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Arms Control Essays and Research Papers. Title: What shaped the how to an essay question arms control stance of President George W Bush's Administration How would you assess the administration's arms control policies. 1. Evidence of intellectual discrimination. This includes demonstrating (a) a general sense of the issues being considered, and paper methodology, (b) an ability to identify key points in a description or argument. 2. Evidence of intellectual control . This includes demonstrating evidence of the following: mastery of the course material; effective organisation of how to an essay question study time and thesis, methods; a grasp of the conceptual underpinnings of the unit; and an ability to write answer construct a reasoned, soundly structured argument. 3. Evidence of buy resume incisive style.

This includes demonstrating an ability to an essay question say what one means in a logical, coherent, and methodology, concise manner. 4. Evidence of appropriate research. This includes considerations of the amount and quality of how to an essay answer research. 5. Adherence to research paper cell phone use while driving the required scholarly conventions concerning such matters as referencing and the avoidance of plagiarism. 6. An ability to how to an essay answer construct an interesting, well-presented, and well-written analysis (this includes good sentence construction and the use of correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling). Total Pages: 4 Words: 1213 Bibliography:0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper. Title: An American Foreign Policy That Both Realists and Idealists Should Fall in Love With. Total Pages: 2 Words: 738 Sources:0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay. By ROBERT WRIGHT. Yet idealism has lost some of buy resume adonit its luster.

Neoconservatism, whose ascendancy has scared liberals into a new round of soul-searching, seems plenty idealistic, bent on write question answer spreading democracy and human rights. Indeed, a shared idealism is what led many liberals to join neocons in supporting the Iraq war, which hasnít turned out tattoo essays ideally. In retrospect, realists who were skeptical of the an essay answer invasion, like Brent Scowcroft and thesis statement for negative effects of technology, Samuel Huntington, are looking pretty wise. Itís an unappealing choice: chillingly clinical self-interest or dangerously naive altruism? Fortunately, itís a false choice.

During the post-cold-war era, the security landscape has changed a lot, in an essay question answer some ways for the worse; witness the buy resume for writer role of ďnonstate actorsĒ last week in India, Israel and Iraq. But this changing environment has a rarely noted upside: Itís now possible to build a foreign policy paradigm that comes close to squaring the circle ?? reconciling the write question humanitarian aims of statement idealists with the powerful logic of realists. And adopting this paradigm could make the question chaos of the last week less common in the future. Every paradigm needs a name, and essay romeo conflict, the best name for this one is progressive realism. The label has a nice ring (Who is against write an essay, progress?) and it aptly suggests bipartisan appeal. This is paper methodology a realism that could attract many liberals and a progressivism that could attract some conservatives. With such crossover potential, this paradigm might even help Democrats win a presidential election. But Democrats can embrace it only if theyíre willing to annoy an interest group or two and write, also reject a premise common in Democratic policy circles lately: that the key to a winning foreign policy is to thesis recalibrate the partyís manhood ?? just take boilerplate liberal foreign policy and add a testosterone patch. An Essay Answer. Even if that prescription did help win an election, it wouldnít succeed in protecting America.

Progressive realism begins with a cardinal doctrine of for negative effects of technology traditional realism: the purpose of American foreign policy is to serve American interests. But these days serving American interests means abandoning another traditional belief of realists ?? that so long as foreign governments donít endanger American interests on the geopolitical chess board, their domestic affairs donít concern us. In an age when Americans are threatened by overseas bioweapons labs and outbreaks of flu, by Chinese pollution that enters lungs in Oregon, by imploding African states that could turn into how to write an essay, terrorist havens, by authoritarian Arab governments that push young men toward radicalism, the classic realist indifference to the interiors of nations is untenable. In that sense progressive realists look a lot like neoconservatives and traditional liberals: concerned about the well-being of foreigners, albeit out of strict national interest. For Negative Of Technology. But progressive realism has two core themes that make it clearly distinctive, and theyíre reflected in two different meanings of the word ďprogressive.Ē First, the word signifies a belief in, well, progress.

Free markets are spreading across the world on the strength of their productivity, and economic liberty tends to foster political liberty. Yes, the how to write an essay Chinese government could probably reverse the growth in popular expression of the past two decades, but only by essay on nishat, severely restricting information technologies that are prerequisites for prosperity. An Essay. Meanwhile, notwithstanding dogged efforts at repression, political pluralism in China is growing. Oddly, this progressive realist faith in conflict markets seems to be stronger than the how to write question vaunted neoconservative faith in markets. After all, if you believe that history is on statement for negative the side of political freedom ?? and that this technological era is giving freedom an especially strong push ?? your approach to fostering democracy isnít to how to answer invade countries and buy resume for writer adonit, impose it. And if you believe that the tentacles of capitalism help spread freedom, you donít threaten to disrupt economic engagement with China for such small gains as the how to answer release of a few political prisoners. Thesis Methodology. A strong Democratic emphasis on economic engagement always threatens to alienate liberal human rights activists, as well as union leaders concerned about cheap labor abroad. But the losses can be minimized, thanks to the second meaning of the word ďprogressive.Ē The American progressives of a century ago saw that as economic activity moved from a regional to a national level, some parts of governance needed to reside at the national level as well. Hence federal antitrust enforcement and how to answer, the Pure Food and Drug Act.

Analogously, problems that today accompany globalization call for institutionalized international responses. In the economic realm, progressivism means continuing to research use while support the World Trade Organization as a bulwark against protectionism ?? but also giving it the authority to address labor issues, as union leaders have long advocated. How To An Essay. Environmental issues, too, should be addressed at the W.T.O. and through other bodies of regional and global governance. Nowhere does this emphasis on international governance contrast more clearly with recent Republican ideology than in arms control . The default neoconservative approach to weapons of mass destruction seems to essay juliet conflict be that when you suspect a nation has them, you invade it. The Iraq experience suggests that repeated reliance on this policy could grow wearying. The president, to write an essay answer judge by his late-May overture toward Iran and tattoo essays, his subdued tone toward North Korea, may be sensing as much. Still, he is an essay question answer nowhere near embracing the necessary alternative: arms control accords that would impose highly intrusive inspections on tattoo essays all parties. How To. Neoconservatives, along with the Buchananite nationalist right, see in this approach an unacceptable sacrifice of national sovereignty. But such ďsacrificesĒ can strengthen America. One reason international weapons inspectors havenít gotten a good fix on Iranís nuclear program is essay that the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty gives them access only to ďdeclaredĒ sites. Wouldnít Americans be willing to how to write an essay answer change that and let inspectors examine America more broadly ?? we have nothing to hide, after all ?? if that made it harder for other nations to essay cheat on the treaty?

There is a principle here that goes beyond arms control : the how to question national interest can be served by constraints on Americaís behavior when they constrain other nations as well. This logic covers the spectrum of international governance, from global warming (weíll cut carbon dioxide emissions if you will) to war (weíll refrain from it if you will). This doesnít mean joining the deepest devotees of international law and vowing never to fight a war that lacks backing by the United Nations Security Council. But it does mean that, in the case of Iraq, ignoring the Security Council and paper cell phone use while, international opinion had excessive costs: (1) eroding the norm against invasions not justified by self-defense or imminent threat; (2) throwing away a golden post-9/11 opportunity to strengthen the United Nationsí power as a weapons inspector. The last message we needed to send is the one President Bush sent: countries that succumb to pressure to admit weapons inspectors will be invaded anyway. Peacefully blunting the threats posed by nuclear technologies in North Korea and Iran would be tricky in any event, but this message has made it trickier. (Ever wonder why Iran wants ďsecurity guaranteesĒ?) The administrationís misjudgment in Iraq highlights the distinction ?? sometimes glossed over by neoconservatives ?? between transparency and regime change. Had we held off on invasion, demanding in return that United Nations inspections be expanded and extended, we could have rendered Iraq transparent, confirming that it posed no near-term threat.

Regime change wasnít essential. To be sure, authoritarianismís demise is a key long-term goal. Authoritarian states never have the natural transparency of an essay question free-market democracies, and tattoo essays, the evolution of biotechnology will make an increasingly fine-grained transparency vital to security. But this degree of how to an essay answer transparency will only slowly become a strict prerequisite for national security, because the bioweapons most plausibly available to terrorists in the near term arenít effective weapons of truly mass destruction. (Anthrax isnít contagious, for example, and there is methodology a vaccine for smallpox.) For now we can be patient and nurture regime change through economic engagement and write, other forms of tattoo essays peaceful, above-board influence. The result will be more indigenous, more culturally authentic paths to democracy than flow from invasion or American-backed coups díetat ?? and more conducive to Americaís security than, say, the current situation in write an essay answer Iraq. Democrats can join President Bush in proclaiming that ďfreedom is on the marchĒ without buying his formula for assisting it. When expressing disdain for international governance, the Bush administration morphs from visionary neocon idealist into coolly rational realist. Foreign policy, weíre told, is not for naive, ďKumbayaĒ-singing liberals who are seduced by illusions of international cooperation. Yet the president, in his aversion to multilateralism, flunks Realism 101.

He has let America fall prey to what economists call the juliet conflict ďfree riderĒ problem. Even if we grant the mistaken premise that the Iraq war would make the an essay whole world safer from terrorism, why should America pay so much blood and treasure? Why let the rest of civilization be a free rider? The high cost of free riders matters all the more in light of how many problems beyond Americaís borders threaten Americaís interests. The slaughter in Darfur, though a humanitarian crisis, is also a security issue, given how hospitable collapsed states can be to terrorists.

But if addressing the Darfur problem will indeed help thwart terrorism internationally, then the research cell phone use while costs of the mission should be shared. President Bushís belated diplomatic involvement in Darfur suggests growing enlightenment, but sluggish ad hoc multilateralism isnít enough. We need multilateral structures capable of decisively forceful intervention and nation building ?? ideally under the auspices of the United Nations, which has more global legitimacy than other candidates. America should lead in building these structures and thereafter contribute its share, but only write, its share. To some extent, the tattoo essays nurturing of international institutions and solid international law is simple thrift. And the accounting rules are subtle. As weíve seen lately, the cost of military action can go not just beyond dollars and how to an essay question answer, cents, but beyond the immediate toll of dead and wounded. In an age when cell phones can take pictures and videos of thesis collateral damage and then e-mail them, and terrorists recruit via Web site imagery, intervention abroad can bring long-term blowback.

Further, when you consider the how to write question answer various ways information technology helps terrorists ?? not just to recruit more fighters to the cause, but to orchestrate attacks and spread recipes for munitions ?? and you throw in advances in essay bagh munitions technology, an alarming principle suggests itself: In coming years, grass-roots hatred and resentment of America may be converted into the death of Americans with growing efficiency. That domestic security depends increasingly on popular sentiment abroad makes it important for America to how to write answer be seen as a good global citizen ?? respecting international laws and norms and sensing the needs of neighbors. One of President Bushís most effective uses of buy resume for writer power was the tsunami relief effort of 2004, which raised regard for Americans in the worldís largest Muslim country, Indonesia. Much of the war on terror isnít military. Of course, some of it is, and weíll need the how to write question capacity to project force anywhere, anytime. Still, a full accounting of the costs of intervention makes it clear that we canít afford to be the research paper cell phone driving worldís army. Fortunately, globalization has made the how to write question peaceful suppression of at least some forms of disorder easier. Statement Effects Of Technology. Economic interdependence makes war among nations less attractive, and never before has this interdependence brought so much transborder contact among businesspeople and politicians. So itís not shocking that India and China, which clashed repeatedly over disputed borders during the cold war, have kept things cool since becoming enmeshed in how to write question answer the global economy. Essay On Nishat. Or that the most worrisome nation of the moment, North Korea, is about the most isolated from the global economy; or that its rival for write an essay worrisomeness, Iran, is far from research methodology, full immersion. Obviously, wars can happen even when theyíre irrational.

Still, their growing irrationality is question a progressive force worth honoring. It strengthens the case for economic engagement and for regional and other international bodies that help cement commercial entanglement with political cooperation. The excesses of neoconservative idealism have prompted various scholars to adapt realist principles to a changing world. On Nishat. The political scientists John Ikenberry and Charles Kupchan outlined a ďliberal realismĒ two years ago, and Mr. Ikenberryís book, ďAfter Victory,Ē showed how international governance can serve the interests of hegemonic powers.

This fall the historians Anatol Lieven and John Hulsman will publish a foreign policy manifesto called ďEthical Realism.Ē Such works are true to how to the spirit of essay on nishat bagh Hans Morgenthau, chief architect of realism. Writing in the mid-20th century, he emphasized that realismís implications would change as the world changed. World peace could require radical constraints on national sovereignty, he said, and the nation-state might drop in significance as ďlarger unitsĒ rose. Morgenthau seems to an essay question answer have sensed something that later political scientists dwelt on: technology has been making the worldís nations more interdependent ?? or, as game theorists put it, more non-zero-sum. That is, Americaís fortunes are growing more closely correlated with the fortunes of people far away; fewer games have simple win-lose outcomes, and more have either win-win or lose-lose outcomes. Research. This principle lies at the heart of how to an essay question progressive realism. A correlation of statement for negative effects fortunes ?? being in the same boat with other nations in matters of economics, environment, security ?? is an essay question what makes international governance serve national interest. It is also what makes enlightened self-interest de facto humanitarian.

Progressive realists see that America can best flourish if others flourish ?? if African states cohere, if the worldís Muslims feel they benefit from the world order, if personal and environmental health are nurtured, if economic inequities abroad are muted so that young democracies can be stable and strong. More and romeo, more, doing well means doing good. Of course, resources arenít infinite, and the world has lots of problems. But focusing on national interest helps focus resources. Notwithstanding last weekís carnage in how to an essay question answer the Middle East, more people have been dying in research paper phone Sri Lankaís civil war than in how to write an essay question answer the Palestinian-Israeli conflict.

But given the threat of anti-American Islamist terrorism, forging a lasting two-state solution in thesis statement effects the Middle East is a higher priority than bringing lasting peace to Sri Lanka. This sounds harsh, but it is only acknowledgment of something often left unsaid: a nationís foreign policy will always favor the interests of its citizens and so fall short of moral perfection. We can at how to an essay question, least be thankful that history, by intertwining the fates of peoples, is bringing national interest closer to moral ideals. Harnessing this benign dynamic isnít the only redemptive feature of progressive realism. Morgenthau emphasized that sound strategy requires a ďrespectful understandingĒ of all players in the game. ďThe political actor,Ē he wrote, ďmust put himself into the other manís shoes, look at paper research, the world and judge it as he does.Ē This immersion in the perspective of the other is sometimes called ďmoral imagination,Ē and it is question hard. Understanding why some people hate America, and why terrorists kill, is challenging not just intellectually but emotionally. Yet it is crucial and has been lacking in President Bush, who saves time by ascribing behavior that threatens America to the hatred of freedom or (and this is a real time saver) to evil. As Morgenthau saw, exploring the root causes of bad behavior, far from thesis paper research, being a sentimentalist weakness, informs the deft use of power. Realpolitik is reality-based.

Is progressive realism salable? The administrationís post-9/11 message may be more viscerally appealing: Rid the how to question world of evil, and do so with bravado and intimidating strength. But this approach has gotten some negative feedback from the real world, and there is paper cell a growing desire for America to regain the respect President Bush has squandered. Maybe Americans are ready to meet reality on its own terms. Robert Wright, a senior fellow at the New America Foundation, is the author of ďThe Moral AnimalĒ and ďNonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny.Ē By ROBERT WRIGHT. As liberals try to how to write answer articulate a post-Bush foreign policy, some are feeling a bit of cognitive dissonance.

They have always thought of themselves as idealistic, concerned with the welfare of humankind. Not for them the ruthlessly narrow focus on national self-interest of the ďrealistĒ foreign policy school. Essay Juliet Conflict. That schoolís most famous practitioner, Henry Kissinger, is for question many liberals a reminder of how easily the ostensible amorality of classic realism slides into immorality. Tattoo Essays. Yet idealism has lost some of its luster. Neoconservatism, whose ascendancy has scared liberals into a new round of soul-searching, seems plenty idealistic, bent on spreading democracy and human rights. Indeed, a shared idealism is what led many liberals to join neocons in supporting the Iraq war, which hasnít turned out ideally. In retrospect, realists who were skeptical of the invasion, like Brent Scowcroft and question, Samuel Huntington, are looking pretty wise. Itís an unappealing choice: chillingly clinical self-interest or dangerously naive altruism? Fortunately, itís a false choice.

During the post-cold-war era, the security landscape has changed a lot, in some ways for the worse; witness the role of ďnonstate actorsĒ last week in India, Israel and Iraq. But this changing environment has a rarely noted upside: Itís now possible to build a foreign policy paradigm that comes close to squaring the circle ?? reconciling the humanitarian aims of thesis statement of technology idealists with the how to write an essay answer powerful logic of realists. Paper Research Methodology. And adopting this paradigm could make the an essay question chaos of the last week less common in the future. Essay Bagh. Every paradigm needs a name, and the best name for this one is progressive realism. The label has a nice ring (Who is against how to question answer, progress?) and it aptly suggests bipartisan appeal. This is a realism that could attract many liberals and a progressivism that could attract some conservatives. With such crossover potential, this paradigm might even help Democrats win a presidential election. But Democrats can embrace it only if theyíre willing to annoy an interest group or two and essay on nishat bagh, also reject a premise common in Democratic policy circles lately: that the how to write answer key to a winning foreign policy is to recalibrate the partyís manhood ?? just take boilerplate liberal foreign policy and add a testosterone patch. Even if that prescription did help win an election, it wouldnít succeed in protecting America. For Writer. Progressive realism begins with a cardinal doctrine of write answer traditional realism: the purpose of American foreign policy is to serve American interests.

But these days serving American interests means abandoning another traditional belief of realists ?? that so long as foreign governments donít endanger American interests on the geopolitical chess board, their domestic affairs donít concern us. Research Paper Driving. In an age when Americans are threatened by overseas bioweapons labs and outbreaks of flu, by Chinese pollution that enters lungs in how to write an essay answer Oregon, by imploding African states that could turn into terrorist havens, by authoritarian Arab governments that push young men toward radicalism, the essay classic realist indifference to the interiors of nations is how to write an essay answer untenable. In that sense progressive realists look a lot like neoconservatives and traditional liberals: concerned about the well-being of foreigners, albeit out of strict national interest. But progressive realism has two core themes that make it clearly distinctive, and theyíre reflected in two different meanings of the word ďprogressive.Ē First, the word signifies a belief in, well, progress. Research Cell Use While Driving. Free markets are spreading across the world on the strength of their productivity, and economic liberty tends to write foster political liberty. Tattoo Essays. Yes, the Chinese government could probably reverse the write growth in popular expression of the past two decades, but only by severely restricting information technologies that are prerequisites for prosperity. Meanwhile, notwithstanding dogged efforts at methodology, repression, political pluralism in China is how to write an essay growing. Oddly, this progressive realist faith in markets seems to be stronger than the cell phone driving vaunted neoconservative faith in markets.

After all, if you believe that history is on the side of political freedom ?? and that this technological era is how to write an essay answer giving freedom an especially strong push ?? your approach to fostering democracy isnít to invade countries and impose it. And if you believe that the tentacles of capitalism help spread freedom, you donít threaten to disrupt economic engagement with China for such small gains as the release of research phone driving a few political prisoners. A strong Democratic emphasis on economic engagement always threatens to write an essay alienate liberal human rights activists, as well as union leaders concerned about cheap labor abroad. But the losses can be minimized, thanks to the second meaning of the word ďprogressive.Ē The American progressives of a century ago saw that as economic activity moved from buy resume adonit, a regional to a national level, some parts of write answer governance needed to thesis statement for negative reside at question, the national level as well. Hence federal antitrust enforcement and the Pure Food and Drug Act.

Analogously, problems that today accompany globalization call for research paper cell use while institutionalized international responses. An Essay Question. In the economic realm, progressivism means continuing to support the World Trade Organization as a bulwark against protectionism ?? but also giving it the authority to address labor issues, as union leaders have long advocated. Environmental issues, too, should be addressed at the W.T.O. and through other bodies of regional and global governance. Nowhere does this emphasis on international governance contrast more clearly with recent Republican ideology than in arms control . The default neoconservative approach to weapons of buy resume mass destruction seems to be that when you suspect a nation has them, you invade it. The Iraq experience suggests that repeated reliance on an essay question answer this policy could grow wearying. Tattoo Essays. The president, to judge by his late-May overture toward Iran and his subdued tone toward North Korea, may be sensing as much. Still, he is nowhere near embracing the necessary alternative: arms control accords that would impose highly intrusive inspections on all parties.

Neoconservatives, along with the Buchananite nationalist right, see in this approach an unacceptable sacrifice of national sovereignty. But such ďsacrificesĒ can strengthen America. One reason international weapons inspectors havenít gotten a good fix on Iranís nuclear program is that the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty gives them access only to how to question answer ďdeclaredĒ sites. Wouldnít Americans be willing to change that and essay bagh, let inspectors examine America more broadly ?? we have nothing to an essay question answer hide, after all ?? if that made it harder for other nations to cheat on the treaty? There is a principle here that goes beyond arms control : the national interest can be served by constraints on statement for negative Americaís behavior when they constrain other nations as well. This logic covers the spectrum of international governance, from global warming (weíll cut carbon dioxide emissions if you will) to war (weíll refrain from it if you will). This doesnít mean joining the deepest devotees of international law and vowing never to fight a war that lacks backing by the United Nations Security Council. But it does mean that, in the case of Iraq, ignoring the Security Council and international opinion had excessive costs: (1) eroding the norm against invasions not justified by self-defense or imminent threat; (2) throwing away a golden post-9/11 opportunity to write an essay question answer strengthen the United Nationsí power as a weapons inspector.

The last message we needed to send is the one President Bush sent: countries that succumb to pressure to admit weapons inspectors will be invaded anyway. Peacefully blunting the threats posed by tattoo essays, nuclear technologies in North Korea and Iran would be tricky in any event, but this message has made it trickier. (Ever wonder why Iran wants ďsecurity guaranteesĒ?) The administrationís misjudgment in Iraq highlights the distinction ?? sometimes glossed over by neoconservatives ?? between transparency and regime change. Had we held off on invasion, demanding in an essay question answer return that United Nations inspections be expanded and extended, we could have rendered Iraq transparent, confirming that it posed no near-term threat. Regime change wasnít essential. To be sure, authoritarianismís demise is a key long-term goal. Paper. Authoritarian states never have the natural transparency of free-market democracies, and the evolution of biotechnology will make an increasingly fine-grained transparency vital to security. But this degree of transparency will only slowly become a strict prerequisite for national security, because the bioweapons most plausibly available to terrorists in write an essay question the near term arenít effective weapons of truly mass destruction. (Anthrax isnít contagious, for paper research methodology example, and there is a vaccine for smallpox.) For now we can be patient and how to write an essay question answer, nurture regime change through economic engagement and other forms of peaceful, above-board influence. The result will be more indigenous, more culturally authentic paths to democracy than flow from invasion or American-backed coups díetat ?? and more conducive to Americaís security than, say, the current situation in Iraq. Thesis For Negative. Democrats can join President Bush in an essay question proclaiming that ďfreedom is on adonit the marchĒ without buying his formula for assisting it. When expressing disdain for international governance, the Bush administration morphs from how to write an essay question answer, visionary neocon idealist into coolly rational realist.

Foreign policy, weíre told, is not for naive, ďKumbayaĒ-singing liberals who are seduced by bagh, illusions of write question answer international cooperation. Yet the president, in thesis effects of technology his aversion to multilateralism, flunks Realism 101. He has let America fall prey to what economists call the how to write question answer ďfree riderĒ problem. Even if we grant the mistaken premise that the Iraq war would make the on nishat bagh whole world safer from terrorism, why should America pay so much blood and treasure? Why let the rest of civilization be a free rider? The high cost of free riders matters all the more in light of how to write an essay question answer how many problems beyond Americaís borders threaten Americaís interests. The slaughter in Darfur, though a humanitarian crisis, is also a security issue, given how hospitable collapsed states can be to terrorists.

But if addressing the Darfur problem will indeed help thwart terrorism internationally, then the costs of the thesis paper research mission should be shared. President Bushís belated diplomatic involvement in an essay question answer Darfur suggests growing enlightenment, but sluggish ad hoc multilateralism isnít enough. We need multilateral structures capable of decisively forceful intervention and tattoo essays, nation building ?? ideally under the auspices of the how to write question answer United Nations, which has more global legitimacy than other candidates. America should lead in essay romeo conflict building these structures and how to question, thereafter contribute its share, but only its share. To some extent, the nurturing of international institutions and solid international law is simple thrift. Paper Cell Use While Driving. And the accounting rules are subtle. How To Question. As weíve seen lately, the cost of military action can go not just beyond dollars and cents, but beyond the immediate toll of dead and wounded.

In an age when cell phones can take pictures and videos of collateral damage and then e-mail them, and terrorists recruit via Web site imagery, intervention abroad can bring long-term blowback. Further, when you consider the various ways information technology helps terrorists ?? not just to recruit more fighters to the cause, but to orchestrate attacks and spread recipes for essay bagh munitions ?? and you throw in advances in munitions technology, an alarming principle suggests itself: In coming years, grass-roots hatred and resentment of America may be converted into the death of Americans with growing efficiency. That domestic security depends increasingly on popular sentiment abroad makes it important for America to how to write be seen as a good global citizen ?? respecting international laws and norms and sensing the juliet conflict needs of how to write an essay answer neighbors. One of essay President Bushís most effective uses of write an essay power was the tsunami relief effort of 2004, which raised regard for Americans in the worldís largest Muslim country, Indonesia. Much of the research paper cell phone use while war on terror isnít military.

Of course, some of it is, and weíll need the capacity to project force anywhere, anytime. Still, a full accounting of the costs of intervention makes it clear that we canít afford to be the worldís army. Fortunately, globalization has made the peaceful suppression of at least some forms of disorder easier. Economic interdependence makes war among nations less attractive, and never before has this interdependence brought so much transborder contact among businesspeople and politicians. So itís not shocking that India and China, which clashed repeatedly over disputed borders during the cold war, have kept things cool since becoming enmeshed in the global economy.

Or that the how to write an essay question most worrisome nation of the moment, North Korea, is about the most isolated from the global economy; or that its rival for worrisomeness, Iran, is far from full immersion. Obviously, wars can happen even when theyíre irrational. Tattoo Essays. Still, their growing irrationality is a progressive force worth honoring. An Essay Question. It strengthens the case for economic engagement and for regional and other international bodies that help cement commercial entanglement with political cooperation. The excesses of neoconservative idealism have prompted various scholars to adapt realist principles to a changing world. The political scientists John Ikenberry and thesis statement, Charles Kupchan outlined a ďliberal realismĒ two years ago, and Mr. Ikenberryís book, ďAfter Victory,Ē showed how international governance can serve the interests of hegemonic powers. This fall the historians Anatol Lieven and John Hulsman will publish a foreign policy manifesto called ďEthical Realism.Ē Such works are true to the spirit of Hans Morgenthau, chief architect of realism. Writing in the mid-20th century, he emphasized that realismís implications would change as the world changed. World peace could require radical constraints on national sovereignty, he said, and the nation-state might drop in significance as ďlarger unitsĒ rose.

Morgenthau seems to have sensed something that later political scientists dwelt on: technology has been making the worldís nations more interdependent ?? or, as game theorists put it, more non-zero-sum. That is, Americaís fortunes are growing more closely correlated with the how to fortunes of people far away; fewer games have simple win-lose outcomes, and more have either win-win or lose-lose outcomes. This principle lies at essay, the heart of progressive realism. How To An Essay Answer. A correlation of fortunes ?? being in the same boat with other nations in matters of economics, environment, security ?? is what makes international governance serve national interest. It is also what makes enlightened self-interest de facto humanitarian. Statement For Negative Effects. Progressive realists see that America can best flourish if others flourish ?? if African states cohere, if the worldís Muslims feel they benefit from the world order, if personal and environmental health are nurtured, if economic inequities abroad are muted so that young democracies can be stable and strong. More and more, doing well means doing good. Of course, resources arenít infinite, and the world has lots of problems. But focusing on an essay national interest helps focus resources.

Notwithstanding last weekís carnage in the Middle East, more people have been dying in Sri Lankaís civil war than in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. Tattoo Essays. But given the threat of anti-American Islamist terrorism, forging a lasting two-state solution in the Middle East is a higher priority than bringing lasting peace to Sri Lanka. This sounds harsh, but it is how to write question only acknowledgment of something often left unsaid: a nationís foreign policy will always favor the interests of its citizens and thesis research, so fall short of moral perfection. We can at least be thankful that history, by intertwining the fates of peoples, is bringing national interest closer to moral ideals. Harnessing this benign dynamic isnít the an essay only redemptive feature of progressive realism. Morgenthau emphasized that sound strategy requires a ďrespectful understandingĒ of all players in the game. ďThe political actor,Ē he wrote, ďmust put himself into romeo juliet, the other manís shoes, look at the world and write an essay question answer, judge it as he does.Ē This immersion in the perspective of the thesis other is sometimes called ďmoral imagination,Ē and it is hard. Understanding why some people hate America, and why terrorists kill, is challenging not just intellectually but emotionally. Yet it is crucial and has been lacking in President Bush, who saves time by ascribing behavior that threatens America to the hatred of how to write freedom or (and this is a real time saver) to evil. As Morgenthau saw, exploring the root causes of bad behavior, far from buy resume, being a sentimentalist weakness, informs the deft use of question answer power. Realpolitik is tattoo essays reality-based. Is progressive realism salable?

The administrationís post-9/11 message may be more viscerally appealing: Rid the world of evil, and do so with bravado and intimidating strength. But this approach has gotten some negative feedback from the real world, and an essay question answer, there is a growing desire for essay conflict America to write an essay answer regain the respect President Bush has squandered. Maybe Americans are ready to meet reality on its own terms. Total Pages: 2 Words: 892 References:1 Citation Style: None Document Type: Research Paper. Go to the Opinion Page of the for writer adonit online New York Times or Fox News. Nobel Speech-- Aristotle and Bitzer.

Rhetorically analyze President Obama's recent Nobel Prize Acceptance speech. How To Write An Essay Question Answer. Video of Speech: http://abclocal.go.com/kgo/video?id=7164514. Full text of Speech: http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5iRWjTDaT4JuS0nFj9APZAues8vjAD9CGFID00. A Very Brief History of How We Arrived in the Modern Era (The Fall of Classical Rhetoric) The first idea is that rhetoric can help us discover provisional knowledge. Aristotleís teacher, Plato, believed that rhetoric was primarily a deceptive art and that only tattoo essays, dialectic (a strict examination by logic by question and how to question answer, answer) could arrive at truth which was always transcendent and untouchable. The late eighteenth century Belles Letteres movement also weakened the scope of essay conflict rhetoric. The Belles Lettres movement was the write beginnings of statement literary criticism and appreciation, but the focus on interpreting the finished products of writing took focus away from the generative powers of rhetoric.

See page 190 in Herrick for how to question a full description of the effects of the Belles Letteres movement. Over the course of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, rhetoric as a field of interest and of study went into decline. Once again, invention was lost from the idea of rhetoric. Furthermore, the focus on literature over rhetoric created an academic divide between the subjects. Professors began to drop the subject of statement for negative effects rhetoric from their titles and issues of classical rhetoric began to take a back seat to the study of literature. Write Question Answer. The early essays can be seen in the light as in conversation with the Belles Letteres movement and the dominance of the English studies departments. These early efforts in rhetorical criticism carve out thesis statement of technology a difference in write answer study, important and relevant to us is the study of the audience. In the introduction to chapter one of ďReadings in Rhetorical CriticismĒ, Carl Burghhardt writes that ď [Herbert A.] Wichelns argues that there are important differences between literary and rhetorical criticism concerned with evaluating the wisdom, beauty, and truth contained in the great works of fiction, while rhetorical criticism is devoted to assessing the persuasive effect of situated oratory.

Wichelnís focuses on discovering and appreciating how speakers adapt their ideas to particular audiencesĒ (1). Neo Aristotelian Analysisó Because modern rhetoric is very much the rebirth of the full fecundity of classical rhetoric, it may be proper that we again find Aristotle in the modern day. For those of you who have taken the History of Rhetoric, you have already written one Aristotelian analysis with an ancient speech, but Aristotle can be applied to any time period, so it might be useful to you to see him in the modern era and essay conflict, even more useful to those who have not taken The History of Rhetoric, to understand his basic ideas and to how to question see a basic example of rhetorical analysis before we move on to the more complex theory. Paper Use While Driving. Aristotle will be vital. Text of Obama's Nobel Peace Prize speech. By The Associated Press (AP) Ė Dec 10, 2009. The text of President Obama's Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech, delivered Thursday in Oslo, Norway, as provided by the White House: Your Majesties, Your Royal Highnesses, Distinguished Members of the how to an essay answer Norwegian Nobel Committee, citizens of America, and citizens of the world: I receive this honor with deep gratitude and great humility. It is an award that speaks to buy resume adonit our highest aspirations ó that for all the cruelty and hardship of our world, we are not mere prisoners of an essay fate. Our actions matter, and can bend history in the direction of justice. And yet I would be remiss if I did not acknowledge the considerable controversy that your generous decision has generated. In part, this is because I am at the beginning, and not the end, of my labors on the world stage.

Compared to some of the giants of bagh history who have received this prize ó Schweitzer and King; Marshall and Mandela ó my accomplishments are slight. And then there are the men and women around the world who have been jailed and beaten in the pursuit of justice; those who toil in humanitarian organizations to relieve suffering; the unrecognized millions whose quiet acts of courage and compassion inspire even the most hardened of cynics. I cannot argue with those who find these men and women ó some known, some obscure to all but those they help ó to be far more deserving of this honor than I. But perhaps the most profound issue surrounding my receipt of this prize is the how to write fact that I am the Commander-in-Chief of a nation in the midst of two wars. One of these wars is winding down. The other is a conflict that America did not seek; one in which we are joined by 43 other countries ó including Norway ó in tattoo essays an effort to defend ourselves and all nations from further attacks. Still, we are at war, and I am responsible for the deployment of thousands of young Americans to battle in how to question answer a distant land. Some will kill. Thesis Paper Methodology. Some will be killed. And so I come here with an how to answer, acute sense of the cost of armed conflict ó filled with difficult questions about the relationship between war and tattoo essays, peace, and our effort to replace one with the other. These questions are not new.

War, in one form or another, appeared with the first man. At the dawn of history, its morality was not questioned; it was simply a fact, like drought or disease ó the manner in which tribes and then civilizations sought power and settled their differences. Over time, as codes of law sought to control violence within groups, so did philosophers, clerics and statesmen seek to regulate the destructive power of war. The concept of a just war emerged, suggesting that war is justified only when it meets certain preconditions: if it is an essay question waged as a last resort or in self-defense; if the forced used is proportional; and if, whenever possible, civilians are spared from violence. For most of history, this concept of just war was rarely observed. The capacity of human beings to think up new ways to kill one another proved inexhaustible, as did our capacity to exempt from mercy those who look different or pray to a different God. Wars between armies gave way to thesis for negative wars between nations ó total wars in which the distinction between combatant and civilian became blurred. In the span of how to write an essay question 30 years, such carnage would twice engulf this continent. And while it is hard to conceive of a cause more just than the defeat of the Third Reich and the Axis powers, World War II was a conflict in adonit which the total number of civilians who died exceeded the number of soldiers who perished. In the an essay question wake of such destruction, and with the advent of the on nishat nuclear age, it became clear to victor and vanquished alike that the question answer world needed institutions to prevent another World War. And so, a quarter century after the United States Senate rejected the League of buy resume Nations ó an how to write an essay, idea for which Woodrow Wilson received this Prize ó America led the world in constructing an architecture to keep the peace: a Marshall Plan and buy resume, a United Nations, mechanisms to govern the waging of war, treaties to protect human rights, prevent genocide and how to write an essay, restrict the tattoo essays most dangerous weapons.

In many ways, these efforts succeeded. Yes, terrible wars have been fought, and answer, atrocities committed. But there has been no Third World War. Bagh. The Cold War ended with jubilant crowds dismantling a wall. Commerce has stitched much of the world together.

Billions have been lifted from poverty. The ideals of liberty, self-determination, equality and the rule of law have haltingly advanced. We are the write an essay question answer heirs of the fortitude and foresight of generations past, and it is a legacy for which my own country is rightfully proud. A decade into a new century, this old architecture is buckling under the weight of on nishat new threats. The world may no longer shudder at the prospect of war between two nuclear superpowers, but proliferation may increase the how to an essay question risk of research paper phone catastrophe. Terrorism has long been a tactic, but modern technology allows a few small men with outsized rage to murder innocents on a horrific scale. Moreover, wars between nations have increasingly given way to wars within nations. The resurgence of write ethnic or sectarian conflicts, the growth of secessionist movements, insurgencies and failed states have increasingly trapped civilians in unending chaos. In today's wars, many more civilians are killed than soldiers; the seeds of future conflict are sown, economies are wrecked, civil societies torn asunder, refugees amassed and children scarred.

I do not bring with me today a definitive solution to the problems of war. What I do know is that meeting these challenges will require the same vision, hard work and adonit, persistence of those men and women who acted so boldly decades ago. And it will require us to think in new ways about the notions of just war and the imperatives of a just peace. We must begin by how to write an essay question answer, acknowledging the hard truth that we will not eradicate violent conflict in our lifetimes. There will be times when nations ó acting individually or in concert ó will find the essay use of force not only necessary but morally justified.

I make this statement mindful of what Martin Luther King said in this same ceremony years ago: Violence never brings permanent peace. How To Write An Essay Question Answer. It solves no social problem: It merely creates new and more complicated ones. As someone who stands here as a direct consequence of Dr. King's life's work, I am living testimony to the moral force of non-violence. I know there is nothing weak, nothing passive, nothing naive in the creed and lives of Gandhi and King. But as a head of state sworn to protect and defend my nation, I cannot be guided by their examples alone. I face the world as it is, and cannot stand idle in the face of threats to the American people.

For make no mistake: Evil does exist in the world. A nonviolent movement could not have halted Hitler's armies. Negotiations cannot convince al-Qaidas leaders to lay down their arms . To say that force is sometimes necessary is not a call to cynicism ó it is a recognition of history, the imperfections of man and the limits of reason. I raise this point because in many countries there is a deep ambivalence about military action today, no matter the cause. At times, this is joined by a reflexive suspicion of America, the worlds sole military superpower. Yet the tattoo essays world must remember that it was not simply international institutions ó not just treaties and declarations ó that brought stability to a post-World War II world. Whatever mistakes we have made, the plain fact is this: The United States of America has helped underwrite global security for more than six decades with the an essay question blood of our citizens and the strength of our arms . The service and sacrifice of our men and women in essay juliet conflict uniform has promoted peace and prosperity from Germany to Korea, and enabled democracy to take hold in places like the Balkans.

We have borne this burden not because we seek to write question impose our will. We have done so out of enlightened self-interest ó because we seek a better future for our children and grandchildren, and we believe that their lives will be better if other people's children and grandchildren can live in for writer adonit freedom and prosperity. So yes, the instruments of write an essay question war do have a role to play in tattoo essays preserving the peace. And yet this truth must coexist with another ó that no matter how justified, war promises human tragedy. The soldiers courage and sacrifice is full of glory, expressing devotion to write question answer country, to cause and to comrades in arms . But war itself is never glorious, and we must never trumpet it as such. Thesis Research. So part of our challenge is reconciling these two seemingly irreconcilable truths ó that war is how to write an essay answer sometimes necessary, and thesis, war is at some level an how to write question answer, expression of human folly.

Concretely, we must direct our effort to the task that President Kennedy called for long ago. Thesis Statement Effects Of Technology. Let us focus, he said, on a more practical, more attainable peace, based not on a sudden revolution in human nature but on a gradual evolution in how to answer human institutions. What might this evolution look like? What might these practical steps be? To begin with, I believe that all nations ó strong and buy resume for writer, weak alike ó must adhere to question answer standards that govern the use of force. Statement For Negative Of Technology. I ó like any head of state ó reserve the right to act unilaterally if necessary to write an essay answer defend my nation. Nevertheless, I am convinced that adhering to standards strengthens those who do, and isolates ó and on nishat, weakens ó those who dont. The world rallied around America after the 9/11 attacks, and continues to support our efforts in Afghanistan, because of the horror of those senseless attacks and the recognized principle of self-defense. Likewise, the write question world recognized the need to confront Saddam Hussein when he invaded Kuwait ó a consensus that sent a clear message to all about the phone use while cost of aggression. Furthermore, America cannot insist that others follow the rules of the road if we refuse to write an essay question answer follow them ourselves. For when we don't, our action can appear arbitrary, and undercut the legitimacy of future intervention ó no matter how justified.

This becomes particularly important when the purpose of military action extends beyond self-defense or the defense of statement for negative effects of technology one nation against an aggressor. More and more, we all confront difficult questions about how to prevent the slaughter of how to write answer civilians by their own government, or to stop a civil war whose violence and suffering can engulf an entire region. I believe that force can be justified on humanitarian grounds, as it was in the Balkans, or in other places that have been scarred by war. Inaction tears at our conscience and adonit, can lead to how to write an essay answer more costly intervention later. Thesis Research. That is why all responsible nations must embrace the role that militaries with a clear mandate can play to keep the peace. America's commitment to global security will never waver. But in a world in which threats are more diffuse, and missions more complex, America cannot act alone. This is true in Afghanistan.

This is true in failed states like Somalia, where terrorism and piracy is joined by famine and human suffering. And sadly, it will continue to be true in unstable regions for years to how to an essay question answer come. The leaders and research paper cell phone use while, soldiers of NATO countries ó and how to question, other friends and allies ó demonstrate this truth through the capacity and research paper phone, courage they have shown in Afghanistan. But in write question many countries, there is a disconnect between the efforts of those who serve and the ambivalence of the broader public. I understand why war is thesis research not popular.

But I also know this: The belief that peace is desirable is rarely enough to achieve it. Peace requires responsibility. Peace entails sacrifice. Question. That is why NATO continues to be indispensable. That is why we must strengthen U.N. and regional peacekeeping, and not leave the task to buy resume for writer a few countries. That is why we honor those who return home from peacekeeping and training abroad to Oslo and Rome; to Ottawa and Sydney; to Dhaka and write answer, Kigali ó we honor them not as makers of war, but as wagers of peace. Let me make one final point about the thesis statement use of force.

Even as we make difficult decisions about going to war, we must also think clearly about how we fight it. The Nobel Committee recognized this truth in awarding its first prize for write peace to driving Henry Dunant ó the founder of the Red Cross, and write an essay question, a driving force behind the Geneva Conventions. Where force is thesis paper necessary, we have a moral and how to write, strategic interest in binding ourselves to certain rules of conduct. And even as we confront a vicious adversary that abides by no rules, I believe that the United States of America must remain a standard bearer in the conduct of buy resume adonit war. An Essay Question Answer. That is what makes us different from those whom we fight. Research Cell Phone. That is a source of our strength. That is why I prohibited torture. That is why I ordered the prison at how to question, Guantanamo Bay closed. And that is why I have reaffirmed America's commitment to abide by the Geneva Conventions.

We lose ourselves when we compromise the very ideals that we fight to defend. Tattoo Essays. And we honor those ideals by upholding them not just when it is easy, but when it is hard. I have spoken to the questions that must weigh on an essay our minds and our hearts as we choose to wage war. Research Paper Cell Use While. But let me turn now to our effort to avoid such tragic choices, and speak of three ways that we can build a just and lasting peace. First, in dealing with those nations that break rules and laws, I believe that we must develop alternatives to violence that are tough enough to how to write question change behavior ó for research paper phone if we want a lasting peace, then the words of the question international community must mean something.

Those regimes that break the rules must be held accountable. Sanctions must exact a real price. Intransigence must be met with increased pressure ó and research cell phone, such pressure exists only when the world stands together as one. One urgent example is the effort to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons, and to how to an essay answer seek a world without them. Bagh. In the middle of the write an essay question answer last century, nations agreed to be bound by a treaty whose bargain is clear: All will have access to peaceful nuclear power; those without nuclear weapons will forsake them; and those with nuclear weapons will work toward disarmament. I am committed to upholding this treaty. It is for writer a centerpiece of my foreign policy.

And I am working with President Medvedev to reduce America and Russia's nuclear stockpiles. How To Write An Essay Question. But it is also incumbent upon all of us to insist that nations like Iran and on nishat bagh, North Korea do not game the system. Those who claim to respect international law cannot avert their eyes when those laws are flouted. An Essay Question Answer. Those who care for their own security cannot ignore the danger of an arms race in the Middle East or East Asia. Those who seek peace cannot stand idly by buy resume adonit, as nations arm themselves for nuclear war.

The same principle applies to those who violate international law by write answer, brutalizing their own people. When there is on nishat bagh genocide in Darfur, systematic rape in Congo or repression in Burma ó there must be consequences. And the write question answer closer we stand together, the less likely we will be faced with the choice between armed intervention and complicity in oppression. This brings me to a second point ó the nature of the peace that we seek. For Writer Adonit. For peace is not merely the absence of visible conflict. Only a just peace based upon the inherent rights and dignity of write question every individual can truly be lasting.

It was this insight that drove drafters of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights after the Second World War. In the wake of devastation, they recognized that if human rights are not protected, peace is a hollow promise. And yet all too often, these words are ignored. In some countries, the thesis for negative effects failure to uphold human rights is excused by the false suggestion that these are Western principles, foreign to local cultures or stages of a nation's development. And within America, there has long been a tension between those who describe themselves as realists or idealists ó a tension that suggests a stark choice between the narrow pursuit of interests or an how to, endless campaign to tattoo essays impose our values. Question. I reject this choice. I believe that peace is unstable where citizens are denied the right to speak freely or worship as they please, choose their own leaders or assemble without fear. Pent up grievances fester, and the suppression of tribal and religious identity can lead to violence.

We also know that the opposite essay romeo juliet is true. Only when Europe became free did it finally find peace. America has never fought a war against how to write answer, a democracy, and paper, our closest friends are governments that protect the how to an essay answer rights of thesis for negative of technology their citizens. No matter how callously defined, neither America's interests ó nor the how to write an essay question answer worlds ó are served by the denial of conflict human aspirations. So even as we respect the unique culture and traditions of different countries, America will always be a voice for those aspirations that are universal. We will bear witness to the quiet dignity of reformers like Aung Sang Suu Kyi; to the bravery of Zimbabweans who cast their ballots in the face of beatings; to how to question answer the hundreds of thousands who have marched silently through the streets of Iran. It is telling that the on nishat bagh leaders of these governments fear the aspirations of their own people more than the power of any other nation.

And it is the responsibility of all free people and free nations to make clear to these movements that hope and history are on their side. Let me also say this: The promotion of human rights cannot be about exhortation alone. An Essay Question Answer. At times, it must be coupled with painstaking diplomacy. I know that engagement with repressive regimes lacks the essay juliet satisfying purity of indignation. But I also know that sanctions without outreach ó and condemnation without discussion ó can carry forward a crippling status quo. No repressive regime can move down a new path unless it has the choice of an how to answer, open door. In light of the Cultural Revolution's horrors, Nixon's meeting with Mao appeared inexcusable ó and yet it surely helped set China on a path where millions of its citizens have been lifted from poverty, and essay romeo juliet conflict, connected to open societies.

Pope John Paul's engagement with Poland created space not just for the Catholic Church, but for labor leaders like Lech Walesa. How To Write An Essay. Ronald Reagan's efforts on arms control and research cell phone use while driving, embrace of perestroika not only improved relations with the Soviet Union, but empowered dissidents throughout Eastern Europe. There is no simple formula here. But we must try as best we can to balance isolation and engagement, pressure and incentives, so that human rights and how to write, dignity are advanced over time. Third, a just peace includes not only paper research methodology, civil and how to question answer, political rights ó it must encompass economic security and opportunity. For true peace is thesis paper research methodology not just freedom from fear, but freedom from want. Write An Essay Answer. It is undoubtedly true that development rarely takes root without security; it is also true that security does not exist where human beings do not have access to enough food, or clean water, or the medicine they need to survive.

It does not exist where children cannot aspire to a decent education or a job that supports a family. The absence of hope can rot a society from within. And that is why helping farmers feed their own people ó or nations educate their children and care for the sick ó is not mere charity. It is also why the tattoo essays world must come together to write an essay question confront climate change. There is little scientific dispute that if we do nothing, we will face more drought, famine and mass displacement that will fuel more conflict for decades. Conflict. For this reason, it is not merely scientists and write question, activists who call for swift and forceful action ó it is military leaders in my country and others who understand that our common security hangs in the balance. Thesis For Negative Of Technology. Agreements among nations. An Essay Question Answer. Strong institutions. Support for human rights.

Investments in development. All of these are vital ingredients in bringing about the evolution that President Kennedy spoke about. And yet, I do not believe that we will have the will, or the staying power, to cell use while driving complete this work without something more ó and that is the continued expansion of our moral imagination, an insistence that there is something irreducible that we all share. As the world grows smaller, you might think it would be easier for human beings to recognize how similar we are, to understand that we all basically want the same things, that we all hope for the chance to live out our lives with some measure of happiness and fulfillment for ourselves and our families. And yet, given the dizzying pace of globalization, and the cultural leveling of modernity, it should come as no surprise that people fear the how to an essay loss of tattoo essays what they cherish about their particular identities ó their race, their tribe and, perhaps most powerfully, their religion. In some places, this fear has led to conflict. At times, it even feels like we are moving backwards. Write Question Answer. We see it in the Middle East, as the conflict between Arabs and Jews seems to phone use while driving harden.

We see it in nations that are torn asunder by tribal lines. Most dangerously, we see it in the way that religion is how to answer used to justify the murder of innocents by those who have distorted and defiled the paper research great religion of how to write answer Islam, and who attacked my country from Afghanistan. These extremists are not the first to kill in the name of God; the cruelties of the Crusades are amply recorded. Effects. But they remind us that no Holy War can ever be a just war. For if you truly believe that you are carrying out divine will, then there is how to write question answer no need for restraint ó no need to spare the pregnant mother, or the medic, or even a person of thesis paper methodology one's own faith.

Such a warped view of write an essay question answer religion is not just incompatible with the concept of for negative of technology peace, but the purpose of faith ó for the one rule that lies at the heart of every major religion is that we do unto others as we would have them do unto us. Adhering to write question this law of thesis statement effects love has always been the core struggle of human nature. Write. We are fallible. We make mistakes, and fall victim to the temptations of pride, and thesis methodology, power, and sometimes evil. Even those of us with the best intentions will at times fail to right the wrongs before us. How To An Essay. But we do not have to think that human nature is perfect for us to still believe that the human condition can be perfected. We do not have to live in an idealized world to still reach for those ideals that will make it a better place. The nonviolence practiced by men like Gandhi and King may not have been practical or possible in every circumstance, but the love that they preached ó their faith in human progress ó must always be the North Star that guides us on for negative effects our journey. For if we lose that faith ó if we dismiss it as silly or naive, if we divorce it from the decisions that we make on issues of war and peace ó then we lose what is best about humanity.

We lose our sense of possibility. We lose our moral compass. How To An Essay. Like generations have before us, we must reject that future. As Dr. King said at this occasion so many years ago: I refuse to accept despair as the final response to the ambiguities of history. I refuse to accept the idea that the 'isness' of man's present nature makes him morally incapable of tattoo essays reaching up for the eternal 'oughtness' that forever confronts him. So let us reach for the world that ought to be ó that spark of the divine that still stirs within each of our souls.

Somewhere today, in the here and now, a soldier sees he's outgunned but stands firm to keep the peace. Somewhere today, in this world, a young protestor awaits the brutality of her government, but has the courage to march on. Somewhere today, a mother facing punishing poverty still takes the time to teach her child, who believes that a cruel world still has a place for his dreams. Let us live by their example. Write An Essay Question. We can acknowledge that oppression will always be with us, and still strive for justice. We can admit the intractability of research use while driving deprivation, and still strive for dignity. We can understand that there will be war, and still strive for peace.

We can do that ó for that is the an essay question story of human progress; that is the hope of all the tattoo essays world; and at this moment of challenge, that must be our work here on Earth.

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Philosophical foundation of education. Gary Althen, in how to write an essay answer the essay ďAmerican Values and AssumptionĒ has shown some of the distinct features of thesis research, American values and assumptions. Write? While dealing with these ideas, the essayist has presented the main ideas and further supports his main ideas with supporting details. He even compares and buy resume for writer adonit contrasts the an essay answer American cultures with that of other cultures. He begins his essay with the general concept of values.

According to Althen, people share certain values and assumptions from the culture where they are grown and to some extent, some values are similar and some are different to each other. We will write a custom essay sample. on Philosophical foundation of education or any similar. topic specifically for you. Mostly, in paper methodology the matter of human nature, social relation and several other aspects, all the how to people have similar type of assumptions. Tattoo Essays? He opines that a culture can be viewed as the collection of values and assumptions. Features of American values and assumptions: Individualism: American people have strong devotion towards individualism. They are trained from their childhood as a separate individual and they embody the concept that they are soul responsible for their destinies.

The essayist has presented his personal experience of a mother who helps her three years old son to decide independently. She gives him some useful suggestions so that he could utilize his pocket money wisely (either get hotdog now or save the money now and by Orange Juice later). How To Question? This story of mother and paper phone use while son is an essay question, quite surprised for non-Americans because they donít have any tradition of children of three to five having their own pocket money. This story is no more surprise for Americans sine they are grown up in such values. Taking the reference from Dr. Benjamin Spockís famous book, Dr. Spockís Baby and Child Care, Althen says that very few Americans are raised to research paper cell driving, believe that their personal destiny is to serve their family, country and write answer god rather children are given the feelings that they can set their aims of paper phone use while, life according to their inclination.

Most of the American adults prefer to how to write answer, live apart from their family members if it is economically feasible. If not, they pay their parents for their rooms andboard. Page 2 Philosophical foundation of education Essay. When Americans encounter a person from abroad who seems excessively concern about the family and parents, they feel the research paper cell phone use while person is question answer, trapped or week or indecisive. The American idealized notion of individual freedom is neither dictated by government nor any external forces or agencies. For Writer? But this American legitimized ďindividualfreedomĒ is to be self-centered and lacking in consideration for other, especially non-Americans. Write Question? The foreigners who understand the American notion of free, self-reliant individual will easily understand the following aspects of American behavior and thinking: For Americans, those are heroes who stand out from the tattoo essays crowed. Ex. Pilots Charles Lindbergh, Amelia Earhart, golfer Tiger Woods, Basketball player Michael Jordan Americans respect the people who become successful from his difficult situation like poverty, physical handicap.

Ex. Booker T Washington, Helen Killer Many Americans do not show more respect to their parents as most people do in other part of the write question world. The parents fulfill their responsibilities to the children but when those children grow up they become independent. At that time, the child-parents tie may loosen or broken sometime. The phrases like ďYouíll have to decide that for yourself(do for yourself what you want to research cell use while driving, be in future)Ē, ďIf you donít look out for yourself , no one else will(no one is there to write question answer, help you if you do not do anything for yourself )Ē, ďlook out for number one(try to be best, come first in the competition)Ē, ďBe your own best friend (you are your own friend, believe on you)Ē, etc. are popular among Americans Competition: Americans see themselves in competition with others. They are taught to be a part of competition from their school. People who are in competition with other are often alone. Privacy: Maintenance of strict privacy is another feature of American culture. Essay On Nishat? They think that people need some time to themselves or some time to regain their spent energy. They do not like the people who always want others companionship. This American attitude of privacy can be difficult for foreigners to understand.

In contrast to question, open and tattoo essays inviting houses and offices, Americansí minds have boundaries that other people are simply not supposed to cross. Equality: Americans believe in the idea as stated in the Declaration of Independent that ďAll Men are Created EqualĒ. Frequently, it has been experience that Americans violet the idea of equality in the matter of interracial relationship and relationship among different social background. How To An Essay Answer? They have a strong belief that no one is born superior to anyone else. ďOne person one voteĒ is American motto. The foreigners who are habitual to show more respect often overlook the way American respect other having higher status in the society. This American tradition is often misunderstood by the foreigners as disrespectful. Informality: Americansí notion of essay romeo juliet, equality leads them towards informality in their general behavior and in their relationship with other people. Store clerks and table servants too introduced themselves by their first name.

They show their friendly and casual behaviors to the costumers and they are trained in such way. This American behavior may be shocking to other countriesí people who hold higher prestige in their country. The future, change and how to an essay progress: Americans have less concern about history and tradition than future. They always look ahead. They believe that future is in tattoo essays their hand and hold the concept that a sensible person sets goals for future.

A cross-culture trainer L. Robert Kohls says, ďIf you want to be American you have to believe that you can fix it. Ē This Americansí attitude of progress and how to write an essay question answer future contrast with the fatalistic attitude of many other cultures for whom, either God or some powerful people have control over their future. Time: Time, for Americans is essay juliet conflict, a resource like water, soil, forest, minerals etc. How To Write An Essay Answer? that kind be utilized in human service. ďTime is moneyĒ is tattoo essays, a popular phrase. An ideal American is how to write, very punctual and research phone use while driving is considerate of other peoplesí time. Answer? But, most of other non- American think that time comes and goes.

Americans are often criticized by statement for negative, the foreigners for their scheduled life which is like a machine. The efficiency of people is closely related to their concept of time, change and future. Efficiency means to the work in write less time with the less use of resource. Essay Juliet Conflict? That is why email has become widely popular Among Americans. Achievement, Action, work, and Materialism: The common way to praise one American by another is ďHe is hard workerĒ.

The foreign visitors often remark American as hard worker. In writerís view, those foreigners might have influenced by American movies where people are shown either driving in fast car or pursuing opposite sex. Americans like action. They believe they should be doing something all the time. They donít entertain to sit idly talking with people. IF not anything, they remain busy making plans and arrangement for doing work later. The foreigners who are unaware about the American devotion to action often see Americans as always ďon the goĒ, active, dissatisfied.

Americans are materialist so spend freely on material goods. Write An Essay Question Answer? The things like PC, telephone answering machine, microwave oven, electric garage door opener, etc. were once considered to be luxuries but they are now developed as necessities for them. Sometime Americans are criticized as extremely materialist but for research cell Americans it is natural and proper. Directness and Assertiveness: The saying like ďLets lay our cards on the table (put forward everybodyís idea)Ē, ďletís stop playing games and get to the point (donít talk unnecessarily more rather focus in the required point)Ē are very popular among Americans mean they are very frank, open and direct in dealing with other people. Americans believe that conflicts and how to question answer disagreements are settled down through forthright discussion among the essay romeo people involved in. They donít entertain the role of how to write an essay answer, mediator. However, the role of mediator is being popular nowadays.

The adjective Ďassertiveí is given to an Americans by other American who expresses his/her ideas frankly and plainly. What Americans call assertiveness, to that non-Americans think aggressiveness. Americans are not taught to hide their emotional responses. The displaying of the feeling like anger happiness, confused state while communicating with other is very usual. Many Asians feel embarrassed around Americans who are showing their strong emotion. But Latin Americans and Arab express their emotion more openly than Americans. For them Americans are cold and unemotional. But in some matters, Americans donít express their willingness openly means to say that there are some limitations on their assertiveness. Japanese always tend to hide their emotions. For Americans, being honest is usually more important than preserving harmony in interpersonal relationship. They use the for negative effects of technology term like ĎPushyí or Ďaggressiveí to describe a person who is excessively assertive in expressing his opinions or making request.

It is difficult to draw a line between acceptable assertiveness and unacceptable aggressiveness. Where DO WE Stand Ė Lisa Davis. In the article ĎWhere Do We Standí, Lisa Davis focuses on cultural differences in the use of personal space and on problems arises from these differences. Write Question? As the article begins Davis has given an example about the personal space. After a Middle East man impresses with an American during their conversation, a Middle East man moves forward but the essay bagh American slightly adjusts his posture, shifts his feet and edges backward. The language has distinctive ascents and confusing umlauts from cultural to culture, group to group, between the question answer sexes with in a country.

This situation has resulted a lot of possibilities for research paper phone use while misunderstanding. The business has become increasingly international and population is multicultural. This has widely given the room for the breed of consultants who are capable of interpreting for globe-trotters of all nationalities the meaning and use of personal space. Write An Essay Question Answer? For instance, Sandra Snowdon, international business consultants says ďSaudi Arabians like to bagh, conduct business discussion from how to an essay, within the spitting distance- literally where as Americans back up. Tattoo Essays? Ē Cultures are idiosyncratic in their spatial needs. An Essay Answer? Japanese subways bring people close together as humanly as possible. However hand shaking can be offensively physical in Japanese office. The researchers and writer Mildred Reed hall says that Americans can even make their business counterpart uncomfortable in Japan with the kind of their direct eye contact which for for writer Americans is very normal. The study of personal space got underway in the early 1950s when anthropologist Edward Hall describes a sort of cultural continuum of personal space. According to him on the ďhigh-contactĒ side of continuum eye contact, touching, and similar are common practices among Mediterranean and American societies while standing at a distance about a foot. On the other end of the an essay question scale, in Northern European cultures, a lingering gaze may feel invasive, manipulative or disrespectful when a social chat takes place at a remove of about two and a half feet. In the middle of the rode United States, people usually stand about 18 inches apart for this sort of paper methodology, conversation.

The misuse of space can call whole personalities into suspicion. The researchers have found that women who were asked to communicate from an write question answer, uncomfortably large distance described their partners as cold and rejecting. Similarly, men were found to be irritated by their partners when they were forced to talk at closer range. Things may not be similar with in the country since the country may have amalgamation of ethnic minorities. According to Robert Sommer, spatial needs collide in tattoo essays the republics. She says that Estonians are non-contact people but Russians are high-contact. The Estonians say that Russian are pushy and the Russians say the Estonians are cold. Things are complicated in United States when dealing with children from different backgrounds. Such minor problems are very common because spatial behavior is automatic.

It snaps into focus when someone does not play by rules. In fact, caution is not always unwarranted because an abnormal use of space can indicate that something odd is going on. Researcher has shown that when schizophrenic person approach another person, they often either get closer than normal or stay unusually distant. There are reminders that the human need for space is based in how to write an essay an animal reality: the closer you allow a stranger, the more vulnerable you become. The spatial differences among cultures points to something beyond self-protection. Anthropologist Edward Hall suggests that a cultureís use of space is also evidence of a reliance on sense over paper use while another. State Department export Bechtold says that conversation distances also tend to reflect the standard greeting distance in how to question answer each culture. Americans shake hands then talk at tattoo essays, armís length.

Arab do a check-to-check social kiss and write their conversation is close and personal. Japanese bow and talk to each other about the distance of two feet. Research? On the write an essay question other hand, need for research methodology more or less space may reflect something of cultural temperament. Spatial styles are very real no matter whatever the origin of the people is. It seems to get easier to acculturate to foreign habits of how to write an essay question, contact. Bechtold says ďPersonal space isnít so hard for people to learn.

Whatever is really harder is the business of dinner being served at midnight. Ē Time Talks, with an tattoo essays, Accents Ė Robert Levine In the present narrative essay, Robert Levine explores cross-cultural differences in concept of answer, time and the intercultural conflicts and misunderstanding due to these differences. As he was working as a visiting professor in a Brazilian university, he experiences difficulties in adjustment because of different cultural values and beliefs on time. This Brazilian belief of time was totally different than that of his own for which he was accustomed to in the United States. Paper Cell? Through this writing, Levine focuses on the importance of learning social belief on the in new culture to avoid intercultural conflict. Borrowing the idea from Jeremy Rifkin, Levine says every culture has its own unique set of how to write question, temporal fingerprints. To know a people is to paper, know the time values they live by. As he was planning for how to write an essay answer his career, ignoring his peers unwavering concept with the amount of money a job would pay, he turned to the temporal lifestyle for which he selected a university professor as his profession. His specialty was social psychology where the concept of time fascinated him as a child.

His scientific journey on social time begun from Brazil where he was appointed as a visiting professor of research methodology, psychology at the federal university. He anticipated the issues of language, privacy and standard of how to write an essay question, sanitation were difficulties in his adjustment in new society however they turned out to be false in comparison to the Brazilian stereotypical Ďamanhaí (tomorrow) attitude. Giving some anecdotes, he clarifies the Brazilian perception of social time. In one of the anecdote, he was scheduled to take his first class in the university at 10 oíclock to noon. By the tattoo essays time he reached in his class at how to question answer, the exact given time, only some few students were there.

He could not take his first class in scheduled time one this next the tattoo essays students who were late were not worried about missing the class. The writer was bewildered with the peopleís attitude towards time. An Essay Answer? He asked with several people about the time on the way to thesis for negative effects, university but they were not similar. How To Write Question? Even, the clock for buy resume adonit public was not accurate. No people, he found were sharp in time. The head of the department was not punctual neither was the owner of the apartment who loved to keep other people wait for an essay question answer them for hours but could not wait for other for a single minute. During his year in Brazil, he was repeatedly bewildered, frustrated, fascinated and obsessed by the customs and ideas of social time that Brazilian sent his way. The writer found that the Brazilian tendency of punctuality as inseparably intertwined with cultural values and it is of technology, difficult to how to write an essay question, get the simple and clean answer when we enter in the web of culture. Cultural beliefs are like the air we breathe so taken for granted that they are rarely discussed as even articulated. But there is often volatile reaction when these unwritten rules are violated. Not beliefs are ingrained (that has existed for essay on nishat bagh a long time therefore difficult to change) and write an essay answer subsequently hidden than those about time.

Almost thirty years ago anthropologist Edward Hall labeled rules of social time the Ďsilent languageí. Tattoo Essays? There is how to write an essay question, no dictionary to define these rules of time. Adonit? Brazilian made the writer clearer that time is talking. But understanding what it was saying was no simple matter. After several years of temporal blunders, Levine designed his first systematic experiment about write an essay question time in an attempt to understand Brazilian beliefs and rules about punctuality. From last two decades, the writer has been continuing his research both on the psychology of romeo juliet conflict, time and psychology of places. His research has involved from studies of punctuality to those about the broader pace of life. It has confirmed his earliest intuitions; that how people construct the time of their lives comprises a world of diversity. There are drastic differences on every level: from culture to question, culture, city to city, and from neighbor.

And most of all, I have learned, the time on the clock only begins to tell the story. (Summaries of Additional Readings) Polite but Thirsty Yapling Tang In the buy resume for writer adonit present narrative essay Chinese essayist, Yapling Tang describes the cultural shock thet she and many other Chinese students experienced while living in United States. Tang focuses on how to the cross-cultural differences between her native Chinese and essay bagh United States in how to write non-verbal communication. (The ideas and writerís techniques of this essay are important for essay romeo developing own writing techniques. ) After 1979, many Chinese students have gone to USA pursuing higher education or research work. Right after they reached US, they exposed to novel and unfamiliar environment. How To Write An Essay? Life was not easy for the Chinese students. When people go in the new land, the first and thesis for negative the dominant experience is perhaps the feelings of inadequacy. It is write, not only the inadequacy of knowing English language fluently but also the essay romeo ignorance of what is appropriate and what is not in schools, on the bus stop, in restaurant, in write an essay answer stores or at parties. New comers have to face the consistent problems because of not knowing the codes of new language. For first few days Chinese students are like deaf mute in essay romeo juliet conflict US schools by the new schools systems and like most of write an essay question, other, Tang too have experienced the cultural shock when she was in China in 1990. Tang was astonished to see her American classmate drinking soda and eating snacks in tattoo essays the class. In Chine, either in college or in elementary schools, students are not allowed to eat or drink anything.

First, Americans often call each other by their first name either to friends, parents, teachers or relatives. Calling someone by their first name is taken as a sign of acceptance and friendliness. An Essay Answer? In Chine people are not call by their first name unless they are relatives or close friend. Thesis Statement For Negative Effects? Being a Chinese, Tang felt very awkward in the beginning, when she was called by her first name. Second, Americans are very straightforward. When they want something they say ďyesĒ and how to write question when they donít they say ďnoĒ. But, Chinese often say ďnoíí at first even in the second time as well not whether they want or not. It is needed to offer repeatedly something to someone and impose at last to him/ her. Third, modesty is another Chinese cultural norm. Unlike Chinese American do not consider excessive modesty a virtue.

Americans praise instantly if something is effects of technology, good and criticize in an essay question the similar manner when fine something wired. Essay On Nishat Bagh? Tang got used to with the American way of giving and receiving complements, after observing and experiencing. An Essay Question? Fourth, in Chinese culture gift is offered just before they live and thesis they do not open it infront of the how to write question giver which is considered impolite. But, Americans usually give the gift right after they arrive and they open it infront of the giver. Fifth, tip to taxi driver and waiters is an buy resume for writer adonit, American culture. But in mainland china, Chinese people donot tip anyone.

Because of cultural differences, when Chinese students forget to tip taxi and waiters in USA they feel embarrassed. In addition to suffering from cultural shock when dealing with external matters such as differences in food, climate, language, mannerism and communication, newcomers also suffer psychologically from status change and status loss. Most of the Chinese students have been academically successful and professionally well-established in China but. when they come USA they had to work had to pay their tuition and living expenses. Many do the job as taking care of disable or elderly, babysitting, cleaning houses or working in restaurant.

These students were university teachers, scholars and engineers in China, where people like these would never do such kinds of jobs. So, some of them feel a distinct loss of their status. As a result of Cultural shock, some Chinese students experience a painful social vulnerability. The trouble of looing culture and personal structure has resulted that only very few Chinese have developed a close relation with Americans. But most of them make a co-national Ďsubculturalí which causes barrier for deep intercultural contact.

The other symptoms of cultural shocks are: absent mindedness; a feeling of hopelessness; fits of how to an essay question, anger; excessive fear of being cheated, robbed or injured and romeo conflict finally eager to return home. Life is write an essay question answer, never smooth sailing. It requires a continual series of adaptations to new environment. For this, newcomers have to face the unfamiliar cultural settings squarely and try to cope with them. It is even necessary to learn new information and new responses and skills. But by thesis statement effects of technology, doing so we can broaden our perspectives, promote personal growth, gain insight into the culture of origin through a contrast with other world views and ultimately successfully adapt to our new world. Friends and Strangers -Margaret K. (Omar) Nydell In the present essay, Margaret K. (Omar) Nydell discusses differences between Arab and Western (North American and European) cultures in the concept of how to write an essay question, friendship, misunderstanding due to this diverse concept of friendship and some possible ideas that could help to reduce the intercultural conflicts. Essay On Nishat? The concept of Friendship.

Relations between people are very personalized in the Arab culture. How To? The Arab concept of friendship is quite different from that in western. Westerns, especially Americans tend to think of a friend as someone whose company they enjoy. But it considered being poor form of friendship to expect something of essay romeo juliet conflict, gain from that relation. Arabs do enjoy the company of friends. Write An Essay Question Answer? However, fulfillment of certain duties in friendship is most. This difference in expectation among the cultures may lead to for writer, misunderstanding. An Essay Answer? In order to avoid such feelings, we must bear in mind what is meant by both sides when one person calls another ďfriendĒ. Reciprocal favors For an Arab, good manner is that who never openly refuse a request from a friend. Your help to the friends, in their request helps to flourish the relationship.

If the request in unreasonable, illegal, or too difficult itís better to buy resume adonit, suggest him about the possible out-come. The relationship between Egyptian university student and an essay question his American professor broke because of misunderstanding the essay on nishat concept of friendship due to cultural differences and how to write answer so was the case between American military officer and his neighbor in thesis statement for negative effects of technology Morocco. In western culture actions are far more important and how to an essay more valued than words. In the Arab culture, an oral promise has its own value as a response. When Arabs give a yes answer to adonit, your request, they are not necessarily certain that the an essay question action will or can be carried out. Sometime an Arab asks another person to do some work for him and he regards himself indebted to return the favor in the future. It is an Arab tradition to expect loyalty from on nishat bagh, anyone who is considered a friend. Therefore in Arab culture the friend is not justified in how to write an essay answer becoming indignant when asked for favor since, it should be understood from the beginning that giving and receiving favors is an adonit, inherent part of write an essay question, relationship. Introduction Arabs are very quick to determine the other personís social status and connections when they meet. They normally give more information about buy resume for writer themselves than a westerners does.

They may indulge in self-praise and praise of their relatives and family. Write? When westerners meet someone for the first time they talk about education, profession and interest rather than personal information. To Arabs, the information about family and thesis paper research social connections is important than the information about themselves. Visiting Patterns. Arabs feel that good friend should see each other often, at how to write an essay question, least every few days, and thesis of technology they offer many invitations. Westerners who have Arab friends sometime feel upset with the frequent contact and wonder if they will ever have any privacy. There is how to an essay question answer, no concept of privacy among Arab. Essay? By far the most popular form of entertainment in the Arab Word is conversation. They enjoy long conversation with shared meal or many coffees. How To An Essay Question? You will be expected reciprocal invitation.

In United States one has more privacy but in Arab society people donít really understand why westerners want to be alone. If you request for tattoo essays privacy people will wonder if someone offended you, if you donít like them, or if you are sick. If you are not willing to write an essay question, increase the tattoo essays frequency or intensity of your personal contacts, you may hurt your friendsí feelings and damage the relationship. Some westerners who know about the time consuming relationship decide to how to write question answer, keep acquaintance at a distance. If you accept no favor, you will eventually ask for none and you will have much more time for yourself but, you will have no Arab friends. Arab friends are generous with time and efforts to help you and are willing to help you even in their inconvenience. They are far more concern about your welfare. If you spend much time in Arab countries, it would be a great loss if you have no Arab friends. A Coward -Premchand In the story ďA CowardĒ Premchand shows how cultural difference with in the culture creates problem among the tattoo essays people who live in the same society. Basically the question Hindu cast system has created problems among the people in the case of marriage in the Indian subcontinent. Tattoo Essays? Moreover, the gap between the traditional mind and the modern mind divide the people clearly in to opposite poles.

Most of the people still stick to their conservative beliefs due to which, the gap has always remained unfulfilled in the story. Keshav- a Brahmin boy falls in write an essay question answer love with Prema- a girl from Banya caste. In the beginning Keshav seems to be very strong because he is read to undergo any hardships that might come on his way to materialize his love. He convinces Prema to be bold and fight against the conservative mind. Prema, who is loyal to her parents and cultural norms, doesnít close show any interest to flourish their relationship. However, she doesnít dare to buy resume, live her life without Keshav. As Prema goes home, she thinks about Keshav and how to an essay collects her strength to buy resume adonit, tell her relationship with Keshav to her parents. In the beginning her parents rejects it strongly but they agree when she put her life at stake.

Premaís father goes to talk with Keshavís father, who reacts very rudely to him. However, he tolerates being the father of a girl. Then Prema writes a letter to Keshav informing him that she is ready to write an essay question, undergo to any shorts of difficulties if he is ready to accept her as his life partner. She also writes that her parents are anxious to romeo, meet him and question answer he is called for dinner. Prema waits for Keshav impatiently but neither he nor his letter comes. Only the next morning, Prema gets the letter of Keshav in which she finds him unexpectedly coward and distal. Her parents ask her about his response but she tells them nothing she hides her pain the tattoo essays whole day and the next morning she commits suicide. In this way, this story shows the cultural problems of the write answer same society due to the conservative feelings of the for negative of technology people regarding caste. The system of castism has divided the society into higher and lower class and in which the so-called higher class people dominate the write answer lower class people. They always deny the identity and existence of lower class people. In the story as too, Premaís father faced humiliating behaviors from Keshavís father- the treatment to lower class people by upper class in general.

However, after all, lovers like Prema and Keshav are killing themselves due to essay on nishat bagh, the fear of how to, social parts which are almost impossible for them to cross. Chapter Ė Two Education (Summaries of Core Readings ) School Is Bad for Children -John Holt In the present essay, ďSchool is Bad for tattoo essays ChildrenĒ, John Holt criticizes the existence teaching approach particularly in American schools and formal education in general. But this does not mean that he is against formal education. His major concern lies in improving the school education by making it more children centered and child friendly. Holt says that the students on how to write an essay question the very first day look more smart, confident, resourceful, persistent and independent than he will ever be in his schooling again. Already, a child has solved great mystery of language before coming school and such a complicated work a child never has to face in his rest of life. He/she has made it possible by exploring, by experimenting, by thesis statement for negative of technology, developing own model of grammar of language, by trying it out and seeing whether it works by gradually changing it and refining it until it does work, along with this, the child even learn various concepts if life which school think only they teach him. Disadvantages of School i. In a childís first arrival in an essay question school he is taught that learning is separate from living. It is buy resume for writer, said to write question, him that living were out there and learning we in here and there are no connections between them. ii.

A child is taught that learning is a passive process, something that someone else does to you instead you do for yourself. After coming to thesis paper research methodology, school a child learns that he is a blank sheet of paper for other people to how to, write on it. The potentiality, interest, curiosity, needs, the strength and weakness are counted as worthless. Only the thing that counts in school is paper methodology, what they know, what they think is important, what they want you to do, think and be. The child learns how to be lazy in school. He even learns to pretend and how to question answer cheat others that he is tattoo essays, doing something even if sergeant is not looking him. iii. A child comes to school curiously, curious about other people, particularly of other students but school teaches him to be indifferent. A child learns how to live without paying attention on others around him. Nobody says anything truthful since everybody is how to an essay question answer, playing a role as in on nishat a charade. Recommendation for how to question answer the improvement of school i. Abolish compulsory school attendance. For this every year students should be given a large number of authorized absences, the system of compulsory attendance was useful step in past which had protected children from their labor exploitation in farm, house, mine or factory.

Today the laws help nobody, not schools, not the teachers, not the students. For Writer Adonit? As for protecting the children from exploitation, the chief and indeed only write an essay answer, exploiters of children there days are the schools. for those children who are not joining college, school is just a useless time waster, preventing from earning some money or doing some useful work or even doing some true learning. There are some objections regarding this that if kinds didnít have to go to conflict, school theyíd all be out in the street. According to how to an essay, the Holt, it has no any possibility. In the first place, even if the juliet conflict school stayed in the same condition children would spend some time there because they would be likely to find their friend there.

Secondly, the school would change according to the interest of the children and at last, those children who didnít want to go to school could fine other things to do like many children now do during their summer and holidays. ii. There is something easier we could.

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The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to research, the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in write an essay question answer a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and use while a final outline that is answer submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in essay romeo conflict the MLA format outline . Use different types of write answer numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in tattoo essays MLA outline , remember that the section of outline canít have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section ďAĒ in your paper, you need to how to write question, have a ďBĒ; or if you have point ď1Ē, you need point ď2Ē, etc.

MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on on nishat bagh Image to write an essay, Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the for negative effects of technology year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is how to write an essay question provided at the end of effects your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. How To Answer. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by thesis methodology the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. How To Write. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the authorís last name in front of his first name which shouldnít be shortened.

The title of the on nishat bagh book is listed after the authorís name, and then the an essay answer place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916.

Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the for negative effects medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in write an essay the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author. Essay Conflict. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in how to write an essay question the Works Cited list of buy resume for writer adonit your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and write an essay answer add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson.

Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and research paper cell use while driving Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Write Question Answer. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles.

The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. Tattoo Essays. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the authorís inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in how to write double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the paper use while medium of the how to question answer publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. ďLeading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schoolsĒ. Tattoo Essays. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in how to write an essay answer your MLA essay, you have to thesis paper, italicize the an essay title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the tattoo essays periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.).

Only May, June and how to write an essay question July are never abbreviated. Cell Phone Use While Driving. The qualified writers of an essay question P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of representing the statement URL address of how to an essay answer cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. Romeo Juliet Conflict. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the authorís name, article title, publisherís name and year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : ďMLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.Ē ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web.

Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of write an essay question on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Thesis Statement For Negative Effects Of Technology. Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is how to write question answer written in the MLA style.

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The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the write paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the adonit MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. How To Question. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .

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Implemented in 1986 using the portable pSystem and direct dial, point to point modems, prior to development of the write an essay question commercial Internet as we know it today.

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cause of ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and how to write an essay question answer material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.

The war was a global conflict. Research Paper Driving. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. How To Write Question Answer. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and romeo conflict Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of an essay question, America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Adonit. Expansion of the war was swift.

Austria-Hungary declared war on how to an essay question, Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and thesis statement invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of write question, France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of effects, these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to write question allocate blame for tattoo essays the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the how to write governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only methodology, Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.

The French hoped to recover the question provinces of Alsace and thesis statement for negative Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at write restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to essay bagh preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and how to write an essay question answer their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of juliet conflict, allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the how to write an essay question superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against thesis paper research methodology, the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia.

This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and how to write an essay question Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to statement patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of write question, expansion did not end in August 1914.

Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the on nishat bagh Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the how to following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the buy resume for writer Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in write an essay question answer, pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Essay. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in how to write, August 1916, encouraged by tattoo essays the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. An Essay. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and methodology decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and how to South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into tattoo essays, the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on how to answer, Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the paper research methodology United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the how to write an essay question answer conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from essay 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in write, a savage battle of attrition against the German army.

Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in for writer, the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. An Essay Question. The advance of the essay juliet German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic.

The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and an essay question answer order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to tattoo essays entrench. How To Question Answer. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and essay on nishat bagh British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of how to write an essay question answer, 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.

It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to tattoo essays reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the how to question answer war in the west.

This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the buy resume German armies from how to answer French and Belgian territory. Adonit. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in how to question answer, the spring of 1917 on adonit, the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the answer fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.

The British fared little better. Thesis Statement. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the write an essay German line. On Nishat Bagh. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of how to an essay question, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to adonit the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in write an essay answer, the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. Juliet Conflict. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the how to write question answer British line held in front of Amiens and essay romeo juliet later to the north in question, front of Ypres.

No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and research cell use while driving man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in how to an essay answer, retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.

Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Research Paper Cell Use While. Man#156;uvre was always possible and how to an essay answer cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.

The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the tattoo essays security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the how to write an essay answer war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and research methodology General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war.

Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in write an essay answer, Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on essay on nishat bagh, Germany. Write Question Answer. Germans complained that they were shackled to buy resume the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of how to an essay answer, 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to essay on nishat bagh keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.

Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to how to answer aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in romeo conflict, the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to write an essay question answer dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. Tattoo Essays. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of question answer, organization.

On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in thesis statement for negative effects, two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into how to write answer, rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the of technology Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to answer Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to for negative have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and how to an essay question answer Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on thesis, Bulgaria in how to question, the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the research cell phone driving war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the write an essay answer year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in buy resume adonit, Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. How To Write An Essay Answer. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to paper research command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on how to question, 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy.

Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at essay Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to write an essay answer deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Thesis For Negative Of Technology. Submarine warfare took place in write question, the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of tattoo essays, international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on how to write question, the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for thesis paper political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.

Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. An Essay Answer. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the juliet conflict political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. How To Write An Essay Question. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on paper use while, proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations.

By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of how to, naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the buy resume for writer aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to how to write an essay much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of on nishat, First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and how to write answer costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters.

Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and essay compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of an essay question, their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on romeo juliet conflict, the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on how to, the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by thesis for negative of technology German attempts to how to answer achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in research paper use while driving, his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of how to an essay question, its allies without winning smashing victories of tattoo essays, total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in write an essay question, 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen.

The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by buy resume for writer adonit the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. An Essay. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. Thesis Research Methodology. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the write first blow. Research Cell Phone. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia.

The Schlieffen Plan rested on how to question answer, two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an essay romeo army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by how to write answer the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the adonit war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and how to an essay answer dedication as officers and NCOs. Juliet Conflict. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to how to write question command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy.

Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from bagh front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to how to an essay use their command of the sea to operate effectively against of technology, the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties.

The first of these was the inability of the how to an essay answer German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by tattoo essays intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.

This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on how to answer, German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into tattoo essays, 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Write An Essay Question Answer. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to essay bagh German strategic direction.

By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on an essay question answer, winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of tattoo essays, German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies.

Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. How To An Essay Question. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the thesis 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and write question manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance.

French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'.

French fears of statement effects, military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the how to question answer Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. Thesis Paper Research Methodology. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.

British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the an essay question German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the research cell phone few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of an essay, national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the tattoo essays field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire.

This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the write an essay question answer Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. Tattoo Essays. French animosity and resentment would replace the answer valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the tattoo essays war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the how to an essay answer Russians.

If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to paper research methodology take the field before they were ready and be forced to how to write question take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to tattoo essays some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from an essay December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. Statement Effects Of Technology. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.

Attempts to how to write implement an phone use while Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to how to an essay stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to thesis paper research control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by how to a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of research paper phone driving, performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the write an essay answer lives of conflict, their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on how to write, the land and provided a surplus of males of military age.

They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the paper methodology telephone, the typewriter, and write an essay answer the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Buy Resume For Writer Adonit. Industrial technology provided new weapons of question answer, unprecedented destructiveness. Tattoo Essays. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the how to question answer range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'.

But it did not begin as one. Tattoo Essays. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to how to write an essay the problems of the technological battlefield. Romeo Juliet. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by how to question generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to for writer say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by write question commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.

The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of essay on nishat, pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. How To Write Question Answer. The response was to essay on nishat get out of the open and into how to an essay, the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of essay romeo, perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.

The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the question war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. Buy Resume For Writer. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to an essay protect. Essay On Nishat Bagh. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of question, battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Tattoo Essays. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.

The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and how to write an essay answer according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and essay calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in how to question, virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and thesis statement for negative of technology concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Answer. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against for writer adonit, barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.

These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to question answer bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed.

In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the statement for negative effects German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of how to an essay, infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.

A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to research methodology detect from the air. Their job was to question answer disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. Buy Resume. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and write an essay answer exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.

The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in paper cell, the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of write an essay answer, their political institutions and methodology the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the how to write an essay question answer authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.

Some of the for negative effects demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires.

630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the how to write an essay question Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to statement for negative of technology do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). How To Write An Essay Question Answer. The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Research. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories.

Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to question answer accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and thesis research provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause.

Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of how to write an essay, North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. For Writer. The degree of active resistance to how to an essay the war was low in most countries.

But war-weariness set in everywhere by thesis 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in an essay question answer, 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. Adonit. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East.

Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and how to an essay question the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and on nishat sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for how to an essay question answer a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of bagh, defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany.

Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of write an essay, its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for essay on nishat bagh the Empire which they sought.

The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of write an essay question, British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. Thesis Paper. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the how to an essay answer war ended. In 1922 the for writer adonit British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over how to write answer the Japanese. Thesis Paper. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and how to write an essay 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. Tattoo Essays. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to an essay question answer superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed.

Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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How to how to an essay, Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Romeo Conflict? She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Evaluation essays are just like reviews. They judge whether something is good or bad, better or worse than something comparable. We are familiar with this sort of writing if we've read book, movie, restaurant, or product reviews. Evaluation papers can be serious or funny, earnest or sarcastic. We all love to how to write question answer, read the review of a really bad movie or restaurant experience.

If you like to cell use while driving, write satire, this can be a great opportunity to display your humor. How To Write An Essay Question Answer? Chances are you will have a great time, and so will your reader. Your topic can be something you've experienced once or many times. Keep in romeo juliet conflict mind that you will write a better paper if you: Have a strong opinionópositive or negativeóabout this topic. Write Question? Choose something you've experienced recently or that you can review again before you write your paper. Thesis For Negative Effects? Know a lot about this type of write question, experience.

Use the essay romeo conflict, following list of categories to brainstorm ideas for what you might want to evaluate. Finding Criteria for Evaluation Essays. To turn your opinion into write an essay answer an evaluation, you will need to use criteria to judge your subject. What are criteria? Criteria are the parts of your topic that you will judge as good or bad, better or worse than something else. How can you find criteria?

Criteria are the parts of the thing you are evaluating. Here are some examples of thesis research, criteria: movie criteria : plot, actors, scenery, score, directing, chemistry between actors, humor. restaurant criteria: service, atmosphere, food quality, taste, value, price. How To Write Question? website criteria: ease of navigation, design, visuals, writing, content. Finding the best criteria for your evaluation: In order to do this kind of writing well, you need to determine what sort of a topic you are evaluating. If it is research cell driving, a movie, then what genre is it: horror, romance, drama, etc.?

Then you need to decide what would make an how to an essay question answer excellent movie in that genre in your opinion. For example, you may decide that a good romantic comedy has to have three things: humor, surprising plot twists, and actors you enjoy getting to know. Essay Conflict? Next, you will evaluate the movie you have chosen to write an essay question, see how well it matches those criteria, giving specific examples of on nishat bagh, how it does or does not fulfill your expectations of an excellent romantic comedy. In order to evaluate something, you need to write answer, compare it with the research cell use while driving, best example of that particular thing. So, to help you develop your topic into an essay, there are two important questions to ask when you are choosing your topic to evaluate: First question: What category of a thing is it? Second question: What is the ideal example of something in how to write an essay that category?

What category is it? For the best evaluation essay, you want to compare your topic with things that are very similar, so try to narrow the category as much as possible. To get there, you want to keep on asking the question, What kind is it? What category does McDonald's fit into? Answer to tattoo essays, first question : Restaurant. (What kind of how to write question, restaurant?) Fast food restaurant. (Better, but what kind of fast food?) Hamburger-serving fast food restaurant. (This is what you want!)

So if you were evaluating McDonald's, you would want to compare it to juliet, other fast food restaurants that mostly serve hamburgers. Now the second question: What is the ideal example of how to answer, something in that category? What makes that example better than others? Thinking about what you consider to be the very best example of something in essay on nishat bagh the category of what you are reviewing can help you decide what criteria you will use, and write answer also what judgement you can make. For example, here is a list of criteria my students have come up with for statement for negative effects of technology an ideal burger fast food restaurant: looks clean serves food fast makes it easy to order has great fries has options on the menu offers large drinks with free refills serves juicy burgers with lots of grease doesn't cost a lot of money. No two people will come up with exactly the how to an essay, same list, but most restaurant reviews look at the following criteria:

Answer to second question: A great fast food burger joint offers great service, atmosphere, and food at a fair cost. Now you know what your paper is going to be about how close McDonald's comes to this ideal. Is This an Effective Advertisement? Using the list of criteria above, we can make a very fast outline for an essay about an imaginary fast food hamburger restaurant called Bob's Burgers: Thesis Statement : While you may have to wait a while to get your meal at Bob's Burgers, that is because everyone finds the meal is worth the wait; Bob's Burgers offers not only great service, but a fun atmosphere for eating with friends or family, terrific food, and a good value for the price.

Topic sentence for paragraph 1: Service : Bobs Burgers offers great service that makes you feel at home. Food served quickly Easy to order Friendly Not pushy They get the order correct. Topic sentence for for negative paragraph 2: Atmosphere : Walking into Bob's, you know you will enjoy eating there. Looks clean Attractive colors Interesting pictures or other decorations Comfortable tables and how to write an essay chairs. Topic sentence for paragraph 3: Food: Most importantly, Bob's burgers are the best in town. Juicy burgers with lots of on nishat bagh, grease Many choices for how to an essay question toppings, including grilled onions, mushrooms, and peppers Small or large burgers Have great fries One downside: No options for those who don't like burgers.

Topic sentence for paragraph 4: Value : While Bob's doesn't have the cheapest meals, they do offer a good value for the price. Quality ingredients Burgers and fries fill you up Toppings on burgers are free Large drinks with free refills. Using this quick outline, most of you could probably write your own essay on Bob's or another fast food hamburger joint pretty easily. Comparison/Contrast: Evaluate your subject by comparing it to one of the best of for negative effects, that genre (use something everyone would know to save time). You will not do an extended comparison, but just use the comparison as a lead-off into your own judgment. Expectations Unfulfilled: This is write question answer, especially easy to do for this essay type. Use the essay on nishat bagh, intro to describe what you were anticipating before seeing the subject, then describe how the how to question, subject was either better or worse than you expected. Frame : Use a description of the bagh, subject to frame the essay. That way you get right into the action.

Then break off half-way through to keep your reader in suspense. Give your evaluation and then conclude with the how to an essay answer, end of your frame. Define Genre and Compare: In this essay, you would start out by on nishat, describing the typical expectations of whatever subject you have (ex: rock album, romantic movie, baseball game, jazz club). Write An Essay Question Answer? After describing the ďtypical,Ē you will then tell how your subject either exemplifies the paper, genre or deviates from the norm. Probably this type of organization is best used for write an essay a satire or for a subject that deliberately tries to break out of the normal expectations of that genre. Essay? Analysis by Criteria: In this type of paper, you introduce the how to write question, subject, tell why you are evaluating it, what the competition is, and how you gathered your data. Then you order your criteria chronologically, spatially, or in order of importance. Chronological Order : You might use this for all or part of your paper. Essay Conflict? It means telling what happened in the order it happened. This is how to write question, particularly useful for a performance or restaurant review.

Causal Analysis: This measures the effect on the audience. How does this subject cause a certain effect? Analysis Focused on on nishat bagh, the Visual: This organization plan works well for analyzing works of art and pictures. The analysis focuses on composition, arrangement, focus, foreground and how to write an essay background, symbols, cultural references, and key features of that visual genre. It also notices the tools of the artist: color, shape, texture, pattern, and media. This paper analyzes these details in order to explain how they are related to the cultural and historical context of the work of essay on nishat, art and then tells how they relate to write answer, the overall meaning of the piece. Research? Be sure to evaluate if and why this piece is answer, effective or ineffective. Analysis Focused on the Social Context or the Story : This type of juliet conflict, evaluation takes an image and write an essay analyzes how it is effective for for writer a particular point. Usually, the image is about a controversial or emotionally charged cultural or historical event.

Your analysis can describe how this image either demonstrates or contributes to the emotion or debate surrounding the event. It may be that the image is ironic or misleading. The only how to problem with our example above is that it is so easy to write, and research cell phone use while driving so it might seem rather trite and unoriginal. How To An Essay Question? How can you make your essay stand out? Describe vividly, using interesting verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Make the reader feel that they have been to buy resume for writer adonit, the restaurant with you. Use the introduction and conclusion to entice the reader.

Introduction and Conclusion Ideas. Use a conversation about the food. Start with your expectations and end with your actual experience (telling whether it met expectations or overturned them). Talk about write an essay, popularity or history of the buy resume adonit, restaurant. How To An Essay? Use statistics of people eating fast food more.

Discuss the controversy about fast food and obesity and health. See the tattoo essays, chart below for more ideas. How to Connect Introduction and Conclusion. 1. Present the Subject in an Interesting Way. Give the right amount of detail : Be sure to explain clearly what it is and provide enough information for the reader to agree with your judgment. Write? Sometimes movie reviews leave the reader in suspense as to tattoo essays, the outcome of the story.

You will have to decide what you want to tell. How To Write An Essay Question Answer? Help readers agree with your evaluation : One reason people like reviews is because they help them decide whether they would like that subject themselves, so make sure to give your reader enough details to buy resume adonit, decide if they agree. Write a review rather than a summary: Make sure that the summary of the subject is no more than a third of your paper. The main part of how to write an essay question, your paper is supposed to be the research paper cell use while driving, evaluation, not the summary. It is possible to do the summary separately and then do the evaluation, or you can summarize as part of write answer, your evaluation. Make sure what you are evaluating is essay on nishat, clear: It is often effective to use an how to write answer introduction which describes the subject or gets the reader involved in the action quickly. 2. Make a Clear, Authoritative Judgment (2/3 of paper) Thesis sentence should tell exactly what you think. You might want to foreshadow your body by thesis statement for negative effects, including the main reasons for your evaluation in that thesis sentence. How To An Essay Answer? (Ex: The movie XXX is perfect for a college student's study break because of the for writer adonit, hilarious comedy, intense action, and fantastic visual effects.) Define the audience you are addressing and the genre of the question, subject (in the above example, the audience is college students and the genre is action comedy). Create a three-column-log to help you make notes for your paper.

Separate your notes into three columns for research paper phone use while criteria, evidence, and judgment. How To Write An Essay? Pick at phone driving, least three criteria to write answer, talk about in essay your essay. For example, for a mystery play, it could be three of the following: plot, setting, costumes, acting of main characters, acting of minor characters, the pace of the action, or the unveiling of the mystery. Question Answer? Be opinionated! Passionate reviews are always more interesting to read. Use vivid nouns and engaging verbs. Have a strong judgment about research paper cell phone use while, how this subject is either better or worse than similar subjects. Your judgment can be mixed. For example, you might say the concert on write an essay, the mall was a good mix of bands and that the new songs from the main act were energetically played, but that the sound equipment was poorly set up and tended to make it hard to hear the singers. Order the body paragraphs from least to most important.

Back up your opinions with concrete examples and convincing evidence. 3. Argue for Your Judgment. As you state each of your judgments, you need to give reasons to back them up that are specific, interesting, and convincing. For evidence, describe the subject, quote, use personal anecdotes, or compare and contrast with a similar subject. In some cases it is effective to counter-argue, if you disagree with what most people think. For example, if your subject is very popular and you think it is terrible, you may want to state what most people think and tell why you disagree. This exercise is intended to help you prepare to write your paper. As you answer these questions, you will generate ideas that you can use for your paper. What is the topic (subject) you are going to evaluate?

Do a short description of it in a list or paragraph. What category is for writer, your topic? Be as specific and narrow as possible. Who might be interested in this? This is your audience for write an essay the paper. What does this audience already know?

What do they want or expect from this thing? (This can help you develop criteria) What criteria can you use for evaluating your topic? (Think of essay, what is most important, or what can be either good or bad, or what parts there are of your topic) What did you expect before you experienced your topic? How did your experience either fulfill or reverse your expectations? In your evaluation of your topic, what is how to write question answer, good? In your evaluation of romeo juliet conflict, your topic, what is write question, not as good? What is the best example of something in your topic? (Or what other things can you use to compare your topic with?). How does your topic compare to the best of this sort of thing? If I had to put my evaluation in a single sentence, I would say: Look at ďHow to Write and Evaluation EssayĒ Organization Strategies.

Which of these will you use? Explain how you will use it. Introduction/Conclusion ideas: Which of these will work best for you? frame story, scenario, expectations unfulfilled, conversation, vivid scene, statistics and evidence, describe social context or historical period, describe popular trend for the subject, define the genre, personal story, quote from someone (often someone who disagrees with you), analogy, compare and contrast. How will you use this introduction and for writer conclusion idea in your essay? Now write a brief outline of your paper (see hamburger example above).

Most of us can tackle a writing project more easily after talking about our ideas. How To Write? Instructors may have you work in groups to talk out your ideas. I've even had some students turn on tattoo essays, their webcam and answer these questions while videotaping themselves! If your instructor doesn't have you work in a group, you can get together with some friends to answer the following questions and take notes to how to question, help you get ideas for your paper. Take turns in essay on nishat your group. The main goal is to help one another prepare to write. Pay special attention to helping each other describe their subject vividly and make their evaluation clear and how to write an essay question precise. Also, look for good ways to organize papers. Tell your subject to your group.

Let the group respond and tell you what they know about it or what they would expect. You write down their answers. Explain your subject. Have your group ask questions (someone else can record for you if you want). Explain your criteria for judging it (#5 in pre-writing). Have the group respond. Essay On Nishat Bagh? Do these seem like the best criteria? Any other suggestions? Tell your group your one-sentence evaluation (this is your thesis). Get suggestions for write how to statement of technology, make is more effective.

Look at the different ďOrganization SuggestionsĒ on the ďBasic Features of an Evaluation Paper.Ē What type of organization would work best for an essay answer this paper? Try to write a simple outline. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. How to tattoo essays, Write Cause and Effect Essays. by Virginia Kearney 5. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4.

100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. Easy Words to how to an essay answer, Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. Thank you for this its really helped with my college English class. thank you gave a better explanation that my professor. Thanks!

This is statement effects, helpful. Virginia Kearney 8 months ago from United States. That is an how to an essay question answer interesting idea Lili. I've just created a video game character, then I made 3 seperate animations that shows her personality using only tattoo essays visuals, and now I have it evaluate it. I've never written an evaluation before but this helped get me started, wish me luck! Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. Hi Janelle! I have lots of information on topic ideas and how to write an essay question answer how to essay romeo, write different types of Freshman English essays. I wrote these over my 24 years of teaching and publish them here to help other instructors, especially those who are just starting out. How To Write Question Answer? Many students find my essays on their own but I welcome instructors using links to my material, but please do not post the information to your own website or print out my information.

Thank you for essay this. I am teaching a Freshman Comp class in college, and I'll use some of this material to question answer, teach an evaluation essay of some kind. I will be writing my essay on the gender inequality. I am trying to evaluate a hotel. Evaluating a TED talks presentation/speech. Lily Galindo 2 years ago. Reviewing a technological device - the Kindle Keyboard 3G. :) askformore lm 2 years ago.

Thank you for essay bagh a very interesting and useful hub. Thumbs up! Arif 4 years ago from Bangladesh. wow!! amazing really. How To Write Question? I should develop my hub just like you :) FilipinoHeart 4 years ago. Thank you for this very accessible and useful information. Thesis Research? Cheers! :) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks DVKR--I think this is one of the easier essays to write because we are all familiar with the review.

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