we wanted to say “both” for emphasis, but in some cases the parallelism problem can be eliminated simply by deleting “both.”) [Headline] A Casualty Both of War and the Spanish Economy.
Same problem. Make it “of Both War and the Spanish Economy.” The problems were caused not merely by system in turkey essay, white racism, he argued, but also weak family structure. There’s no “both,” but the problem is the same in this construction. Here, given the intervening phrase, it’s best to repeat the preposition “by” “also by rocket boys essay contest, weak family structure.” Regardless, the problem underscores another challenge facing the company: Facebook has grown so rapidly, in education essay both users and in technical complexity, that it finds it increasingly difficult to for resume, control everything that happens on its site. Here’s the opposite problem regarding preposition placement. What follows “both” (“users”) is not parallel with what follows “and” (“in technical complexity”). Either place “both” before the first “in,” or delete the second “in.” For biologists, islands have always been illuminating places.
In part, this reflects both the relative simplicity of in turkey island ecosystems and also the essay rome richly unique, and sometimes bizarre, turns that life takes on islands think parrots behaving like big rodents, massive dragonlike lizards and system in turkey essay, miniature hippos, giant flightless dodo birds and tiny ground-foraging bats. Here the problem is study on tata, simply redundancy after “both” we need only “and,” not “and also.” This week’s grab bag of grammar, style and other missteps, compiled with help from colleagues and education in turkey essay, readers. There was no heavy news coverage like the Jackson State killings in Mississippi received in 1970, no unforgettable photograph like the essay honoria image that burned the education Kent State shootings into references the American consciousness that same year. Recorded announcement: Rephrase to avoid “like” as a conjunction.
For those sober souls who were thrifty long before it became fashionable, the last few years have been intensely aggravating. As The Times’s stylebook notes, in education system in turkey precise usage, “aggravate” means “worsen.” Here we meant something more like “frustrating,” “distressing,” “irritating” or perhaps “infuriating.” The cabbie was like thousands of other immigrants here Our style is cabby or cabdriver. That she conceived of this festival during a yoga class sounds too good to be true, but is . Hmmnn. It is essay about utilitarianism, true? Or it is too good to be true? “There was determination that we were going to education essay, go out and play our game today,” Girardi said. Profile For Resume? “ I saw it during B.P. The mood during B.P. System In Turkey Essay? was very businesslike, and we knew what we had to references essay format, do. Essay? The guys went out and did it.” Casual readers attracted by playoff excitement might have been puzzled by references essay format, this insider shorthand near the top of the story.
We could have deftly preceded the quote with a reference to “batting practice” without annoying any hard-core fans. With the help of a highly accurate mobile rocket, a buildup of American and Afghan forces seem to have forced many insurgents to flee strongholds in Kandahar Province. Agreement problem. Make it “buildup seems.” The Times Company, which publishes its namesake newspaper in addition to The Globe, The International Herald Tribune, a number of regional newspapers and owns About.com, continued to accumulate cash. Let’s give this word a rest, right alongside “eponymous.” For one thing, normally the namesake is the person or thing that takes a name from someone else (the opposite of “eponym,” which is the giver of the in turkey essay name.) More important what’s the point here?
Is there any reader who doesn’t know that The New York Times Company publishes The New York Times? We could just say: “The Times Company, which also publishes The Globe ” It was a deep drive by Bengie Molina, whose two-out, three-run homer off Burnett came precisely four years after his younger brother, Yadier, sunk the Mets with a game-winning homer in Game 7 of the 2006 N.L.C.S. A text message from Yadier awaited him afterward. As we noted here recently, we should use “sank” as the past tense. After ABC programming was taken off of essay rome Cablevision’s systems for nearly a full day in March due to a similar fee fight, the F.C.C. chairman Julius Genachowski indicated that the education essay agency was looking closely at the issue. After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and for resume, style encountered by writers and editors of The Times. Education? It is adapted from a weekly newsroom critique overseen by Philip B. Corbett, the associate managing editor for standards, who is study on tata, also in charge of The Times’s style manual. Notes from the education system newsroom on grammar, usage and style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.) Sometimes we’re misled in our word use by confusion with similar words or by inattention to nuance. These missteps are a bit more subtle than the usual homophone mix-ups of the essay contest there/their/they’re variety. A couple of education in turkey essay examples:
The rapid acknowledgment of the story contrasts with the case nano reticence of the education system mainstream news media to follow the lead of The National Enquirer’s report in honoria rome late 2006 that John Edwards, the former North Carolina senator seeking the Democratic nomination for the presidency, had fathered a child out of wedlock with a woman who was a campaign videographer. We often confuse “reticence” and in turkey essay, “reluctance,” which presumably is what we meant here. Someone who is about, “reticent” is reserved (or “reluctant” to speak out). But one would not be “reticent” to do something. For six minutes, a tape recording of her 911 call [on the education essay Fort Hood shooting] enraptured the courtroom.
Sirens, moans and gunfire made the case study on tata scene sound like a chaotic battlefield. “My God, everybody is shot,” Ms. Harper told the system 911 operator, wheezing. Basic Structure Essay? “Oh my God, oh my God.” “Enrapture” has a strong positive connotation, meaning “to fill with great pleasure or delight; entrance; enchant” clearly not what we intended here. “Enthrall” would present a similar problem; perhaps “grip” or “rivet” would serve. And there are always more examples of education in turkey sound-alike mix-ups some familiar, some brand new. There’s no defense except careful writing and solved case nano, even more careful editing. Of course, our readers are always ready to put us right if we go astray. A few recent examples: Not since the oil boom of the system in turkey essay 1890s, when industrial magnets like Baron Alphonse de Rothschild and the Nobel brothers of Sweden transformed Batumi into a playground for the wealthy, has this city of some 120,000 pulsed with such enterprise. I don’t think I’ve ever seen this slip before. Make it “magnate.” “You see these guys with mortar dust all over them, and they’re stacking [stolen bricks] on a palette , and they’ll say, ‘I’m just a day laborer working for case on tata that guy over there whoa, where did he go?’ ’’ said Maribeth McMahon, a lawyer with the city counselor’s office. A painter uses a “palette.” You taste things with your “palate.” But you stack bricks on a “pallet.” Fisher was most interested in education system peeling back the layers of the franchise, poring himself into nontraditional statistics and questioning the wisdom of how the of a college essay Dodgers’ roster was constructed.
We may have been led astray by the image of someone “poring” over charts. Education System In Turkey? But in this construction, he would have to be “pouring” himself into the effort. A little more than 40 miles north of New York City, near the Woodbury Common outlet stores, the essay about rear tire on the driver’s side of the minivan blew out. The vehicle swerved off the pavement and rolled several times before coming to rest upside down on the grassy center meridian. Not sure whether this belongs here or in the preceding section, but obviously the word we wanted was “median.”
This week’s grab bag of grammar, style and education, other missteps, compiled with help from colleagues and basic structure, readers. For weeks, both companies [Fox and education, Cablevision] have been working publicly to make the other seem like the holdout. This construction doesn’t quite track. Make it “each company has been working to make the other ” “If we had had a TV crew, we would have exploded to another galaxy,” he said, betraying a hint of rescue envy. ”Nobody helped us. We got out and went to a barbeque .”
Don’t be fooled by BBQ; it’s spelled “barbecue.” While not in the 30s, Obama’s approval rating in surveys conducted by The New York Times and CBS News had fallen to 45 percent last month from for resume, 62 percent when he took office just a point above where Clinton was before losing Congress in 1994 and three points above where Reagan was before the Republicans lost a couple dozen House seats in 1982. Avoid this slang construction, as The Times’s stylebook advises. Even in a colloquial context, make it “a couple of dozen ” Then why, a reporter wondered, had Hicks, when recently asked about Rodriguez, said, “Good riddance?” The question mark here should be outside the quotation marks. The movement stands a good chance of education system in turkey essay establishing a sizeable caucus to push its agenda in the House and the Senate, according to a New York Times analysis. He resigned from the essay utilitarianism administration’s auto team as the investigation heated up and since then has written about that work in Op-Eds and this week was promoting his new book on the auto industry at in turkey essay a private soiree.
This is jargon. Call them opinion articles or op-ed articles (our style is to use uppercase only in reference to solved, The Times’s page). On many issues abortion , support for repealing a ban on open homosexuality in the military, embryonic stem cell research there was a predictable divide. He favored . She opposed. Few if any people “favor” abortion. Presumably his political position is in favor of “the right to an abortion.” We should take extra care in characterizing politically volatile issues. Sergeant Gibbs has refused to speak to military investigators. But during fingerprinting and photographing in May, he was required to show his tattoos. On his lower left leg was an image of crossed pistols and six skulls.
He told an investigator, according to education system essay, an investigation transcript, that the skulls were “his way of keeping count of the kills he had. The skulls that were in red were the ones from Iraq and the other three were the kills he had in Afghanistan.” The stylebook says: “If a quotation begins with a sentence fragment, do not go on to quote one or more full sentences. Instead, close the solved case quotation at the end of the fragment and introduce the full sentences as a separate, further quotation, preferably as a new paragraph.” [Subheading] Cracks in a storage pond’s wall prompts an evacuation. Agreement problem. Make it “prompt.” The caller, a self-described right-wing Brooklyn rabbi named Yehuda Levin, had heard that other Jewish leaders were accusing Mr.
Paladino of being an anti-Semite “I told him, ‘I have the system essay credibility that when I go in front of the for resume media and I am representing the Paladino camp, and that if he is education system in turkey, coming to my synagogue, right before the holiday of Sukkot, it will mean something,’ ” Mr. Levin said in an interview on Monday. As we noted here recently, a rabbi is essay, always “Rabbi So-and-So” on second reference, never “Mr.” After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and style encountered by writers and editors of The Times. It is adapted from a weekly newsroom critique overseen by education system in turkey, Philip B. Honoria Rome? Corbett, the associate managing editor for education essay standards, who is also in charge of The Times’s style manual. Notes from the newsroom on grammar, usage and style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.)
Bryan A. Garner, in his Modern American Usage, describes parallelism as “the matching of sentence parts for logical balance,” and honoria rome, says it helps satisfy readers’ “innate craving for order and system in turkey essay, rhythm.” Lack of for resume parallelism, on the other hand, is like an uneven sidewalk that makes a hurrying reader stumble awkwardly and occasionally crash to the ground. Several recent variations on the problem: Dr. deGravelle’s clinic notes say Kyle was hyperactive, prone to education system essay, tantrums, spoke only three words and “does not interact well with strangers. ’’ This, as Garner notes, is one of the most common parallelism problems “mixing phrases and clauses by introducing a verb late in the game.” In this case, after the verb “was,” we started what appeared to be a list of parallel adjectives “hyperactive, prone [to tantrums] ” But then we abruptly switched gears, introducing two new verbs. Perhaps the simplest fix is to use “and” instead of a comma after “hyperactive.” That would make “was hyperactive and references essay, prone to tantrums” the education system in turkey essay first of three parallel verb phrases. The problem is references, compounded by the switch to a present-tense verb in the direct quote at the end. Essay? Better to paraphrase to avoid the shift in honoria rome tenses.
According to the listing, the system apartment has four bedrooms, 5,425 square feet of format space, and is on the 88th floor. A similar problem. We seem to education system in turkey essay, start a series of noun phrases, all direct objects of “has” four bedrooms, 5,425 square feet and but then abruptly introduce a new verb, breaking the parallel structure. One solution would be to put “and” instead of the boys contest comma after “bedrooms.” “I really didn’t know what I was walking into,” Jim Millstein says about taking one of the education system essay biggest jobs of his life: unraveling the rocket essay taxpayers’ bailout er, investment in the American International Group. Another common problem. If a prepositional phrase modifies two different nouns, the preposition has to work with both, or we need to supply separate prepositions. Here, it’s right to say “investment in,” but not “bailout in.” We needed “bailout of,” or we needed to rephrase. Add in the competitive political environment, with Republicans ascendant, the Obama administration struggling to break the system in turkey essay perception that it is essay format, hostile to business, and the resulting stew is potent.
Here, it seems, we simply didn’t have a third element for the series. We needed “and” after “ascendant,” and system in turkey, perhaps dashes to set those two elements off. F. Scott Fitzgerald wouldn’t have found it hard to understand why the beautiful and damned flocked to Bernard’s large estate, often eager to toil in the most menial tasks. Like Bikram of Beverly Hills, the rome owner of many Rolls-Royces and Rolexes, and whose client list includes Madonna and Britney Spears, Bernard was especially lucky with his patrons, keeping one of the more flush Vanderbilts on tap for decades. A different problem here. The two elements describing Bikram are not grammatically parallel, so they should not be linked by the coordinating conjunction “and.” There’s an in turkey, appositive (“the owner of many ”) and a relative clause (“whose client list includes ”); we can simply delete “and.”
This week’s grab bag of grammar, style and other missteps, compiled with help from solved study on tata nano, colleagues and readers. On Wednesday, Gov. Rick Perry, a Republican running for re-election, sharply criticized the Mexican government as being slow to investigate the episode. He also denounced the Obama administration as not having provided more National Guard troops to patrol the in turkey essay border. We seemed to rome, be trying, as The Times’s stylebook suggests, to avoid a construction that assumes the truth of an accusation or criticism She criticized the president for breaking his promises. But simply changing “for” to “as” in this case creates some unnatural phrasing. How about something like “accused the Mexican government of being slow”? She now attends a Protestant church, like her mother did.
Recorded announcement: We should avoid this use of “like” as a conjunction, introducing a clause. Robert S. Tipp, a managing director and chief investment strategist for Prudential Fixed Income, cautioned against education in turkey essay, reading too much into solved on tata nano the Dow breaking into new terrain. A “fused participle” problem. Make it “the Dow’s breaking ” or rephrase. The most recent string of revelations has been bracing . After a plane crash in August killed 42 people in northeast China, officials discovered that 100 pilots who worked for the airline’s parent company had falsified their flying histories. Then there was the padded resume of Tang Jun, the education essay millionaire former head of Microsoft China and references essay, something of education system in turkey essay a national hero, who falsely claimed to have received a doctorate from the California Institute of Technology. “Bracing,” meaning “invigorating, refreshing,” does not seem to boys contest, be the education system in turkey essay word we wanted in this story about fraud in China. Essay Utilitarianism? “Eye-opening,” perhaps, or “startling”? Sophie, who is played by three children, is education, a somewhat colicky infant who puts her guardians through the boys ringer . It should have been “wringer,” as some unkind critics on Twitter pointed out the next morning (fixed online).
Hasids, West Indians, hipsters and pizza. One Brooklyn restaurant thinks it’s the perfect recipe. The plural is “Hasidim,” as the stylebook notes. A surprising lapse; make it “all right.” Behind the locked door of the studio, now used for storage, are rows of ceiling-mounted Klieg lights and huge camera dollies pasted with NBC stickers. Our official dictionary (Webster’s New World College) favors “klieg lights.” And Google-powered phones now account for system in turkey essay nearly one-in-five smartphones currently in use in the United States, whereas the iPhone accounts for essay slightly more than one-in-four and the BlackBerry nearly one-in-three , according to the Nielsen data. No reason for hyphens in these expressions.
On the other hand, he is not one of these cold-eyed tacticians who is always hedging his bets. Recorded announcement: In this construction, the relative pronoun is plural (agreeing with “tacticians”). So make it “who are always hedging their bets.” Mr. In Turkey? Zell, a hard-changing real estate mogul with virtually no experience in the newspaper business, decided that a deal financed with heavy borrowing and followed with aggressive cost-cutting could succeed where the longtime Tribune executives he derided as bureaucrats had failed. Don’t rely on spell-check; read every word. This was fixed for the last print edition and the Web.
But roles in recitals seemed to elude her. Her hair wasn’t blonde and ”didn’t bounce like the little white girls’,” she said. For the adjective, the rome stylebook says, use “blond.” As Mr. Paladino made his way to his vehicle, Duke began barking at the Labrador and sunk his teeth into its right leg, witnesses said, causing it to bleed. “Sank” is the dictionary’s first choice for the past tense, so that’s what we should use.
[Caption on video] A report from Al Jazeera on education system the controversial video game “Medal of essay Honor.” The names of games, video or otherwise, do not take quotation marks in our style. After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and education system in turkey essay, style encountered by profile, writers and editors of education system essay The Times. It is adapted from a weekly newsroom critique overseen by Philip B. Corbett, the rome associate managing editor for standards, who is also in charge of system The Times’s style manual. Notes from the newsroom on grammar, usage and references format, style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.)
A carelessly placed prepositional phrase can lead to in turkey essay, momentary confusion for the reader, or even an unintended chuckle. Try to keep a prepositional phrase adjacent to about utilitarianism, the word it describes. If you can’t, maybe the sentence is too complicated and needs to be streamlined. Since writers know exactly what they are trying to say, it’s easy for them to overlook these lapses. Copy editors are a crucial bulwark against phrases that stray.
A few that slipped through our defenses: Mr. Paladino refused to education system, apologize for his eruption at rocket essay the reporter, whom he blamed for sending photographers to take pictures of his 10-year-old daughter from an extramarital affair at her home. The pileup of system three prepositional phrases in a row defied easy untangling and essay about utilitarianism, left “at her home” far from what it referred to. We probably should have started over. The front lobby was decorated with large photos of grinning African children that Salem took on her trips to Rwanda and education system in turkey essay, Tanzania. The ambiguity of “take” may have left a reader momentarily stumbling. She took pictures, not children, on her trips.
Everyone knows swimming is excellent exercise, but it is also terrific therapy. Basic Structure College Essay? Nothing frees my mind as dependably as the rhythm of my arms and legs propelling me from education, one end of the pool to solved case study on tata nano, the other. Also, as I have discovered in the 18 months since the death of the man I loved, in the pool, no one can tell the water running down your face is tears. We tried to guide the reader with commas, but the tendency is to read the education phrase “in the pool” with what comes before, not after. Alberto Bruschi, a Florence collector, bought what turned out to be Galileo’s digits and tooth at the urging of his daughter Candida, who collects reliquaries. She also happened to be writing her senior thesis on Galileo’s tomb. An academic graffiti artist?
O.K., maybe no one would jump to that conclusion. Still, changing “on” to “about” would have avoided the rocket double meaning. This week’s grab bag of grammar, style and system essay, other missteps, compiled with help from colleagues and readers. Neither Hayek nor Bastiat were writing with the United States in mind. Agreement problem. Make it “neither Hayek nor Bastiat was writing” Not surprisingly, the Israelis are not saying whether Stuxnet has any connection to the secretive cyberwar unit it has built inside Israel’s intelligence service. Another agreement problem: “Israelis… they have built.”
No one really wants to admit that they don’t eat vegetables. And yet another. Perhaps: “Few Americans want to profile for resume, admit that they don’t eat vegetables.” Good news in a city where the in turkey joblessness rate hovers around 9 percent: There are job openings and case study on tata, new hires starting seemingly everywhere, that is, in the rarified employment sector of Manhattan private school administration. The dictionary’s preference, and our stylebook’s, is “rarefied.” Another problematic case involves a foreclosure action taken by Deutsche Bank against a borrower in the Bronx in New York . Perhaps this arose from system in turkey essay, careless revision, but we didn’t need to specify which Bronx we meant. After Desiree Rogers left her job as White House social secretary last winter amid grousing about structure of a, whom she let into presidential events (uninvited aspiring reality television stars) and in turkey essay, whom she didn’t ( doyennes of solved Washington society accustomed to A-list treatment), she paused to reflect on a tenure that had been so groundbreaking yet so fractious.
This precious word is probably overused, and system in turkey, not always accurately. It is the feminine form of “doyen,” a senior member of essay about a group, especially one regarded as an authority because of knowledge or experience. In Turkey? This article never returns to the claim, but other reports suggest she irritated others used to White House access (party fund-raisers for example), not just society ladies. It is not the essay about first time cruel acts and online distribution have combined tragically. In 2008, Jessica Logan, 18, hung herself after an ex-boyfriend circulated the nude cellphone snapshots she had “sexted” to him. Stylebook: “A person is hanged ; a picture is hung .” The Nobel prize in physiology or medicine has been awarded this year to Robert G. Edwards, an English biologist who with a physician colleague, Dr. Patrick Steptoe, developed the in vitro fertilization procedure for treating human infertility . As the stylebook says, we capitalize the complete names of the five prizes: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
A federal judge has dismissed a $20 million lawsuit against the city by system, Oliver Jovanovic, a Columbia-trained biologist who gained notoriety after his arrest on charges that he had sexually tortured a Barnard College student who he had met online. Make it “whom” (we later did). [Caption] Some of the dogs and ponies which bore much of the burden of the race to the South Pole in 1911-12 will be recognized. This is a “restrictive” clause that is, necessary to the sense of the sentence and about, so should be introduced by “that,” not “which.” And the education essay reason JPMorgan pressed Access to hold onto the mortgage-backed securities as they started to decline was because the people managing the account truly believed they would bounce back. To people who are tired of study having to wait on line to cram checks in the A.T.M., this is about as close to education system in turkey, a miracle as anything the consumer banking industry has managed in a good long while.
As the boys essay contest stylebook notes: “Few besides New Yorkers stand or wait on line . System? In most of the English-speaking world, people stand in line . Use that wording.” After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and style encountered by writers and case study, editors of The Times. System? It is adapted from essay format, a weekly newsroom critique overseen by Philip B. Corbett, the associate managing editor for standards, who is system, also in about utilitarianism charge of system in turkey The Times’s style manual. Notes from the newsroom on profile grammar, usage and style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.) I’ve grumbled before about the faddish use of “reference” as a verb. And I’m prepared to keep grumbling, since we keep doing it. As The Times’s stylebook notes, there are almost always more natural and in turkey essay, graceful substitutes: cite, mention and format, refer to, for example. Just a few of the latest examples: “Equality is the prime rib of system in turkey essay America, but because I am gay, I don’t get to nano, enjoy the greatest cut of meat my country has to offer,’’ Lady Gaga said, referencing a dress she wore last week to the MTV Video Music Awards that was made out of cuts of steak. Here, “alluding to” might work best. “I want to believe that Carl wants to come back here,” said Rays Manager Joe Maddon, who also referenced the team’s other two high-priced, soon-to-be free agents, Carlos Pena and Rafael Soriano. Education System? “There’s a part of me that believes, truly believes, that if we do our job properly, they’re going to want to come back here.”
Try “mentioned” or “referred to.” Google has maintained that it is unable to of a essay, comply with broad injunctions. Yahoo has taken a different approach, saying the only way to follow the order is to block all sites referencing each plaintiff. So a Yahoo Argentina user searching for Yesica Toscanini gets a nearly blank page citing the judicial order. Again, “referring to,” “mentioning” or perhaps “naming” would work. “Advocate” is a transitive verb that should take a direct object: She advocates deeper tax cuts . As I’ve noted before, using it intransitively with “for,” “on” or other prepositions sounds jargony or faddish. The latest examples where we slipped:
Steven Law, president of Crossroads GPS, said what distinguished the group from its sister organization, American Crossroads, which is registered with the F.E.C. System Essay? as a political committee, was that Crossroads GPS was focused over for resume the longer term on advocating on “a suite of issues that are likely to see some sort of legislative response.” And their disclosure this political season has pointed up the central role that Fox News is increasingly playing during the Obama years, with its opinionated talk show hosts openly advocating against the administration and liberal groups like Media Matters regularly questioning its overall approach. This phrase, “advocate against,” is particularly awkward since the adverb fights the basic meaning of the verb. In Turkey Essay? We could simply have said “openly opposing.” This week’s grab bag of grammar, style and other missteps, compiled with help from colleagues and essay about, readers. Ms.
Gordon-Reed investigated the education story of the slave family that included Sally Hemings , a slave owned by Jefferson who scholars widely believe bore his children. A New Yorker, Ms. Gordon-Reed teaches law and rocket boys, history at Harvard. Some of her grant will go toward travel expenses as she researches another book on education system the Hemings , she said. The plural is “Hemingses.” With some candidates anxious about appearing with President Obama, Mr. Clinton is about utilitarianism, a sought-after substitute. After his rally with Mr. Fisher, the system in turkey former president is set to campaign Monday in Pennsylvania with gubernatorial candidate Dan Onorato . “Gubernatorial candidate” is simply a description. On Tata? Using it before the name like this is education, a journalistic mannerism to be avoided, a so-called false title.
Also, The Times’s stylebook advises against the stilted “gubernatorial.” Make it “Dan Onorato, the boys essay contest Democratic candidate for governor” or “who is running for governor.” What we learn about an artist’s life can profoundly change how we receive their work. Rephrase to avoid the agreement problem in education in turkey using “their” for a singular artist. Mr. Obama, at turns sweeping and honoria rome, philosophical, told the system delegates and world leaders that it was “our destiny” to endure a time of recession, war and conflict, and spoke out broadly in study nano support of open governments and education, human rights. Did we mean “by turns”? Or perhaps “at times”? This should boost ticket sales for the musical “American Idiot” during Broadway’s traditional September doldrums: Billie Joe Armstrong, above, the frontman and lead guitarist of the rome rock band Green Day, will step into the role of St. Jimmy in system the musical for eight performances, this Tuesday through Sunday evening, the boys essay contest producers have announced. From the stylebook: boost, booster . Suitable uses include these: boost (n. or v.) over a wall ; civic booster; morale booster; booster rocket. Education System Essay? But avoid journalese like boost wages, boost taxes, boost a bill’s chances.
Just hours after Justice Department lawyers filed their latest defense of the policy in court on basic of a college essay Thursday, Mr. Gibbs sent an education in turkey essay, email to reporters making it clear that the legal maneuver was a formality, not an essay, indication of presidential policy. We still use the hyphen: e-mail. Like all Woodward books, “Obama’s Wars” plows relentlessly forward like a shark. In Turkey? It is references format, all about education system, narrative and scenes and relationships among its principle subjects, not policy assessments or evaluations of conditions on the ground. As many readers pointed out, we meant “principal.” Dozens of rome taxi drivers were arrested and charged in Manhattan on Wednesday with overcharging riders in what is believed to be the largest takedown of cabbies in system New York, the authorities said. The use of the police jargon “takedown” seems peculiar and out of place. Mr.
Letterman has started off the new television season much more competitive with his main rival Jay Leno on NBC and Mr. Phoenix is the kind of talked-about guest that usually pumps up ratings for late-night shows. Use commas: “main rival, Jay Leno on NBC, and” Without only college essay, Dave Robertson, who will rest the system essay next few days after having a magnetic resonance imaging test on his back, Girardi had a full complement of pitchers to succeed A. J. Burnett, whose night was cut short after allowing one run in basic essay three innings. A dangling participle; the “night” did not allow the runs. Simple fix: “after he allowed” Later Tuesday, Twitter Security Chief Bob Lord said in a blog post that the in turkey essay site patched the flaw used in of a college essay the attack a month ago, but that a recent update “unknowingly resurfaced it.” Another false title. Men say they will vote for the Republican candidate rather than the system in turkey essay Democratic candidate in their districts by a margin of 45 percent to rocket boys essay, 32 percent.
In this context, a margin is the difference between the two numbers. Here we could simply omit the word. This type of home-schooling is system in turkey, really nothing special. About Utilitarianism? Our son was merely one of education in turkey essay more than a million students home-schooled in the United States last year. No hyphen when this is used as a noun, according to our preferred dictionary, Webster’s New World College. After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and style encountered by basic structure of a college, writers and editors of The Times.
It is adapted from a weekly newsroom critique overseen by essay, Philip B. Corbett, the associate managing editor for standards, who is also in charge of The Times’s style manual. Notes from the newsroom on grammar, usage and style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.) Two years ago, After Deadline noted a rash of headlines featuring phrases like “One Spring Break at a Time” and “One Radio Show at a Time” — 40 of them in a year. Well, we haven’t given up this construction entirely. Basic Of A? My colleague Kyle Massey points out that we’ve leaned on this crutch in education in turkey headlines at least a dozen times since March. The expression can be effective, but overuse threatens to make it seem shopworn. Here are some recent examples: Studying Acupuncture, One Needle Prick at essay a Time. From a Forest to a Family, One Tree at a Time.
Unlocking New York, One Date at a Time. Finding America, One Fairway at education a Time. And Kyle’s favorite: Taking a Sacred Plunge, One Wave of essay format Humanity at a Time. Maybe it’s time to give it another rest. While we’re on the subject, here’s a headline device that’s both overused and often misused: “Till Death Do [Blank] Part.” Consider these recent examples: Income Till Death Do You And Your Annuity Part. There’s a temptation to press this phrase into education in turkey essay service for almost any story about marriage, death or both.
But to what end? It’s frequently a strain, as these examples show, and the phrase is so familiar it will never, ever appear fresh or clever. What’s more, headline writers frequently muddle the grammar and obscure the meaning. Profile? The language of the marriage vow has a complex history, but the sense is “till death divides us.” Note that the pronoun is the object of “part” that’s the only way it makes sense. But frequently, as in the first two examples above, writers use a pronoun as the subject of “part” e.g. “Till Death Does She Part.” It’s not clear what that’s supposed to mean does she part (leave) till death, then return? In any case, let’s consider giving this one a long rest. This week’s grab bag of education system in turkey grammar, style and other missteps, compiled with help from colleagues and readers.
Still, Connie Peirce, an for resume, 87-year-old retired secretary and education essay, devout Catholic who lives in Peter Cooper Village in about Manhattan, often wished she had inherited a mezuza like many of system in turkey her non-Jewish neighbors did. As The Times’s stylebook notes, “devout Catholic” and similar phrases come across as cliches. Also, avoid this colloquial use of “like” as a conjunction. Whatever the case, his decision to set this story in college the kind of woods in which innumerable Jews were murdered during the Holocaust, and to burden it with Christian allusions like some saints, the Afghani rides a white horse is a calculated offense. Use “Afghan” for the people, “Afghani” for the currency.
One of the three American hikers held in Iran for 13 months on spying charges arrived in system in turkey essay the United States on Sunday as the solved Iranian president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, said that the United States, as “a humanitarian gesture,” should now release eight Iranians whom he said were illegally arrested . Recorded announcement: Make it “who,” the subject of “were arrested.” Garrett Fitzgerald, one of the four defendants who still faces charges, said that prosecutors offered Thursday to dismiss two felonies if he also pleaded guilty to a gross misdemeanor, but that he was leaning against system in turkey, doing so. Agreement problem. On Tata Nano? Better: “who still face” or “still facing” After watching Novak Djokovic test his limits in victory and then defeat at the United States Open, it would seem prudent for system him to spend the rest of this week on essay utilitarianism a quiet beach with a tropical drink in his right hand in place of a racket. A dangler.
Who is described as “watching”? Geoffrey Canada of the Harlem Children’s Zone is in turkey essay, having a good month. Already one of the best known charter school operators in the nation, his schools and of a essay, community service projects are about to move even more to center stage with the in turkey essay release next week of study nano a documentary about the education need for rocket essay contest change in American education, “Waiting for Superman,” that highlights his efforts. And another dangler. [Headline] Precursor to in turkey essay, H.I.V. Was in Monkeys for Millennia. That means humans have presumably been exposed many times to S.I.V., the simian immunodeficiency virus, because people have been hunting monkeys for millenniums , risking infection every time they butcher one for boys essay food. Both plurals are considered acceptable, but we should be consistent. And since our preferred dictionary (Webster’s New World College Dictionary) gives “millenniums” as the first choice, that’s what we should use. As the post-Labor Day sprint from the start of school to the Jewish New Year to a raucous and at times frustrating day of primary voting slows into a comfortable fall news pace, a wide variety of what the French call “fait divers” pepper the margins of serious reporting.
When it comes to French, we’re better off sticking to English. But if we insist that le mot juste exists only in a foreign language, the burden is on us to be exactly right. In this case, the education essay plural would be “faits divers.” That people tend to divide their money into separate mental accounts for various purposes (travel or dining out, for case nano example) and in turkey essay, that earmarking savings to rocket boys contest, specific goals (college savings, for instance) tends to education essay, increase saving rates has long been known. The compound subject required a plural verb. Better still, simplify the ungainly sentence. By tapping into regional and ideological strongholds in for resume the state largely in the south like other Tea Party candidates who claimed victories in Alaska and system, New York she was able to push out Representative Michael N. Castle, who had won multiple statewide races and was widely seen as a senatorial shoo-in. Using more than two dashes in a sentence usually causes confusion. Among the sins that set Mr. Newman’s teeth articulately on format edge were these: all jargon; idiosyncratic spellings like “Amtrak”; the non-adverbial use of “hopefully” (he was said to have had a sign in his office reading, “Abandon ‘Hopefully’ All Ye Who Enter Here”); “y’know” as a conversational stopgap; a passel of prefixes and suffixes (“de-,” “non-,” “un-,” “-ize,” “-wise” and “-ee”); and using a preposition to end a sentence with. Many readers of this interesting obit were probably grammar buffs themselves.
And they were likely to know that “hopefully” is still an in turkey essay, adverb even in the construction that Mr. Essay? Newman and others object to (often called a “sentence adverb”). In bad times, specialization can insulate landlords from the tumult of the education in turkey essay market as long as they are not in an industry that goes belly-up in a recession. No reason for the slang. The food processor replaces the whisk; the pastry cutter; the standing mixer (for which there are still some uses, but only essay about utilitarianism, if you’re a dedicated baker); the mandoline (which, to me, remains a fine alternative to the food processor for small quantities); the mortar and pestle, which, no matter how lovely, quaint and authentic, is perhaps the education system essay most labor-intensive, primitive and damnable set of tools in the kitchen; and, perhaps most importantly , the grater.
Make it “most important,” not “most importantly.” The full phrase, which is rarely written out, would be: “and what is perhaps most important” Just how strongly the government plans to hold onto its traditional economic philosophies are a matter of essay debate. The subject is the education system in turkey essay entire “how” clause, and it’s singular. If one man epitomizes the populist view of Wall Street and corporate America, it is profile, Mr. Stone, whose new film, “Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps” opens next week. It is the sequel to his hit movie “Wall Street” in 1987.
The original tapped into the zeitgeist of the moment “Greed, for lack of a better word, is good,” as Gordon Gekko said by capturing the lust for money and power that led to the market’s crash. “Zeitgeist” is overdone and probably could use a rest. Education In Turkey Essay? In any case, it means “the spirit of the time,” so “zeitgeist of the moment” is redundant. After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and style encountered by writers and editors of The Times. It is adapted from a weekly newsroom critique overseen by Philip B. Corbett, the associate managing editor for standards, who is also in charge of The Times’s style manual.
Notes from the newsroom on grammar, usage and style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.) One of my unhappy tasks is profile for resume, periodically reminding talented professional writers and editors that a verb should agree in number with its subject, and education in turkey essay, a pronoun with its antecedent. Even allowing for deadline haste, we trip over singular/plural problems far too often. There are many causes, but here’s one lesson to bear in mind. If a sentence is so complicated that we lose track of whether to use singular or plural, it may be too complicated, period. For Resume? Rather than just fixing the agreement problem, editors should consider whether streamlining the in turkey sentence would help more. Some recent examples: The relocation of underground utilities, including water pipes, gas lines, fuel tanks and electrical wires, are to nano, blame for at least six months of education in turkey delays and more than $130 million in overruns on the perennially postponed project, according to the inspector general of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority. A classic example of intervening phrases that muddle the agreement. Make it “the relocation is.” While studies continue to refine optimal blood levels and recommended dietary amounts, the for resume fact remains that a huge part of the population from robust newborns to the frail elderly, and many others in education system in turkey between are deficient in this essential nutrient.
Collective expressions can be tricky, but here we wanted “is.” Years before, he had been fired as dean of architecture and urban planning at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, for not putting in enough hours, he said. Essay About Utilitarianism? Earlier, he had dissolved his own practice because the education service nature of the profession and the slow pace of the work was profoundly irritating to him. The compound subject requires a plural verb. Solved Case Study? A subject that includes long phrases like this often seems to essay, throw us off, especially when the nouns are abstract rather than concrete. The National Capital Planning Commission reviews all plans concerning the National Mall in Washington, where everyone wants their memorial to be. A common problem stemming from the lack of a gender-neutral singular pronoun in English.
Usually it’s best to rephrase, e.g. “where every group wants its memorial to be.” [Caption] STITCHES: The size of the individual stitches vary considerably. Even in this short sentence, the intervening phrase led us astray. For Resume? Make it “varies.” Uecker, who is education, divorced and has four children, is one of a small group of solved case study baseball broadcasters whose endurance with one or more teams make them greater symbols for those franchises than most players. Perhaps we were afraid of the common “one of the [blank] who ” pitfall (see below). Instead, we tripped over education in turkey essay a different problem. The subject of the subordinate clause is “endurance,” so we needed a singular verb. Another One of Those Things. Of course, no discussion of singular/plural problems would be complete without a glance at the “one of the essay [blank] who [blank]” issue. I won’t rehash my past arguments and explanations on in turkey essay this point; I’ll just note that the construction requires a plural verb.
Ms. Kelch is one of those people who always makes small talk with cabdrivers, but on this day, after all that had happened, she was invested enough to take on a riskier conversation: What did he make of the essay proposed Muslim community center two blocks from the World Trade Center site? Make it “make.” (If we want to keep the system focus singular, consider something like “the kind of person who always makes .”) After my latest selection, alert readers quickly noted more examples of problems that spell-check can’t solve for us: Diamond studs wink in her ears and a pink gold Rolex gleams on on tata her wrist but these are discrete compared with the rhinestone studded hipster jeans she flaunted in New York only system in turkey essay, a handful of years ago. This word means “separate and boys essay, distinct.” We meant “discreet.” The Arizona law, says the homeowners’ association butting heads with Mr. McDonel, does not give residents authorization to fly anything else on their properties. Essay? That means no pennants bearing sports team logos, no Jolly Rogers, no rainbow banners celebrating gay pride and no historic flags showing a coiled rattlesnake bearing its fangs. The first “bearing” is right; the next time, we meant “baring.”
This week’s grab bag of grammar, style and other missteps, compiled with help from colleagues and honoria, readers. A jury is either out, or it isn’t. And in any event, we can do better than a cliche. Some liken that offensive to a “Hail Mary” pass, with the Taliban still entrenched throughout southern and eastern Afghanistan For now, his administration is banking on the “Hail Mary” in Kandahar to knock the Taliban back on essay their heels and build momentum toward “reintegration.” With a global readership, we should be more careful about narrow and colloquial references. Many readers around the world may not get or appreciate the reference to American football (or the structure of a college essay Catholic prayer). Certainly not twice in the same article (and in any case the education essay quotation marks were unnecessary).
President Obama is opening his news conference with a reprisal of his argument in Parma, Ohio, this week that the Republicans are responsible for the bad economy, not him, and that his plans have been intended to clean up their mess. We wanted “reprise,” not “reprisal,” as a reader pointed out. It was corrected. WASHINGTON President Obama gave an impassioned call on Friday for tolerance and essay rome, better relations between Muslims and system in turkey essay, non-Muslims at home and abroad, defending the “inalienable rights” of those who worship Islam to practice their religion freely. A number of readers pointed out essay, this problem, which was eventually fixed. We meant something like “practice” Islam, not “worship.” The Mets then skipped his turn in the rotation on Tuesday, in Washington, but described the move as a precautionary measure and inferred that Santana would have pitched had the education in turkey team been playing an important game. We meant “implied” (later fixed). According to Ron Ziel, a railroad historian, the opening of the station and honoria, its east-facing tunnels led to education essay, the development and, depending on one’s view, the destruction of Long Island as millions of commuters suddenly began to travel back and forth . In 1910, he said, about 33 million people commuted from the island by way of railroad tunnel; by 1929, the number had increased to 119 million, he said.
While this formulation is common (particularly in honoria rome transit stories), a careful reader pointed out that it can be misleading. There were only about 180,000 people on Long Island in those days there were certainly not “millions of commuters.” What we presumably meant was that the railroad provided millions of rides a year, and we should have found a way to say that more clearly. Quebec’s largest city is something of a cycling mecca , with a highly developed rent-a-bike system and an annual recreational tour that attracts about education in turkey essay, 20,000 riders. This expression has been overused lately. Essay Format? The pilgrimage to Mecca is a profound religious experience for millions of people, so we might want to think twice about education system in turkey, invoking the contest image, especially if a place is only “ something of a mecca.”
Minutes after the party’s outset, guests already had gathered around the bar at the landing, including Mr. Franzen himself, calm and genial in education essay a dark gray suit and pale blue shirt, equably chatting with his girlfriend, Kathryn Chetkovich; and Mark Costello, the novelist husband of the editor in chief of Scribner, Nan Graham. As The Times’s stylebook notes, the natural place for references essay the adverb is education essay, between the basic structure of a essay parts of the education in turkey verb: “had already gathered.” Laying prostrate in a hospice-care bed on the set helped Ms. Essay Honoria? Lozano save energy and prepare for grueling after-hours work her Off Broadway debut as a playwright this month with ”underneathmybed,” a chaotic drama about Argentine immigrants haunted by the ”dirty war” of the military junta back home. Farmers and education system essay, planners in areas like Kansas and the Texas Panhandle have long grappled with fears that the famed Ogallalah aquifer may run dry, and essay utilitarianism, parts of India are believed to be at risk of exhausting readily accessible groundwater as early as 2025. It’s spelled Ogallala. The behind-the-scenes foment has set the stage for a half-dozen combative races in districts that might otherwise have been sleepy and predictable. “Ferment” can be a noun, but “foment” normally isn’t. “I need your help this time,” he said in his signature gravely voice , extending his hand to passers-by.
The adjective meaning rasping is “gravelly.” Eager to cut the state’s losses, Gov. Chris Christie in July endorsed proposals to lease the Izod Center and the racetrack in the Meadowlands to system in turkey, outside operators. But Gov. Christie was less precise about solved case nano, how the state would pay off the authority’s bonds, including those issued to pay for education Giants Stadium. No abbreviation for this second reference: make it “Governor Christie.” Just for kicks, I googled the phrase “2010 fantasy football” and was amazed at the variety on the first eight pages of results. We still normally avoid making a generic verb of this company name; try “checked Google” or some other terse phrase.
After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and style encountered by structure college, writers and editors of The Times. It is adapted from a weekly newsroom critique overseen by Philip B. Corbett, the system essay associate managing editor for standards, who is also in charge of about The Times’s style manual. Notes from the newsroom on grammar, usage and style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.) Sometimes I quibble over words we overuse. Sometimes I complain about education system in turkey, words that are misused. And sometimes I take issue with words that seem pretentious or contrived. Then there’s “ eponymous ,” which could fit any of those categories. It’s not a word that pops up much in ordinary conversation, or even in most writing. But journalists love it, lured perhaps by its sheen of erudition. We’ve used it 64 times in the past year, sometimes twice in one day.
That seems a lot for a word most people never utter in their whole lives. What’s more, any highbrow tone we seek by invoking this sonorous Greek derivative is undercut by our loose usage. In precise use, an eponym is someone who gives a name to something else, and “eponymous” describes the source of the name, not the receiver. Basic Structure Essay? So Romulus is the eponymous founder of Rome, and education, Daniel Boulud is the eponymous owner of references format Cafe Boulud; the city and education system in turkey essay, the restaurant are not, strictly speaking, “eponymous.” More often than not, we and others muddle this distinction. And often, there’s a way to say what we mean without using “eponymous” at all. So let’s use it sparingly, and wisely. A few recent examples:
Certainly in popular culture, many female characters rebel against the ma’am tag. In the mordant, high-end medical soap, “Nurse Jackie,” when a policeman struggling to help subdue a disturbed patient made the mistake of referring to Edie Falco’s eponymous character as “ma’am,” Nurse Jackie shot back, “So help me God, do not call me ma’am uncuff him!” Here, the usage is precise, applied to the giver of the name. But wouldn’t “title character” convey the same meaning less ostentatiously? Since selling her eponymous real estate brokerage , Ms. Contest? Corcoran has published two books and education essay, appeared on television, as a contributor on essay about utilitarianism “The Today Show” on education system essay NBC and on the ABC program “Shark Tank.” Now, she has added updating bathrooms and rocket contest, removing dropped ceilings to her list of activities, as she renovates her new apartment. The loose usage, better avoided.
One alternative: “the real estate brokerage that bears her name.” Three books due out this fall find fashion in a retrospective mood. “Yohji Yamamoto: My Dear Bomb” (Ludion), the first-ever biography of the designer, fittingly ditches an orthodox chronology for a series of short fictions written by Yamamoto interspersed with vivid reminiscences. Education System? (For those looking for case something a little more linear, the book concludes with a timeline featuring never-before-seen personal images.) Anna Sui’s eponymous biography (Chronicle Books), on the other hand, is a more visual feast. Written by Andrew Bolton, a curator at the Costume Institute at the Metropolitan Museum of education Art, this book will showcase Another loose use. Essay About? And it seems particularly silly to use the word here, since so many biographies bear the name of the subject. Why not just use the title, in quotes? Marc Alary is the illustrator whose creative silhouettes keep the face of our “Samurai Shopper” shrouded in secrecy. Alary also has an eponymous line of jewelry mostly gold animal silhouettes, like the diamond-eyed zebra pendant at education essay far left. Once again, in precise usage, it is Alary who is eponymous, not the jewelry. But in any case, is the word even necessary here except as a flourish? Why not just say “his own line of jewelry”? Some 255 entries and 29 classes of cars were assembled along with their famous gearhead fans, like Jay Leno, whose latest obsessions are chronicled on jaylenosgarage.com, and collectors like Sam Mann of structure of a Englewood, N.J., inventor of widely used ear piercing devices, who has won “Best of Show” four times.
Mr. Mann’s friendly rival is Jack Nethercutt, a six-time winner and education system, the chairman and president of Merle Norman Cosmetics Inc., whose family has an eponymous automotive museum in Sylmar, Calif. Like many other men here, he wore a Panama hat. This is essay about utilitarianism, not just imprecise but confusing. Education In Turkey Essay? What’s the museum actually called? The Nethercutt Family Museum? The Jack Nethercutt Museum? Why not just say? This week’s grab bag of grammar, style and essay contest, other missteps, compiled with help from colleagues and readers. The Shabab are the education in turkey most fearsome insurgents in profile for resume Somalia they have pledged allegiance to Al Qaeda and last month they showed how effective and brutal they can be by infiltrating a hotel in the government zone of Mogadishu, the education system in turkey capital, and methodically gunning down more than 30 people, including four lawmakers.
More than one pair of dashes in a sentence can be confusing, and should be avoided. The Central Intelligence Agency has carried that line of argument even further, putting on its payroll some of the essay format most disputable members of Mr. Karzai’s government. The explanation, offered by agency officials, is that Mother Theresa can’t be found in Afghanistan. “Disputable” doesn’t seem to be what we meant; perhaps “disreputable”? And it’s Mother Teresa, not Theresa. When Barack Obama picked up a copy of Jonathan Franzen’s “Freedom” during his vacation on Martha’s Vineyard last month, it seemed to be the coup de grace in a publicity campaign made in heaven. If we want to use some fancy French term, we’d better get it right. System? “Coup de grace” means “death blow” which does not seem to be what we intended here. BP is references format, warning Congress that if lawmakers pass legislation that bars the company from getting new offshore drilling permits, it may not have the money to pay for all the damages caused by its oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. This seems to mix up “damage,” meaning the harm done, and “damages,” meaning the system in turkey essay legal liability.
But America’s attempt to bring closure to structure of a, an unpopular war has collided with a disconnect familiar since 2003: the charts and trend lines offered by system, American officials never seem to capture the intangible that has so often shaped the pivots in the war in Iraq. This thoughtful and about utilitarianism, well-written piece seemed marred by the pileup of faddish buzzwords in essay this sentence. Gone is the sunburst rug that Mr. Bush loved so much; designed by his wife, Laura, he used to say it evoked a spirit of references optimism. A dangler. The rug — not “he” — was designed by his wife. Unlike Secretariat’s great-grandson, the education in turkey essay humans had made marks of their own: Though the equine outside, who posed and nibbled at one guest’s strappy dress, has one-eighth of a legend coursing through his blood, the two horses had little else in common, Ms. References Format? Mann said. The Times’s stylebook advises against the trite, journalese use of education in turkey “canine” to structure college essay, mean “dog.” We could have applied the same analysis here.
Stuart A. Levey, the undersecretary of the Treasury for terrorism and education system in turkey, financial intelligence, said the basic essay designations of entities would have global impact because “there is already a real wariness” among foreign banks and companies about doing business with North Korean enterprises. The stylebook calls for “under secretary,” two words. After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and style encountered by writers and in turkey essay, editors of rocket boys essay The Times. It is adapted from a weekly newsroom critique overseen by Philip B. Corbett, the associate managing editor for system in turkey standards, who is also in of a college essay charge of The Times’s style manual. Notes from the newsroom on grammar, usage and style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.) Just when I think I’ve chronicled all the in turkey similar-word mix-ups we’re likely to encounter, I see new and surprising ones, as well as new instances of for resume past missteps. There’s no easy cure for this problem just more attentive writing and education, editing, and rocket boys, the help of a dictionary if you have a queasy feeling about that word. The latest examples, including some flagged by alert readers:
My mother knew the name of education system in turkey essay every plant, my father the basic structure of a essay name of every rock, and by age 10 we were doing 30-mile hikes with just a whistle, a space blanket and a peanut butter sandwich. We forged rivers thick with snowmelt and searched for arrowheads in the desert. You can “ford” a raging river. Or you can “forge on” or “forge ahead.” But you can’t “forge” a river. Most deans can tell stories of parents who lingered around campus for days.
At Colgate University in Hamilton, N.Y., a mother and father once went to their daughter’s classes on the first day of the semester and trouped to the registrar’s office to change her schedule, recalled Beverly Low, the dean of first-year students. A “troupe” is education essay, a group of actors. About Utilitarianism? We meant “trooped.” The white fortress loomed above the fields, a crumbling but still imposing redoubt perched on a rock mound above a plane of golden rapeseed shimmering in system the morning light. And later in the same story: The Tibetans rained down ammunition and stones. But one lieutenant and an Indian soldier made it through the breach, followed by others. The Tibetans fled, shimmying down two ropes. In the first sentence, I suppose it’s possible that we were using a figure from geometry. But it seems more likely that we meant “plain.” And in the second example, we meant “shinnying” or “shinning.” “Shimmy” means to shake or vibrate.
Anna Johnson, a cost-conscious magazine writer who lives in Sydney and New York City, provides a program for living liberally under straightened circumstances in her book, “Savvy Chic: The Art of More for Less” (Avon). The phrase is “straitened” circumstances. After my admonition last week about the rocket boys contest use of “like” as a conjunction, several commenters took issue with a different use of essay “like,” including instances from The Times’s stylebook. These readers object to the use of “like” as a preposition to mean “including” or “as for essay contest example”: Anyone else with an earned doctorate, like a Ph.D. degree , may request the title … The objectors contend that “like” in this construction should mean “similar to” — so that this example, strictly speaking, would be referring to doctorates similar to a Ph.D. but not including a Ph.D. They would change this phrase to “ such as a Ph.D. degree.” Editors have long been divided on this point.
But “like” is widely used, and recognized in all dictionaries, in the sense of “as for example.” Many writers find it more natural and less stilted than “such as,” at education in turkey essay least in some contexts. Both versions seem acceptable to me; The Times’s stylebook tends to about utilitarianism, favor “like.” This week’s grab bag of grammar, style and other missteps, compiled with help from colleagues and readers. The stylebook suggests looking for alternatives: slay, slayer, slaying . Archaic, almost biblical, the words are best replaced by more modern synonyms (usually kill, etc.). This is the Army’s new physical-training program, which has been rolled out this year at its five basic training posts that handle 145,000 recruits a year. The Army has only five basic training posts, so this part of the education system sentence has to have a nonrestrictive clause for clarity: “ training posts, which handle ” But the sentence already has a “which” clause. The best solution is two sentences. They found another landlord they liked, but came back from a holiday trip one year to a note saying he wanted to move in himself. They had a month to scram . Even in the somewhat conversational style of a column, it’s hard to profile for resume, see what we gained with the dated slang “scram.” When Peter H. Education? Cook was confronted with the harsh reality that his wife, Christie Brinkley, knew he had cheated on her with an 18-year-old former toy store clerk, he tapped the basic structure college essay same trio to stand in education in turkey essay his corner. The stylebook advises against this journalese use of “trio” to refer simply to any group of three people.
Kyle Chandler deserves it, and not just because “Friday Night Lights” is about, one of the best unwatched shows on television a smart, engaging expose of education system in turkey essay Texas high school football for format viewers who could care less about teenagers, football or Texas . The idiomatic and logical expression is “couldn’t care less.” It is an epic part arguably the canonical role of education system American theater and one Mr. Solved On Tata Nano? Lloyd knows he might never have landed were it not for family ties to the theater company and system in turkey, the serendipity of summer stock . This has become tired from honoria rome, colloquial overuse, and it’s not even precise as a literary reference in system essay this case. Along with Dr. For Resume? Goldsby’s life story, Dr.
Bateson has collected that of the former dean of St. John the Divine, who founded a multifaith center; a gay teacher whose professional life never quite gelled; and Jane Fonda, who at the time of the education in turkey writing of this book was working on her own book on the same topic . For the verb in this sense, “jell” is the usual American spelling, the dictionary says. A federal district judge on rocket boys Monday blocked President Obama’s 2009 executive order that expanded embryonic stem cell research, saying it violated a ban on federal money being used to destroy embryos. It would have been very easy to avoid this “fused participle” problem: “a ban on using federal money” or “a ban on the use of education in turkey federal money.” As someone who has covered almost every Fringe Festival since it began in 1997, the real problem now is that for for resume the average theatergoer it remains too hard to find a good or interesting show.
The reasons for education system this have as much to do with a lack of boys essay vision on the part of the education system essay producers as the talent level of the basic structure of a essay artists. After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and education in turkey, style encountered by writers and editors of honoria The Times. It is adapted from a weekly newsroom critique overseen by Philip B. Corbett, the associate managing editor for system standards, who is also in charge of The Times’s style manual. Notes from the newsroom on basic of a college grammar, usage and style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.) Here’s my latest reminder on the use and misuse of education in turkey “like.” Using “like” as a conjunction, to introduce a full clause, is common in casual conversation. Rome? But this colloquial construction grates on education essay the ear of many sophisticated readers, and essay honoria rome, we should generally avoid it.
And yet it’s never hard to find new examples: At 92, Mr. Harman looks and sounds like he is education system in turkey, 72, and solved study on tata, he is determined to keep it that way. Such an education system essay, easy fix here, and shorter, too: “At 92, Mr. Harman looks and sounds 72.” At times it seems like the rocket boys essay mayoral race here between the essay two front-runners Mayor Adrian M. Fenty, who is seeking a second term, and Vincent C. Gray, the City Council chairman is boiling down to rome, a personality contest.
Make it “seems as though,” “seems as if,” or simply “seems that ” How do you stoke the imagination of outsiders and education in turkey essay, the enthusiasm of residents? Columbus, starting from relative obscurity, has found that you cannot just hire an advertising agency, like New York and essay, Las Vegas did , and come up with a slogan. Make it “as New York and Las Vegas did.” People are proud and protective of academic and professional credentials not just their own, but their peers’. When we use “Mr.” or “Ms.” to refer to someone who should be “Dr.,” we invariably hear from readers, who tend to see it not as a simple oversight but as a lack of respect or understanding.
When the lapse involves a woman, it raises a further question of subtle sexism. In recent days, readers wondered why we failed to use the “Dr.” title for second references in several cases that probably warranted it for an optometrist who was killed in Afghanistan, a professor of psychology quoted on bilingualism, and several neuroscientists on a rafting adventure/experiment. Here’s the in turkey relevant entry from The Times’s stylebook: Dr. should be used in all references for physicians and rocket essay, dentists whose practice is their primary current occupation, or who work in a closely related field, like medical writing, research or pharmaceutical manufacturing: Dr. Alex E. Baranek; Dr. Baranek; the doctor. (Those who practice only in turkey essay, incidentally, or not at contest all, should be called Mr., Ms., Miss or Mrs. ) Anyone else with an earned doctorate, like a Ph.D. degree, may request the title, but only if it is system in turkey, germane to the holder’s primary current occupation (academic, for example, or laboratory research). For a Ph.D., the title should appear only in rome second and later references.
The holder of a Ph.D. or equivalent degree may also choose not to use the title. Do not use the title for someone whose doctorate is honorary. If the subject’s preference is unknown, it’s wise in most cases to education in turkey, use the title for basic structure any scientist, researcher or other professional scholar who holds a doctorate (or, alternatively, “Professor,” if appropriate). Most people probably prefer the title, and in essay any case its use is less likely to cause offense or confusion than its omission. In general, though, omit the essay about title if it is not directly relevant to the occupation, or is not a primary credential for example, for a corporate executive who has a doctorate in economics. In such cases, a reference to “Dr. Smith” could be confusing or seem pretentious. This week’s grab bag of grammar, style and in turkey, other missteps, compiled with help from colleagues and essay honoria, readers. After Consumer Reports shone a spotlight on the problems and said it could not recommend the education system essay iPhone 4, Apple called a news conference on basic structure of a July 16, at in turkey essay which Mr.
Jobs mounted an impassioned defense of the device. When “shine” is used as a transitive verb, as here that is, when it takes a direct object use the past tense “shined.” Use “shone” as the past tense when it’s intransitive: A candle shone in the window . Essay Rome? (See next example.) When the year began, the stars could not have shined brighter for Marco Rubio, the fresh voice of newly invigorated conservatives who embodied the change that frustrated grass-roots Republicans demanded from inside their own party. The opposite problem here: make it “shone” (as we eventually did). If nobody does their job right, and disaster ensues, who should pay for the sins of education system essay all? A jarring agreement problem.
After computer printers and duffle bags had been carried to dorm rooms, everyone gathered in the gymnasium, students on one side of the bleachers, parents on the other. The preferred spelling is duffel, named for the town in northern Belgium, according to our default dictionary, Webster’s New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition. But the solved case study nano Wylys have decided that after months of failed settlement talks with the S.E.C., it was time to make the first jab in education system in turkey essay the fight over public perception. “Have decided” is the so-called perfect or present-perfect tense. In determining sequence of rocket contest tenses, the perfect is equivalent to present tense, so a present-tense verb should follow in this construction: “it is time.” (If the governing verb were past tense, the education essay following verb would also be past: “The Wylys decided that it was time …” Through a series of haunting architectural and landscape scenes of basic of a college Turkey’s rush towards modernization and in turkey, the resulting tension between the secular and the modern George Georgiou has visually put his finger on format a kind of listless alienation which at times can seem to system in turkey, pervade globalized society.
The stylebook prefers “toward.” But not Perez, the man with the untradeable contract. Our preferred dictionary prefers “tradable” (and so, “untradable”). They put Rodriguez, their closer, on the disqualified list indefinitely, docking him without pay for the rest of the season while he recovers from surgery to his right thumb, which was injured in the incident and surgically repaired on Tuesday. “Dock” means to cut or withhold pay, so this phrasing doesn’t make sense. Someone who took a stipend from a law firm and references essay, then opted for public service law could also find themselves negotiating a payback plan for system in turkey the stipend; policies differ from firm to firm on whether or how much of for resume a stipend must be repaid. “Someone” is singular, so the plural “themselves” doesn’t work. Rephrase.
Environmentalists fear that a highway through Tanzania’s Serengeti could disrupt the mass migration of the wildebeast. It’s “wildebeest,” and the site we linked to had it right. [Summary] People who skip the t-shirt in favor of food souvenirs from education system in turkey essay, their travels. Our style is “T-shirt,” uppercase. Putting the two air men in each others’ shiny shoes leads to profile, unpleasant scenarios. This expression should always be singular: each other’s.
And even Rabbi Wernick, despite his pessimism, was struck by the “powerful visual representations” Mr. Mezvinsky and Ms. Clinton included in their ceremony a blue-and-white handwritten ketubah, or Jewish marriage contract; a vine and floral chuppah , the canopy under which the wedding is conducted; and education in turkey essay, the prayer shawl, which even many Jewish grooms marrying Jewish brides do not wear. Our stylebook prefers “huppah.” After Deadline examines questions of solved case grammar, usage and style encountered by writers and editors of The Times. Education System Essay? It is adapted from a weekly newsroom critique overseen by Philip B. Essay? Corbett, the education system essay associate managing editor for standards, who is also in rocket charge of The Times’s style manual. Notes from the newsroom on system in turkey essay grammar, usage and style. (Some frequently asked questions are here.)
My colleague Vanessa Gordon and others have noted our frequent use of what critics call “false ranges.” These constructions generally are framed with phrases like “everything from to ” or “ranging from to study on tata, ” and include two or more disparate items: “The legislation includes everything from stricter bank regulations to system in turkey, new taxes on overseas corporations.” Judging from rocket, how often this idiom appears in our prose, many of our writers and editors obviously have no qualms about it. Other editors, as Vanessa said, take a hard line against system essay, the construction, “believing that if a list doesn’t run from high to low, short to tall, past to present, it should not be called a range.” Some people object especially to the version that includes “everything” as hyperbolic and nonsensical. For examples of this critical stance, see these blog posts by Bill Walsh of The Washington Post and John E. McIntyre of profile The Baltimore Sun. My view falls somewhere in between. The idiom is education system, so widely used that it seems overly literal to insist that every “range” must portray a clear-cut, definable continuum. I think most readers understand the honoria rome expression as shorthand meaning something like “a broad array of diverse things, including for education essay example x and y.”
On the other hand, some uses can seem silly, as when the items on the “range” have nothing remotely in common “everything from pineapples to Dostoyevsky.” And some sentences with this construction become convoluted, overstuffed and solved case study on tata, hard to read. The best argument against it, though, is that the construction is education system essay, so common that it can seem shopworn and lazy. Let’s be thoughtful and not overdo it. Vanessa offered these recent examples out of many, many possibilities along with her comments: These experiences could help him in his new job, which will require consummate political skills to convince everyone, from President Obama to idled fishermen, that BP can still be trusted to pay for the cleanup and still be allowed to essay about, drill and system essay, operate deepwater wells. This range, clear and concise, seems to work fine.
On the other hand, this “range” from the same story seems muddled and hard to follow: It is about, also a recognition that dealing with the consequences of the spill from tens of billions of dollars in claims to in turkey essay, possible criminal charges and new regulations on rocket boys offshore drilling are likely to dominate the company’s agenda for years. The list itself could function as a potted history of late-era American society, as it includes everything from Truman Capote’s Black and White Ball in 1966 to a joint bar and bat mitzvah reception for Ivan Boesky’s children on the Queen Elizabeth 2 to education system in turkey essay, the wedding of essay Arnold Schwarzenegger and education system essay, Maria Shriver. This is not, strictly speaking, a range just a list of fabulous events. There’s no “everything” in between. Study On Tata? On the education system in turkey essay other hand, it’s vivid and easy to follow, despite its length. L’Oreal is rocket boys contest, a global cosmetics leader with brands that range from education system, Maybelline to the Body Shop. Here we’re just naming two midmarket cosmetic lines. Profile For Resume? It’s not a range; we could simply say, “brands that include” Fittingly, one of Rowley’s latest projects is in turkey, a line of essay clothes and accouterments for Babies “R’’ Us that includes everything for system in turkey the well-appointed tot, from references essay, metallic sneakers to black-tie bibs. Here the “everything” range seems hyperbolic and reads a bit too much like ad copy.
Two items in last week’s installment left some commenters seeking further clarification. (These posts originate in memos intended for my Times colleagues, so my explanations may sometimes be too terse.) A number of in turkey readers wondered why our style guidelines advise against essay honoria, “spokesperson.” The concern is that the system in turkey word seems self-conscious in its gender-neutrality — not as awkward as “waitperson,” but similar. So we prefer “spokesman” or “spokeswoman” for specific references; for general references, we might use “representative,” “press aide,” “publicist” or some such. I also took aim at solved case nano constructions like She was diagnosed with lymphoma , pointing out that in careful usage, the disease is diagnosed, not the patient. Several commenters asked for alternatives other than the clunky “received a diagnosis of …” Depending on context, possibilities include She was told she had lymphoma; She learned she had lymphoma; Her doctor said she had lymphoma ; or possibly just She has [or had] lymphoma . This week’s grab bag of education system in turkey essay grammar, style and other missteps, compiled with help from colleagues and readers. Experts say unseating Japan and in recent years passing Germany, France and Great Britain underscores China’s growing clout and bolsters forecasts that China will pass the United States as the world’s biggest economy as early as 2030. America’s gross domestic product was about $14 trillion in 2009 . As The Times’s stylebook notes, to us it’s just plain old “Britain.” Now, after starting a new life in Altamira, the government is telling her she needs to leave again, this time to make way for the Belo Monte dam, which will flood a large swath of rome this city, displacing thousands of people. A classic dangler.
She, not the government, started a new life. Christopher Hitchens, facing cancer, won’t give an inch on education the afterlife . Readers keen on literary allusions will know that the Dylan Thomas admonition was “Do not go gentle ” (In any case, this particular allusion may be overused.) [Caption] Prices in profile Agbogbloshie are about four times below the international market price, but for the scavengers of the dump, the income is incentive enough. Constructions like this are illogical and confusing; presumably we meant “about one-fourth the international market price.” The stylebook says this: And do not write times less or times smaller (or things like times as thin or times as short ). A quantity can decrease only in turkey, one time before disappearing, and then there is rocket boys essay contest, nothing left to decrease further. Education System In Turkey Essay? Make it one-third as much (or as tall , or as fast ). [Section-front summary] Chinese businessman eyes Liverpool team. Using “eyes” as a verb this way is journalese we want to avoid. In a short but heated meeting at boys essay the presidential palace, the education system Kabul police chief, Brig.
Gen. Mir Amanullah Gozar, angrily refuted accusations made publicly by Jamil Karzai that he was corrupt and lacked professional experience. “Refute” means to basic structure of a college, successfully disprove; presumably we meant “rebutted” or “disputed.” If neither Jinky nor Ms. Education In Turkey Essay? Watai are declared the heirs , then the estate would go to Fischer’s nephews, Alexander and Nicholas Targ, the sons of his sister, Joan. This neither-nor construction, with two singular elements, requires a singular verb (and predicate noun): “If neither Jinky nor Ms. Watai is declared the heir ” After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and style encountered by writers and editors of The Times.
It is adapted from basic structure college essay, a weekly newsroom critique overseen by education in turkey, Philip B. Corbett, the references essay format associate managing editor for standards, who is education in turkey essay, also in charge of The Times’s style manual. After Deadline examines questions of grammar, usage and style encountered by writers and editors of The Times. It is adapted from honoria rome, a weekly newsroom critique overseen by Philip B. Corbett, the associate managing editor for standards, who is also in charge of The Times’s style manual.
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5) Examine the differences between GSLV and PSLV launch vehicles. It is said that GSLV would become a competitor to PSLV. Education In Turkey Essay! Examine why. Topic : Awareness in the fields of Space ; Indians achievement in ST. 5) Examine the differences between GSLV and PSLV launch vehicles. It is said that GSLV would become a competitor to PSLV. Examine why. (200 Words) PSLV and the GSLV are the satellite lunch vehicles. The major differences between the two#8217;s are as follows: 1) payload capacity :PSLV can lift the nearly a ton of payload into the space whereas GSLV can lift more heavy payload upto 3 tonnes into essay about utilitarianism, the space.The increased payload capacity of GSLV is due to education essay, the utilization of cryogenic engine in references essay the last stage. 2.) Age :GSLV is comparatively newer than PSLV . 3) Success rate : As GSLV is newer technology the success rate is education in turkey essay, not as impressive as PSLV . India has mastered in PSLV and enjoying the trust and reliability factor.
4) stages: PSLV has 4 stages alternate between the solid and the liquid fuel. Where GSLV has 3 stages . Study Nano! As of now PSLV enjoying more reliability and trust compare to the GSLV. However, with the increasing success rate of GSLV , it can#8217;t be denying that GSLV has the capacity to education in turkey essay, give tough competition to PSLV as the satellite launch vehicle due to it#8217;s greater payload carrying capacity. Several other future mission such as #8216;Man mission#8217; can only be possible through GSLV . nicely written, easily graspable answer. PSLV is Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle developed ISRO. It is mainly used to place remote sensing or earth observation satellites into the sun synchronous orbit (SSO) which is also called as Low Earth Orbit.
Satellites placed at basic of a this height will enable them to send the in turkey essay, images of the earth to essay, the earth station during the day time. The PSLV can carry a payload of education in turkey, up to 1750 kgs to the SSO. The total number of stages in the rocket are 4. The height of the rocket is 44 meters. The lift off mass of the XL version of the PSLV is 320 tonnes. References Essay! Whereas the system essay, GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) is mainly used to put satellites into the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits (GTO). One significant feature of the GSLV is its indigenously developed Cryogenic third stage. Most of the rockets use solid or liquid propellants.
But in cryogenic engine gaseous propellants are used in the form of liquids. Gases turn into liquids at very low temperatures and high pressure. Essay Honoria Rome! Cryogenic propellants are preferred as rocket propellants when rockets have to carry payloads of high mass because they have the greatest efficiency in terms of thrust generated. India has been successful in system its cryogenic engine development and honoria need not depend on foreign technology. This makes GSLV a competitor to PSLV because of its highly efficient design.
One of the most important difference between the two is the engine that they use. GSLV uses cryogenic engine whereas PSLV uses hypergolic Vikas engine. Education System In Turkey! A cryogenic engine provides much more thrust for structure of a college, same volume of fuel as compared with hypergolic Vikas engine, thus GSLV can launch much bigger satellite into the orbit. Other notable differences between the system, two are: 1. PSLV is designed mainly to about, deliver the “earth-observation” or. “remote-sensing” satellites to. Sun-Synchronous circular polar orbits whereas GSLV is designed mainly to deliver the communication-satellites to the Geosynchronous Transfer. 2. PSLV is system essay, older as compared to GSLV. 3. PSLV has 4 stages of launch whereas GSLV has 3 stages. Essay Rome! 4. PSLV uses 6 solid booster to augment its thrust whereas GSLV uses 4 liquid boosters. It is said that PSLV is more reliable than GSLV.
India has yet again had a successful launch using the GSLV. GSLV thus providing capability of launching satellite of higher payload making us less dependent on system other countries and cryogenic engine being far more efficient than the hyberolic vikas engine is becoming a competitor to the PSLV. One of the study on tata nano, most important difference between the two is the engine that they use. GSLV uses cryogenic engine whereas PSLV uses hypergolic Vikas engine. A cryogenic engine provides much more thrust for education system essay, same volume of fuel as compared with hypergolic Vikas engine, thus GSLV can launch much bigger satellite into profile for resume, the orbit.
Other notable differences between the two are: 1. PSLV is designed mainly to deliver the “earth-observation” or “remote-sensing” satellites to education system essay, Sun-Synchronous circular polar orbits whereas GSLV is basic college, designed mainly to deliver the communication-satellites to the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. In Turkey Essay! 2. Essay Rome! PSLV is older as compared to education system essay, GSLV. 3. PSLV has 4 stages of essay honoria rome, launch whereas GSLV has 3 stages. 4. PSLV uses 6 solid booster to augment its thrust whereas GSLV uses 4 liquid boosters. It is said that PSLV is more reliable than GSLV.
India has yet again had a successful launch using the GSLV. GSLV thus providing capability of launching satellite of higher payload making us less dependent on other countries and cryogenic engine being far more efficient than the hyberolic vikas engine is becoming a competitor to the PSLV. Education System Essay! PSLV and essay utilitarianism GSLV are the education, 2 satellite launching vehicle of the ISRO. While the PSLV has been in used since 3 decades, GSLV is the latest one. PSLV runs on the 4 stage engine i.e. alternate solid liquid stages while GSLV runs on the 3 stages i.e. solid liquid and cryogenic stages. Due to the solid liquid stages in PSLV, it only about able to launch satellite upto 1500kg in education essay Polar orbit while the use of cryogenic stage has drastically increased the launching capacity of ISRO. GSLV can launch satellite of upto 5000kg and that too in the Geostationary orbits. Thus it has far more carrying capacity than the PSLV and ultimately help India to become self sustainable in essay about utilitarianism launching the communication satellite hitherto dependent on education system in turkey essay foreign countries.
PSLV cost less than GSLV so they can complement each other rather than becoming competitor. Further, GSLV would bring more satellite launching business to India which would indirectly benefit PSLV. However, GSLV only profile for resume can become competitor when there would be requirement of launching 4-5 light weight satellites together. In that case, it would be better to education system in turkey essay, use one. GSLV vehicle rather than 2-3 PSLV. Hence, prudent use of profile for resume, both the system, launching vehicle help India to lead the world in space technology.
PSLV is about utilitarianism, considered as the #8216;work horse#8217; of the indian space intiatives , but it has inherent limitations which are being addressed by the development of the GSLV. Good answer Sugeeban. Conclusion shows an administrative approach to the question. System! Precise and to the point. thnk u very much. keep reviewing. all the for resume, best. PSLV and GSLV are the satellite launch vehicles, that have propelled India high up in the space race, and have also allowed India to earn revenue and respect from sending home and foreign saellites. The main differences are:- 1. System In Turkey! Orbits As the boys, name suggests, GSLV takes a satellite to education in turkey, the Geo-Synchronous orbit of the honoria rome, earth. That is, the satellites also revolve around the earth in 24 hours. Thus, they appear continuously stationary with respect to ground stations, and therefore can be continuously used for communication purposes. PSLV, in contrast, propels in system in turkey the polar sunchronous orbit. Here, the satellie comes in the range of the ground staion only for essay rome, a dew hours a day, making its use limited to purposes like Remote Sensing.
2. The weights of satellites they can carry- GSLV is more powerful. It can carry satellites upto 3 tonnes, unlike the education essay, PSLV#8217;s 1 tonne. Hence, more advanced missions like Chandrayan 2, sending humans require GSLV. Solved Case Study Nano! 3. Technology- GSLV is based on advanced technologies like Cryogenics engine. As such, India is relatively new in this tech, and has faced more failures.
PSLV is an age old technique, and has allowed India 25 continuos successful launches. 4. Foreign Trade- The exchange of GSLV knowhow and that of cryogenics is barred under the MTCR. GSLV indeed holds the promise. And thanks to the brilliant minds at the ISRO who made development of GSLV succesful inspite of failures and international restrictions. Only if this spirit were followed elsewhere! took trade point from in turkey u .. tku.. kwar.. gud ans.. can you pls explain trade point in detail? Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) restricts trade in cryogenics.
In fact, on ISRO and the russian space agency sanctions were slapped in the early 1990s after it was found out that Russia was providing us with cryogenic engines. Rocket Boys Essay! That delayed our mission too. I can#8217;t figure out #8220;GSLV would become a competitor to PSLV#8221; from your ans. I guess rajan need to education, elaborate more and add one sentence in his #8216;technology point#8217;, saying about how upgraded technology in solved case GSLV is perceived as comptetion to PSLV. Thanks for reviewing Dhruv.
Completely agree with your point. Guys, I am aiming for 2016. I need your suggestions and your experiences regarding where to start, what to read. I have vague idea of education system, books that I should study. But how to study, and how to make notes, how to start answer writing (when I don#8217;t know any content). Rocket Contest! I have decided my optional. I am confused in GS part only. Thanks #8230;agree with your point. The approach towards the question is good. You have combined differences between both with the relative advantages of GSLV. Answer is education system in turkey essay, also to essay about, the point.
The point of in turkey, #8220;exchange of GSLV knowhow#8221; is rome, not in sync with the overall answer. Conclusion can be made more catchy by consolidating what you have written above. Thanks for education system in turkey essay, reviewing AJK. I entirely agree with your observation. Essay! Actually, realised that there was a 2nd part to this question, only at the very end while writing. Hence, could only accomodate the education essay, line #8220;GSLV indeed holds the promise#8221; . And perhaps why conclusion is so haphazard. due to initial failure in GSLV stage 3, MOM has been sent to essay, space through PSLV with multiple boosters to system in turkey, achieve the escape velocity of earth.
With advancement in profile for resume GSLV, this dependebility of PSLV can be reduced. Furthermore, PSLV can be used to put satellites in Geosynchorous transfer orbil but the mass lift of GSLV is small in education comparison to GSLV. A cryogenic engine provides much more thrust for same volume of fuel,compared to the hypergolic Vikas engine, which is the heart of the PSLV. Thus the GSLV can launch much bigger payloads (read satellites) into orbit than the PSLV can. Thanks for the info.
Read the question carefully..Understand the profile, demand of system in turkey essay, Question..nice info though. hi, nicely differentiated between GSLV and PSLV. But could you explain the structure of a essay, point 4 in line with the education in turkey, question, how is it compared to PSLV? Thank you. Basic Structure Of A! PSLV has four stages using solid and system essay liquid propulsion alternately, while GSLV has three stages using Solid-Liquid-Cryogenic Stages. However, second stage of both is common that use Vikas engine.. in about utilitarianism just seven decades of ndependence India is a country which has excelled in education system essay various science and technology applications and the success of India space program is well known in world with launch of Mars Orbiter Mission. The Polar Satellite Launch vehicle and basic structure of a essay Geosynchronous Satellite launch vehicle are the two platforms to launch satellites in outer space with varying capacities and some differences beteween them are:- 1) GSLV uses cryogenic engine i.e. liquid fuel of liquid oxygen+ liquid hydrogen, but PSLV uses solid fuel. Education System In Turkey Essay! 2) GSLV can carry payload of upto 3-4 tonnes but PSLV is carries lesser than that. 3) GSLV has 3 stages and case study on tata nano PSLV 4 stages. 4) GSLV uses 4 liquid boosters and PSLV 6 slid boosters.
Apart from above differences the education in turkey, GSLV has the capability of carrying more payload which makes its utility a better placed option as it can carry rovers and men even in space odysseys and hence has more utility to launch the missions of other countries also and essay can be a potential commercial gainer for india like PSLV is. the more payload carrying capacity makes it a competitor of PSLV. GSLV is the future of space technology in India and the day is not far away when we will be sending the probes at system essay mars, moon and our astraunauts in space via it. The long introduction can be avoided. More pointers in support of GSLV can be given. Profile For Resume! The conclusion should consolidate and project what you have written above. A futuristic conclusion is good but it should be backed by substance. thankyou dear for your kind critical evaluation.. ill keep it in mind. PSVL and GSVL are Like milestone achivement from ISRO. if we are comparing both the Technology PSVL is Old and reliable one has continuous 25 success. But GSVL is the New One and Only has tested for 3 times.
Use solid and Liquid propellant. Can Put the satellite in the Polar orbit. -It can carry satellite Maximum weight of 1 ton. Old and Reliable Launch vehicle. -uses cryogenic engine. -Can Put in Geo stationary orbit . Education System! Maximum capacity up to 3 ton . write as sentences.. add concluding sentence.. kwar. You have covered nearly all the points. At points the answer tends to get technical, which can be generalized. The side of PSLV should also be justified why GSLV may not surpass PSLV? Few recent examples can be for PSLV too (e.g. Indian launched French satellites in Polar orbits recently).
The conclusion can be more futuristic. rightly pointed.. tku for ur review.. i shall try my best to give GS kinda answer :-).. U have put a lot of emphasis on content part and very technical, try to add some examples and some new suggestions#8230;.. sure.. will keep in structure of a mind.. tku. I agree with nicksyna#8217;s point on it being a little too technical. but, your handwriting is awesome. Plus a good structure. the differences between GSLV and PSLV are. 1. System! Orbit-GSLV puts satellites into higher geotransfer orbit and PSLV puts satellites into low earth orbit or lower geosynchronous orbits. 2. Type of satellites-telecommunication vs remote sensing. 3. Mass of essay about utilitarianism, payload-larger payload upto 4000kg vs maximum 2000kg. 4. Number of stages-3 stage vs 4stages. 5. Amount of thrust generated- Large hence heavy payloads can be lifted vs small thrust. till now larger satellites are put into orbit by PSLV because of lack GSLV and heavier satellites which could not be put by PSLV are outsourced.
In essence PSLV has been doing what should have been ideally done by GSLV. from now on GSLV will take over education system, all these tasks limiting PSLV to remote sensing missions. Many future missions like mars and moon all can be done by GSLV. Essay Rome! Hence in future PSLV will become a minor player. Difference pslv and gslv. 1.polar satellite launch vehicle 1geosyncronous satellite launch vehcl. 2. Mainly remote sensing 2.mainly communication. 3.lift off mass 1.7 tonn 3. Lift off mass up to 4 tn. 4.used to place satellite in 4. Used to place satellite in geosyncron. LEO orbit ous orbit.
First and 3rd solid and 5. Generally 3 stage solid , liquid and cr. Remaining are liquid stage crayogenic. System In Turkey! GSLV would become more competTive in near future because. 1. We can send satellite or space shuttle more than 2 tonne easily as earlier India used to send from french guyana hence saving. We can provide low cost service for other countries satellite launch hence earning to isro. 2. Help in interplanetary mission with cost competativeness. this looks like hints.. try to write in sentences instead of phrases.. points r gud.. kwar.. PSLV (Polar Satellite Launching Vehicle) is used to deliver #8220;earth observation#8221; or #8220;remote sensing#8221; satellites with masses up to 1750 kgs into the sun-synchronous circular polar orbit and up to a height up 900 kms. About Utilitarianism! It orbits the earth from pole to pole and due to their sun-synchronous nature they are also referred as the LEO (Low Earth Orbit) Its a 4 stage launch vehicle in whose first and third stage use solid rocket motors and education essay second and fourth stage uses liquid rocket engines. About Utilitarianism! Where as GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launching Vehicle) is used to deliver #8220;Geo synchronous#8221; elliptical orbits with masses up to 36000 kms altitude and deliver masses beyond 2500 kgs depending up on in which orbit the satellites is to in turkey, be launched.
Its a three stage launch vehicle whose first stage use a solid rocket motor, second stage uses a Liquid fuel and the third stage, called Cryogenic Upper Stage, using cryogenic engine. Due to the above mentioned differences, GSLV are taking over PSLV and only yesterday an indigenously developed cryogenic engine was successfully used in launching GSLV rocket. conclusion can be added.. including factual numb s gud if v can recollect it in exam.. Essay About Utilitarianism! kwar.. The main difference between GSLV and essay PSLV is essay, that GSLV has capacity to system in turkey essay, launch satellites heavier than that of the maximum capacity of PSLV. References Format! Secondly, cryogenic engine of GSLV gives more thrust per unit of fuel used. The topic comes in news with the launch of recent GSAT-6 satellite into the geostationary orbit for S-band communication which is 3rd time the indigenous cryogenic engine has been used.
GSLV is not a competitor to PSLV actually but a modified version which will be used for the launch of heavier satellites while PSLV will be used for education system in turkey, launching comparatively lighter satellites. Also the success of contest, PSLV is so much applauded that its program which was for 35 launch now extended for up to 50 launch. With the in turkey, success of GSLV NASA has also made it clear that it will launch its NISAR satellite in 2020-21 using GSLV, the reason for profile for resume, choosing Indian GSLV is that it launches vechicle at almost one-third prize then their own launching vehicle. Essay! write in points.. give intro and conclu.. ur content is gud. u can include remote sensing point. NISAR mention is appreciable and i wish v remember that in exam.. kwar nicksyna. Thanx midthrillzz for feedback, but question itself saying to start with differences so there is no point of adding intro that will increase the words used#8230;.. ya i felt the about, same and hence i dint write any intro.. dono if writing intro will b appropriate or not.. review mine. I think we can put GSLV characteristic points in intro and for conclusion #8220;we can say that as PSLV is a big success which have attracted a lot of foreign countries to system, use the same, we can set an example with GSLV as well and although 4 satellites IRNSS have been launched we can made some modification in essay honoria remaining ones as weight is in turkey essay, not a limitation anymore like we can add bigger antennas and solar panels for energy etc.#8221; well done.. Contest! keep going.. #128578; The differences between GSLV and PSLV launch vehicles are:- (a) GSLV can carry much greater load capacity than the PSLV. PSLV can inject a maximum of 1 ton satellite in LEO while. System In Turkey Essay! GSLV can inject satellites in the range of 2-3 tonnes in GEO. (b) GSLV uses cryogenic engine while PSLV is based on essay honoria rome hypergolic engine. (c) GSLV is a three stage launching vehicle while PSLV has four stages. (d) Generally, PSLV is used to education system in turkey essay, launch satellite in basic of a college essay the lower earth orbit (LEO) or polar orbit while GSLV embraced with.
cryogenic engine can generate much thrust required to raise the satellite from GTO(Geosynchronous-Transfer orbit) to GEO(Geo-synchronous orbit) As PSLV is older than the GSLV, so enjoys higher degree of reliability. But , with successful launch of GSLV vehicles employing. cryogenic engines, one cannot deny the growing significance of GSLV vehicles in space centre. It would offer a tough competition to the PSLV. In the future, if the education essay, ISRO#8217;s cryogenic engines become more reliable , the hypergolic stage used in PSLV can be totally eliminated. Basic College Essay! Good thing is that you have written directly to the point.
However, some important pointers are missing. In the first part, for e.g. GSLV is used to launch communication satellites, but PSLV is used for launching earth observation and other satellites. In the second part, more substantiation is needed. For e.g with the communication revolution, communication satellites market has been growing at a rapid pace than that of remote sensing satellites (PSLV). With the education essay, help of GSLV, India can launch these satellites at a more competitive price than western nations. Essay Rome! You may refer to more sources while framing answers. Education In Turkey Essay! #128578; Sure#8230; ! I do understand the point I missed in 1st stanza. But for second stanza, I had not much idea. Essay Format! Thanks for helping me out .. i felt the same.. u missed points on purpose of the vehivle.. a line of education system, intro can be given which i also missed.. kwar kartik. GSLV and PSLV are satellite launch vehicles both of which have been employed by the space agencies.
However, some of the key differences between them are: 1)GSLV is relatively new as compared to PSLV. 2)GSLV has higher payload carrying capacity than PSLV. 3)GSLV has 3 launch stages while PSLV has 4 launch stages. 4)GSLV employs a cryogenic engine while PSLV uses a hypergolic engine.
5)GSLV has 4 liquid boosters while PSLV has 6 liquid boosters. Though PSLV being older is more reliable than GSLV but in recent times, GSLV is becoming successful and it has showed bright prospects of challenging the dominant position of PSLV. The recent launch of GSAT-6 is a testimony to this fact. could ve elaborated the points.. kwar batman.. Rocket Boys Contest! point on purpose like remote sensing or earth observation can b included. ok I will try to include that too. Since the advent of indian space mission and ISRO India have made huge progress in space technology and PSLV and GSLV have helped ISRO in in turkey achieving those. PSLV and GSVL have been the hallmark of basic structure of a, ISRO space mission.
From the name and the physical appearance one could easily differentiate the purpose of each vehicle. PSLV from its name is used to launch lighter and medium weight satellites to polar orbits and in turkey GSLV can lift medium to references essay, heavy satellite to geo stationary orbit. The PSLV is system essay, a 4 stage rocket wich uses solid and liquid fuels where as the profile, GSLV is education, a three stage rocket which used solid liquid and essay honoria more advanced cryogenic engine. We have had a huge line of education system, successful PSLV missions and making it the most reliable vehicle for placing any satellite of low earth orbit and polar orbit for essay format, any country at less cost helping us to earn huge forex reserves. But after we the second successful GSLV. launch carrying the indigenous cryo-engine it can help india in system in turkey many ways. One is that we can master the cryo technology further so that we can augment the rocket contest, knowledge in other missions and it can save huge forex reserves by essay, self launching of medium and utilitarianism heavy satellites and in future it can also act as a commercial launch vehicles for launch of education in turkey essay, other nations medium and heavy satellites. Case Study On Tata Nano! I am a first time writer.
Please review and give ur comments and improvements that i need to incorporate. System! gud flow of answer.. keep writing and reviewing.. U have covered most of points n thanx as I got better idea of writing the ans. Answer was good,but I felt u kept repeating the sentences by using pslv is so,glsv is so ..try to combine the sentences at once..keep writing and boys essay contest welcome to system, the club. s u r correct and i wil try avoiding it next time. 1.The PSLV is older than the GSLV. 2.The GSLV has a much greater load capacity than the PSLV.
3.The GSLV use cryogenic fuel while the PSLV doesn’t. 4.The GSLV has three stages while the PSLV has four stages. 5.The GSLV has 4 liquid boosters while the PSLV has 6 solid boosters. 6.The PSLV is study nano, more reliable than the GSLV. Examine the differences between GSLV and PSLV launch vehicles. It is said that GSLV would become a competitor to education system in turkey, PSLV. Examine why. gslv is newly developed #8230; , else you covered everything conclusion is good . ) compared to pslv, gslv is newly developed and as well as commercialization prospect by Antrix. Nice answer overall..keep writing..it would have been better if you would have covered mote points. GSLV and PSLV are satellite launch vechicles. Differences between GSLV and PSLV are 1.The PSLV is older than the GSLV. Rocket! 2. PSLV can be used to launch 1 ton plus satellites while GSLV can inject a 2. ton satellite into orbit.
3.The GSLV use cryogenic fuel while the PSLV. 4.The GSLV has three stages while the PSLV has. 5.The GSLV has 4 liquid boosters while the PSLV. has 6 solid boosters. Education In Turkey Essay! 6. PSLV is a launch vehicle primarily used for launching. satellites in the low earth orbit or the polar orbit while GSLV is primarily. for launching satellites to the GTO (communication satellites) 7. The PSLV is more reliable. it is said that the GSLV rockets became a competitor for the Polar Satellite. Launch Vehicles (PSLVs) because now the GSLV flights could be used soon as the. ISRO’s operational launch vehicles considering their many strengths. · Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. · Used in launching satellites in lower earth orbits. · E.g: PSLV- XL ( UPTO 1750 KG – used to launch Chandrayaan, RISAT ( Radar Imaging Satellite); Mars Orbitor Mission (MOM) · PSLV uses a combination of liquid fuel and college essay solid fuel to launch its rockets. · Used to launch – CARTOSAT : Earth observation satellite; RISAT ( Radar Imaging Satellite); OCEANSAT (Ocean research); RESOURCESAT (provides data with multispectral and education system in turkey spatial coverage) · Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle. · Used in basic of a launching the satellite in the geosynchronous transfer orbits. · GSLV uses cryogenic technology (cryogenic fuel propellants ) that work at low temperatures. PSLV and GSLV both are expendable launch systems devloped by ISRO and education system in turkey essay both use strap-on motors. Major differences are:
1. Basic Structure Of A Essay! PSLV is used for sun-synchronous circular polar orbits and sometimes for geosynchronous transfer orbits, so purpose is earth observation and remote sensing. GSLV is used for in turkey essay, geo-synchronous transfer and geo-synchronous orbits and so the purpose is communication. 2. PSLV is older, more reliable than GSLV. 3. PSLV has 4 stages that alternate between solid and essay about liquid fuels, using hypergolic engine. GSLV has 3 stages where the last one is Cryogenic upper stage which provides large boost and so GSLV has more payload, upto 2.5 tons, than 1 ton for PSLV. 4. Mars Orbiter Mission, Chandrayaan1 used PSLV and GSAT used GSLV. Education! GSLV has developed mostly from PSLV design and development process continues. As our communication needs increase, as our payload reuqirements and commercial launch of other nations satellites via Indian systems increase, there will be more demand for honoria rome, GSLV to be used. Even Mars Orbiter was initialy chosen with GSLV but then shifted to PSLV.
ISRO is also banking on GSLV for increased uses in future. System! GSLV and PSLV are Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicles and Polar Satellite Launch Vehicles respectively. Essay Utilitarianism! They are used by ISRO to launch satellite and scientific probes. The differences between GSLV and PSLV are. 1. Education Essay! Fuel used-GSLV uses solid, liquid and cryogenic propellants. PSLV only uses solid and liquid propellants.
2. Orbit-GSLV launches satellites into the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) while the PSLV puts satellites in the Syn Synchronous Orbit (SSO). 3.Payload-GSLV can carry payloads of profile, upto 4000 kgs while PSLV can carry payloads upto 2100 kgs. The reasons GSLV will become a competitor to education system essay, PSLV are. 1.GSLV alone is capable of powering India#8217;s first manned mission to boys, space. 2. GSLV is more cost effective than PSLV. Essay! 3. GSLV can help save forex reserves spent on essay honoria launching Indian satellites by education system in turkey essay, foreign space agencies.
Both are satellite launching vehicles used by ISRO. GSLV is later technology than PSLV. The satellites launched by PSLV are Sun synchronous ( meaning having a constant angle between sun ,earth and satellite ) by this it helps satellite to capture images of the side illuminated by sun thus helping in remote sensing.They move from pole to pole.These have Low Earth Orbits ( having altitude low).The load it can lift is solved case nano, nearly 1.4 tonnes. The GSLV is upgraded,updated New technology. It lifts high load ( 4-5 tonnes) ,places in high altitude ( GTO and GEO).It places in Geosynchronous orbit ,means having same rotating period of education system in turkey essay, earth , thus will concentrate at only one place.Generally these type of satellites are used for communications.The additional and important feature GSLV possess is essay about utilitarianism, Cryogenic Technology. GSLV has 3 stage fuel where at third stage liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen is used. A cryogenic engine gives more thrust for same volume of fuel, compared to education in turkey, the hypergolic Vikas engine, which is the heart of the PSLV.
Thus it can carry heavier payloads and also at higher altitudes where these benefits are used for launching satellites in Geo synchronous.The gases from cryogenic stage are clean gases ( water vapor). More efficient ,less volume,greater utility and upgraded technology makes GSLV preferable than PSLV.
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Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (or encephalopathy): diagnosis and education system in turkey, management. The following guidance is based on the best available evidence. For Resume. The full guideline ('CFS/ME: diagnosis and management of adults and children') gives details of the methods and the evidence used to develop the guidance (see section 5 for details). 22.214.171.124 Shared decision-making between the person with CFS/ME and healthcare professionals should take place during diagnosis and education system in turkey essay, all phases of care. References Essay Format. The healthcare professional should: Acknowledge the reality and impact of the condition and the symptoms. Provide information about the range of interventions and management strategies as detailed in this guideline (such as the benefits, risks and likely side effects).
Provide information on the possible causes, nature and course of CFS/ME. Provide information on essay, returning to work or education. Take account of the person's age (particularly for children younger than 12 years), the severity of honoria, their CFS/ME, their preferences and education, experiences, and the outcome of previous treatment(s). Offer information about local and national self-help groups and support groups for profile for resume, people with CFS/ME and their carers (see also the NHS Expert Patients Programme  ). 126.96.36.199 When providing care for children and young people, healthcare professionals should follow best practice as described in the national service frameworks for children for England or for Wales  . 188.8.131.52 Healthcare professionals should be aware that – like all people receiving care in the NHS – people with CFS/ME have the right to refuse or withdraw from any component of system in turkey essay, their care plan without this affecting other aspects of their care, or future choices about care. 184.108.40.206 Healthcare professionals should recognise that the person with CFS/ME is in charge of the aims and goals of the honoria, overall management plan. The pace of system in turkey, progression throughout the boys contest, course of in turkey, any intervention should be mutually agreed. 220.127.116.11 Healthcare professionals should provide diagnostic and therapeutic options to essay contest, people with CFS/ME in ways that are suitable for education, the individual person. This may include providing domiciliary services (including specialist assessment) or using methods such as telephone or email. 18.104.22.168 To facilitate effective management of the condition, healthcare professionals should aim to establish a supportive and collaborative relationship with the person with CFS/ME and their carers. Engagement with the family is particularly important for children and young people, and for people with severe CFS/ME.
22.214.171.124 A named healthcare professional should be responsible for coordinating care for each person with CFS/ME. 126.96.36.199 Healthcare professionals should provide accurate information to people at all stages of CFS/ME, starting from when a diagnosis is first being considered. This should be tailored to the person's circumstances, including the honoria rome, stage and duration of the condition, symptoms experienced and relevant personal and social factors. 188.8.131.52 Information should be available in a variety of formats if appropriate (printed copy, electronic and audio), which people with CFS/ME and education in turkey, their carers can refer to at home and in the clinical setting. 184.108.40.206 Healthcare professionals responsible for caring for people with CFS/ME should have appropriate skills and expertise in the condition. 220.127.116.11 Every person diagnosed with CFS/ME should be offered: information about the illness (see section 1.1.2) acceptance and understanding. assistance negotiating the for resume, healthcare, benefits and social care systems. assistance with occupational activities including work and education if appropriate (see section 1.4.5). 18.104.22.168 An individualised management plan should be developed with the person with CFS/ME, and their carers if appropriate. The plan should be reviewed and education system in turkey, changes documented at each contact.
It should include: relevant symptoms and history. plans for rome, care and treatment, including managing setbacks/relapses. information and support needs. any education, training or employment support needs. details of the healthcare professionals involved in care and their contact details. 1.2.1 Presenting symptoms suspicious of CFS/ME. 22.214.171.124 CFS/ME is recognised on clinical grounds alone. Primary healthcare professionals should be familiar with and be able to education system in turkey, identify the contest, characteristic features of CFS/ME. 126.96.36.199 Healthcare professionals should consider the possibility of CFS/ME if a person has: fatigue with all of the education system in turkey, following features: new or had a specific onset (that is, it is essay not lifelong) persistent and/or recurrent. unexplained by system in turkey essay, other conditions.
has resulted in a substantial reduction in activity level. characterised by post-exertional malaise and/or fatigue (typically delayed, for example by at least 24 hours, with slow recovery over several days) one or more of the following symptoms: difficulty with sleeping, such as insomnia, hypersomnia, unrefreshing sleep, a disturbed sleep–wake cycle. muscle and/or joint pain that is rome multi-site and without evidence of inflammation. painful lymph nodes without pathological enlargement. cognitive dysfunction, such as difficulty thinking, inability to concentrate, impairment of education system essay, short-term memory, and difficulties with word-finding, planning/organising thoughts and profile for resume, information processing. physical or mental exertion makes symptoms worse. general malaise or 'flu-like' symptoms.
dizziness and/or nausea. palpitations in the absence of identified cardiac pathology. 188.8.131.52 Healthcare professionals should be aware that the symptoms of CFS/ME fluctuate in education system, severity and may change in nature over time. 184.108.40.206 Signs and symptoms that can be caused by other serious conditions ('red flags') should not be attributed to CFS/ME without consideration of alternative diagnoses or comorbidities. In particular, the following features should be investigated  : localising/focal neurological signs. signs and symptoms of inflammatory arthritis or connective tissue disease. signs and symptoms of cardiorespiratory disease. significant weight loss. clinically significant lymphadenopathy.
1.2.2 History, examinations and investigations. 220.127.116.11 A full history (including exacerbating and alleviating factors, sleep disturbance and profile, intercurrent stressors) should be taken, and education in turkey, a physical examination and assessment of psychological wellbeing should be carried out. 18.104.22.168 A child or young person who has symptoms suggestive of profile, CFS/ME should be referred to a paediatrician for assessment to exclude other diagnoses within 6 weeks of presentation. 22.214.171.124 The following tests should usually be done: urinalysis for protein, blood and glucose. full blood count. urea and electrolytes. erythrocyte sedimentation rate or plasma viscosity.
random blood glucose. screening blood tests for gluten sensitivity. assessment of serum ferritin levels (children and young people only). 126.96.36.199 Tests for serum ferritin in adults should not be carried out unless a full blood count and other haematological indices suggest iron deficiency. 188.8.131.52 Tests for vitamin B 12 deficiency and folate levels should not be carried out unless a full blood count and education essay, mean cell volume show a macrocytosis. 184.108.40.206 The following tests should not be done routinely to aid diagnosis: the head-up tilt test. auditory brainstem responses. 220.127.116.11 Serological testing should not be carried out unless the boys essay, history is indicative of an infection. Depending on the history, tests for the following infections may be appropriate: chronic bacterial infections, such as borreliosis. chronic viral infections, such as HIV or hepatitis B or C. acute viral infections, such as infectious mononucleosis (use heterophile antibody tests) latent infections, such as toxoplasmosis, Epstein–Barr virus or cytomegalovirus.
1.2.3 Advice on system in turkey, symptom management before diagnosis. 18.104.22.168 Advice on symptom management should not be delayed until a diagnosis is established. This advice should be tailored to the specific symptoms the person has, and be aimed at minimising their impact on daily life and activities. 1.2.4 Re-assessment before diagnosis. 22.214.171.124 If symptoms do not resolve as expected in a person initially suspected of having a self-limiting condition, primary healthcare professionals should listen carefully to the person's and their family and/or carers' concerns and be prepared to reassess their initial opinion. 126.96.36.199 If considering the possibility of CFS/ME or another serious alternative condition, primary healthcare professionals should consider discussion with a specialist if there is uncertainty about the interpretation of signs and symptoms and basic structure of a college essay, whether a referral is needed. This may also enable the in turkey essay, primary healthcare professional to communicate their concerns and a sense of urgency to secondary healthcare professionals if symptoms are unusual. 188.8.131.52 A diagnosis should be made after other possible diagnoses have been excluded and the symptoms have persisted for: 4 months in an adult.
3 months in a child or young person; the diagnosis should be made or confirmed by a paediatrician. 184.108.40.206 When a diagnosis of CFS/ME is made, healthcare professionals should provide honest, realistic information about CFS/ME and encourage cautious optimism. Most people with CFS/ME will improve over time and some people will recover and be able to resume work and normal activities. However, others will continue to experience symptoms or relapse and some people with severe CFS/ME may remain housebound. The prognosis in boys essay, children and young people is more optimistic. 220.127.116.11 The diagnosis of system in turkey essay, CFS/ME should be reconsidered if none of the references essay format, following key features are present: post-exertional fatigue or malaise. 1.4 General management strategies after diagnosis. 18.104.22.168 There is education system in turkey essay no known pharmacological treatment or cure for CFS/ME.
However, symptoms of CFS/ME should be managed as in usual clinical practice. 22.214.171.124 No research evidence was found to essay about, support the education in turkey essay, experience of some people with CFS/ME that they are more intolerant of references essay, drug treatment and have more severe adverse/side effects. However, if people with CFS/ME have concerns, healthcare professionals may consider starting drug treatment for CFS/ME symptoms at system in turkey essay a lower dose than in essay, usual clinical practice. The dose may be increased gradually, in agreement with the patient. 126.96.36.199 Specific drug treatment for children and young people with CFS/ME should be started by education system in turkey essay, a paediatrician. About. However, prescribing may be continued in primary care, depending on the preferences of the patient and their carers, and local circumstances. 188.8.131.52 If a person experiences nausea as part of CFS/ME, this should be managed conventionally, including giving advice on eating little and often, snacking on system in turkey, dry starchy foods and sipping fluids. The use of anti-emetic drugs should be considered only if the case nano, nausea is severe. 184.108.40.206 Although exclusion diets are not generally recommended for managing CFS/ME, many people find them helpful in managing symptoms, including bowel symptoms. If a person with CFS/ME undertakes an system, exclusion diet or dietary manipulation, healthcare professionals should seek advice from a dietitian because of the risk of malnutrition. 1.4.2 Function and essay honoria rome, quality-of-life management.
220.127.116.11 Healthcare professionals should provide tailored sleep management advice that includes: Explaining the role and effect of disordered sleep or sleep dysfunction in CFS/ME. Identifying the common changes in in turkey essay, sleep patterns seen in CFS/ME that may exacerbate fatigue symptoms (such as insomnia, hypersomnia, sleep reversal, altered sleep–wake cycle and profile, non-refreshing sleep). Providing general advice on good sleep hygiene  . Introducing changes to sleep patterns gradually. 18.104.22.168 If sleep management strategies do not improve the education system in turkey, person's sleep and rest, the possibility of an underlying sleep disorder or dysfunction should be considered, and interventions provided if needed. 22.214.171.124 Sleep management strategies should not include encouraging daytime sleeping and naps. People with CFS/ME should be advised that excessive sleep does not generally improve physical or mental functioning, and excessive periods of daytime sleep or frequent napping may further disrupt the sleep–wake cycle. 126.96.36.199 Restperiods are a component of all management strategies for CFS/ME. Healthcare professionals should advise people with CFS/ME on the role of rest, how to introduce rest periods into their daily routine, and the frequency and basic structure of a college, length appropriate for essay, each person. This may include: Limiting the length of rest periods to rome, 30 minutes at a time.
Introducing 'low level' physical and cognitive activities (depending on the severity of symptoms). Using relaxation techniques (see recommendation 188.8.131.52). 184.108.40.206 Healthcare professionals should review the use of rest periods regularly as part of the in turkey, patient's management plan. 220.127.116.11 Relaxation techniques appropriate to boys, the person with CFS/ME should be offered for the management of pain, sleep problems and comorbid stress or anxiety. There are a number of different relaxation techniques (such as guided visualisation or breathing techniques) that can be incorporated into rest periods. 18.104.22.168 People with CFS/ME have reported pacing to be helpful in self-managing CFS/ME.
However, healthcare professionals should advise people with CFS/ME that, at present, there is insufficient research evidence on the benefits or harm of pacing. See also recommendations on managing nausea (22.214.171.124) and bowel symptoms (126.96.36.199), and essay, use of supplements (188.8.131.52–4). 184.108.40.206 Healthcare professionals should emphasise the importance of a well-balanced diet in line with 'The balance of good health'  . They should work with the person with CFS/ME to on tata nano, develop strategies to minimise complications that may be caused by nausea, swallowing problems, sore throat or difficulties with buying, preparing and essay, eating food. 220.127.116.11 Healthcare professionals should emphasise the importance of eating regularly, and including slow-release starchy foods in meals and snacks. Format. The physiological consequences of not doing so should be explained to the person with CFS/ME. 1.4.4 Equipment to maintain independence. 18.104.22.168 For people with moderate or severe CFS/ME, providing or recommending equipment and adaptations (such as a wheelchair, blue badge or stairlift) should be considered as part of an overall management plan, taking into account the system essay, risks and benefits for essay about utilitarianism, the individual patient. This may help them to maintain their independence and improve their quality of life. 22.214.171.124 Having to stop their work or education is generally detrimental to people's health and well-being. In Turkey. Therefore, the ability of a person with CFS/ME to continue in education or work should be addressed early and reviewed regularly. 126.96.36.199 Healthcare professionals should proactively advise about fitness for for resume, work and education, and education system, recommend flexible adjustments or adaptations to case on tata, work or studies to help people with CFS/ME to return to them when they are ready and fit enough.
This may include, with the system in turkey essay, informed consent of the utilitarianism, person with CFS/ME, liaising with employers, education providers and support services, such as: occupational health services. disability services through Jobcentre Plus. schools, home education services and local education authorities. disability advisers in universities and in turkey, colleges. 188.8.131.52 For people with CFS/ME who are able to continue in basic structure of a essay, or return to education or employment, healthcare professionals should ensure, with the person's informed consent, that employers, occupational health or education institutions have information on the condition and the agreed management plan. 184.108.40.206 Healthcare professionals should follow the guidance from the Department for Children, Schools and Families  on education for children and young people with medical needs, or equivalent statutory guidance. 220.127.116.11 Healthcare professionals should work closely with social care and education services to ensure a common understanding of the goals of the person with CFS/ME.
The use of a flexible approach should be discussed, including home tuition and use of education system in turkey essay, equipment that allows a gradual reintegration into education. 18.104.22.168 Time in education should not be used as a sole marker of progress of CFS/ME, and profile, education should not be the only activity a person undertakes. There should be a balance between time spent attending school or college and doing homework, and time spent on home and system in turkey essay, social activities. 22.214.171.124 If possible, and with the informed consent of the person with CFS/ME, healthcare professionals should discuss employment issues with occupational health professionals, who will communicate with the person's manager or human resources representative. If there is no access to occupational health services, the responsible clinician should liaise with the rome, employer directly  . 1.4.6 Strategies that should not be used for CFS/ME. 126.96.36.199 The following drugs should not be used for the treatment of CFS/ME: monoamine oxidase inhibitors. glucocorticoids (such as hydrocortisone) mineralocorticoids (such as fludrocortisone)
188.8.131.52 The following strategies should not be offered to people with CFS/ME: Advice to undertake unsupervised, or unstructured, vigorous exercise (such as simply 'go to the gym' or 'exercise more') because this may worsen symptoms. Specialist management programmes (see section 1.6) delivered by practitioners with no experience in the condition. 184.108.40.206 Although there is considerable support from patients (particularly people with severe CFS/ME) for the following strategies, healthcare professionals should be aware that there is no controlled trial evidence of benefit: Encouraging maintenance of activity levels at substantially less than full capacity to system essay, reserve energy for the body to heal itself (sometimes known as the essay honoria rome, envelope theory). Encouraging complete rest (cognitive, physical and emotional) during a setback/relapse. 220.127.116.11 Strategies for managing CFS/ME should not include: Prolonged or complete rest or extended periods of daytime rest in response to a slight increase in symptoms. An imposed rigid schedule of activity and rest. 1.4.7 Complementary and supplementary therapies.
18.104.22.168 There is education in turkey insufficient evidence that complementary therapies are effective treatments for CFS/ME and therefore their use is not recommended. However, some people with CFS/ME choose to boys contest, use some of education system essay, these therapies for symptom control, and find them helpful. 22.214.171.124 There is references format insufficient evidence for education system in turkey, the use of supplements – such as vitamin B 12 , vitamin C, co?enzyme Q10, magnesium, NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) or multivitamins and minerals – for people with CFS/ME, and references, therefore they should not be prescribed for in turkey, treating the symptoms of the condition. However, some people with CFS/ME have reported finding these helpful as a part of a self-management strategy for their symptoms. 126.96.36.199 People with CFS/ME who are using supplements should be advised not to essay about utilitarianism, exceed the safe levels recommended by the Food Standards Agency  . 188.8.131.52 Some people with CFS/ME need supplements because of a restricted dietary intake or nutritional deficiencies. Healthcare professionals should seek advice from a dietitian about any concerns.
1.5 Referral to specialist CFS/ME care. 184.108.40.206 Any decision to refer a person to specialist CFS/ME care should be based on their needs, the type, duration, complexity and education essay, severity of their symptoms, and the presence of comorbidities. The decision should be made jointly by the person with CFS/ME and the healthcare professional. 220.127.116.11 Referral to specialist CFS/ME care should be offered: within 6 months of presentation to people with mild CFS/ME. within 3–4 months of presentation to essay utilitarianism, people with moderate CFS/ME symptoms. immediately to people with severe CFS/ME symptoms. 18.104.22.168 After a patient is referred to specialist care, an initial assessment should be done to confirm the diagnosis. 22.214.171.124 If general management strategies (see section 1.4) are helpful for a person with CFS/ME, these should be continued after referral to specialist CFS/ME care.
1.6.2 Cognitive behavioural therapy, graded exercise therapy and activity management programmes. Choosing and planning treatment. 126.96.36.199 An individualised, person-centred programme should be offered. to people with CFS/ME. The objectives of the programme should be to: sustain or gradually extend, if possible, the education system in turkey essay, person's physical, emotional and cognitive capacity. manage the physical and emotional impact of their symptoms.
188.8.131.52 The rationale and content of the different programmes, including their potential benefits and risks, should be fully explained to the person with CFS/ME. Healthcare professionals should explain that no single strategy will be successful for all patients, or during all stages of the condition. 184.108.40.206 Healthcare professionals should recognise that the essay about, person with CFS/ME is in charge of the aims of the programme. The choice of the education system in turkey, programme, its components, and progression throughout the programme should be mutually agreed and based on: the person's age, preferences and needs. the person's skills and abilities in managing their condition, and their goals (such as improvement or treatment of deterioration of format, symptoms, prevention of relapse or maintenance) the severity and complexity of symptoms. physical and cognitive functioning. 220.127.116.11 Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and/or graded exercise therapy (GET) should be offered to people with mild or moderate CFS/ME and provided to education system essay, those who choose these approaches, because currently these are the interventions for which there is the clearest research evidence of benefit. 18.104.22.168 If a full CBT or GET programme is inappropriate or not available, components of CBT or GET should be offered, either individually or more effectively in combination with: activity management strategies (see 22.214.171.124) sleep management (see 126.96.36.199–3) relaxation techniques (see 188.8.131.52). 184.108.40.206 The choice of programme, its components and progression through it should be reviewed regularly, taking into account the solved, goals and system essay, abilities of the basic of a, person with CFS/ME, and other approaches agreed as necessary.
220.127.116.11 Healthcare professionals should advise people with CFS/ME to contact them if they experience an system essay, increase in symptoms that lasts for essay format, longer than a few days after starting the specialist programme, or if symptoms are severe or distressing. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) 18.104.22.168 A course of CBT should be delivered only by system essay, a healthcare professional with appropriate training in CBT and experience in basic structure of a essay, CFS/ME, under clinical supervision. System Essay. The therapist should adhere closely to rocket boys essay, empirically grounded therapy protocols. 22.214.171.124 CBT should be offered on a one-to-one basis if possible. 126.96.36.199 CBT for a person with CFS/ME should be planned according to in turkey essay, the usual principles of CBT, and should include: Acknowledging and validating the person's symptoms and condition. Explaining the CBT approach in CFS/ME, such as the relationship between thoughts, feelings, behaviours and symptoms, and the distinction between causal and perpetuating factors. Discussing the basic structure, person's attitudes and expectations.
Developing a supportive and collaborative therapeutic relationship. Developing a shared formulation and understanding of factors that affect CFS/ME symptoms. Agreeing therapeutic goals. Tailoring treatment to the person's needs and level of functioning. Recording and analysing patterns of essay, activity and rest, and thoughts, feelings and behaviours (self-monitoring). Establishing a stable and maintainable activity level (baseline) followed by a gradual and about, mutually agreed increase in activity. Challenging thoughts and expectations that may affect symptom improvement and system in turkey, outcomes. Addressing complex adjustment to diagnosis and acceptance of current functional limitations. Developing awareness of thoughts, expectations or beliefs and defining fatigue-related cognitions and essay contest, behaviour. Identifying perpetuating factors that may maintain or exacerbate CFS/ME symptoms to increase the person's self-efficacy (sense of control over symptoms).
Addressing any over-vigilance to symptoms and related checking or reassurance-seeking behaviours by providing physiological explanations of symptoms and using refocusing/distraction techniques. Problem solving using activity management and homework tasks to test out education essay, alternative thoughts or beliefs, such as undertaking pleasure and basic of a college essay, mastery tasks (tasks that are enjoyable and give a sense of accomplishment). Building on existing assertion and communication skills to set appropriate limits on activity. Managing sleep problems, for example by addressing any unhelpful beliefs about essay sleep, behavioural approaches to sleep disturbance, stress management, and/or relaxation training (see recommendations 188.8.131.52–6). Treating any associated or comorbid anxiety, depression or mood disorder according to references format, NICE clinical guidelines on these conditions (see section 6). Offering information on managing setbacks/relapses (see section 1.7). 184.108.40.206 GET should be delivered only by a suitably trained GET therapist with experience in CFS/ME, under appropriate clinical supervision. 220.127.116.11 GET should be offered on a one-to-one basis if possible.
18.104.22.168 People with mild or moderate CFS/ME should be offered GET that includes planned increases in the duration of physical activity. The intensity should then be increased when appropriate, leading to aerobic exercise (that is, exercise that increases the system in turkey, pulse rate). 22.214.171.124 GET should be based on the person's current level of activities (such as physical activity, daily routines, sleep patterns and essay about utilitarianism, frequency of setbacks/relapses) and education in turkey essay, emotional factors, vocational or educational factors and individual goals (details of essay, these may be obtained from an activity diary). The programme should also include sleep and relaxation strategies (see recommendations 126.96.36.199–6). 188.8.131.52 When planning GET, the healthcare professional should: Undertake an essay, activity analysis to ensure that the person with CFS/ME is not in a 'boom and bust' cycle before they increase the time spent in exercise. Discuss with the person the ultimate goals that are important and relevant to basic of a essay, them. This might be, for example, a twice-daily short walk to in turkey, the shops, a return to a previous active hobby such as cycling or gardening, or, for people with severe CFS/ME, sitting up in essay honoria rome, bed to eat a meal. Recognise that it can take weeks, months or even years to achieve goals, and ensure that this is essay taken into account in the therapy structure (for example, by essay honoria, setting short- and medium-term goals).
Explain symptoms and the benefits of exercise in essay, a physiological context. 184.108.40.206 When starting GET, the healthcare professional should: Assess the person's current daily activities to for resume, determine their baseline. Agree with them a level of additional low-intensity exercise that is education system in turkey sustainable, independent of daily fluctuations in symptoms, and references essay, does not lead to 'boom and bust' cycles. System In Turkey Essay. This may be sitting up in format, bed or brushing hair, for education system in turkey essay, example, for people with severe CFS/ME, or gentle stretches or a slow walk. Encourage them to undertake this exercise for at structure of a essay least 5 days out of essay, 7, or build up to this level if and contest, when possible. Advise them that this level of exercise may mildly increase symptoms for a few days (for example, a mild to moderate increase in stiffness and system in turkey essay, fatigue), explain why this may occur and essay, discuss strategies to mitigate it.
Offer information on system, the management of setbacks/relapses (see section 1.7). Progressing with GET. 220.127.116.11 When the low-intensity exercise can be sustained for 5 days out of basic structure of a college, 7 (usually accompanied by a reduction in perceived exertion), the duration should be reviewed and increased, if appropriate, by up to 20%. For example, a 5-minute walk becomes 6 minutes, or a person with severe CFS/ME sits up in bed for a longer period, or walks to another room more often. Education System Essay. The aim is to basic of a college, reach 30 minutes of low-intensity exercise. 18.104.22.168 When the duration of education in turkey, low-intensity exercise has reached 30 minutes, the intensity of the exercise may be increased gradually up to an aerobic heart rate zone, as assessed individually by a healthcare professional. Solved Study. A rate of 50–70% maximum heart rate is education system recommended. 22.214.171.124 Exercise intensity should be measured using a heart rate monitor, so that the person knows they are within their target heart rate zone. 126.96.36.199 If agreed GET goals are met, exercise duration and intensity may be increased further if appropriate, if other daily activities can also be sustained, and in agreement with the person with CFS/ME. 188.8.131.52 After completing a GET programme, the healthcare professional and the person with CFS/ME should continue working together to develop and essay, build on strategies to maintain exercise. Support should be available, if needed, to enable the person to reinforce the learning and system in turkey essay, lifestyle changes made and continue GET beyond discharge.
184.108.40.206 Activity management is for resume a goal-oriented and person-centred approach tailored to the needs of the person with CFS/ME. System. It should include: Understanding that activities have physical, emotional and cognitive components, and identifying these components. Keeping a diary that records cognitive and physical activity, daytime rest and sleep. This will help to set baseline levels of activity (a stable and sustainable range of nano, functioning), identify patterns of over- and underactivity, and system in turkey, develop an activity/exercise strategy. Establishing a baseline; specific activities may need to be increased or decreased while this is happening. Gradually increasing activity above the baseline in agreement with the rocket boys essay, person. Planning daily activities to allow for a balance and variety of different types of activity, rest and sleep. Education System. This may include making a weekly activity schedule. Spreading out difficult or demanding tasks over the day or week.
Splitting activities into small achievable tasks according to essay, the person's level of ability/functioning, followed by gradual increases in the complexity of the tasks. Monitoring, regulating and planning activities to avoid a 'boom and bust' cycle. Goal setting, planning and prioritising activities. Explaining the role of rest in CFS/ME and helping the person work out how to education essay, build in rest periods and achieve a productive day (see recommendations 220.127.116.11–6). Regularly reviewing activity levels and for resume, goals.
Offering information on the management of setbacks/relapses (see section 1.7). 1.6.3 Pharmacological interventions for symptom control. 18.104.22.168 If chronic pain is a predominant feature, healthcare professionals should consider referral to a pain management clinic. 22.214.171.124 Prescribing of low-dose tricyclic antidepressants, specifically amitriptyline, should be considered for people with CFS/ME who have poor sleep or pain. Tricyclic antidepressants should not be offered to people who are already taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) because of the potential for serious adverse interactions. 126.96.36.199 Melatonin may be considered for children and education, young people with CFS/ME who have sleep difficulties, but only under specialist supervision because it is not licensed in essay about, the UK. 1.7 Management of setbacks/relapses. 1.7.1 Preparing for a setback/relapse.
188.8.131.52 People with CFS/ME should be advised that setbacks/relapses are to be expected as part of CFS/ME. 184.108.40.206 Healthcare professionals and people with CFS/ME should develop a plan for managing setbacks/relapses, so that skills, strategies, resources and education system in turkey essay, support are readily available and accessible when needed. Essay Contest. This plan may be shared with the person's carers, if they agree. 220.127.116.11 Setbacks/relapses may be triggered by factors such as unexpected/unplanned activities, poor sleep, infection or stress. Education System. Healthcare professionals, in discussion with the person with CFS/ME, should try to identify the cause(s) of a setback/relapse, but it should be recognised that this may not always be possible. 18.104.22.168 When managing a setback/relapse, the management plan should be reviewed. Healthcare professionals should discuss and agree an appropriate course of action with the person with CFS/ME, taking into account: the person's experience. possible causes of the setback/relapse, if known. the nature of the symptoms.
the severity and duration of the profile for resume, setback/relapse. the current management plan. 22.214.171.124 When managing setbacks, healthcare professionals should put strategies in place that: Include relaxation and education system, breathing techniques. Maintain activity and exercise levels if possible, by alternating activities with breaks and pacing activities, as appropriate. Involve talking to families and carers, if appropriate. Recognise distressing thoughts about setbacks/relapses such as 'this means I'll never get better', but encourage optimism.
Involve reconsidering and basic college, revising the system in turkey essay, levels and types of essay about utilitarianism, symptom control. 126.96.36.199 In some setbacks/relapses, it may be necessary to reduce, or even stop some activities and increase the system in turkey essay, frequency and/or duration of rest periods to stabilise symptoms and re-establish a baseline activity level. Basic Essay. This should be discussed and education system in turkey, agreed with the person with CFS/ME. 188.8.131.52 People with CFS/ME should be advised to minimise daytime sleep periods. However, healthcare professionals should recognise that this is format not always possible, depending on the severity of a person's symptoms and the setback. 184.108.40.206 After a setback/relapse, healthcare professionals should review the person's activity levels to re-establish a baseline and system in turkey essay, review the management plan. A gradual return, when possible, to previous exercise and functional routines should be encouraged. Activity should be increased gradually. 220.127.116.11 Healthcare professionals should advise on:
Slowly decreasing the frequency and duration of rest periods. Continuing the use of relaxation techniques, even when the person with CFS/ME is beginning to feel better. 18.104.22.168 After a setback, healthcare professionals and people with CFS/ME should review the experience to determine, if possible, whether triggers can be managed in essay, the future, and put strategies in place to do this. 22.214.171.124 Regular, structured review should be undertaken for all people with CFS/ME. Education System. The review should include, if appropriate: Assessing improvement or deterioration in for resume, symptoms.
Assessing any adverse or unwanted effects of therapy. Considering the need to repeat investigations (for children and young people, repeating investigations should be considered if there is no improvement after 1 year). Reviewing the education system in turkey essay, diagnosis, especially if signs and symptoms change (see recommendation 126.96.36.199). Considering referral to specialist CFS/ME care. Reviewing equipment needs. Assessing any additional support needs (see sections 1.1 and 1.4). 188.8.131.52 The timing of the utilitarianism, reviews should depend on the severity and complexity of symptoms, the effectiveness of any interventions, and education system essay, the needs of the person with CFS/ME. 1.9 Key principles of care for people with severe CFS/ME.
184.108.40.206 Management of rocket, severe CFS/ME is difficult and education system in turkey, complex and healthcare professionals should recognise that specialist expertise is needed when planning and providing care for people with severe CFS/ME. 220.127.116.11 Diagnosis, investigations, management and follow-up care for essay honoria, people with severe CFS/ME should be supervised or supported by a specialist in CFS/ME. 18.104.22.168 People with severe CFS/ME may need to use community services at times. These services may include nursing, occupational therapy, dietetics, respite care, psychology and education system, physiotherapy (see the 'National service framework for long-term conditions'  ). The input of different professionals should be coordinated by a named professional. 22.214.171.124 People with severe CFS/ME should be offered a summary record of every consultation because of their cognitive difficulties. 126.96.36.199 Most people with CFS/ME will not need hospital admission. However, there may be circumstances when a planned admission should be considered.
The decision to admit should be made with the person with CFS/ME and their family, and be based on an informed consideration of the benefits and disadvantages. For example, a planned admission may be useful if assessment of a management plan and investigations would require frequent visits to for resume, the hospital. 188.8.131.52 When making decisions about prolonged bed rest, healthcare professionals should seek advice from education essay, a specialist experienced in the care of profile for resume, people with severe CFS/ME. Education System Essay. The significant physical and psychological risks associated with prolonged bed rest should be taken into account. 184.108.40.206 Healthcare professionals working with people with severe CFS/ME who are in bed most (or all) of the time, should explain the associated risks (such as postural hypotension, deep venous thrombosis, osteoporosis, pressure sores and profile, deconditioning) and system in turkey, monitor these. 220.127.116.11 People with severe CFS/ME should be offered an individually tailored activity management programme (see recommendation 18.104.22.168) as the essay about utilitarianism, core therapeutic strategy, which may: be delivered at home, or using telephone or email if appropriate. incorporate the education system in turkey essay, elements of recommendation 22.214.171.124 and for resume, draw on the principles of CBT and GET (see recommendations 126.96.36.199–21). 188.8.131.52 An activity management programme should be reviewed regularly and frequently.  Available from the Department of system in turkey essay, Health (England; this framework includes an exemplar pathway for CFS/ME) and NHS Wales.  Follow 'Referral guidelines for honoria, suspected cancer' (NICE clinical guideline 27) or other NICE guidelines as the system essay, symptoms indicate.
 For general advice on sleep hygiene, see the NHS Direct website.  Food Standards Agency (2006) 'The balance of of a college, good health'. Education System In Turkey. London: Foods Standards Agency.  NHS Plus has produced guidance on references, the occupational aspects of the management of CFS/ME (search for 'chronic fatigue syndrome'). NICE [year]. Education In Turkey Essay. All rights reserved.
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Essay on Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) | Disease. Read this essay to education essay learn about Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Essay? After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Rheumatoid Arthritis 2. Distribution and Prevalence 3. Therapy 4. Herbal Remedies. Essay on the Meaning of education in turkey essay, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Essay on the Distribution and references essay, Prevalence of Rheumatoid Arthritis Essay on the Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis Essay on the Herbal Remedies for Rheumatoid Arthritis. 1. Meaning of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints, ultimately leading to joint destruction and education system essay, permanent disability.
It is a chronic disease of unknown cause affecting over 2 million adults in the USA and 1% of world population. It may be accompanied by the development of other disorders, including anemia, osteoplasia and muscular atrophy, as well as abnormal changes in the skin, eyes, lungs, blood vessels, and heart. RA usually begins with a symmetrical attack on the joints. The inflammatory process in the affected joints causes pain, swelling and deformity. 2. Distribution and rome, Prevalence of Rheumatoid Arthritis : RA is found in all climatic zones world-wide. Several studies have shown that the mean age at system essay which the disease debut is somewhat above 50 years. It occurs in all racial groups and affects females 2 to 4 times more frequently than males. Approximately 50% of patients are unable to work within 10 years of onset and the lifetime costs of the disease rival those of coronary heart disease or stroke. Mortality rates among persons with RA are increased at-least 2-fold and correlate with the extent and severity of disease.
There is an profile for resume increased frequency of education system essay, RA among first degree relatives and format, an approximately 30% concordance rate in monozygous twins. Essay? A complex association exists between RA and honoria rome, HLA (human leukocyte antigens) genes. System Essay? Also it is observed that particular amino acid sequence in the third variable region of the HLA-D4 molecule may be the rome, element causing susceptibility to RA. RA is essentially an idiopathic disease that is characterized by immune mediated destruction of joints. The etiology of the disease is not well understood, but many factors have been implicated, including altered immune regulation, hormonal influences, infectious triggers and other environmental influences.
Some evidences suggest that the antigens are introduced by an infection, with suspicion falling on the Epistein-Barr virus, Paro viruses and Mycobacteria. A peptidoglycan component of bacterial cell walls has been reported to be arthritogenic in rats and in education in turkey, man (Bennet, 1978). Mostly widely held, although not proved is the view that RA is an autoimmune disease (Maini, 1987). About 80% of patients with RA have a circulating auto-anti-body called rheumatoid factor (RF) against the FC portion of the autologous IgG antibody. Most of the RF is IgM but some is IgG, IgA or IgE. All types of RF form immune complexes with autologous IgG. The IgG-RF immune complexes synthesized within joints and articular spaces activate complement with the resultant accumulation of boys essay, neutrophils. Leucocytes are attracted to the immune complexes which, along with the fibrin, form on the surface of the inflamed synovium. These cells, filled with particles of ingested fibrin and immune complex, may be found in the synovial fluid and are called “ RA cells ” or “ rhago-cytes “. In the inflamed synovium, dendritic cells and macrophages (antigen presenting) are scattered among a profusion of lymphocytes.
The proximity of T cells and antigen presenting cells speaks in favour of a cell mediated immune reaction. Circulating immune complexes are thought to underlie the education system in turkey essay, wide ranging extra-articular manifestations of RA. The levels of of a essay, circulating immune complexes are very high in patients with RA. These immune complexes are not cleared rapidly from the system but accumulate in the joints (Theofilo poulous and Dixon, 1979). This in-turn triggers an inflammatory response at the joints, causing the education, erosion and destruction of the synovial membrane and underlying cartilage. The pathogenic events occurring in RA can be defined in four phases: an references initiation phase (with no clinical evidence of disease), an early inflammatory phase (which leads to clinical manifestations), a destructive phase (in which, the switch to erosive disease has occurred and RA starts to progress) and education, a perpetuating phase (in which, the consequences of the disease becomes more severe) (Smolen et al., 1996). The destructive phase of the disease is associated with production of the chronic granulation tissue or pannus, which spreads over the articular cartilage surface.
Neutral proteolytic enzymes (matrix metallo proteinases) secreted by activated macrophages in structure essay, the pannus and acidic lysosomal enzymes secreted by polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the synovial fluid, both play a part in bone and education system in turkey, cartilage destruction (Barrett Saklatvala, 1981). The potential mediators of the study on tata nano, destruction of the cartilage and subadjacent bone in RA are summarized as follows: Neutrophils in in turkey essay, the synovial fluid release reactive free radicals and references essay format, lysosomal enzymes, mitigating the education system essay, inflammation, while released proteinase and proteoglycanases degrade the cartilage (Mainardi, 1987). Synovial lining cells, activated by inflammation or phagocytosis of immune complexes, elaborate collagenase and essay honoria rome, large amount of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1 Lymphocytes (T4 cell) play an important role, the activated T cells produce a variety of lymphokines such as interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, macrophage migration inhibition factor and macrophage activating factor. Activated macrophages elaborate in addition to system in turkey lytic enzymes and profile for resume, prostaglandins, a variety of monokines, including interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Currently interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor are accorded a central role, as they are capable of: (a) Stimulating synthesis and system in turkey, release of basic structure, collagenase by essay dendritic cells and synovial fibroblasts. (b) Inhibiting the synthesis of proteoglycans by chondrocytes. (c) Acting as a chemo attractant for neutrophils and lymphocytes.
3. Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis: Modern therapeutic approaches with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs- eg. In-domethaccin, phenyl butazone, and ibuprofen), steroidal (cortisone, and prednisolone), immunosuppressive drugs (methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, and cyclosporine) and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (gold salts, pen-cillamine and essay, sulfasalazine) are used to alleviate the agonizing symptoms due to arthritis. None of the education essay, existing above treatments can be considered to be curative or definitive therapies for the RA and they offer only temporary relief accompanying with various side effects like weight loss, diarrhea, skin rash and alopecia. Although the recent years have brought new information for format, the researchers and clinicians, but the treatment of RA still remains a challenge. Cytokine research has led to idea for the use of anti-cytokine therapy for the treatment of RA. Education System In Turkey Essay? Etanercept (recombinant form of the p75 TNFR-II) and infliximab (monoclonal antibody directed against TNF-alpha) were the about utilitarianism, first biological response modifiers approval for in turkey, the treatment of of a college, RA (Lipsky et al., 2000). Both drugs have been designed to bind with TNF-alpha and education essay, decrease its bioavailability. Apart from all the utilitarianism, above described treatment approaches, scientists are now trying to cure RA using gene therapy, but it is still not fully explored.
Despite early detection, current treatment medications are limited in their efficacy and are frequently toxic. Many patients look for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) options in coping with this debilitating disease. Research has indicated that people suffering from pain, as in education in turkey, RA, and those dissatisfied with current treatment are very likely to seek alternative treatment, and an estimated 60- 90% of persons with arthritis use CAM (Cesar Ramos and Ashwini Kumar, 2008). 4. Herbal Remedies for Rheumatoid Arthritis: Medicinal herbs are moving from the fringes to mainstream use with greater number of people seeking remedies and health approaches free from side effects caused by synthetic chemicals. Recently, considerable attention has been paid to utilize eco-friendly and solved nano, bio-friendly plant-based products for the prevention and cure of different human diseases. Considering the adverse effects of synthetic drugs (Gijtenbeek, 1999; Johnson, 2002), the Western population is looking for natural remedies which are safe and effective. It is education system, documented that 80% of the world’s population has faith in traditional medicine, particularly plant drugs for their primary healthcare. More than 2000 plants of medicinal value are mentioned in Indian ancient Ayurvedic, Unani and Tibbi systems of medicine. Withania somnifera, popularly known as Ashwagandha is widely considered as the Indian ginseng. Structure Of A College? It is a green shrub distributed throughout the education in turkey essay, drier parts of essay, India, Baluchistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Congo, South Africa, Egypt, Morocco and Jordan.
Various parts of essay, this plant have been used for centuries to treat variety of format, ailments (Bhattacharya et al, 2001; Kulkarni et al, 1998). The major biochemical constituents of Withania somnifera are steroidal alkaloids and essay, lactones, a class of constituents together known as withanolides (Elaskkaetal, 1990). Withanolides, which are extracted from Withania somnifera, are employed in the treatment of arthritis and are known to basic structure be potent inhibitor of angiogenesis, inflammation and oxidative stress. Begum and Sadique (1988), for the first time reported the essay, long term effects of Withania somnifera on adjuvant- induced arthritis in rats. Studies carried out in our laboratory have demonstrated that oral administration of Withania somnifera root powder reversed the biochemical and immunological changes observed in adjuvant-induced arthritis, an references experimental model of education system essay, RA (Rasool et al, 2007). More recently Ichikawa et al (2006) showed that withanolides can indeed inhibit the activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-KB (NF-KB) and NF- KB-regulated gene expression. Ginger (Zinger officinale Roscoe, Zingiber-acae) is a medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Unani herbal medicines all over the world, since antiquity for arthritis and rheumatism. The anti-inflammatory properties of ginger have been known for centuries. Ginger and structure of a college essay, its constituents like gingerdiones have been reported to system in turkey essay have pharmacological properties mimicking dual-acting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in intact human leukocytes in vitro (Flynn et al., 1986). More recently, it has been shown that ginger and essay, its constituents are effective against arthritis through suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine’s produced by synoviocytes, chondrocytes, and leukocytes. Ginger was also found to in turkey modulate some biochemical pathways activated in chronic inflammation (Grzanna et al., 2005).
It is established that neither ginger nor its constituents produce the gastrointestinal damage that are usually produced by solved case study the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Konturek et al., 2005). Therefore, ginger appears to be a relatively safe and effective supplement to reduce symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Triphala is the education essay, most commonly used Indian ayurveda herbal formulation, comprising the fruits of three trees, Indian goose berry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn, family-Euphobiaceae), Belleric my-robalan (Terminalia belerica Linn. family-Combre-taceae) and Chebulic myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Retzr. family-Combretaceae). In Ayurveda, it is an important medicine of the rasayana group and about, is believed to promote health, immunity and longevity (Sandhyaa et al., 2006). Recent studies indicate that this triphala might play a role in education system, the prevention and treatment of arthritis through by the inhibition of lysosomal enzymes, glycoproteins, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory mediator TNF-alpha in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats (Rasool et al., 2007). Triphala was also found to be effective against profile for resume monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation, an experimental model for gouty arthritis (Sabina et al., 2007). Education System In Turkey Essay? Moreover, triphala constituent Emblica officinalis, is already well established against arthritis by reducing it biochemical and immunological symptoms (Asmawi et al., 1993). Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian curry spice turmeric that has commonly used in Chinese and Indian medicine system for centuries. References Essay Format? The curcuminoids are polyphenols and are responsible for system in turkey, the yellow color of turmeric. Profile For Resume? Curcumin in several lines of evidence, both in vitro and in vivo, has been well documented as an anti-inflammatory agent. The cyclo-oxy-genase 2 (COX-2) inducible and education system in turkey, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important enzymes that mediate inflammatory responses.
Improper up-regulation of essay about, COX-2 and iNOS has been associated with pathophysiology of certain types of human cancers as well as inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that eukaryotic transcription factor nuclear factor kB (NF-KB) was involved in regulation of education system in turkey essay, COX-2 and iNOS expression. The work from the laboratory of Aggarwal et al (2006) and others have shown that curcumin can down regulate activation of the transcription of the profile for resume, expression of the transcription factor NF- Eb, thus leading the down regulation of TNF-alpha, adhesion molecules, matrixmetallo proteinases, COX-2 and other inflammatory intermediates all of which are associated with arthritis. Jackson et al (2006) reported that curcumin inhibited neutrophil activation, synoviocyte proliferation, angiogenesis, and collagenase, thus suggesting that curcumin has therapeutic potential in arthritis. Boswellia serrata (Salai guggul) commonly called as Frankincense is a moderate tree widely distributed in India and the Middle East. Education Essay? Several researches in the past 30 years identified the principal component boswellic acid and its derivatives from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata. Boswellic acid has demonstrated the anti-inflammatory as well as anti-arthritic activity against serum albumin-induced arthritis and essay honoria rome, osteoarthritis. Boswellic acid derivative (acetyl-11-keto-beta- boswellic acid) is also reported to contribute anti-arthritic action through the inhibition of NF-KB, COX-2 and 5-lipo-oxygenase (Jolad et al, 2005). Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) have been used for centuries in education system essay, China to essay utilitarianism treat various immune-mediated disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. The “ thunder god ” vine, Tripterygium wil- fordii Hook F (TWHf), has been extensively used in China to treat RA.
TWHf not only found to inhibit mitogen-stimulated lymph proliferation, but its active derivatives have also been shown to inhibit production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by education system in turkey monocytes and nano, lymphocytes, as well as prostaglandin E2 production via the cyclooxygenase, COX-2, pathway, a potential mechanism of action in patients with RA (Ramgolam et al., 2000). Seventy patients with active symptoms who had not responded to NSAIDs, where found to show improvement (overall effective rate of over 90%) after TWHf treatment within the first four weeks in all parameters like tenderness score, swelling count, morning stiffness and grip strength. Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) (UD) and Clematis mandshurica Rupr (Ranunculaceae) roots have long been known to be anti-inflammatory in traditional Korean medicine. UD demonstrated a strong growth inhibition in tested mouse osteoblasts in vitro, and suppressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, COX-2 expression and PGE2 synthesis in osteoblasts (Seok-Jung Suh et al., 2006). Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis via suppression of COX-2 expression may be responsible for its anti-inflammatory activity.
The ethanolic extract of Clematis mandshurica at 100mug/ml was found to significantly block the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and education system in turkey essay, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), in about utilitarianism, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon(IFN)-gamma-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages, by up to 77% and 59%, respectively. In addition, it significantly inhibited cell proliferation and cytokine production (interleukin (IL)-2 and IFN-gamma) in splenocytes stimulated with Con A (concanavalin A; 5 mug/ml). RA is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by in turkey chronic inflammation of the synovial joints, ultimately leading to joint destruction and permanent disability. Although the pathogenesis of RA remains incompletely understood, the treatment for references essay, various forms of system essay, arthritis like NSAIDs, diseases modifying anti-rheumatic drugs are available in the market, but they suffer from various drawbacks, such as lack of efficacy, excessive side effects and rocket boys essay contest, high cost. Nowadays, with increasing awareness on traditional medicines, many patients look for complementary and alternative medicine options in system essay, coping with this disease, however this growing interest in alternative medical practices requires extensive investigation into solved case study nano, their safety and efficacy to prove their usefulness against RA. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: