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Essay on what science means to you - Essay Clip

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To Believe or Deceive? Sir Francis Bacon, Religion, and the New Science. As we enter the second decade of the 21st century, questions about the relationship between science and politics are perhaps more important than ever. We enjoy unprecedented power over nature. We are confronted with issues such as stem cell research, weaponized science,and climate change–all part of a larger set of questions about the essays, proper role of science within society. Unsurprisingly, there has been a resurgence of scholarship on the prophet of modern science, Francis Bacon. Akaun! Whether one sees Bacon as “perhaps the science, greatest philosopher of all time” 1 or a mere “demagogue of abuse papers, science,” 2 one cannot deny his profound influence on subsequent generations. And the questions his writings address are arguably more important in the 21st century than they were in the 17th century when Bacon was formulating them.

While Bacon#8217;s popularity has fluctuated, what has remained relatively constant is the general understanding of him as the secular prophet of the Enlightenment and scientific rationalism. Some scholars have now begun to essays question this accepted interpretation and have offered a strikingly different view of Bacon and his overall work. This book by Stephen McKnight stands as the seminal alternative to the traditional interpretations of Bacon. McKnight#8217;s primary contention is that such preeminent Bacon scholars as Howard White and Jerry Weinberger misunderstand Bacon#8217;s “religiousness.” While White and Weinberger suggest that Bacon#8217;s religiosity is primarily a tool to gain favor with the regime and essays driving masks his true intentions for the creation of a secular, scientific utopia, McKnight argues that Bacon holds genuine religious beliefs. And moreover, those beliefs serve as the cornerstone to essays his whole project. McKnight employs a “close textual analysis” of eight of Bacon#8217;s works to demonstrate “that Bacon#8217;s vision of reform or #8216;instauration#8217; is drawn from the Judeo-Christian scriptures, particularly the Genesis account of the Creation and the fall; from electoral apocalyptic expectation of renewal in the Old Testament; and from soteriological themes of the New Testament.” Moreover, Bacon#8217;s work is also influenced by “themes and imagery found in the prisca theologia , a highly elastic collection of Neoplatonism, Hermeticism, alchemy, magic, and science Jewish esoteric traditions.” 4. Far from electoral thesis being a rejection of science, Christianity or religion, McKnight argues that Bacon#8217;s writings aim to uncover a “truer, deeper level understanding of the scriptures and physical papers of God#8217;s saving acts in history.” 5 This reading clearly stands at odds with traditional interpretations of Bacon that include him with the science essays, likes of resume akaun, Machiavelli and Hobbes as the secular, materialistic founders of modernity. 6 Let us therefore assess the persuasiveness of essays, McKnight#8217;s interpretation and physical child draw out the potential implications of his argument. As noted, McKnight#8217;s response to the one-sidedness of past interpretations is to offer a close textual analysis of Bacon#8217;s works in science, order to establish the 500 word, pervasiveness of religious imagery and science genuine belief.

McKnight essentially argues for continuity within Bacon#8217;s works and therefore does not try to single out a particular work as being the representative piece. And his argument requires a thorough demonstration of Bacon#8217;s religiousness: something that cannot easily be established by as level history, examining one work. Yet, the task of covering eight of Bacon#8217;s works within a single tract is daunting. Science Essays! The result is that McKnight cannot spend more than a chapter on one particular work and the reader is sometimes left wondering whether a narrower, more detailed approach would have proved more effective. Kerani Akaun! What cannot be denied however is that McKnight#8217;s interpretation raises a series of critical questions that must be addressed by anyone who wishes to understand Bacon#8217;s work and its relation to contemporary political life. This can best be seen through McKnight#8217;s interpretation of New Atlantis , Bacon#8217;s final, and perhaps most important, work. Jerry Weinberger argues that New Atlantis represents the final cause, or end, of Bacon#8217;s work and stands as the sixth and science final part of #8220;the Great Instauration.#8221; While McKnight does not go quite that far, he agrees that New Atlantis is a crucial part of Bacon#8217;s work and offers a “compact statement of the physical abuse papers, main themes” of his work. Science! 7. 500 Word Essays On Drunk! McKnight explicitly rejects the science, idea that Bacon is manipulating religious symbolism in order to “subvert Christian ideas and transform them into a culturally acceptable justification for a preoccupation with luxury and materialism.” 8 Instead, the program of reform recommended in New Atlantis is resume akaun “grounded in genuinely and deeply felt religious convictions.” 9 The point of departure then is over Bacon#8217;s true intentions, as both sides readily acknowledge the essays, strong presence of electoral college thesis, religious symbolism within his work. McKnight#8217;s interpretation of New Atlantis , and to an extent Bacon#8217;s work as a whole, hinges on the character of Bensalem and its people.

Is Christianity necessary to the flourishing of science, Bensalem? Was Bensalem founded on the principles of charity and piety? Are the inhabitants of Bensalem as friendly as they appear? What are we to make of the laws of secrecy? Who rules the island and on what basis are decisions made to reveal scientific discoveries and inventions to the public? Assuming that Bensalem represents the end of Bacon#8217;s project, the answers to those questions can provide us with insight into Bacon#8217;s true intentions. McKnight sees Bensalem as being animated by the principles of genuine Christianity and attributes pure intentions to its leaders and inhabitants. While Weinberger questions whether the sailors were forced unto the island (through the physical child research papers, advanced science that allows them to control natural divinations), McKnight sees Providence as the cause since the sailors had prayed for relief. The conversion of Bensalem to Christianity is another crucial event that holds implications for Bacon#8217;s work as a whole.

McKnight argues that Bensalem#8217;s conversion comes through “direct intervention by God” and science therefore, the Christianity found there is “pure and unadulterated by human error and misinterpretation.” 10 As further evidence of this claim, the Bensalemites are offered access to sacred texts that are unavailable to child their European counterparts. Weinberger offers a strikingly different account of the conversion experience. He notes that the essays, conversion came as the result of a declaration by a wise man of Solomon#8217;s house, not of a miracle. The wise man “verifies the miracle by certifying rationally that it has no natural or artificial cause,” but Weinberger points out that the miracles of the Bible require no such explanation. 11. Furthermore, the history of Bensalem points to the fact that the island was established well before the coming of Christ. And its founder, Solamona, had implemented the aforementioned laws of secrecy because Bensalem could be worsened in “a thousand ways,” but there was “scarce” any way to make it better.

This raises a serious question as to the importance of Christianity to Bensalem. Could its inclusion merely reflect Bacon#8217;s desire to persuade his primarily Christian audience that his work was friendly to those beliefs? McKnight dismisses such a charge by pointing out Bensalem was chosen because of its virtue: “God selects Bensalem because it is capable of receiving and perpetuating a pure form of essay, gospel Christianity.” 12. Science! Perhaps the most important point of departure between McKnight#8217;s interpretation and the more traditional interpretations is the 500 word essays on drunk driving, characterization of Solomon#8217;s House. McKnight argues that Solomon#8217;s House serves not as a “displacement of Solomon#8217;s Temple, but as its complement.” 13 Bacon does not “dismiss or displace the idea of science, spiritual renewal,” but emphasizes an “equally important” task: rebuilding natural philosophy so humans can “recover the benefits God instilled in essay, the Creation.” 14. Furthermore, McKnight takes a benevolent view of the censorship that occurs within Solomon#8217;s House. We are told that the end of Solomon#8217;s House is “the knowledge of causes and secret motions of things; and the enlarging of the bounds of human empire, to the effecting of all things possible.” 15 However, as the Father of Solomon#8217;s House tells us, not everything that is discovered is disclosed to the citizenry or the government.

McKnight argues against the traditional interpretations that suggest “totalitarian state control” or the science, “creation of scientists as the new political intellectual elites.” 16 He suggests that “such interpretations fail to take into account Bacon#8217;s concept of 500 word essays, human nature,” one rooted in the concept of Original Sin. According to McKnight, “only the members of science, Solomon#8217;s House have attained the level of dissertation, spiritual discipline to overcome this materialistic preoccupation and use the rich benefits to be derived from God#8217;s Creation for charitable purposes.” 17 So instead of representing a materialistic, scientific elite, the members of Solomon#8217;s House are acting under the guidance of Providence. Yet, we must wonder how the members of science, Solomon#8217;s House decide what inventions to disclose or to conceal? Where do they derive the wisdom to make such decisions? For McKnight, the implication seems to be through spiritual training, but we are not told that such training takes place within the New Atlantis . Weinberger notes Bacon#8217;s lack of guidance on the issue as well; pointing out that politics is not even included as one of the subjects studied within Solomon#8217;s House. But the college, decision to essays disclose or conceal scientific discoveries clearly falls in purpose dissertation literature, the realm of politics. Bacon#8217;s suggests that “right reason” and “sound religion” will be sufficient to ensure that the proper decisions are made, but that hardly provides us a concrete model of education. Essays! While we do not find such a model within New Atlantis, Bacon does provide us with extensive thoughts on education in The Advancement of Learning and Novum Organum ; both of which are included among the purpose dissertation review, eight works in McKnight#8217;s assessment. Science! McKnight#8217;s focus, however, is not on the explication of Bacon#8217;s new method, but on the motivation behind it. McKnight stresses that Bacon views himself as a mere “guide to point out the road; an office of small authority, and depending upon lieing, a kind of luck than upon science essays, any ability or excellency.” 18 He argues that Bacon minimizes his own role in order to “emphasize the essays driving, operation of Providence.” 19.

While it is undoubtedly true that Bacon offers such humble statements, McKnight seems to overlook some of Bacon#8217;s bolder claims. For instance, in Novum Organum , Bacon notes: “if someone of mature age, with faculties unimpaired and mind cleansed of prejudice, applies himself afresh to particulars and science experience, better is to be hoped of him. And it is in this task that we promise ourselves the fortune of as level, Alexander the Great .” 20 Bacon also suggests that it would only take a few years to discover all causes and essays all sciences if only his method were followed. 21. As to the Advancement of Learning , McKnight points out that the full title of the text, The Two Books of Francis Bacon of the dissertation literature review, Proficiencie and Advancement of Learning Divine and Human , points to Bacon#8217;s emphasis on the spiritual and shows that he is not simply focusing on utilitarian knowledge that can be used to conquer nature.

Furthermore, he points to Bacon#8217;s emphasis on charity “as the corrective to pride” and to his likening of James#8217; rule to Solomon#8217;s as further proof of the centrality of religious belief to Bacon#8217;s work. Given the science essays, comprehensive nature of McKnight#8217;s argument, there is one glaring omission: Bacon#8217;s Essays . Bacon addresses a range of topics and some could be especially instructive in determining the importance of his religious beliefs to 500 word essays his work: most notably those on science, atheism, truth, superstition, and unity in religions. McKnight does an admirable job of delving into the works of Bacon and provides us with an interesting alternative to the traditional view of essay, Bacon as a secular, materialistic prophet of science essays, science. The case for the importance of religious symbolism within Bacon#8217;s work is a strong one, but it is less clear that the whole project rests on a religious foundation. McKnight is right to develop an argument that seriously considers Bacon#8217;s religiosity; his study inevitably points us to such recurring questions as: Can modern science and religion peacefully co-exist or is there an as level inherent tension that forces us to choose one or the other? Is the conquering of nature through science a prideful act of hubris or the fulfillment of science, Divine will?

What role, if any, should scientists play in formulating public policy? Can science adequately address questions of the human good? These are questions Bacon raised well before science transformed society and in light of the ascent of science and technology, the answers are of utmost importance. 1. Jean Jacques Rousseau. The Discourses and Other EarlyPolitical Writings . Ed. Victor Gourevitch. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997) p.332. 2. F.A. Hayek. The Counter-Revolution of Science: Studies on kerani akaun, the Abuse of Reason. Science! 2nd edition. (Indianapolis: Liberty Press, 1979) p.21. 3. Physical Abuse Papers! Stephen McKnight.

The ReligiousFoundations of Francis Bacon#8217;s Thought. (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2006) p.3. 6. For example. See Jerry Weinberger#8217;s introduction in New Atlantis and The Great Instauration. (Illinois: HarlanDavidson, 1989) p.vii. Science Essays! 11. Weinberger p.xvii. 500 Word On Drunk Driving! 12. McKnight p.17. 20. Francis Bacon. The New Organon . Ed.

Jardine and Silverthorne. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000) p.78. David Whitney is Associate Editor of VoegelinView and essays Associate Professor of lieing, Government at Nicholls State University in Louisiana. He is author of Maladies of Modernity Scientism and the Deformation of Political Order (St. Augustine's Press, 2016).

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Essay on what science means to you - Essay Clip

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Free Downloadable Resume Templates. Free resume templates designed selected by science essays RG professionals. Simply choose your favorite and get started. Essay History! Just scroll down and find a Microsoft Word template that suits your work experience and science, sense of design. Don’t worry – using a template is perfectly acceptable. If you don’t feel like designing your own resume, you can instead jump to our free and electoral college, easy to use online resume builder. Science Essays! Save time and effort – it does all of the writing and formatting for you. Click the button below and get started! Resume Template Library 1: Resume Genius' Original Designs - Expert's Choice. The above basic resume library was designed by our resident resume experts and have been battle tested by job seekers. On Drunk Driving! As this set performed the best, we included them in our resume builder software– and science essays, now we are offering them to you for abuse papers free to download in Microsoft Word format.

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Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of essays a career. Remember: You can download any of these resume templates for free and add the bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in lieing minutes with Resume Genius’ renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of science essays hassle designing and purpose of a, filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. However, if you’d still like to make the science essays resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to lieing give you guidance and science, inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, don’t forget to check out lieing, our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is unique, so you’ll need to choose a template that best reflects and science, promotes your skills and resume, experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to science essays any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats. The fact is, the essays on drunk driving web is essays, filled with so many fantastic and lieing on resume, creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out essays, there.

We are proud of the designs we’ve created, and have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to college thesis this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too. Essays! Readability is resume akaun, king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the science resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that it’s inappropriate to use a resume template.

You’ll hear these arguments: 1. 500 Word Essays! It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is science, fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before.

3. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at purpose that resume template design because a lot of science other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. Driving! We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for essays nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in papers my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to science include on your resume.

Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years.

Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the purpose of a literature review experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. Science Essays! can u suggest to electoral me with template is suitable.. Science! #128578; I had a job for 7 years and purpose of a dissertation review, during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period.

Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Essays! Good luck! Consider trying the literature ‘Job Hopper’ or the science ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school!

As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to resume consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in essays choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and 500 word, my part time informal english lessons to essays native speaking arabs. 500 Word Essays Driving! What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello.

Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Science! Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template.

Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to thesis apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for essays what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the electoral college thesis summer program.

Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for science essays someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Electoral College! Good luck with the science essays job hunt.

I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to driving earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search!

Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for science essays a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and resume akaun, interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on science essays, the web, and I was hoping you could help me out resume, with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of essays your choice.

If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. Research! https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the science templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference.

Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at essays on drunk and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out science, this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and on drunk, rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of essays taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain.

If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for 500 word on drunk driving your resume. Our “Classic” template on science, this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Essays Driving! Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.

We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and science, easy export to electoral MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and science, Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of on resume a resume within 6 seconds?

The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?

Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for science essays a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the physical child abuse research world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to science introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to resume akaun help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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Black Sea Abyss: Chaos and Writing in science Ancient Mesopotamia. This discussion explores the lieing on resume intersection of chaos and writing in science the context of the Eridu Genesis, a Sumerian cuneiform text dating back to the 18th century BC and containing three narratives : the Creation of review humankind, the building of cities, and a flood myth. Researchers analyze the extent to science, which conceptions of lieing chaos, found in this text, recount the Black Sea deluge that scientists agree occurred around 5500 BC. Having authored the world’s oldest known historical texts, Sumerian writings simultaneously mark the beginning of written literature and the birth pangs of chaos ‘in’ writing. Thus the Eridu Genesis, as the archetype for these narratives, deserves critical attention when affording ‘writing and science, chaos’ a historical context. The question of whether or not the Black Sea flood continues to underpin late modern notions of chaos remains open. However, this geo-cultural reading shows that writing about 500 word essays chaos can provide insight into the human condition, by essays giving expression to electoral college, what it means for essays a civilization to exist in an unpredictable world. Esta discusion examina la interseccion del caos y la escritura en el contexto del Eridu Genesis, un texto cuneiforme Sumerio que data del siglo XVlll AC y que contiene tres narraciones : la creacion de la humanidad, la construccion de las ciudades, y un mito sobre una inundacion. Los investigadores consideran hasta que punto las concepciones sobre el caos halladas en este texto, hablan sobre el diluvio del Mar Negro, que los cientificos estan de acuerdo en afirmar que ocurrio aproximadamente 5500 AC. Las escrituras Sumerias son los mas antiguos textos historicos conocidos del mundo, y marcan simultaneamente el principio de la literatura escrita y el nacimiento del caos en la escritura. Asi, el Genesis de Eridu, como arquetipo de estas narrativas, merece una atencion critica cuando mencionamos ‘escritura y caos’, en un contexto historico.

La pregunta de si el diluvio del Mar Negro continua o no sosteniendo las ultimas nociones modernas del caos, permanece abierta. Sin embargo, esta lectura geo-cultural demuestra que el escribir sobre el caos puede aportarnos ideas sobre la condicion humana, dando expresion a lo que significa para una civilizacion el existir en un mundo imprevisible. An Introduction to Chaos and electoral college, Writing: ‘origin’ and ‘beginning’ 1 This discussion examines ‘writing and chaos’ in the context of ancient Mesopotamia. Science? Of central interest is the Eridu Genesis , a text of six columns written in Sumerian and containing three narratives; the Creation of the world (out of a chaotic sea), the founding of electoral thesis cities, and a great flood.The text was excavated in Nippur during the Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania (1893-1896)and has been dated back to around 1600 BC (Jacobsen, 1981: 513). 2 At first thought to be an incantation, the Eridu Genesis has significance in this discussion for two reasons.On the one hand, the Sumerians are credited as being the authors of science essays “the oldest known historical inscriptions” that reach as far back as the “third millennium BC” (Bottero, 2001: 4-7).This means that the Sumerians produced the world’s first administrative and private legal documents, scholarly and physical child abuse, literary texts, the first to science, write about emotions and beliefs.However, not only does a discussion of the Eridu Genesis text provide us with insight into the beginnings of writing, its constituent narratives mean that it contains first conjunction of writing and chaos in 500 word driving history.At the cornerstone of ancient literature, the essays Sumerians remain critically important when affording ‘writing and chaos’ a historical context. 3 It is in terms of ‘writing’ that the Eridu Genesis signals a ‘beginning’; a notion that Edward W. Said, in Beginnings: Intention and Method , differentiates from ‘origin’.He observes that ‘origin’ has a ‘passive’ meaning whereas ‘beginning’ connotes a more ‘active’ one (1975: 6).The former stems from lieing acknowledging a past or current event and the latter pertains to science, choice and activity (1975: 380).Said’s conception of “writing-as-action” aligns ‘writing’ with ‘beginning’ (1975: 24).Said’s distinction between ‘origin’ and ‘beginning’ presents an opportunity to examine the conditions under which they intersect but, here, I have accounted for only one side of the union. 4 It should also be said that notions of chaos connotes notions of essays driving ‘origin,’ a view that is supported by a range of historical precedents.Consider how creation mythologies and flood legends (such as Nordic, Japanese, Mayan, Egyptian and Christian narratives) interpret the origin of the universe as an original chaos, a chaotic and science, aquatic abyss.In the Western world, we understand the purpose dissertation abyss as “[t]he great deep believed in the old cosmogony to essays, lie beneath the earth; the primal chaos”(Brown, 1993b: 11).Where chaos denotes origin it connotes the unfathomable cosmos, the abyssal, and the aquatic.As ancient attempts to “satisfy man’s craving for the answers to the universe,” the Sumerian myths, and purpose dissertation review, associated ancient Mesopotamian narratives, remain “proto-types” for this chain of signification whereby meaning is science, made of a material reality (Kramer, 1961: 183). 5 However, if “[t] he beginning… is the first step in physical child abuse research the intentional production of science meaning ,” what is this activity of writing about chaos an attempt to understand (Said, 1975: 5)?In other words, a beginning may well function to “restructure and as level history, animate knowledge” (Said, 1975: 380).Though, what does ‘chaos writing’ attempt to know, or draw the reader’s attention to?What kind of material reality will motivate writing about chaos?These questions are worth addressing, not least of all because their answer will directly impact on how ‘chaos’ is science, understood in the Eridu Genesis .Perhaps an answer lies in the striking resemblances that details of creation and the flood, in the Eridu Genesis , have to the Black Sea deluge that scientists agree occurred around 5500 BC.Earth-science supports the claim that the Black Sea deluge informed instances of Sumerian ‘chaos (abyss) writing’ nearly three millennia later. 6 While we might find a discussion of the Eridu Genesis drawing us towards the beginning of writing, it is a discussion of the Black Sea deluge that turns our attention to kerani, the origin of science chaos, and it on this point that this discussion shall commence.For only once a set of material circumstances have been established may adequate sense be made of the writing they inspired.Thus, it is not at the beginning that this discussion shall commence but at the origin; at the chaos of the Black Sea deluge.

The Black Sea Deluge: a geographical context. 7 The Black Sea is an inland sea located in South Eastern Europe, spanning an area of around 430,000 square kilometres. The Encyclopaedia Britannica World Atlas shows the on drunk Black Sea to be approximately 1150 kilometres across from Georgia on the East to Bulgaria on the West and essays, extending along the northern coast of Turkey (2006: 15).It is 580 kilometres across from North to South, from Odesa to Istanbul, although this distance reduces to resume kerani akaun, around 250 kilometres between Sevastopol and Sinop due to its kidney-like shape (2006: 15).With a maximum depth of science 2.2 kilometres, the Black Sea is “basically a freshwater sea that’s contaminated with ocean water, so it’s roughly half as salty as the sea” (Kruszelnicki, 1997). 8 Dubbed Pontus euxinos by the Greeks, with its image as a ‘hospitable sea’ stemming from its weak tides due to relative isolation, the history of the resume kerani akaun Black Sea is one of seafaring.Supported by the Bosporus Strait (which connects it to the Mediterranean Sea), the sea has been the site of trade between surrounding and distant countries for centuries, leading to the rise of cities such as Byzantium in the Middle Ages and science essays, “the Grand Comnenian Empire of electoral college thesis Trezibond during the medieval period” (Ascherson, 1996: 8).Even today, Hiebert points out, there is an science, “attempt to re-establish the Black Sea as one of the major trading zones in Eurasia” (in McCalla, 1999).In the meantime, the Black Sea’s temperatures and 500 word essays, sunny climate make it a desirable holiday destination for locals and tourists. 9 However, through scratching beneath the surface of the water, scientists have found reason to believe that the Black Sea has not always been a sea.In their book, Noah’s Flood: the science essays New Scientific Discoveries about the Event that Changed History (1998), Columbia University Geologists Ryan and as level, Pitman outline their discoveries regarding the preponderance of flood legends such as ‘Noah’s Ark’ in essays the Old Testament and the Epic of Gilgamesh .To the extent that mythologies attempt to “satisfy man’s craving for the answers to the universe,” it is widely understood that these narratives are motivated by the conditions of a material reality (Kramer, 1961: 183).Thus, over the last ten years or so, there has been debate building surrounding the Black Sea and the role that it may have had upon these kinds of texts.Ryan and Pitman theorise that a number of flood epics can be explained via a study of the history of the resume kerani akaun Black Sea and that, what is referred to as the Great Flood, could have been the Mediterranean Sea filling the Black Sea at this time.To the extent that earth-science frames the Black Sea as a prehistoric site of watery chaos, a catastrophic deluge, it is this research that provides some insight into the conjunction of chaos and writing in the Eridu Genesis . 10 It is understood that the end of the world’s last period of glaciation, a period that lasted for approximately 100,000 years, ended about 10,000 years ago, with the melting ice from the retreating sheet resulting in a rise of global sea levels (Laing, 2003).During this ice age the Black Sea region was a mostly dry region (the Euxine basin) and had, up until that time, been separated from the Mediterranean Sea by the Bosporus Strait.Not only do scientists believe that the science rises in global sea levels caused the Bosporus Strait to breach, but that this breach resulted in a catastrophic flood.This interpretation is supported by essays on drunk driving results that Ryan et al. have gained through the radiocarbon dating of shells from an underwater beach front, as well as the results of core samples taken from its base.In both cases, data has “pointed to an abrupt inundation of the entire Black Sea Basin… [that] occurred sometime around 5,550 BC” (Laing, 2003). 11 Some sense of the essays magnitude of the purpose dissertation literature review flood can be gained from Ryan et al. ’s observations of science essays dozens of bedrock cross-sections.Flooding an area of of a dissertation review 155,000 square kilometres, the deluge would have filled the Black Sea region rapidly.As Ryan and essays, Pitman explain, “[t]en cubic miles [42 km?] of water poured through each day, two hundred times what flows over Niagara Falls…The Bosporus flume roared and of a dissertation review, surged at full spate for at least three hundred days,” (p. 124, 1998).Occurring with a roar that could have been heard over one hundred kilometres away, this was certainly no ordinary flood.In fact, as Laing (2003) points out, “It has been estimated that the volume of water it took to fill the Black Sea Basin accounted for the lowering of the world's oceans by as much as one foot!” 12 Remembering that the deluge was caused by a rise in sea levels, this is quite an outcome.But, more importantly here, what this earth-science research constructs for us is a mental picture of the first days of the essays Black Sea—an evidence based snapshot of akaun a prehistoric and watery chaos.However, while a material context for chaos has been established, writing is essays, a human activity.What is the cultural significance of the Black Sea deluge?In what way might the Black Sea deluge, as a cultural context, have led to the ‘play’ of chaos in ancient Mesopotamian writing? The Black Sea Deluge: a cultural context. Lieing? Let us not forget that The Origin deals with the essence of truth…, and science, the abyss… which plays itself out abuse research there like the ‘veiled’ destiny [fatum] which transfixes being. (Derrida: 306) 13 If it only took a short period of time for the chaotic deluge to science, transform into the Black Sea, it would have been a terrifying and amazing sight for anyone who witnessed it.

This is one of the reasons why archaeologists who are interested in electoral theories about the Black Sea deluge have, for some time, also been interested in uncovering the human side, especially in relation to those who might have been directly impacted upon by the deluge.Of course, the noise that it created would have helped word of mouth carry news of it to prehistoric communities nearby.However, explorations of the bottom of the Black Sea have uncovered various artefacts, the nature of which leads scientists to believe that, around 5,000 BC, having mostly dried up during the last ice age, the Euxine Basin was inhabited by small villages of “Neolithic farmers and science essays, foragers” (Ryan et al. , 1997: 1).This means that not only lieing on resume do details of the chaotic deluge have environmental significance, they also have cultural significance. Science Essays? 14 Nearly nothing is known of whoever lived in the Euxine basin prior to the deluge.As a result, it is purpose of a dissertation literature, hoped that an examination of science essays objects found in the depths of the essay history Black Sea (a region referred to as the ‘abyss,’ in science essays line with oceanographic convention) will help resolve this uncertainty.Fortunately, the research process is being helped by electoral college thesis the fact that the science Black Sea is “the world’s biggest single reservoir of hydrogen sulphide,” an extremely deadly substance that makes “90 per cent of the Sea’s volume sterile” (Ascherson, 1996: 4-5).The Black Sea is regarded to be the “world's most special deep-water environment” because it contains “no microbes, no oxygen, no wood bores.If there were a shipwreck in that area, in deep water, it would be perfectly preserved” (Heibert, in McCalla, 1999).Thus, while the top 200 metres or so is full of “thriving marine life,” as Gugliotta puts it, “the rest is as dead as the ancient day when the flood waters settled” (2000: A01). 15 This information indicates that the electoral college aquatic conditions at the bottom of the Black Sea are conducive to the success of archaeological investigations in that region, given that ancient artefacts are less likely to disintegrate over time spent at the bottom of the science essays Black Sea than they are under ‘normal’ deep-sea conditions.It is no surprise, therefore, that theories about purpose of a dissertation literature a human presence in the basin prior to science essays, the deluge stem from the discovery of human artefacts and ancient building materials 900 metres below the sea’s surface.Using remote-controlled underwater vessels and cameras to explore the Black Sea’s abyss, have scientists located “a former river valley” in resume which “a collapsed structure, including some preserved wooden beams that had been worked by hand” ( Japan Times ). 16 Fredrik Hiebert of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, and science, the chief archaeologist for the Black Sea project, said the discovery represented “the first concrete evidence for the occupation of the Black Sea coast prior to its flooding” (Krause, 2000, par. 4).Given that the structure was characteristic of other examples of stone-age structures that were built at electoral college, the estimated time of the flood Hiebert’s research partner, Robert Ballard (discoverer of the Titanic), maintained that it was “clearly built by science essays humans” ( Japan Times , 2000).The expedition also spotted planks, beams, tree branches and as level, chunks of wood untouched by essays worms or molluscs, a strong indication that the oxygen-free waters of the Black Sea's 2 kilometre-deep abyss may be sheltering intact shipwrecks that date back to the dawn of seafaring. “It is beyond our wildest imagination,” explorer Robert D. Ballard, leader of the expedition, said yesterday.“Wood is existing much shallower than we thought.When we do go deep, it can only get better.” (Gugliotta, 2000: A01) 17 While nothing is known of their language, customs, or creative practices, the discoveries of Ryan et al. and other Black Sea experts lead us to wonder what it might have been like to physical abuse, experience the chaos of the deluge. For communities living in the Euxine basin when the Bosperus Strait breached, the flood would have lead to the deaths of thousands of science people.A person fleeing the 500 word essays on drunk driving flood might well have seen many drowned and drowning bodies sinking into the tumultuous waters depths to where their villages now lay.Ryan et al. (1997) postulate that “a simultaneous onset of organic-rich sediments [occurred] at all depths” (p. 120).What this means is essays, that, as a result of the movement of the water over the surface of the earth, as well as the dark colour of the sediment, it would have become extremely murky throughout.Coupled with the fact that the water was already darkening in as much as it was getting deeper, it is possible that the villagers witnessed the same bodies of the dead, the injured as well as those others who were trying desperately to stay afloat, drifting out of the sight into a black aquatic mass, perhaps waving for help to as level history, those who were clinging to the land at the edges of the torrent.It could certainly have appeared as if the science watery abyss had created an aquatic underworld where the villagers’ homes became abodes of the dead, sites of devastation, of death and despair. 18 Because the Black Sea is thesis, surrounded by steep hills, and so is situated near very little flat land, any escape from a deluge is likely to have been nearly impossible.Kruszelnicki suggests that the few survivors of this deluge would have moved “to Russia and Ukraine…, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece… to Georgia and India…. to science essays, Turkey and the Middle East.Wherever they went, these people took the story of a Great Flood with them” (1997: 1). Ryan et al. raise the point that “such ‘wave-of-advance’ population movements… could have been induced by the permanent expulsion of inhabitants which had adapted to the natural resources of the formerly-emerged Black Sea periphery” (1997: 125). 19 This information means that, not only physical child abuse research papers can the Black Sea deluge be acknowledged as a catastrophic and chaotic flood, understood in terms of its geographical context, we may proceed to interpret it as a cultural context—a set of circumstances to which human lives were subjected.To many villagers it would have been an abrupt and science essays, fatal end for, in the aftermath of the deluge, little more would have remained of the Euxine villages than the bodies of the drowned amidst the debris of ravaged communities and on resume, inconceivable trauma. 20 But, for the survivors who fled with their first hand accounts, the deluge could well have been a definitive, albeit chaotic, beginning.It, perhaps, marked a Mesopotamian beginning that is characterised by science essays an almost complete break with the past—a veritable erasure of the history of a culture outside of the capacity of human memory.It is of little surprise that flood stories have been passed on through oral traditions and into the creation mythologies of 500 word essays driving ancient Mesopotamian cultures, that scientists consider the essays Black Sea discoveries to be “dramatic new evidence of an 500 word driving, apocalyptic flood 7,500 years ago that may have inspired the Biblical story of Noah” (Gugliotta, 2000: A01).Consider also the raging currents of Tiamat and Absu, as described in Babylonian mythology and later reinterpreted as the ‘abyssal deeps’ of Genesis in science essays the Old Testament and, their archetype, the purpose dissertation literature review Sumerian creation mythology and flood epic dating back to the period between 3500 BC and 2000 BC.Each example postulates an abyss of watery chaos as the ruptured cosmic egg of creation and, in doing so, illustrates how beginnings can “only be discovered a posteriori ” (Levi-Strauss, 1966: 58).

21 But taking into account that “ [t]he Origin deals with the essays essence of purpose of a dissertation truth, the truth of essence and the abyss,” is it reasonable to ever expect to capture the chaos and trauma of the Black Sea deluge in the cuneiform writing of the ancient Mesopotamians?If the locus of ‘truth’ finds us arriving at a truth about the science essays chaotic abyss, maybe this shall be a truth about the nature, the limitations of its written representation that play into lieing on resume the problem of representation itself. 22 It is from essays this point that we may proceed to examine the close relationship between the act of writing, as a performative cultural practice, and preoccupations with chaos that, in time, can be seen to have informed Sumerian cosmology. 23 So far, this discussion has addressed research that establishes the lieing on resume Black Sea deluge both as a geographical context and as a cultural context.The purpose of this has been to observe an ‘origin’ that is chaotic, as the essays first step to unravelling the conjunction of ‘writing and physical child research, chaos’ in science essays the Eridu Genesis .It is now possible to take the second step by considering the beginning of physical research writing, i.e. the conjunction of chaos and writing in ancient Mesopotamia, by turning our attention to the Eridu Genesis .It will be apparent that notions of chaos, in this text, recall the Black Sea deluge and, in turn, find chaos and writing playing a central role in a proto-historical cosmology. The Eridu Genesis : Finding a Form for Chaos. The invention of science essays writing was one of Mesopotamia’s greatest achievements.It facilitated the organization and management of society and served as the chief instrument by which a complex civilization could come into being.Eventually, it became the medium through which the people’s collective experience and wisdom were transgenerationally transmitted. (Bertman, 2003: 144) 24 Sumerian artefacts have fascinated archaeologists and historians ever since they were first discovered in the 1850’s, and knowledge of this innovative culture is increasing. The proximity of Sumerian culture to the Black Sea makes it a primary focal point when examining the legacy of the Black Sea deluge in the writing of the ancient world.But while it is believed that the electoral college thesis Sumerians had settled in the southern part of Mesopotamia by the fourth millennium B.C. (between the science Euphrates and Tigris rivers, South East of the Black Sea region), their origin is as level essay, still uncertain (Chavalas Younger Jr, 2002: 92).It is science essays, interesting that the fate of the Euxine villagers is as indeterminate as the origin of the Sumerians as if one culture had ventured into the unknown and the other out of college it.The migrating survivors of the Black Sea deluge may well have found refuge in the southern Mesopotamian region and, across the millennia, provided the basis of the Sumerian people.Whatever the case, there is little doubt that they emerged from the “pre-history” of Iraq (Kramer, 1988: xx). 25 Because the essays Sumerians are credited as the authors of “the oldest known historical inscriptions,” the Eridu Genesis is one of the first texts ever to have been written (Bottero, 2001: 4-7).Having developed the “art of writing,” Sumerian documents “mark the beginning of historical times” (Champdor, 1958: 8).This is what Bertman refers to as the abuse beginnings of “humanity’s autobiography,” in turn implicating chaos and science essays, writing in lieing self-reflective practices, in ‘writing the self’ (2003: 142).Just as importantly, given the present discussion, the science essays subject matter of the Eridu Genesis places it at the beginning of ‘chaos and writing’.

1 Perhaps there is some echo of this process in college thesis the English language, at science essays, least, where the 500 word essays on drunk word ‘writ (. ) 26 To consider the practice of writing in general, it can be said that the “ideas, values and beliefs of a group are embodied in symbols, artefacts” and that these symbols “can be part of a written language,” (Inglis, 2005: 9).For the Sumerians, this writing came in the form of cuneiform text, achieved by way of science blunt reeds being impressed onto a clay tablet; hence the resulting wedge shaped characters.1 Writing can be used to pre-empt the fallibility of memory, and so cuneiform enabled Sumerian writers to afford their ideas and beliefs a degree of permanence (even though, as van de Mieroop points out, cuneiform itself “is a script, not a language”) [1999: 10]. 27 In view of the administrative, private legal, scholarly, literary, and historiographic cuneiform texts, as well as letters that have been uncovered by archaeologists over the past century, the Sumerians seem to have understood that writing also carried with it the thrust of authority, of ownership and in this way, perhaps, of certainty.But the permanence of cuneiform opened the door to another way of resume akaun teaching Sumerian culture, of science aligning everyday experience with cosmology.That is to say, writing played a role in an attempt to create a bridge between a material reality and a spiritual reality as von Rad points out, ancient man “makes no distinction between spiritual and essay history, material—the two are intertwined in the closest possible way; and in consequence he is also unable to differentiate between word and object, idea and science, reality” (1965: 80-1). 28 As Jacob recognises, “[a] spoken word is never an empty sound but an operative reality whose action cannot be hindered once it has been pronounced, and which attained its maximum effectiveness in on resume formulae of blessing and cursing” (1958: 127).The cuneiform word, in Sumerian culture, could also possess spiritual import, as reflected in the metaphorical concepts that structure a meaning system.As Lakoff and Johnson (1980: 3) acknowledge, “[o]ur concepts structure what we perceive, how we get around in the world… [thus playing] a central role in defining our everyday realities.”Thus, it is useful to consider the science essays role of chaos in lieing Sumerian writing by acknowledging how notions of water have been in metaphorical expressions in Sumerian writing. 29 One way of doing this is by referring to Sumerian writing as a general category.A Sumerian once wrote, “Tears, lament, anguish, and science, depression are within me.Suffering overwhelms me.Evil fate holds me and carries off my life.Malignant sickness bathes me” (Marcus, 1998).These expressions of essays driving feeling ‘bathed’ and essays, ‘overwhelmed’ conjure up impressions an emotional flood whereby the individual implies an association between misery, misfortune, and abuse research, a watery chaos. 30 Another way of identifying the role of chaos, as part of a metaphorical concept system, in science essays Sumerian writing, is by referring to the Eridu Genesis , a segmentary (thus incomplete) text that archaeologists have pieced together using remnants and preserved lines.However, because notions of ‘chaotic water’ ground metaphorical expressions, it is not necessary to literally pin-point the word ‘chaos’ as it occurs in translation.This would reduce the physical abuse research papers task down to a criticism of translation rather than an assessment of the meaning behind the passages.Rather, the science essays task is to identify points in the writing that connote chaos, and water.After 36 lost lines, the first column recounts the words of Nintur, the on resume goddess of birth and the mother of humankind.Kramer’s (1983: 117-8) numbered transliteration reads: 38.I would [halt(?)] the perishing of my mankind, 39.I would restore there to Nintu the… of my creatures, 40.We would return the essays people from their (dispersed) habitations. 41.Let them build there the me-endowed cities, I would refresh myself in their shade, 42.Let them lay the bricks of the me-endowed cities in holy places, 43.Let them erect the electoral me-endowed ki-es in holy places, 44.I have directed there the fire-quenching holy (?) water,?

45.I have perfected there the divine rites (and) noble me, 46.I have watered the essays earth, I would establish well-being there. 47.After An, Enlil, Enki, (and) Ninhursag. Essays On Drunk Driving? 48.Had fashioned the blackheads, 49.Nig-gil (rising) repeatedly out of the earth, multiplied. 50.Herds of animals, four legged, were brought into existence in the steppe as is befitting. Science Essays? 31 These lines recount the creation of electoral college humankind and the animals, an science essays, interpretation that is clarified by way of introduction to the roles of the four primary gods that are mentioned. College Thesis? First of all, An (or ‘Anu’), whose name literally means ‘heaven,’ was a “supreme authority among the gods, and science essays, among men,” dispensing justice and controlling the laws “that governed the universe” (Bertman, 2003: 116).Second in charge was Enlil (or ‘Ellil’), ruler of the earth and director of “the forces of nature (especially torrential floods)” [Bertman, 2003: 118].Enki (or ‘Ea’) dwells in, and is in charge of, the Abzu (or ‘Apsu’), an aquatic abyss that gives life to the “streams and resume kerani, rivers” and science, “was associated with arcane wisdom” and creation (Bertman, 2003: 118).Ninhursaga was the Sumerian mother-goddess and nurturer of the “earth’s creatures,” and the equivalent of Nintur (Bertman, 2003: 124). Electoral College Thesis? 32 Given the central role of water in the Creation narrative, it is useful to consider the ‘sea’ as it exists in the Sumerian lexicon.The Sumerian word ‘Abzu’ means “[s]ea, abyss; home of the water-god Enki” (Kramer, 1988: 358-60), as well as “primeval source” (Guisepi, 2003).A variation of science Abzu , ‘Apsu,’ has been translated into as level essay history the English language as “deepwater” and “beginning (one who exists from the beginning)” (Guisepi, 2003).Reference is science, made to “the abzu, the pure place” that is kerani akaun, associated with “sacred water” throughout Sumerian incantations (Cunningham, 1997: 116).Thus, the life giving waters that are represented by Enki, and in which he dwells, provide the foundations of human and essays, animal life.In this context, chaos is that primeval sea before the creation of the universe, a kind of “first cause” and “prime mover,” a boundless and as level essay history, aquatic abyss (Kramer, 1988: 76).Given that Sumerians never considered that there might be anything “prior to the sea in time and in space,” it is not unlikely that they considered the sea to have existed “eternally” (Kramer, 1988: 76, 82).

33 Thus, the universe is created out of the essays chaos of the sea, perhaps stemming from the kerani akaun problem of being clear about essays ‘what existed before’.Perhaps this symbolises a kind of cultural chaos, a primal and uncivilised society for, following the creation of humans and animals, the narrative recounts how steps were made towards building the first city; the familiarly named ‘Eridu’.Eridu, once located in the south of the Sumerian region, speaks not only as level of the beginning of the science essays universe, its Genesis , but the beginning of civilisation and settlement, wherein people are conceivably committed to place. 34 By bringing order to electoral, chaos Creation has put an science essays, end to physical abuse, nomadicism, planting the essays seed of settlement in the Neolithic age.Up until this time, Palaeolithic nomadic communities moved through nature seasonally, as a way of taking advantage of animal migration as well as the ripening of fruits and so on.Thus, while they possessed the skills required to survive, they had no irrigation or crop development technology.They had no sense of up, down, forwards or backwards.In short they possessed what can be referred to 500 word, as non-geometric knowledge and, as a result, have been described as existing in a state of disorientation. 35 The ability to construct permanent buildings saw the nomadic hunter gatherer lifestyle eventually give way to science essays, something quite opposite, i.e. a state of orientation, and the beginning of architecture.The ability to resume kerani akaun, build more permanent structures meant an essays, emerging and fundamental sense of geometry.The Sumerians narrative reflects this transition into the clearing of land, the beginning of architecture and agriculture, the domestication of plants and animals. 36 In addition, having established themselves on abuse, the land between two main rivers, the Sumerians relied heavily on science, irrigation for the maintenance of their crops.They had achieved a level of expertise in the art of irrigation, though they struggled constantly against the forces of the two rivers that surrounded them.Childe (1969) explains: Arable land had literally to be created out of a chaos of swamps and sand banks by a ‘separation’ of land from water; the swamps drained; the floods controlled; and life-giving waters led to history, the rainless desert by artificial canals. (p. Essays? 114) 37 In short, being civilised entails a culture’s presumption of mastery over the natural world—knowledge and as level essay, skill become invested in a project of bringing order to the environment, especially where no perceivably order previously existed. This means that notions of chaos, in Sumerian writing, can be seen to science, document a new phase in cultural thinking—the emergence of the culture/nature binary opposition.This is also the emergence of the inside/outside binary opposition.When what is inside the walls of lieing a city, within the perimeter of science essays Eridu as a place of civilisation is presumably safe, domesticated, predictable, tame, ordered, that which remains outside of the city (the natural world with all of the forces that it maintains) is rendered a place of danger, of the untamed, of disorder, and chaos. 38 The city offers protection against the outside, the protection of a cultured condition.This, combined with a capacity to return easily to burial grounds, for example, meant that certain sites became sacred.In the history Eridu Genesis , Nintur has instructed the essays ‘black-headed people’ to build cities, with the knowledge that they might then be used as hubs of worships.In fact Enki, being the primary god of the city of Eridu, has his own temple.The Abzu temple, otherwise known as e-engur-a or ‘house of the lord of deep waters,’ was situated in electoral thesis Eridu in the wetlands of the Euphrates (Kramer, 1968: 103).The settlers hope that, by pleasing the Gods, that they will ensure the safety of the population.It is here that we find watery chaos at the centre of essays civilised worship; that is, ironically, as an agent for cultural integration and cohesion. 39 But there is a point, in the Eridu Genesis narrative, where our attention is drawn to electoral college thesis, a problem in science essays the city.The people prove to be quite noisy and this is not at purpose review, all pleasing to the Gods.As a result Enlil, vexed by the disturbances because they keep him from science essays sleeping, convincing the other gods to bring about a destructive deluge.In columns three and four the text describes the events leading up to the flood (from Kramer, 1983: 119-20). 140.Then did Nintu [weep] like a… 141.Holy Inanna [sets up] a lament for its people.

142.Enki took counsel with himself, 143.An, Enlil, Enki (and) Ninhursag. 144.Adjured the child research gods of heaven (and) earth by An (and) Enlil. 145.In those days Ziusudra, the science king, the gutug-priest… 147.Humbly eloquent [filled with] fear, 148.Standing daily, constantly… 149.Bringing forth all kinds of essay history dreams, con[versing], 150.Adjuring the gods of heaven (and) earth he… 152.Ziusudra standing at its side, list[ened]: 153.“Stand by the wall at essays, my left side… 154.At the wall I would say a word to you, take [my word], 155.[Give ear] to my instruction: 156.The me -endowed cities(:)—the flood [will sweep over their] kab [ dugga ] 157.To destroy the seed of mankind—[thus it has been decreed], 158.The verdict, the physical child abuse papers word of the assembly, [cannot be revoked] 159.The word commanded by An (and) Enlil [knows no overturning], 160.Their kinship—its reign [has been cut off, the heart is aggrieved]. 40 Enki has spoken, deciding to flood the science essays city. This watery chaos will come to breach Eridu’s perimeter and wash away the failed city with the full force of the natural world; something that is, in essay history Sumerian cosmology, demonstrative of the power of the angry Gods. 41 The reason that Ziusudra’s status as a priest is announced is that, as Jacobsen notes, the fact that the priest has fashioned a statue of the science ‘god of giddiness’ “suggests that he also was able to communicate with the world beyond through ecstasy, and so valued and sought the giddiness that precedes and induces ecstatic trance” (1981: 523).His status symbolizes a bridge between the world or order and that of a divine chaos.Ziusudra’s valuing of giddiness, of the divinity of chaos, is electoral thesis, perhaps what finds him to science essays, be favoured by Enki—favoured enough to be informed, by dissertation literature Enki, of the impending deluge.He is science, advised to build a boat that will enable himself, his family, and representatives of the animals to driving, survive the flood (a part of the text that scholars recognise as being strongly reminiscent Noah’s Arc ).The boat symbolises of hope for, when skilfully made, it is protective.Once again, knowledge of water becomes a way to survival.Kramer’s (1983: 120) transliteration continues. 201.All the windstorms (and) gales attacked together, 202.At the essays same time, the resume akaun flood swept over the kabdugga. 203.After, for seven days (and) seven nights, 204.The flood had swept over the land.

205.(And) the huge boat had been tossed about by the windstorms on the great waters, 206.Utu came forth, who illuminates heaven (and) earth. 207.Ziusudra drilled an opening in the huge boat. 208.Valiant Utu brought his light into the huge boat. 209.Ziusudra, the king, 210.Prostrated himself before Utu, 211.The king slaughters oxen, multiplies sheep. 42 The flood has passed.Its chaos, and that of the windstorms, is over.But we are left with the question of how the written construction of a chaos can ever do justice to it.While they often seem normal, representations are not naturally occurring depictions, which is precisely why they can be examined for science essays their cultural, ideological, and semiotic content (O’Shaughnessy Stadler, 2002).The problem of purpose dissertation literature finding a form for chaos, in science terms of the Eridu Genesis, is only further frustrated by the “restrictions imposed by the nature of the text type” (Oppenheim, 1977: 144).If the Eridu Genesis constitutes a latent response to the Black Sea deluge can writing, in resume kerani its infancy, ever be expected to capture the essence of chaos?As Lyotard (1987) says: We can conceive the infinitely great, the science infinitely powerful, but every presentation of an lieing, object destined to science essays, “make visible” this absolute greatness or power appears to us painfully inadequate.Those are ideas of which no presentation is possible. Lieing? (p. Essays? 78) 43 While we cannot, with certainty, distinguish between fact and fiction in Sumerian writing, the evidence available today, particularly that attributed to earth-science, gives us reason to interpret the Eridu Genesis as a use of literature to lieing, reveal a historical event in theological terms. That is, it seems highly probable that certain literary qualities of the Eridu Genesis, in its description of Creation and of Eridu’s inundation, have been inspired by science a historical episode known as the 500 word driving Black Sea deluge. Essays? 44 The Eridu Genesis takes part in an attempt, not only to “satisfy man’s craving for the answers to the universe,” but to attribute some kind of form, an order, to a watery abyss (Kramer, 1961: 183).But, with Lyotard’s comments still in mind, it seems that the question of the text’s adequacy as a representation of chaos becomes rhetorical.In other words, to electoral thesis, the extent that chaos and the abyss cannot be fathomed, we are left to consider what insight such inadequacy provides us in essays terms of the human condition.

45 If Sumerian writing, in general, became another tool for expressing mastery over the natural world, it follows that, at some stage in writing’s development, it also provided an unpassable opportunity to domesticate the physical legacy of the Black Sea deluge; a chance to inscribe, in clay, millennia old cultural memories of an abruptly inundation.This was an inundation that confirmed humankind’s impotence in the face of nature’s unforgiving power, and so writing functions as a symbolic gesture through which human evolution can be demonstrated. Science? 46 The conjunction of ‘writing and chaos’ is disclosed as a battle between the will to personal power and autonomy in the world, and the inherent power of an essentially unpredictable nature of that very world.If the Black Sea is understood as a place where place was erased by chaos, it can be taken to represent a site of death and subjectivity—that is, a place in as level essay which personal or individual feelings, belonging to the survivors of the essays deluge, emerged in resume kerani response to essays, humankind’s impotence in the face of nature’s unforgiving power.Thus, the writing of chaos becomes an attempt to negotiate the part of the human condition that is a struggle between chaos and order, between the assessment of threat and risk, and a course of action that will ensure one’s safety in the future.It seems that the Eridu Genesis responds to a timeless question.That being, what is the individual’s position in this world, in view of a certain set of historical circumstances as they are understood at any given time?The Eridu Genesis remains a “proto-type” for this kind of lieing on resume thinking, this uncertainty towards certainty that plays into a sensibility of infinity and which is made manifest through an science essays, ancient cosmology. 47 When the Black Sea deluge was happening it could not have been fully comprehended and what it would mean, over time, could never have been imagined.But what can be ascertained is that the Eridu Genesis marks the beginning of a profound negotiation of the notion of origin.By using the innovation of as level essay history writing to science essays, express an impossible narrative of of a a primordial chaos that dwells in the consciousness of a civilised society, the Eridu Genesis sets the challenge of writing and chaos in essays motion.For this reason, it is entirely plausible to claim that notions of the watery abyss underpin how chaos is viewed in the late modern world. 48 Perhaps, in a way that is coherent with the subject matter, the origin of as level chaos raises an uncertainty with regard the beginning of writing.In the same way that we may wonder how far the Black Sea can be credited for the content of the Eridu Genesis , it is also fair to wonder how much credit can be taken by essays the Black Sea for the text’s very form.Did writing emerge from a need to document laws, property and everyday life, or did it emerge as a response to purpose literature, a very human need to secure oneself in the world, with these others being merely secondary applications?This question will take much more time to address. But whatever the essays answer may be, the child abuse research Eridu Genesis continues to anchor ‘writing and chaos’ in a literature of ‘the deep’. Ascherson, N. (1996). Black Sea: the Birthplace of Civilisation and Barbarism . London: Vintage.

Bertman, S. (2003). Handbook to essays, Life in Ancient Mesopotamia . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bottero, J. (2001). Everyday Life in Ancient Mesopotamia (A. Nevill, Trans.). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Champdor, A. (1958). Babylon . London: Elek Books Limited. Chavalas, M. W., Younger Jr, K. L. Electoral? (Eds). Essays? (2002). Mesopotamia and the Bible (Vol.

341). London: Sheffield Academic Press. Childe, G. (1969). New Light on the Most Ancient East. Routledge and kerani akaun, Kegan Paul. Science Essays? Cunningham, G. (1997). Deliver me From Evil: Mesopotamian Incantations 2500-1500 BC . Lieing? Rome: Pontificio Istituto Biblico. Derrida, J. (1987). Essays? The Truth in Painting (G.

Bennington I. McLeod, Trans.). Chicago: University of lieing Chicago Press. Encyclopaedia Britannica World Atlas . (2006). Chicago, London: Encyclopaedia Britannica Ltd. Gugliotta, G. (2000, September 13). “Black Sea Artefacts May Be Evidence of Biblical Flood”. Washington Post . Inglis, D. (2005). Culture and Everyday Life . London New York: Routledge. Jacob, E. (1958). Science Essays? Theology of the Old Testament . Essays? New York: Harper and Row. Jacobsen, T. (Dec., 1981). “The Eridu Genesis”. Journal of essays Biblical Literature , 100(4), p. 513-529.

The Society of Biblical Literature. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3266116, retrieved May 15, 2008. The Japan Times . (September 15, 2000). Kerani? “Human Artefacts Found at Bottom of science essays Black Sea: Evidence of Disastrous Flood 7,000 years ago may coincide with Bible Story of Noah”. http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news210.htm, retrieved April 2, 2008. Kramer, S. N. (1961). Mythologies of the Ancient World . New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc. —, (1968). Cradle of Civilization . Nederland: Time-Life Books. —, (1983). “The Sumerian Deluge Myth: Reviewed and Revised”. In Anatolian Studies , Vol. 33 (Special Number in kerani akaun Honour of the Seventy-Fifth Birthday of Dr.

Richard Barnett), p. 115-121. Essays? —, (1988). History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-Nine Firsts in as level Man's Recorded History (3 rd ed.). Essays? Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Krause, L. (September 13, 2000). “Ballard Finds Traces of Ancient Habitation Beneath Black Sea”. In National Geographic News . Retrieved February 2, 2008: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2000/12/122800blacksea.html. Kruszelnicki, K. (1997). Great Moments in Science: Noah and the Great Flood . As Level Essay? Ep. 39. http://www.abc.net.au/science/k2/moments/gmis9743.htm, retrieved April 1, 2008.

Lakoff, G., Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We Live By . Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Levi-Strauss, C. (1966). The Savage Mind . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lyotard, J-F. (1984). Essays? The Postmodern Condition: A Report on 500 word essays, Knowledge . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. McCalla, J. (January 14, 1999). “Fredrick Hiebert”. Pennsylvania Current ‘Q A ’. Science? Retrieved April 1, 2008: http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/current/1999/011499/Hiebert.html. The New Jacaranda Atlas (3 rd ed.). (1987).

Milton, Queensland: The Jacaranda Press. The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (4 th ed. Vol. 1). (1993b), Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oppenheim, A. Lieing On Resume? (1977). Ancient Mesopotamia: portrait of a dead civilization . Chicago London: University of Chicago Press. O’Shaughnessy, M Stadler, J. Science? (2002). Media and society: an introduction (2 nd ed). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Ryan, W.B.F., Pitman, W.C. (1998). Noah’s Flood: the New Scientific Discoveries about the history Event that Changed History . New York: Simon Schuster.

Ryan, W.B.F., Pitman, W.C., Major, C.O., Shimkus, K., Moskalenko, V., Jones, G.A., et al. (1997, April 1997). Essays? “An abrupt drowning of the Black Sea Shelf”. Marine Geology , 138, p. 119-126. Lieing? Said, E. W. Science Essays? (1975). Beginnings: Intention and Method . London: Granton Books. Van de Mieroop, M. (1999). Cuneiform texts and the Writing of abuse papers History . New York: Routledge. Von Rad, G. Essays? (1965, ii).

Old Testament Theology . Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd. 1 Perhaps there is some echo of this process in the English language, at least, where the word ‘write’ originates from the literature review Old English writan , meaning to “sense, to score, scratch” (Brown, 1993b, p. 3731). David Prescott-Steed , « Black Sea Abyss: Chaos and science essays, Writing in Ancient Mesopotamia », TRANS- [En ligne], 6 | 2008, mis en ligne le 07 juillet 2008, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. URL : http://trans.revues.org/249 ; DOI : 10.4000/trans.249. David Prescott-Steed was born on England’s Devon coast and migrated to Western Australia at the age of six. Having exhibited artwork since 1993, David continues to pursue a creative praxis and, in 2006, completed his PhD on representations of the abyss. As Level? He is unit coordinator and lecturer for Cultural History and Theory in the Faculty of Education and Arts at Edith Cowan University and also works within the Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Visual Arts at the University of Western Australia. His research interests include deep-sea imagery and science essays, concepts, historical representations of the unknown, and akaun, the role of indeterminacy in everyday thinking. Tous droits reserves.

Resister a la litterature 19 | 2015. Visions du Sud : Universite invitee - Santiago du Chili 18 | 2014. La reference 17 | 2014. Litterature, Paysage et Ecologie 15 | 2013. Science Essays? Terrorismes 14 | 2012. Utopies contemporaines 13 | 2012. Marges et Deviances 12 | 2011. Trahisons 10 | 2010.

Pop culture 8 | 2009. A tu et a toi 7 | 2009. Physical Papers? Ecriture et chaos 5 | 2008. A quoi bon la litterature ? 3 | 2007. Ecrire le present 2 | 2006. Litterature et image 1 | 2005. ISSN electronique 1778-3887. Informations Titre : TRANS- Revue de litterature generale et comparee En bref : Revue de litterature des jeunes chercheurs de l'Universite Sorbonne Nouvelle.

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Cosi Louis Nowra Essays and Research Papers. something. In Cosi a play by Louis Nowra various characters are faced with challenges and throughout the play some . characters rise to the challenges put before them and overcome them, others fail. Using that concept Louis Nowra hopes to communicate the science essays challenges that people must undergo in their life. Louis Nowra uses the play within a play technique so that he can easily explore various themes some examples being love, madness and war. Louis Nowra manages to use the characters in the play “ Cosi ” to represent. Challenge , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 925 Words | 3 Pages. growth. When comparing texts you often see the dramatic similarities of the experiences undergone by the protagonist, we also see that the pain and personal . growth forms at different levels; creating either a diluted or concentrated effect. Cosi by electoral college Louis Nowra , the Road Not Taken by Robert Frost and Amadeus directed by science Milos Forman, all portray similar kinds of pain and review, growth through similar experience.

Lewis begins his journey as a typically middle class citizen with radical left wing views. Cosi , Louis Nowra , Love 1260 Words | 4 Pages. TEXT RESPONSE JOURNAL- Death of a salesman, Cosi amp; The lot The Lot – Michael Leunig 1. In ‘Hello, welcome to our drought’, Leunig is . trying to make clear that we should not crush our individual reality; more so we should accept and embrace in our differences. Leunig expresses this by linking a new born foal with “a spectacular birthmark” with such “freshness and beauty” to the words “artificial appearances”. Essays? Leunig discusses the truth about the regulations we must abide by to resume kerani be ‘accepted’. Arthur Miller , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 1298 Words | 4 Pages. In the Face of Betrayal, Lewis Discovers Loyalty Cosi. IN THE FACE OF BETRAYAL, LEWIS DISCOVERS LOYALTY The play ' Cosi ’, written by Louis Nowra , is set in 1971 amidst . the chaos of the Vietnam War. Australia’s involvement in the war was a topic of great controversy, and science, being the first televised war, reality was brought crashing into the lounge rooms of Australians.

The horrific images displayed in people’s homes sparked anger from those involved in the fight against communism and conscription. The loyalty of Australians was heavily tested during. Audience , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 1323 Words | 4 Pages. Cosi ‘ Cosi is more than an entertaining comedy. It reveals the sadness of the lives of the characters.’ Discuss.

Through the essay . play Cosi the audience witnesses the lives of science mentally ill people unfold before them. Louis Nowra has used black comedy within Cosi to allow the audience to abandon their pre-conceptions of ‘mad’ people and to see the characters not for their illness but for on resume their personality. Science? Because of this the papers audience is able to essays relate to each character and their situation and realise. Audience , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 663 Words | 2 Pages. ‘Cosi Is More Than an electoral college thesis Entertaining Comedy.

It Reveals the Sadness of the essays Lives of the literature Characters.’ Discuss. Throught the play Cosi the science essays audience witnesses the lives of mentally ill people unfold before them. Louis Nowra has . used black comedy within Cosi to allow the audience to abandon their pre-conceptions of ‘mad’ people and to see the characters not for their illness but for their personality. Because of this the audience is able to relate to each character and their situation and realise the underlying sadness of the patients lives. We are confronted by their pasts as we come to realise the causes.

Audience , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 652 Words | 2 Pages. Cosi by thesis Louis Nowra : essay titles 1. “Just marvellous, Lewis. Science Essays? Everyone thoroughly enjoyed it. Resume Akaun? Didn’t think it . was possible. Came right out of their shells. They blossomed, blossomed!” ‘It is Lewis who truly blossoms in Cosi ”. Do you agree? 2. Despite the comedy in Cosi , there is an underlying sadness throughout the play”. Discuss.

3. Science? Cosi is more than an entertaining comedy. It reveals the sadness of the lives of the characters. 4. What does Lewis gain by directing the play? 5. Audience , Change , Cosi 302 Words | 2 Pages.

In Cosi , a semi- autographical play by Louis Nowra , various characters are faced with challenges that exist in abuse papers real . life and throughout the play some characters rise to the challenges put before them and overcome them, while others fail. Using that concept Louis Nowra hopes to communicate the challenges that people must undergo in science essays their life and that fairy-tale endings do not exist in real life. Louis Nowra uses the play within a play technique so that he can easily explore various themes such as. Audience , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 1184 Words | 3 Pages. Cosi by Louis Nowra is abuse a play within a play, Meta Theatre, and is a semi-autobiographical, touching and a biting . portrayal of human relationships and mental illness. Prior to the 1970s, people who suffered from essays, ‘mental disorders’ were sent to mental institutes in on resume order to prevent them from science, bringing shame onto their families and 500 word essays on drunk, the community. The ‘illnesses’ ranged from true mental instability, such as OCD and schizophrenia, to alcoholics and drug abusers. This is what Nowra’s play is based around. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Decision theory 1006 Words | 3 Pages. Cosi by Louis Nowra - Text Analysis Essay.

How does Nowra use the opera Cosi fan Tutte to science explore the play’s main ideas? Set in a typical mental asylum in the 1970’s . during the anti-Vietnam War protests and the feminist movement for electoral women's equal rights, the science essays play ' Cosi ' by Louis Nowra deeply explores the themes of love and fidelity, in a society predominantly concerned with war and politics. Throughout the play, Nowra uses the 500 word essays on drunk driving play within a play, ' Cosi Fan Tutte', to science convey his key values regarding the physical abuse importance of love and science, fidelity in. Cosi fan tutte , History of purpose literature review psychiatric institutions , Love 1992 Words | 5 Pages. Love and Mental Health in essays Cosi by Louis Nowra. Love and Mental Health in essay Cosi by Louis Nowra Cosi is a play written by Louis . Nowra . I will be using two speeches chosen from the play to science explain how the playwright uses emotive language to show the characters thoughts, views and feelings about issues in the play.

The two speeches I will be focusing on are; Act 2 Scene 2 This is a conversation between Lewis and Lucy about their views on love and Lucy’s infertility. And. Act 1 Scene 4 Which is a conversation between Lewis, Nick and Henry about. First Indochina War , French Indochina , History of Vietnam 1057 Words | 3 Pages. Louis Nowra utilises a range of structural techniques to heighten the dramatic impact of Cosi . Discuss It is . As Level? evident that in Louis Nowra’s 1992 play Cosi , a range of structural methods have been employed by Nora to intensify the dramatic effects.to the audience. Nowra entrenches the underlying themes of love, fidelity, mental illness and most importantly maturity to show the change of the essays main characters. By contrasting the thesis two different acts to show the relationship between the internal and external.

Character , Drama , Mental disorder 1173 Words | 3 Pages. “I can’t stand real things. If I could put up with reality I wouldn’t be in essays here.” How does Nowra allow the real world to be escaped but also a . constant presence in his play? Through the use of electoral thesis many diverse characters, Louis Nowra in his play Cosi reflects on essays the idea that the concept of reality has the potential to college thesis differ when based on essays different perspectives. Nowra explores the true meaning of reality and reveals that although certain mentally challenged people believe they are isolated from. 2002 albums , Cosi fan tutte , Jacques Lacan 839 Words | 3 Pages. Lewis Nowra’s semi auto biographical play ‘ Cosi ’ is a touching yet biting portrayal of human relationships in a Melbourne mental institute, . where the patients are astracised by on drunk driving society. Essays? Throughout the play Lewis Nowra illustrates each and every character that suffers with a mental illness as normal people with a desire to college thesis do or think things different to others from the society of the 1970s. Throughout the science play Nowra poses a question, can anybody be classified as insane? When there is of a review insanity all.

Cosi fan tutte , Drama , Insanity 877 Words | 3 Pages. Nowra’s play is set in a ‘burnt out theatre’. Discuss the importance of setting and imagery in conveying Nowra’s idea on ' Cosi '. The setting . and imagery used in Louis Nowra’s play ‘ Cosi ’ explore the turbulent time that took part in Australia. Essays? The play is set in a mental institution in Melbourne, in the 1970’s. Using the ominous presence of the Vietnam War, Nowra explores the essay history insanity of the war; and the need to condemn war and to protest against Australia’s involvement in Vietnam. The main presence. Cold War , Mental disorder , Psychiatric hospital 876 Words | 3 Pages. really changed at the end of the play? ‘ Cosi ’, written by Louis Nowra , is an science essays intriguing (this is not a review . Matt, so don’t use these descriptions) play that explores the minds of patients in the mental asylum and physical abuse papers, how they progress over time whilst being in the real world. (arent’ they removed from the real world whilst trapped in the confinements of the asylum?) However it is science essays not a patient that changes the most during the resume kerani rehearsing and performing of ‘ Cosi Fan Tutte’ but it is the everyday society. 2002 albums , Audience , Cosi 990 Words | 3 Pages. Louis Nowra’s screenplay ‘ Cosi ’ explores the attitudes to and perception of the mentally ill in 1971.

During this period . Australia is at war and science, undergoing social reform. The perception of mental patients in the 70s can be seen as unethical and inhumane, with society grouping them with animals and locking them away in college asylums with barbaric conditions. The 70s saw mental illness being neglected and kept in the dark and with movies that depict ‘mad’ people as animals; a negative connotation is placed. Cosi , Disability , Insanity defense 838 Words | 3 Pages. ? Cosi is a play written by Louis Nowra in the 1970’s. Science Essays? The comedy is purpose of a dissertation about an science inexperienced director, Lewis, who . chooses to purpose of a literature earn some cash and gain professional experience by essays working with a group of mental patients in Melbourne and directing a play for as level essay them to perform. Although the science essays play is a comedy, there is many real messages throughout the play that are deeply significant, these messages are explored through different themes such as the nature of essays driving madness which is best showed in the characters; Roy.

Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Doug 678 Words | 2 Pages. been stereotyped and marginalised by society throughout there lives. The mistreatment of mental illness patients has been displayed throughout the play . Cosi . The mental characters from the play create a theme of madness through there different personalities and science essays, quirks. The theme; mental illness and madness are developed for the audience by lieing on resume Louis Nowra’s choice of stage directions, dialogue, conflicts and symbolism. From the opening of the science essays first scene evidence of stereotyping and mistreatment of. English-language films , Illness , Mental disorder 830 Words | 3 Pages. ?In Cosi , Nowra uses several recurring language techniques and devices to electoral thesis create various: Symbols and motifs are often ideas, . items, actions, sounds or sights which occur in a play which represent an essays idea which is reinforces the writer’s message. moods tones Atmospheres Or to physical abuse emphasis: a situation, an important point or moment in the plot, setting, character, or idea in the play A stereotype An alternate perspective Symbols Burnt-out theatre The setting of science a burnt-out theatre. A Different World , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 1027 Words | 3 Pages.

ENGLISH FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT TASK YEAR 11 – STANDARD Jenai Lawrance TASK 4: THE AUSTRALIAN EXPERIENCE -ESSAY ON ‘ COSI ’ ‘’Drama . allows us to examine our national identity through characters and conflict’’. Discuss this statement with reference to the play you have studied in class. The play ‘ Cosi ’ composed by Louis Nowra and set in lieing on resume Melbourne during the early 1970’s allows the audience to reflect on what it mean to be an Australian in the era and in modern times. Through the eyes of. Cold War , Interpersonal relationship , Laos 968 Words | 3 Pages. How Successful Has Lois Nowra Been in Challenging the Significant Ideas of Love, Fidelity, Sanity and Insanity in Cosi ? In . the science play Cosi Louis Nowra challenges the thesis important themes of love, fidelity, sanity and insanity within a range of dramatic techniques. Cosi is set in essays Melbourne, during the early 1970’s. Numerous political and radical events were occurring. The Vietnam War protest was raging, the on resume sexual revolution was rolling, and mental illness was still misunderstood and mistreated. Due.

Drama , Insanity defense , Love 1644 Words | 5 Pages. Louis Nowra’s play ‘ Cosi ’, demonstrates the bias of madness and science, deals with the subject of love and fidelity through the . development of the protagonist, Lewis. Set in essay the era of free love and essays, war the 1970’s, the use of dramatic techniques creates chaos and conflict as Lewis’s opinions of love and madness is child research papers challenged by his interactions with the patients from an asylum and through the production of science a play-within-a-play “ Cosi Fan Tutte”. Nowra begins ‘ Cosi ’ by commenting on research the way society treats. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Drama 1201 Words | 3 Pages.

Dramatic Devices - Cosi | | |Conflict |The classic device for generating drama is the essays introduction of . conflict. The introduction of outsiders, such as Lewis, Nick and | | |Lucy, into electoral, a contented and settled group of characters leads to conflicting ideas. Science? Conflict presents itself in 3 forms External, | | |Internal and Environmental. . History of on drunk mental disorders , History of psychiatric institutions , Love 3406 Words | 16 Pages. “Working with these people has changed you”. How does Nowra show change in Lewis through the play in Cosi ? In the play, . “ Cosi ” written by Lewis Nowra demonstrates his life through the character of Lewis Riley, who is the central character. Essays? The actions of Lewis and other characters are shown through the stage directions. His personality in the beginning is described to lieing on resume be a shy and an unsure University student who is science still trying to figure out the society of the mid-sixties. Lieing On Resume? Lewis started off only. Cambodia , Friendship , South Vietnam 1156 Words | 3 Pages.

Cosi , composed by Louis Nowra , is a minimalist play contextualised by the Vietnam War which emphasises the . characters and their growth. Cosi explores the distinctive ideas of illusion verses reality and the concept of “madness” in a comedic and innovative way, through a variety of essays dramatic techniques. The device of a play-within-a-play of Cosi Fan Tutte, develops an effective dichotomy, while highlighting the dramatic verisimilitude of the 500 word values presented in the outside and inside worlds. Lewis. Comedy , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 1146 Words | 3 Pages. Cosi Task Preparation This is the science question: Question 2 on Cosi Lewis Nowra , Cosi Act One, . As Level Essay History? Scene One A burnt out theatre.

It is day outside but the pitch black inside the science theatre. A heavy door opens, a chink of daylight enters, as do three people: LEWIS, his girlfriend LUCY, and his friend NICK. ………………………………….. NICK: Smells like it hasn’t been used in years LUCY: Burnt wood and essays, mould. Are you sure you know what you’re doing? LEWIS: I need the money, Lucy. Science? [Nick accidentally touches.

Drama , Dramatic structure , Friendship 775 Words | 3 Pages. ?Module A: Dramatic Experience . Nicola Martin This essay will discuss how Louis Nowra uses the dramatic form to convey personal relationships and other ideas. The main topics that will be discussed are the relationship between Lewis and his girlfriend Lucy, Lewis and 500 word essays driving, the patients from the mental institution and science essays, his relationship with his work, and Henry finding his voice. Lewis. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Drama 1151 Words | 2 Pages. Boit Theatre’s showcase of Cosi written by Louis Nowra and directed by David Berthold is an emotional play, talking . of Love and purpose dissertation review, fidelity. Self’s perception of other people; whether or not love is a strong enough reason to trust one another.

Two excerpts centred on different themes will be analysed. This analysis will bring to light certain dramatic elements and viewpoints of time, body and space that Berthold has used to enhance the dramatic meaning of this production. Science? Cosi is set in Melbourne during. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , David Berthold 940 Words | 3 Pages. presented to purpose of a dissertation literature review a class of fellow year 12 students who have all studied Louis Nowra's play Cosi . The purpose of discussing why . Cosi is a play worth performing is to show elements of the science essays play and its ideas that are relevant to our own lives here in suburban Western Australia. 500 Word? Speech: Love is not so important nowadays, or is it? Written by Louis Nowra in science the 1990's and resume akaun, set in the early 1970's, Cosi is science a play based on the opera Cosi Fan Tutte. You may be asking yourself, why is this play worth performing. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Love 1281 Words | 3 Pages.

Close Study of Text: Cosi The play “ Cosi ” by Louis Nowra is about a young, inexperienced . university student who is given the task of directing a play in a mental hospital. The play uses many dramatic techniques including the setting of the play, humour, Language, the as level essay history play within the play structure, and the fourth wall to help draw the audience into the world of the play. Science? The play also has distinct ideas such as the question of people’s attitudes towards the mentally ill and people’s attitudes. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Drama 1128 Words | 3 Pages. ?How does Nowra use comedy to critically reflect on human suffering? Nowra uses comedy in conjunction with other tools, to . critically evaluate human suffering. Incongruity Louis Nowra’s typically Australian story is a play within a play following a naive uni student doing a play with ‘extraordinary people who have thought extraordinary thoughts’. Nowra uses comedy throughout the 500 word play often to science reflect on human suffering and to help the audience break down preconceived conceptions. However he. Audience , Comedy , Humour 1000 Words | 3 Pages. Do you think that in 500 word driving the play of Cosi , you place conflicting backgrounds behind the characters?

Louis Nowra : . They act as grounds to support conflict between them. Lewis Demonstrates the ability to accept change, however he also shows his reluctance to assert his own morals upon others in the play. However the different personalities in themselves acts as a moral tangle all around Lewis, he essentially becomes part of the audience, redundant in a world of conformity, which is like showing his. Drama , Language , Linguistics 653 Words | 2 Pages. Madness Is in the Eye of the Beholder. Science? Is This Lewis Nowra’s View in as level ‘Cosi’? Madness is in the eye of the beholder. Is this Lewis Nowra’s view in science ‘ Cosi ’? Louis Nowra shows that madness is . often viewed through the on resume eye of the beholder which is evident within the juxtaposition of the Nick and science, Lewis in the play of Cosi . Nowra blurs the lines between what is sane and what is insane through Nick who represents the people in the 70s who ignored mental health issues. On Resume? Also Louis , who on the other hand, represents a wave of science new tolerant thinking where mental illness is not seen. Mental disorder , Mental health , Mind 986 Words | 3 Pages. ?Themes Fidelity infidelity According to Mozart’s Cosi Fan Tutte, the issue of fidelity is depicted to be an ideal that is never achieved. As Level Essay? . Since ‘women are like that’ – the interpretation of ‘ cosi fan tutte', Mozart encouraged the belief that men should simply accept women are indeed disloyal in relationships.

Nowra illustrates this same idea about science women and infidelity through Lewis and Lucy’s relationship. While Lucy is ‘sleeping’ with Lewis, she is also triflingly ‘having sex’ with Nick. When. Black-and-white films , Love , Vietnam War 897 Words | 3 Pages. ?How has Louis Nowra Communicated Unique Ideas in his drama Cosi ? Louis Nowra’s play, . Cosi , is set in electoral thesis the 1970s, during the Vietnam War. The setting is in a mental institution. Science Essays? It was written in 1992. Cosi explores a range of ideas and attitudes towards mental illness, such as the stereotypical view that mental patients are dangerous and should be kept locked away. Another is that they are like a lot of other people who are considered “normal”.

But the stereotypical view is generally the constant. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Illness 526 Words | 2 Pages. ?Topic: Cosi challenges the audience’s sense of normality Set in a burnt out theatre in the 1970s, Louis Nowra’s play . ‘ Cosi ’ depicts the transformation of the protagonist, Lewis Riley. From the start of the play to the end, we see that Lewis turns from a mercenary to a humanitarian. Other than the changes of lieing on resume Lewis, Nowra doesn’t fail to introduce other key themes like love and fidelity, as well as, normality and madness. Essays? The word ‘normal’ is resume kerani akaun similar as to ‘regular’ or ‘usual’. Science? But it also gives.

Audience , Love , Mind 807 Words | 2 Pages. Cosi Act one Scene one: Plot: Lewis along with his girlfriend, Lucy, and his friend, Nick, enter “a burnt out theatre.” As they struggle . to find a light switch they joined by Roy. Lucy leaves and lieing on resume, Nick who is frightened joins her. Science Essays? Lewis meets Justin the social worker and essays driving, then the other members appear. Doug, a pyromaniac, Henry, who says nothing and Zac, a musician. Science Essays? The women join them soon after, Cherry, who is violent, Julie, a drug addict and Ruth, who suffers obsessive compulsive disorder. Cold War , Communism , Drug addiction 1031 Words | 4 Pages. Through the structuring of the play within the play in Cosi , Louis Nowra uses the characters of electoral Lucy and Nick to be . an example of sexual love within the playwright. The basis of their relationship as we learn in the end is only sexual, which enables sexual love to essays become a major theme within the play. When Lucy openly admits that she has “sex” with Nick, and “sleeps” with Lewis, it creates a contrast of opinion with Lewis’, and furthermore creates conflict between the three characters.

This shows. Belief , Human sexual behavior , Learning 567 Words | 2 Pages. Each Patient in Cosi Has Their Own Way of Escaping Reality. Discuss. Cosi , by Louis Nowra , is a play which comprises of many distinct characters, each with their own unique . On Drunk Driving? backgrounds and outlooks on life. Throughout Cosi , the different ways in essays which the patients escape the depressing reality of the asylum and their conditions become evident. Roy creates a false memory of a fantastic childhood and obsesses over child abuse research papers Cosi Fan Tutte and “the music of the spheres” so as to suppress the tragic knowledge of his experiences as a child and his life in the asylum. In a. Cosi fan tutte , Drug addiction , English-language films 1456 Words | 4 Pages. COSI At the beginning of Louis Nowra’s play, Cosi , protagonist Lewis Riley holds views that are consistent with . society in 1970.

He has little control over the patients in the asylum, his confidence is low and he is easily influenced. Through Lewis’s interactions with the mental patients, his beliefs, understandings and values are altered. This transformation can be described as admirable as Lewis now holds views that are distinctly different from the society that surrounds him. Science? In control of. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Love 898 Words | 3 Pages. Cosi: Lewis Changes by Directing the Play. the 1970s (in Cosi ) and the Albanian battle for independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1790 (in Cosi Fan Tutte). Wars also . involve loyalties and betrayals, and their chaos on a grand scale underscores the chaos in dissertation the lives of the essays characters in child research papers the opera and the play. (Sue Sherman : English for Year 12) •According to Mozart’s Cosi Fan Tutte, the essays issue of resume fidelity is science essays depicted to be an ideal that is never achieved. •Since ‘women are like that’ – the interpretation of ‘ cosi fan tutte', Mozart. Adultery , Cosi fan tutte , Love 623 Words | 3 Pages. ? COSI HSC PRACTICE ESSAY Discuss how Nowra’s perspective on personal relationships is conveyed in Cosi . The play . Child Papers? Cosi by Louis Nowra is an essays emotional portrayal of personal relationships in a Melbourne mental institution ostracised by society. Throughout the play Nowra’s perspective on personal relationships develops and changes through character relationships and development, especially the development of the main protagonist Lewis.

Nowra conveys his perspective on personal relationships through. Black-and-white films , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 546 Words | 2 Pages. the patients forces the audience to realise that often the real world is not such a good place. Essay History? The interactions between Lewis and the patients in science essays . Louis Nowra’s play Cosi , challenge the audience to view the real world as a difficult place. Within the as level essay history context of Australian society experiencing drastic social and political changes in science the 1970’s, Nowra contrasts the views and physical child research, believes of the patients living in the asylum against the opinions of the real world. Whilst in the asylum, the essays protagonist. Performance , Stereotype 726 Words | 2 Pages.

understanding about themselves and the world. Inner journeys can be deliberately initiated, but is kerani akaun usually the result of science new circumstances where the . individual changes themselves or their perspective of themselves, others or the world. 500 Word Essays Driving? Cosi the play written by essays Louis Nowra , the 500 word poem from the essays stimulus booklet, The Road Not Taken, written by Robert Frost, the film Coach Carter, directed by Thomas Carter and the song lyrics At Seventeen by Janis Ian are all texts which show an purpose literature inner journey has taken place. 2003 albums , At Seventeen , Basketball 2114 Words | 6 Pages. Cosi Shows Us That There Is as Much Madness in the Outside World as There Is Within a Mental Institution.’ Discuss. In Louise Nowra’s COSI , a semi-autobiographical drama, Nowra reveals that there is science as much madness in the outside world as exists . in physical abuse papers an asylum. COSI reveals to science essays the reader that madness does not discriminate; lunacy is no psychological construct and that madness is the perception of lieing normality versus abnormality whereby no boundaries exist. Through the essays use of COSI Nowra is able to compare the delirium of the outside word to on resume that of the mental institutes during the 1970’s, drawing upon the themes of.

Insanity , Insanity defense , Love 2230 Words | 6 Pages. Cosi Practice Essay: What does Lewis learn by essays directing Cosi Fan Tutte? In the as level famous playwright ‘ Cosi ’ . written by Louis Nowra and published in essays 1992, Lewis Riley, the play’s protagonist discovers more about himself than ever before. In a setting of a ‘burnt out theatre,’ which involves characters deemed ‘insane,’ Lewis is portrayed as the ‘normal’ solitary and the driving force of the play. Through his journey from being an essay unconfident ‘director’ and idealistic on Australia’s current involvement. Accept , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 673 Words | 2 Pages. Cosi Shows Us That ‘Fairytale Endings’ Do Not Reflect Real Life.

How Does Nowra’s Play Show Us the Complexity of People’s Existence? Cosi shows us that ‘fairytale endings’ do not reflect real life. How does Nowra’s play show us the complexity of people’s existence? . Cosi is a play set in the 1970s, when Australia and the world were facing political complexities, such as the science conflict against the communist government and the happenning of the Vietnam War. It was a time when people had to choose their loyalties, causing great frustration and tearing the community apart. We are able to see this in Cosi in the lives of two best. Cosi fan tutte , Definition , Drug addiction 837 Words | 3 Pages. Standard English Yr11 Task 1 a b- Journey as a Self-Discovery ( Cosi and another novel) OUTLINE. The term journey of self-discovery refers . to a travel, pilgrimage ,[1] or series of physical abuse research events whereby a person attempts to determine how they feel, personally, about spiritual issues [2] or priorities,[3][4] rather than following the opinions of family, friends, neighborhood[5] or peer pressure. Science? The topic of self-discovery has been associated with Zen.[6] A related term is finding oneself. In drama.

Cosi fan tutte , Introduction , Life 853 Words | 3 Pages. Do you think the characters in Cosi have changed for the better? The characters in Cosi by the end of the play change. Lewis, . Henry and Zac are prime examples of resume how identities are inevitably shaped by the groups to science essays which they belong. As Level Essay History? Lewis finally shows himself to be a man, Henry comes out of his shell and Zac starts his own band. Zac’s introduction to the reader as a medical patient who is unable to effectively communicate with the others makes him appear to be shy person. Science? Most of the time. Change , Cosi fan tutte , English-language films 468 Words | 2 Pages. In the play Cosi by Louis Nowra , recent university graduate Lewis Riley takes on a group of asylum patients and . sets out to perform a play to earn some quick cash. Purpose Literature? In an attempt to bring the patients ‘out of their shells’ Lewis learns more than just the patients names; instead he is set on a journey of self-discovery where he learns about the importance of love and fidelity, the burden of stigma and the transformative power of the arts.

Louis Nowra portrays stigma associated with mental illness. Audience , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 755 Words | 2 Pages. by most people. In Louis Nowra’s play Cosi a range of techniques are used to engage the audience by science exploring certain characters . and themes that were significant to Louis Nowra . Contrast and settings are important in exploring the purpose of a review theme of insanity, while characterisation and dialogue reveal what type of person one of the mental patients, Zac, is. The play is set in the 1970’s in a Melbourne mental institution.

The setting of the mental institution is science essays important to Nowra because it was about. Drama , History of mental health , History of psychiatric institutions 542 Words | 2 Pages. Madness, love transformation Everyone goes mad in their own particular way. Nowra thinks madness is too generalised, and it is based on each . individuals past and experiences etc. At the end of the play, Lewis is no longer afraid of madness.

Lewis is thoroughly transformed by physical child abuse research papers the patients. Nowra uses a mixture of essays laughter and madness, which is a volatile mixture. We usually see madness as dark and abuse, scary, so we can keep it in science essays a corner and ignore it. When he adds humour to it, then we begin to. Cosi , Cosi fan tutte , Love 5345 Words | 20 Pages.

?Lewis is physical child research papers a young adult who has just graduated from university. In order to earn some extra money he gets a job directing a play at a mental asylum. He . starts off shy and lacking confidence meeting all the patients at the mental asylum, especially Roy who is seen as controlling and passive. At first the relationship between Lewis and the patients is rocky, until the essays event of the toilet fire, where we see the shift within the relationship Lewis shares with the patients. After the fire Justin comes. Answer , Dissociative identity disorder , Learning 529 Words | 2 Pages. In Cosi , Louis Nowra forces the audience to question what it means to be “normal”.

Explain. “ Cosi ” . is a novel, written by child Lewis Nowra , which takes an affectionate look at the madness and mayhem in essays a world where “sanity” does not exist. Throughout the play the characters are developed in a way that they help the essay reader grasp an understanding of the main issues dealt with by each of the characters. This is achieved by some of the characters remaining static throughout the essays play as they do not develop. Abnormal psychology , Behavior , Communism 579 Words | 2 Pages. Themes One of the main themes of Cosi is the question of love and fidelity. This is shown in Act 1 Scene Two when Doug, who hates women, . says: Women like to pretend they dont play around but theyre just more secretive about it. Cherry and Ruth are very negative about sex, stating that most women work hard to keep men out of their pants. Child Papers? Julie thinks that love is being foolish and stupid.

Also the play that Lewis is directing, Cosi Fan tutte is all about love and fidelity. Lewis is also questioning. Cosi fan tutte , Illness , Love 450 Words | 2 Pages. ‘ Cosi is both a tragedy and a comedy’ The book Cosi , written by Louis Nowra consisted of being . about a play called ‘ Cosi Fan Tutte’ which involved madness, illusion, sanity and essays, theatre. This play was set in a mental institution and involved fellow patients to become the extraordinary actors that were finally able to get an involvement to bring them out of their dull shell. Lieing? Lewis, is the fresh out of university, new director, which gasp’s on science the idea that having this role isn’t as easy as he was. Comedy , Cosi , Cosi fan tutte 588 Words | 2 Pages. An introduction to Cosi ouis Nowra was inspired to write Cosi after a visit to a performance of Hello Dolly with a . group of mental patients in 1970. College? He worked with this group of patients to essays produce a version of Trial By Jury which helped many of the patients to “blossom” and also revealed the kerani ignorance of a student leader who ridiculed the patients’ efforts. Science? Nowra claims that the play is a combination of lieing fact and fiction. In Cosi , a mature Nowra looks back and evaluates his youthful self and science essays, the.

Cosi fan tutte , Doug , Love 4098 Words | 10 Pages. Cosi character profiles and backdrops. ?The playwright ‘ Cosi ’ has several backdrops throughout the book. The main once is obviously the theatre but the more in depth backgrounds is . the college movement of the people in the real world. The Vietnam Moratorium, which was fighting for the government to return all the troops from the Vietnam War and the Sexual Revolution, which was a social movement that fought against the traditional codes towards to sexual relationships. The Vietnam Moratorium The moratorium was a mass demonstration against. Cosi fan tutte , George McGovern , Human sexual behavior 1319 Words | 4 Pages. can’t get to the level needed. Science Essays? This is evident through analysis of the play ‘ Cosi Fan Tutte’ by Louis Nowra . Driving? The . Essays? play depicts the life of Lewis, a director in essay history a mental institution, and shows the strengths he must go to in order to be accepted. When the group an individual is associated with doesn’t accept them, this may cause them to feel unwanted and unable to science move forward in life.

In the play ‘ Cosi Fan Tutte’ Louis Nowra is unable to fit in or show leadership within the mental institution. This.

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Famous Last Words of a Resume: References Available upon Request. How Many Pages Should My Resume Be and 12 Principles Behind That - 18. December 2014. 24 Crucial Tips for Work Experience Resume Section - 3. February 2015. Famous Last Words of a Resume: References Available upon Request - 2. March 2015.

You invested so much time into crafting your resume and it’s nearly done. There’s an inch of white space at the end of that glorious manifestation of your literary and formatting talents. Your education and achievements are lined up for the keen eye of a recruiter. If only you could find that last marvelous touch to fill the page and essays click save. And then, in the moment of electoral thesis ultimate inspiration, a burst of creativity flies through your head and you suddenly realize! Eureka! Yes, the only thing that belongs there is the famous sentence: References available upon request. Very smart!

You’re congratulating yourself on the bright idea while you’re typing these four words. You killed two flies with one hit. The page is filled and the recruiter will now know that you’ve got someone who can recommend you. Done! Click Save. What a spectacular way to finish your resume! Or is it? Read further and find out for yourself. Should You Include Your References in science essays, a Resume? I hope you recognized sarcasm in previous paragraphs.

Now, let’s get to the core of the issue. No, you should not include references in your resume except in some specific cases. We’ll get to that later, but now I want to lieing on resume, explain why you shouldn’t name your references in the first place: Privacy – As a jobseeker, you’re never going to put all your eggs in one basket, meaning it’s almost certain that you’re going to send your resume to multiple companies in science, search of a perfect job. Now, imagine that you’re supposed to give reference to someone. Would you like your contact details to as level essay history, circulate through hundreds of emails, job boards, HR departments etc? Of course not. Science? Well, persons you chose to essay history, give you references share the same feeling. If someone is kind enough to recommend you to essays, your future employer, don’t misuse their trust.

Plus, some recruiters could choose to call or email contacts on a reference list even before they conducted an interview with you. Physical Child Research? That’s a burden that persons who want to help you are not supposed to carry. Science Essays? Also, have in mind that there are frauds designed as job postings and made with just one purpose – to collect various contact details. Protect your references from this kind of deception. Being in control – When you provide references on your resume, you have no control over the time they’re going to be contacted. If you collected your references a couple of months ago and they are called from your future employer without prior notice from you, they can be surprised and lieing on resume won’t provide recommendation with a level of quality you expected from them. This can be fatal to your job application. References could take your job – Imagine you’re a recruiter.

You’re looking for candidates for science a position of a retail manager. 500 Word Essays On Drunk Driving? You receive a resume of science essays a retail supervisor with a reference from his retail manager. 500 Word On Drunk? Which one would you recruit? Manager, of course. The naive supervisor applicant will never know that the recruiter even called his manager, until it’s too late. Do not let your references take your job. Waste of science essays resume real estate – Resume real estate is a precious belonging. It’s yours to do with it whatever you want, but you’re supposed to use it in a most efficient manner. That means that your references don’t belong there. Use that space to present your achievements, skills and purpose of a literature review expertise.

As you can see, there’s a lot of good reasons why not to include references in your resume. Essays? However, there are a few cases when it is actually appropriate: Stated on a job posting – When the physical child abuse research job posting explicitly requests your references to essays, be stated in your resume be sure to include them or you may be disqualified from the further process. Physical Child Abuse Research Papers? However, this is essays a fairly rare situation and request from an employer. Famous reference – When your reference is from someone well known in the industry or in the company you’re applying to, you may freely include it in your resume. For example, imagine the purpose of a literature weight of your resume for the position in Microsoft if you could include a reference from Bill Gates. Testimonials – In some cases you need to include testimonials in your resume in order to give additional emphasis to some point (for example, testimonial which speaks positively about your performances from your supervisor in the company you were fired from). Essays? In this case, write contact details of a reference directly next to the testimony. Akaun? Don’t forget to science, ask your reference for lieing on resume permission to do so. When to essays, Submit References to Employer? If not in lieing, the resume, when should you hand over your references to employer?

This is a no brainer, since you just have to follow instructions of your future employer. Essays? If they say to include references in your job application, then do so. If they don’t mention it, you don’t mention it either. Hopefully, down the hiring process someone will ask you to provide references. That’s the 500 word essays time to give them to your employer. Usually, the fact that the science employer asks for your references is a good sign. Child Research Papers? That’s because references are usually asked from the candidates that are shortlisted. This means that you’ll most probably need your references ready for science the later interview circles. However, when the employer asks for them, be sure to have them on a separate document (called References List). Generally speaking, there are three types of references: Professional – This is the most valuable type of references since they can discuss your work performance, skills and work ethics.

These being issues that your future employer is most concerned with. As Level? You can select former managers, co-workers, HR managers, contacts from industry associations, internship supervisors. Practically, anybody who can talk about your work behavior and is familiar with your accomplishments. Now, there is science essays couple of important guidelines: While it is as level history good to science, have high positioned references, it’s crucial that they are familiar with your work. CEO of a multinational company is essays driving a good reference only if he knows your past performances. If he can barely remember your name, there’s little benefit from him being your reference as he’s not going to essays, be able to answer specific questions recruiters are going to ask. Have in mind that recruiters understand if you don’t want to list people from your current company due to discretion of 500 word essays your job hunt. In the end, know that professional references from a completely different industry than the essays one you’re applying for are not the best choice. Use them only if you must. Educational – This is 500 word on drunk driving a class B reference for science experienced professionals.

The simple reason is that recruiters are more interested in your ten year work experience than in the four years of your education which happened fifteen years ago. A completely different situation applies to graduates and under-graduates. They should list teachers, professors, deans. Lieing? Anybody who can testify to science, their academic behavior is physical abuse papers a valuable reference since their educational history probably carries the greatest weight on science their resume. Personal – This is a type of reference that bears little importance in recruiter’s eyes. That’s because of a heavy bias usually connected with these references. Bias is imminent due to literature, the personal relationship of a reference with the candidate. Include your friends, relatives, parents, priests etc. only if they are the only choice for you. Even these references are better than having none, but know that they are often neglected by essays, the recruiter. First of all, always have in mind that your references are doing a big favor to you, so act accordingly. Lieing? Do not do anything that could put them in an uncomfortable situation.

There is a couple of things that you’re supposed to do to ensure that: Ask them for permission – First thing you need to do when you choose your references is to ask them if they’re comfortable with that. Be tactic in this conversation. You’ve got to feel the science essays pulse of your references and to be absolutely sure they’re going to say only lieing on resume, stellar things about you. We’ll talk about that later in essays, a dedicated chapter but that’s not the thesis only reason why you need to contact them prior to naming them on your reference list.

Imagine someone put you as their reference and hasn’t informed you about that. Science? You receive a call from a recruiter, completely surprised, and on resume even with best intentions, you won’t be able to manage the conversation in a best way possible for the person you’re recommending. So, don’t let your references be surprised with the science essays call from 500 word on drunk, a recruiter. Send them your resume and science essays job posting – No matter how close you were with your managers, co-workers or subordinates, after a couple of years their image of you starts to fade in their memory. That’s why it’s a good idea to send them your current resume and a job posting you’re applying for. That way you can funnel which of your characteristics they are going to put an emphasis on. You can stress out your different attributes to different references and you’ll note which reference can testify on which attribute or performance on essays on drunk driving your reference list. Essays? Ask them how they want to be contacted – Different people have different habits and preferences. The same is with references.

Someone would like to be contacted via phone, someone via email etc. Make sure to note the preferred way of contact for every reference on your list so a recruiter can use the lieing right contact. Refresh your relationship – Every couple of weeks give a call to your reference in order to update them on your job hunt. Also, if you give a reference list to an employer in an interview, be sure to call all of your references to warn them that they could expect a call. Science? That way you’ll accomplish three goals: your references won’t be caught off guard, you’ll know if some of kerani your references are not available at science the moment (trip abroad, sickness etc) and you’ll be sure that contacts of your references remained the same. Since we now know that references shouldn’t be included in resume except in specific circumstances, let’s see how to present them to your future employer. The most appropriate way is to create a reference list, a separate document which will list all your references. 500 Word Essays On Drunk? Here are some tips how to science essays, format your reference list for maximum impact: References list should follow the thesis formatting of a resume – It means you should use the same fonts, same margins, same style of headers, same paper, same bullets you used on your resume. This consistency helps a lot with the brand of yourself you’re trying to present to the employer.

Order of references – Be sure to put your best references first. Those are people which will certainly speak about science, you in superlatives and are relevant to the job you’re seeking. You can’t leave a first impression twice and resume akaun that’s why it is science essays important that recruiter calls your strongest references first. If you have to as level history, include educational and essays personal references, list them in that order, respectively, after professional references. Heading and purpose review title – Use the same heading as you used in your resume. Just under the essays heading write a simple title of a document.

Write simply “Reference list”. References details – Write full name of a reference in on drunk, bold. Below put the company your reference is working for and his position there. Under that write all contact details your reference agreed on sharing with your employer. Make sure that the preferred way of contact is listed first with the note about that.

Write a brief explanation of your relationship with your reference. In the end, make note of which statements from your resume the reference can testify about and how many years do you know your reference. Repeat this consistently for all references. White space – Be sure to leave a lot of white space on your reference list. A recruiter is most probably going to write down impressions from the call to a reference directly in the reference list. Make his life easier, it’s in science, your best interest. Here’s an example of properly formatted references list. Feel free to use it for your needs. Be Sure Your References are Favorable to You.

You are supposed to use a reference who will talk absolutely positively about you. As Level? Knowing that, it’s very surprising how many people take this task lightly. In a study conducted by Harris Interactive more than 50% of references were less than favorable for essays the candidates. Also, around two thirds of resume akaun employers changed their generally positive opinion on science a candidate after a talk with references. Lieing On Resume? Do not allow yourself to become negative statistics! Be sure to check with your references what opinion on science essays you they’ll share with your future employer. If you have a slightest doubt, remove that reference from the list. As Level History? That’s because the harm you can suffer from one bad reference is not worth a risk of just having one more opinion about you. If you simply cannot resist including some super important individual into science essays, your reference list and you’re not 100% sure his opinion will be a very positive, I suggest you use a reference checker company. They will check the lieing on resume opinion of your reference and present you a full report about it.

You can use a friend for this purpose, also. Other General Notes and science Advice on References. There is just a couple of things more that you should know about presenting your references to an employer. Let’s list them here: “References available upon request” – In today’s job market it’s an 500 word essays on drunk absolute must to have references. That’s why this sentence is a fluff and filler. Furthermore, it wastes precious resume real estate. Because of this, recruiters are very sensitive to this sentence. DO NOT USE IT. EVER.

IN ANY CIRCUMSTANCE. How many references to include? – General rule is to include 3-5 references. Essays? Think of college thesis 3 as an science absolute minimum, but don’t get carried away and provide more than 6. Lieing? Pool of references – You know how you are supposed to tailor your resume for every new job application? To customize it? Well, the same goes with references. The advice is always to have more references in your pool (10-12) than you need for a single job application and to essays, use the most appropriate for a given position. Follow up on your references – After the hiring process is over, no matter the outcome, be sure to call your references to thank them. A small gift or a promise to return a similar favor is appropriate. If the outcome was negative, be sure to ask your references what were they asked about and how the call went in general. That will give you precious insight about your references.

Letters of Recommendation – Once used as a main reference method, letters of recommendation are now very rare. Recruiters generally don’t like to see these general letters addressed “to whom it may concern”. Simply said, if it’s not explicitly asked for, do not use letters of recommendation. Legal issues – Have in mind that some companies, in fear of potential lawsuits, forbid their employers to give references to anybody. On Drunk Driving? The only data allowed to share with a new employer are the essays dates of employment and essays driving position.

This could be outsmarted if you ask your reference to give a personal recommendation, not as a previous employer’s representative. When a recruiter calls him, sooner or later he’ll start talking about your work performances. Be sure to science, use this tactic only with references in which you’ve got 100% trust since there are so many ways this can go wrong. Questions references are going to be asked – Here’s a short list of the essays most common questions your references are going to be asked by recruiters. It will come handy when you coach your references what to say prior to the call from a recruiter: How and for how long do you know the applicant? Tell me something about the science applicant’s skills in (something).

Is the applicant a team player? What do you think about the applicant’s managerial skills? What are the applicant’s main strengths and weaknesses? How the applicant manages the pressure? Would you call this applicant a good worker? Would you rehire him?

If there is just one, single take away from this article then it would be the following: the child abuse research most important thing with references is that they recommend you for your stellar performance and qualifications and you should concentrate on science that instead on 500 word essays on drunk driving your relationship with them which is not so important. Also, have in essays, mind that references are in most cases the resume kerani deciding factor in science, the last round of interviews. Electoral College Thesis? They can make or break your job application, so be sure to approach them very seriously. Do you have some unexpected experiences with references? Please, share them with us in comments. Good luck with your job hunt! If you liked this post, sign up for Epic CV Newsletter to receive articles like this one right into essays, your inbox . 24 Crucial Tips for Work Experience Resume Section. A Complete Guide to Hobbies in 500 word essays on drunk driving, Your Resume: 8 Principles #038; 11 Mistakes. Danger!

Danger! Your Resume Summary Makes You Look Boring. For a person with a criminal record reentering the employment market, I suggest they include a professional letter of recommendation. Essays? It helps to establish credibility. Employment Retention Specialist.

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