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Resume keys words

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Resume Key Words - Know Which Words to Use and Which to…

a persuassive essay (Adapted from Nancy Huddleston Packer and John Timpane, 1986 Writing Worth Reading: A Practical Guide , St. Martin's Press: New York) A good way to learn about persuasive writing/evidence is to critically evaluate while you read. Starr is keys, making an argument that medicine in America has developed in certain ways, with specific outcomes. Along the way, he makes subarguments and presents evidence to support his ideas. You should evaluate whether you think his arguments are solid or not. As you gain skills in assessing other's writing, you will become a better writer yourself. Persuasion and Making an very narrative Argument. An argument has several components. Right now, most of you have only chosen a subject, but as you commence your research, you will find answers to resume keys words, the questions you are posing. Your job in the term paper is to persuade the reader that your position is better than the alternative.

The answer(s) you find are the claim . Evidence is support for writing, your claim, and the best way to make your argument persuasive is to find evidence and resume words, present it in appropriate ways. Within your claim, you may need to present subpoints and subarguments . Finally, you will need to connect your evidence to the arguments. Essentially, you should elaborate on how the cover letter, evidence supports your argument. No argument has only one side to resume keys words, it. In order to write a truly great persuasive paper, you should acknowledge the letter, opposition; there are two ways to talk about the opposition, depending on the evidence available. The opposition will have arguments of its own. If you have good evidence that weakens the opposing argument, you should use it to resume keys, rebut their position.

Sometimes, the opposition will have a point that you cannot refute, and you may have to concede this point. In economics, this acknowledgment might be as simple as conceding and enumerating the costs of your policy (which there will always be). You can still make arguments in favor of your policy by showing that the benefits are greater than the introduction to thesis, costs. Be clear in keys, what you are claiming. Environment Essay. Tell the reader which claims are based on facts and which on values.

Provide good evidence in support of your claim. Keys Words. If a connection between the evidence and the claim is essay on overcoming of public speaking, not obvious, tell the reader the connection. Discuss the opposing arguments and either provide a rebuttal or concession, whichever is appropriate given your evidence. There are many different types of evidence that you can use in writing a persuasive or informational paper. If you have incomplete information in support of your claim, you should tell the reader.

The perfect data is rarely available, so researchers often make do with the imperfect information that is available. Words. However, careful researchers will admit that their conclusions rely on imperfection and may turn out to be false when better data becomes available. You will probably run across studies conducted by clinicians, economists, or other types of researchers. The information they provide will be one of three types: Factual information is incontrovertible; anyone could find the same information. See the section on statistics below for some warnings about fear of public, facts. Informed opinions and speculation will be the interpretation that the researcher applies to the information.

For instance, a researcher might conclude that treatment Y is cost-effective, based on a cost-effectiveness ratio of $50,000 per quality of life year saved. Another researcher might think that an appropriate cut-off for cost-effectiveness is $10,000 per resume QUALY, and would disagree. The conclusion that the good, treatment is words, cost-effective is an informed opinion. Speculation is essay, another form of interpretation. Often, the answers many economists get are based on information from a select sample of resume keys words, individuals, let's say middle-age women. To Thesis Report Writing. Applying these results to another group of the population, for example, elderly women, would call for out-of-sample predictions, and these are really just speculation. Resume Words. Another potential problem is on overcoming, that predictions might be based on a particular statistical technique and using a different method might give one different predictions. I don't expect you to resume, know all of coursework, these nuances in statistics, but be aware that the conclusions you read in others' research are not hard-and-fast rules. The first thing to do is to check the credentials of the resume, expert. Check for and the environment, possible conflicts of interest (did a pharmaceutical company fund the research?) If you find many different researchers coming to the same opinion, that lends greater weight to the evidence. You already have some basic definitions of resume keys words, statistics.

The choice of statistic that you might use is writing, very important, and the main way that statistics can be misused. For instance, if you say that Z people are uninsured in the U.S. and this is the largest number of uninsured in history, this is a statistic. However, if the population has grown, a smaller percentage of people might be uninsured than at keys any other time, so your previous statistic was misleading. Sometimes making an argument can be strengthened by being specific. If I tell you in class that not having insurance is a problem, this is a claim, but does not have any evidence supporting it. I may then go on and describe that people without insurance often delay going to the doctor, go to and science, emergency rooms for routine care instead of to clinics or doctors' offices, or go without care at all.

These last points are examples. The examples could further be strengthened by statistics on how often uninsured people delay care, go to the emergency room, or go without care. Keys Words. The information could be strengthened yet further by comparing these statistics to similar statistics on coursework, people who have insurance. And so on. Keys. We have talked about the dangers of relying on anecdotal experience, but there are appropriate ways to use this type of evidence. It may focus an argument, provide an very good narrative essays example, ore illuminate. Keys Words. It may make the reading more interesting. Just don't rely on this type of information only. Analogies may be a writing tool to make your points clear and interesting, but you may also use analogies as evidence. For instance, if you are studying a relatively new government policy or a new trend in health care markets, you may need to speculate on the benefits/costs of the policy based on results from similar policies that have been instituted in the past or in trends from other markets that are similar.

You will need to use reasoning and logic to make the connections. You should also describe the possible differences between past policies and today or non-health markets and report writing, healthcare markets, etc. and words, how these differences might affect your conclusions, but this type of evidence can be very persuasive.

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How to Make Your Resume Better With Keywords & Phrases

The Little Known Secret to resume, Building the Perfect Resume. The problem with this secret is that it is taboo in the job search / job finding world. Everybody knows it’s true…nobody likes to essays, admit it. This little resume secret is complete blasphemy in “the industry.” I don’t like to associate NavyNukeJobFinder.com with scandal, but I have to be real with my peeps (that’s you).

So here’s the secret… Continue reading “How to resume keys, Build a Job Winning Resume” I interviewed Dave Rakowski on January 25, 2014 as he was preparing to retire from the layout, Navy and start a new life in the civilian world. Resume Words! Dave had some very interesting things to say, and I think the ethics and the environment essay, information in this interview is going to be valuable for current Navy Nukes, Former Navy Nukes, and resume keys words, anyone considering joining the program. Here are the stats… I like to and the environment, start the interview off with a little personal information, just to get a feel for resume keys, who I’m talking to. Dave is ethics and the environment 40 years old, and has been married for resume, 13 years.

Dave has 3 kids (2 girls, 8 and introduction report, 10 years old, and one 4 year old boy). Resume Keys! Dave also has a 5 year old Walker Treeing Coon Hound. Dave is a Surface Warfare Qualified, Senior Chief (E-8) Electrician’s Mate (Nuclear). He entered this man’s Navy on 7 DEC 1994, and his EAOS is 31 DEC 2014. As usual, my questions are in bold , Dave’s responses are in normal type, and my commentary, if any, is in for a letter uk, italics . Dave circa 1994. Long Story: Born in Louisiana, lived there until I was 6 months old, moved to Chicago for 3 months, moved to Java, Indonesia, lived there until I was about 2, then moved to La Paz, Bolivia until I was about 3, moved back to resume, Louisiana, lived there until 1979, then moved to Lakewood, Colorado (suburb of essay, Denver), then in 1986, moved to Portland, Oregon, then in 1987, moved back to Lakewood, Colorado, where I lived until I enlisted. Short Story: Colorado. Where do you want to live after the resume, Navy? Both the wife and I are from Colorado, and miss the ethics and the environment essay, snow, so we want to live in a place with SEASONS, and resume, with good schools for islam and science, the kids, with a semi-decent standard of resume words, living, so we are really looking closely at the Northwest or Northeast US.

Why did you decide to join the Navy and what made you decide to join the Nuclear program? I graduated High School in 1991, and then went to essay islam, the University of Colorado. Resume Keys Words! I studied there from 1991 until 1994. Computing Coursework! During that time, I changed my major 5 times. Started with Computer Science, then Chemical Engineering, then Chemistry, then Business Finance and keys words, finished up with Business Administration. I ended up leaving after 3.5 years with no degree, and good, thanks to two incredibly supportive parents, no student loan debt either. I bounced around aimlessly from job to job for a few months before I found myself in a recruiters office. I had a vague idea of wanting to someday work for the NSA or CIA, and figured the best way to resume words, do that was through Air Force Intelligence, so I made an to thesis writing, appointment with the Air Force recruiter.

Well, he blew me off, and the Navy Recruiter was there. After talking with him for a long time, I decided that the Cryptologic Technician rating was the one for me, and signed some paperwork. The next week, I took the ASVAB, I finished an hour and keys words, a half early, and my recruiter thought I bombed it. Once the results came back as a 99, however, he told me he had another exam for me, called the narrative essays, “NFQT” to qualify for the most “Advanced Rating in the Armed Forces”. Keys! I took it, and aqa a-level coursework, aced it, and next thing I knew, I was shipping off to Boot Camp as a Proto-Nuke. Had no idea what it entailed, did some research and wanted to be an ELT, so I asked for MM first, ET second, and EM third.

I thank my lucky stars every day that I ended up as a Nuke EM, not as a CT, or MM or ET. I’m convinced that most people don’t know what they want to do with their life after graduating highschool. Keys Words! I’m a huge advocate of aqa a-level, taking a little time off before heading to college. What’s wrong with taking a year to travel or do something awesome and spectacular with your life. James Altucher writes about this in his book 40 Alternatives to resume, College, which is essay fear speaking a great read for any parent or young student. I think that one of the greatest alternatives to college is keys a stint in the Military. Essay Islam! Even if you spend 6 years in the Nuclear Program, you come out with a ton of options, experience, education, and perspective that most of your peers, even 6 years later, will not have. You are about to retire after 20 years, and I hope the next phase of your career is extremely rewarding. How did you decide to make a career out of the Navy, and at what point in your career did you know that you were going to do 20 years? During my first 3 or so years, I wore a Paper Clip on my uniform ( P eople A gainst P eople E ver R e-enlisting; C ivilian L ife I s P referred). Then, initial move-aboard happened on the Truman.

Living on words, board the ship was the worst 6 months I had in aqa a-level computing, the Navy up to that point. I was a 3 rd Class [Petty Officer], and at the time, they didn’t allow 3 rd Classes to have BAH [Basic Allowance for keys, Housing]. So, I decided to bite the bullet, and did the STAR Re-Enlistment just so I could get BAH and move off the ship ( STAR Re-Enlistment allows E-4 Nukes to be advanced to narrative essays, E-5 upon re-enlistment ). Fast-forward 3 years, and I’m getting married. 2 years later, some financial debt…Make the decision with the wife to wipe out resume keys words debt and re-enlist. That would take me out to my 10 year point. I was fully planning on getting out then, after my tour at Prototype ( The School where Nukes train on actual nuclear power plants ). Then, I made CPO [Chief Petty Officer, E-7].

When that happened, I finally decided on the full 20 year career. Correct Layout Cover! Now that I had my Khakis on, I wanted the rest of keys, my career to be comprised of essay on overcoming fear, me trying to make the Navy just a slightly nicer place for junior guys so hopefully the attitude I had in my beginning years would no longer continue. I want to touch on 2 things here. Resume! First, as a single sailor, I never had to consider what a “Family” decision re-enlisting was. I think Dave does a great job of explaining how he had to involve his wife in the decision and all the factors (debt, marriage, quality of life vis a vis housing) that went into the decision. At some point Nukes have to consider whether this a 6 and out deal or am I making a longer career out of cover letter, this.

A lot of the resume keys, NNJF message board posts are from wives asking about the economy on the outside and is it a good idea to essay and science, leave the safety and comfort of a steady paycheck (and family health coverage) right now. Second, there is a dark side to the Nuclear program, and words, that is…a lot of Nukes really hate being Navy Nukes. I was one of them. Computing Coursework! I was a PAPERCLIP wearing, I hate the Navy, 6 Out, 807, Nuke. At any given time I could tell you down to the minute, how much time I had left on my 6 years, and I could adjust it for resume keys, terminal leave upon narrative essays, request. Some people loved it, some people hated it, and some people like my good friend Iron Michael Nunez handled it like a true professional and resume, made the absolute best of their time in environment essay, the program. I’m older now, and know that a lot of my hate and discontent was due to a lack of maturity. When Dave says that he, wanted to spend the words, rest of his career trying to make the Navy a better place, it really brings a smile to my face because while a lot of my hate and discontent was caused by my own immaturity, a lot of it was also caused by poor leadership in to thesis writing, the enlisted ranks, particularly the First Classes and Chiefs that had a direct bearing on my day to resume words, day life. I’m glad that people like Dave, upon promotion to report, leadership, take a proactive hand in making things better. In your 20 years, what was your favorite duty station and why? What job did you do there and what did you like about that job?

Putting on the Anchor. Every duty station that I have had has been my favorite. I loved the USS Harry S. Truman, my first ship, I made some lifelong friends there, did the first deployment of my career, the Truman’s maiden deployment in 2000-2001. I made First Class [E-6] on keys words, that Cruise. I loved my staff tour at Prototype, I had never been that challenged in introduction to thesis, a position in my life, I loved the many complexities that arose from resume keys words keeping a 50+ year old Reactor running while continually performing student training. I loved my tour on the USS Theodore Roosevelt, where I matured as a Chief Petty Officer, I learned more from my guys there than I have learned from any instructor in any class in my entire life. I have never worked with more intelligent or professional people, and correct layout letter uk, again, I made some life-long friends.

I am also thoroughly enjoying my tour at Nuclear Power School, having the opportunity to influence the next generation of resume keys words, Nuclear Operators is something that I am incredibly honored to have the opportunity to do. Not to environment, mention the ability to train Officers for 2 full years, teaching 6 consecutive classes, nearly 200 Officer Students the principles of Electrical Engineering, and finally get the opportunity to stress to resume words, them the on overcoming fear of public speaking, importance of Electrical Safety, and KNOWING the Electric Plant has been amazing. I know that you have done a lot of teaching at resume keys words NPS Charleston, and that you have taught both Enlisted and Officer Nukes. What are the differences and similarities teaching Officers vs. Coursework! Enlisted? I was filled with a lot of resume keys words, trepidation prior to islam and science, heading up to the “3 rd Deck” and teaching Officers. I had heard that they were ‘unteachable’, and resume keys words, had huge chips on environment, their shoulder. Nothing could be further from the truth. Officers are just like the Enlisted, the differences are much smaller than anyone could possibly imagine.

I have met some Enlisted folks smarter than any Officer… I have met Officers who even as students could run a 90 man division flawlessly. I think overall, I enjoy teaching enlisted more, but that may be because I remember what it was like to keys, be in their shoes. What did the Navy teach you about being a leader? I left the Navy as an E5, and I feel like I missed a lot of valuable leadership experience that I might have gained as an E6 or E7. What have you learned about very good essays leading people since making Chief and later Senior Chief?

When I was an resume keys, E-6, I think I had a tremendous chip on my shoulder. I felt like I had something to correct cover letter, prove. As a Staff Instructor at Prototype, I felt like I had to be mean in resume keys words, order to be heard. I made Chief Petty Officer toward the end of essay and science, my tour at Prototype, and I ended up as a JUNIOR CPO on the Roosevelt. While I was there, I relied heavily on my Work Center Supervisors, Maintenance Group Supervisors and LPO’s, to assist me, since the last time I was on a Carrier, I was a junior First Class. I learned so much from the folks who worked with me, and resume keys, it truly humbled me. I made some mistakes while I was there, and you better believe they’ll NEVER let me forget, but for that, I appreciate them. I never would be where I am now if it wasn’t for of public speaking, them. I will never forget that. And that, I suppose is what I am taking away from the words, Navy as a leader.

You treat your people with respect, treat your people like YOU would want to be treated. Introduction Report Writing! It sounds trite, but it is resume words shockingly effective. And the hardest lesson to learn of essay of public speaking, all: Never be afraid to say, “I don’t know, but I’ll find out for you”. Pride has gotten more people into more trouble than any other trait. There are a lot of keys, Nukes out there like myself, who leave the Navy at E5 and in writing, civilian life are suddenly thrust into resume keys, leadership roles as Engineers or Lead Technicians. My first Engineer job after the narrative, Navy I was supervising 6 unruly Mechanical Technicians at NASA. Words! What advice would you give me to improve my leadership skills? Try to put yourself into their shoes. Why were they unruly?

Did they have issues at home? Are they unsatisfied with their work? Are they working too many hours? Too few? Are they actually engaged in working while they are at correct layout for a letter uk work?

Remember all the stories about resume keys words bored Nukes. If someone is working at NASA, chances are they’re smarter than the average bear. To Thesis! People like that NEED to keys words, be challenged. If they are not, they get bored, and report, hijinks will be sure to follow. Let’s switch gears a bit and talk about your job finding process. Keys Words! You are leaving the Navy in October 2014, what actions have you taken at this point to start finding a job, what do you wish you were doing better, and what do you feel you are doing right? Right off, I’ll say that the concept of switching gears completely and starting over at the bottom of the totem pole frightens me to no end. I am quite confident I will have no problem taking orders from ethics and the environment essay someone 10 or 15 years younger than me, who got out resume of the Navy 3 years ago as a 6-and-out 3 rd Class. That doesn’t bother me.

Just the true uncertainty that exists in the civilian job market, it is quite intimidating, and environment essay, the thought that my family depends upon me finding a job. This has led to me researching as much as possible different job opportunities that exist in the civilian world for someone with my specific skill set and resume, experience. I have done hours and hours of research into the Nuclear Generation Field, both NLO and RO/SRO jobs, also looked at Coal/LNG/NG, Hydro, Wind Farms, Solar, etc, etc. Looked at Data Centers, Manufacturing Facilities, I have taken a college course in Programmable Logic Controllers, I finished a degree in aqa a-level, Nuclear Engineering Technology. I am finishing up my NERC Reliability Coordinator Certification. I wrote a few resumes, I have a profile on monster.com, I have a LinkedIn profile.

I have joined a few different groups on Facebook, and I have been talking to numerous friends out there in the real world, in attempts to get a good handle on what industry I would be most happy in, and resume words, the best way to go about getting a position in that field. However, even with all this preparation, 9 months away from terminal leave, somehow I feel that it isn’t enough. I need to really start getting out there and start getting ‘practice’ interviews, so I can be familiar with the essay fear, interview process. The last time I interviewed for keys, a job, it was for Wal-Mart in 1994. I think he’s doing all the right things. If I could give anyone job hunting advice it would be to focus on talking to ethics environment, actual people.

In any economy, it is important to know how to Crack the Hidden Job Market. Resume Keys Words! In my field at least, you get the best jobs by talking to computing, actual people, as opposed to focusing your job search to online tools. Use LinkedIn, Navy Nuke Job Finder Facebook Group, and resume words, other online tools to get acquainted with actual people and to call, visit, have lunch with those actual people (people who are working where, or in aqa a-level computing coursework, the industry where, you want to resume words, work). Get in ethics essay, touch with your friends who left the Navy, or are leaving soon, ask where they are working, who they know, tell people what you are looking for. Before the interview you sent me a short bio, and looking over your career in the Navy is quite amazing: Pre-Commissioned the Truman, Taught at Prototype, Lead Petty Officer at Prototype, Training Coordinator at Prototype, Lead Chief Petty Officer on resume words, the Roosevelt, made Senior Chief at Nuclear Power School, where you taught Electrical Engineering to Officers and Math to Enlisted students. I don’t know how to convey the magnitude of all that to somebody in aqa a-level coursework, the civilian world. You’re basically a superhero.

I can’t imagine sitting across from a hiring manager with all that experience under my belt. What kind of career do you want after the keys words, Navy, and why? Superhero? No. Essay Islam! I would most certainly just characterize myself as someone who has been lucky enough to have some AMAZING people working for him. The career that I really and truly think I would enjoy the most would be a System Dispatcher, or some other NERC Certified position. Ever since my first Electrical Operator watch on the Truman, I’ve enjoyed operating the electric plant, and since I’ve been studying the civilian electrical distribution system, the more I learn, the more I want to learn. It is an amazing system, and one that I think I would enjoy operating. The sheer amount of information that is required for its operation though is keys words intimidating to say the least. I’ve been studying for the last 2 months, and very good, I only feel like I’m barely scratching the resume words, surface, and I have nearly 20 years of Electrical Operator experience behind me.

Take a look at this post from the Navy Nuke Job Finder Facebook Group: With all of essay, your instructor experience, I imagine that this would be the resume words, perfect job for you, but my question is, do you have any entrepreneurial desires? I’m looking at your career, and I can’t imagine you working for someone else. If you could start your own company, what would that company be, what problems would you solve, how would you go about getting it off the essay and science, ground, and would you hire Nukes? That job actually looks incredibly similar to what I’ve been doing for the last 3 years at Power School, and one of the resume, things that I really enjoyed doing on the Roosevelt, writing and giving training. As far as the entrepreneurial spirit…I think that is better left for younger folk. I have missed both my daughters first words, their first steps, I have missed so many important events in my wife and children’s lives that I don’t think that I would be willing to dedicate the 90-120 hours a week that starting a new business would entail. That being said, the career transition from Military to Civilian is going to very essays, be a huge culture shock for both me and my family, and I am fully expecting 60-80 hour work weeks. But I think I’m about resume 15 years too late for anything involving starting a company.

Would I hire Nukes? Hell yeah. Without a doubt. People talk all the time about how the pipeline is ethics now a pump instead of a filter, and resume, that the students we’re putting out in the fleet are so much worse than students years ago…I strongly disagree. They are not the same student, but they are no worse than any in the past at least 20 years. Maybe even smarter. Granted, there will always be those bad seeds, those sailors who just can’t cut it in ANY job, but the to thesis, interview process is designed to weed people like that out. Thanks for your service Senior Chief, fair winds and resume words, smooth sailing. Two more things I want to layout for a, discuss with you Dave, and words, this really just comes from the heart because I don’t often get a chance to ethics and the, say stuff like this to the Nuclear Community. Resume! But, I did six years in the Program and I know EVERYTHING that being a Nuke entails.

I want to tell you from the bottom of my heart that I sincerely appreciate the sacrifices you made. The best Nukes make a 20 year career look easy, but those of us who have served know that there are sacrifices made every day. You served from 1994 to 2014, which means you probably enforced the No Fly Zone before Gulf War II, you were on report, duty when the resume keys words, USS Cole got bombed, you were standing watch when Al-Qaeda attacked on September 11, 2001, Afghanistan, Iraq, the Global War on Terror, you answered the call when this country needed you and you trained a generation of to thesis, Nukes, Officer and Enlisted, to keep this country safe. And I want to say thank you for your service, my family and I appreciate it. Second, if there is anything Navy Navy Nuke Job Finder can do for you, and I mean anything , do not be afraid to ask. Is there anything else you would like to share?

Absolutely. If you are still in resume keys words, the Navy, take advantage of the Government. The Government is ethics environment taking advantage of you, so why not return the favor? Get your degree before you get out. Get a certification.

That is all FREE. Then when you get out, you will have the entire GI Bill to words, get a Masters Degree. And the most important piece of advice: As you move up through the speaking, ranks, NEVER forget where you came from . A special thanks to Dave Rakowski for volunteering his time to NavyNukeJobFinder.com. Resume Words! You can contact Dave via his Linked Profile by clicking here. If you found value in aqa a-level, this article, it would mean a lot to me if you scroll down and keys words, hit one of the share buttons. So this might sound like a dumb question, but I'm in talks with a recruiter for a stationary engineer position. She's asking for credentials from my time in the navy.

I listed my experience from the navy including the pipeline, but it sounds like she's looking for certifications or a curriculum. Anyone know if there's a navy site documenting what the program entails, or another reputable site you've referenced for a question like this? I found my evals from school with my GPA and class standing but it doesn't go into much detail. . Out of curiosity what are some of the job offers or listings that are from random career fields you all have seen after getting out? (Things not related to the normal post nuke jobs) . Hey guys, its been a few years since I was in very, so figured I would post this here and resume words, see what your thoughts are. I have a candidate that is getting out that has been presented to me (hiring manager). Layout For A Uk! He is an E4 with 5 years (nuke EM). Keys Words! Seems to me like there was a masting or something strange since I am generally used to seeing 6 year terms at a minimum and usually E5 or higher. Aqa A-level! Has anything changed in the last few years for Nukes and advancement / initial contract times or do I need to do more digging on this candidate.

I am not against hiring someone who went to Captains Mast especially given how many I saw that were a little harsh but I would want to keys words, at least know that this occurred and why. . Looking to get into aqa a-level coursework, mechanical engineering and design? Looking for keys words, a job with no degree requirement? Getting out and narrative, staying in the south Hampton Roads area? Been out for a while and looking for something new?

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Resume Builder | How to Use Resume Keywords | LiveCareer

7 unusual ways people earn a living. Resume Keys Words. Are you in the career you imagined as a child? Maybe you thought you'd be an astronaut, or a ballerina. If you're like most adults, you're probably doing something far different, but your job likely isn't as bizarre as these unique positions. Here's a look at aqa a-level computing coursework, some of the craziest careers through which people make their money. Running around in resume keys silly clothes teasing an 1,800-pound animal is one of the cool jobs in the rodeo circuit. But the job's not all fun and games. Aqa A-level. A rodeo clown must distract a bull to prevent injury to resume keys the rider, sometimes putting himself at risk. A rodeo clown can perform wherever there are bull-riding events, including Australia and the United States.

Dangers of the job : Going nose to nose with a rodeo bull comes with risks of getting gored, trampled or kicked. Chances are, you'll get injured during your rodeo clown career. The vocation has a 77.4 percent injury rate. How to land the job: Go to rodeo bullfighting or clown school to and science learn the skills needed to entertain the audience and resume keys divert the bull's attention. Get your first gigs at local youth or amateur rodeos to showcase your work. If you're an adrenaline addict, becoming a stunt person might be your ideal version of a fun job. Leaping from introduction to thesis writing, burning buildings, crashing cars and flying through the air are all part of the stunt person's work duties.

Dangers of the job: Ignorance is definitely not bliss as a stunt double; not knowing the proper stunt technique is the number one reason for on-the-job injury, according to the Houston Chronicle. How to land the job: Learn how to safely catch fire, fly on cables and crash cars at keys words, the United Stuntmen's Association 150-hour course in the Seattle area. Send out very good narrative, a reel showcasing your stunts along with your resume. Move to Los Angeles, Vancouver or New York to be in the heart of the film industry and make connections with an unpaid apprenticeship. Income: $50,000 to $100,000 per season. Shows like Deadliest Catch profile the resume keys, life of crab fishermen as they spend months at a time at sea. This weird job is simple, repetitive and physically draining: Maneuver 600 to 800 pound crab pots across the deck and lower them into the water, marking their location.

After the ethics and the environment, pots are full, pull them up and sort the catch. Resume Keys Words. Dangers of the introduction report writing, job: The pay might be lucrative, but crab fishing is resume keys words, one of the most dangerous occupations and definitely not a fun job. Weeks or months at sea, long work hours and to thesis writing winter weather contribute to the industry's high death rate from drowning and hypothermia. Getting knocked over by a crab pot, getting tangled in rope or being swept overboard are all daily dangers. Resume Keys. How to land the job: Although there are no educational requirements to be a crab fisherman, you'll need to be in top physical condition to be considered for a job in the crabbing industry. Operating dangerous machinery, heavy lifting and long hours are the norm for very good essays, months on end. The easiest way to enter the industry is resume, as a crab processor or cook. Ethics And The Essay. 4) LIVESTOCK ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TECHNICIAN. Resume Keys Words. Income: $22,730 to $73,130 per year. Correct Layout Letter. Artificial insemination helps dairy, swine and other livestock farmers create strong herds through selective breeding.

Where one bull might only resume service 100 cows per year, artificial insemination (AI) can increase that number to more than 60,000. An AI tech might collect sperm from a male animal, detect when females come into heat and place sperm into the female's cervix when she is in peak heat. Good communication, record-keeping and animal handling skill are required. You can travel the world as an AI tech helping bring the technology to countries around the globe. Dangers of the job: Liquid nitrogen can freeze human flesh almost immediately, causing severe frostbite. Stressed animals can injure an inseminator if not completely restrained. Strong contractions inside the animal can lead to inseminator arm fatigue.

How to land the job: Although you can learn to inseminate an aqa a-level computing coursework animal in about three days, employers might require additional qualifications such as a degree in livestock, animal husbandry or other related field. Related jobs include general animal technician, where you'll feed and water animals and maintain their facilities. Income: $25,000 to $50,000 per year. If you love making people look beautiful but just can't keep up the chairside chatter, becoming a mortuary cosmetologist might be the answer. Resume Words. As a funeral home beautician, you'll use special techniques such as airbrushing and contouring to make the deceased look like their loved ones remember them. Dangers of the aqa a-level computing coursework, job: Like any funeral industry job, there's a risk of keys words illness from exposure to viruses or bacteria. How to writing land the resume words, job: A cosmetology license is key to getting into the industry. Some cosmetology schools offer desairology courses for licensed cosmetologists to guide them in using makeup designed for the deceased.

Employers may require previous work experience in very narrative essays cosmetology besides the educational requirements. Income: $40,000 to $70,000 per year. Death can be a traumatic experience not only for those experiencing it, but for those left behind. A death doula helps the dying and their family through the transition from life to what's next. But this job encompasses far more than just helping people come to terms with death. Doulas help create a comforting personal space that enfolds the dying's spiritual and social beliefs during the last few months of life. Resume Keys. They might help with legacy planning, forgiveness rituals, tying up loose ends, at-home funerals and aftercare for correct for a cover, grieving loved ones. Keys. The industry is growing from Canada to India. Dangers of the aqa a-level computing, Job: You'll get constantly exposed to fear, anxiety and depression that's common among those dying or about to lose their loved one. Old squabbles and hard feelings can disrupt the keys, peaceful environment you're there to create.

While you won't be administering any medical treatment to the dying individual, you'll need to take appropriate precautions to prevent catching any communicable diseases. Ethics Essay. How to resume words land the job: Many death doulas have experience in the healthcare field, but it is not necessary. Certification courses can help you get the practical skills and business savvy to enter the field. Essay Islam And Science. Although a few hospitals and hospices offer doula care, as an resume keys end-of-life doula you'll be in charge of creating your own client base. 7) PROFESSIONAL BRIDESMAID. Income : $150 to $2,000 per to thesis report, wedding, depending on services provided. Always being a bridesmaid can be a good thing if you're getting paid for it.

The honor bestowed on family or friends to be bridesmaids comes with a lot of responsibility, and some people need help to get everything done. The professional bridesmaid shoulders those tasks, letting the family and friends enjoy the wedding festivities. From managing the resume, pre-wedding to-do lists, balancing the budget and coaching bridesmaids and maids of honor, the pro bridesmaid might tackle any and every part of the essay, wedding process. Resume Words. Dangers of the job: Bridezilla, MOB-zilla and coursework MOH-zilla, to name a few. Being anything less than intricately organized can cause normally happy clients to turn into the aforementioned monsters if everything doesn't go off without a hitch.

How to resume land the job: Being a professional bridesmaid is another one of those cool jobs you can't major in when you go to college. Great social skills and a business background helps, but an intricate knowledge of the wedding industry is most important. Fear Speaking. You can learn from industry professionals through online training courses. Originally published on GoBankingRates.com: https://www.gobankingrates.com/personal-finance/bizarre-ways-people-earn-living-around-world/ 20 of the coolest places to retire in the world. Find out what activities and attractions make these 20 cities and town some of the resume keys, best places to retire around the world. 10 products you should never buy generic. Generics are a great way to coursework save money in lots of cases, but here is a look at some clear exceptions. How Stephen Paddock made his guns even deadlier.

Senators express shock at Equifax's IRS contract. How U.S. seafood fans may unwittingly help fund North Korea. Hurricanes hurt small business jobs. New Sonos speaker will be fluent in Amazon, Google, Apple. Former Equifax CEO testifies before House Energy Committee - as it happened. Resume Keys Words. The 9 most lucrative college majors. 7 traits of people who struggle financially. Quotes delayed at introduction to thesis report writing, least 15 minutes. Market data provided by ICE Data Services.

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Downsizing the Federal Government. Your Guide to Cutting Federal Spending. The Federal Emergency Management Agency: Floods, Failures, and Federalism. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the lead federal agency for disaster preparedness, response, and words relief. FEMA’s budget fluctuates from year to year, but spending has trended sharply upwards in recent decades.

The agency spent $22 billion in fiscal 2013 and $10 billion in fiscal 2014. The main activity of FEMA is distributing aid to individuals and state and local governments after natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes. In addition, the agency provides ongoing grants to islam and science the states for disaster preparedness, and it operates the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA’s response to some major disasters has been slow, disorganized, and profligate. The agency’s actions have sometimes been harmful, such as when it has blocked the relief efforts of words, other organizations.

FEMA’s dismal response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 dramatized the agency’s bureaucratic dysfunction. FEMA’s grants for disaster preparedness are known for very wastefulness. As for the NFIP, its insurance subsidies are spurring development in flood-prone areas, which in turn is increasing the damage caused by floods. Resume Keys? The NFIP also encourages an essay and science, expansion of federal regulatory control over keys, local land-use planning. Federalism is supposed to undergird America’s system of handling disasters, particularly natural disasters. State, local, and very narrative essays private organizations should play the dominant role. Keys? Looking at American history, many disasters have generated large outpourings of aid by essay on overcoming fear of public speaking, individuals, businesses, and charitable groups.

Today, however, growing federal intervention is undermining the role of private institutions and the states in handling disasters. Policymakers should reverse course and keys words begin cutting FEMA. Ultimately, the agency should be closed down by ending aid programs for disaster preparedness and relief and privatizing flood insurance. President Jimmy Carter created the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by executive order in 1979 to coordinate the government’s growing involvement in disasters. And Science? Among federal agencies, FEMA has the lead role in helping communities respond to both natural and words man-made disasters. However, the great bulk of essay islam and science, FEMA spending is for natural disasters, which are the main focus of this essay.

Aside from disaster relief, FEMA provides ongoing aid to the states for emergency preparedness, and it operates the National Flood Insurance Program. FEMA employees are generally not first responders. Instead, their main role is resume, providing financial aid to state and local governments and introduction report writing individuals. FEMA spent $10 billion in fiscal 2014, but annual expenditures fluctuate depending on the occurrence of disasters. 1 Spending has trended upwards in recent decades as federal aid packages have become larger and more frequent. Annual average FEMA spending was $0.7 billion in the 1980s, $2.8 billion in the 1990s, $13 billion in the 2000s, and $13 billion so far in the 2010s. Since 2000, 61 percent of FEMA spending has been for disaster relief, 20 percent has been for ongoing grants to state and local governments, and 12 percent has gone to the NFIP. Keys? 2 The remaining 7 percent has gone to ethics and the environment essay other programs and administrative costs.

Prior to the mid-20th century, federal involvement in disasters was generally limited to the activities of the U.S. military, which provided relief after some major disasters. There was very little civilian federal involvement in disasters, which were the responsibility of state and resume keys local governments and the private sector. But since the 1950s, federal intervention has grown as numerous laws have expanded the scope of introduction report, federal authority and as policymakers have increased spending. Nonetheless, the federal role is resume keys words, still supposed to be very limited under current law. Under the 1988 Stafford Act, the federal government is supposed to ethics get involved in disasters only resume words if they are of “such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and the affected local governments.” 3 A very limited federal role is appropriate under the American system of federalism. Aqa A-level Computing? State and local governments and the private sector should fund disaster preparedness and relief for disasters by themselves, unless it is truly beyond their capabilities. And even then, states hit by disasters can rely on aid from other states. Federal involvement is keys words, appropriate when it has unique capabilities to and the essay offer. The Coast Guard’s search and rescue operations are often vital after hurricanes.

And the National Guard under state command can provide a crucial resource after major disasters, both for law enforcement purposes and relief operations. Resume Words? Other federal agencies have unique resources to deal with threats such as terrorism, pandemics, and chemical and biological attacks. However, the great majority of what FEMA does is not unique. Rather, FEMA’s main role is simply to transfer money from federal taxpayers to state and local governments and writing individuals for resume keys words disaster-related costs. But there are few, if any, advantages in funding these costs from the federal level, and there are many disadvantages, as this study discusses. The first section provides a brief history of disaster response in environment the United States. The next section discusses the threat posed by resume, the rising federalization of disaster preparedness, response, and relief. Federal policymakers are increasingly ignoring the Stafford Act limit, which could undermine the effectiveness of the nation’s disaster response system. Then the study examines FEMA’s performance in disaster response. The agency’s efforts have often been plagued by poor decisionmaking, wasteful spending, and excessive bureaucracy.

Some of its actions have been counterproductive and essay on overcoming speaking harmful. FEMA’s confused response to Hurricane Katrina was a prime example of the dysfunction that the agency has become known for. Next, the study looks at FEMA’s ongoing grants to state and local governments for disaster preparedness, which are mainly grants for local emergency services. These grants have often wasted money on low-value activities. Resume Words? It is more efficient to fund local emergency services—such as fire and police—locally. Lastly, the study examines the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).

For decades, the NFIP has been subsidizing development in flood-prone areas, which has ended up putting more property at risk and exacerbating the damage from floods. The NFIP has also undermined federalism by increasing federal regulation of local land-use planning. The essay concludes that policymakers should end FEMA aid for disaster preparedness, response, and relief. They should repeal the NFIP and move flood insurance to the private sector. To Thesis Report? Those reforms would reduce FEMA spending by more than 90 percent. Remaining activities that may fulfill a unique role—such as flood mapping, planning for the continuity of government, and preparedness for technological and radiological hazards—should be moved to other federal agencies. With these reforms, FEMA should be closed down. Since the 19th century, the federal government through the U.S. military has occasionally provided aid after major disasters. Resume Keys Words? 4 Until the mid-20th century, however, civilian federal aid for computing coursework disasters was rare. After some disasters, Congress passed specific relief legislation, but many times it did not.

Relief bills were often blocked because policymakers did not believe that aid was a proper role for resume the federal government. 5 Between 1803 and 1947, Congress passed legislation just 128 times to either express sympathy for victims of particular disasters or to provide some modest aid. 6. In 1802 Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was destroyed by a fire. On Overcoming Speaking? Fortunately, a large number of private donations totaling more than $45,000 poured in resume keys from around the country to essay islam and science help rebuild the town. 7 Congress provided aid in keys the form of temporarily suspending duties owed to the federal government by merchants in the town. Introduction? 8 Duties on Portsmouth trade were an important source of federal revenues, so the government had an interest in allowing the merchants to resume keys get back on essay islam and science, their feet. In 1812 Congress provided $50,000 for aid to victims of an earthquake in the new republic of Venezuela, apparently for foreign policy reasons. 9. In 1815 Congress passed the New Madrid Relief Act, which provided aid to rural Missourians after a series of resume keys, earthquakes.

The aid bill led to dissention and scandal. The act allowed victims in Missouri to exchange their damaged properties for certificates to acquire land elsewhere. But outside speculators descended on the area to buy land at bargain prices from owners who had not yet heard about the federal relief. At the same time, some owners who knew about the relief sold title to their land to very narrative multiple different speculators. The resulting unfairness of the process led to large amounts of litigation, which took decades to resolve. 10. In 1827 Congress gave $20,000 in aid to Alexandria, Virginia, after a major fire. Even though the resume keys words town was part of the District of Columbia at the time, many members of Congress questioned the constitutionality of aqa a-level coursework, providing public money to aid private individuals. 11.

In 1835 the Great Fire of Manhattan razed 674 buildings over 50 acres in keys New York City. Congress passed legislation temporarily suspending payments owed to the federal government by the city’s affected merchants. 12. In 1871 the Great Chicago Fire left about 300 people dead and 90,000 homeless. The U.S.

Army helped to restore order and provide security until the city got back on its feet. 13 Within days of the disaster, huge amounts of aid from aqa a-level, individuals, charitable groups, businesses, and other cities poured in from around the keys nation and very narrative abroad. 14 Chicago rebuilt very quickly. The private organization Chicago Relief and Aid Society played the dominant role in coordinating the huge relief efforts. 15 The effective efforts of the Society were based on the organization’s deep roots in the local community and its skilled leadership by experienced business people. In 1878 Congress passed the Posse Comitatus Act, which has had important implications for the federal role in disasters. The Act generally bars military forces under federal command from being used for civilian law enforcement purposes. 16 Under current law, federal military personnel may be used for disaster relief operations at the request of resume keys words, a state, but not for very good narrative essays law enforcement. 17 By contrast, National Guard units under the command of state governors are available to aid in law enforcement in disaster situations, as they were after Hurricane Katrina when the New Orleans police force collapsed.

In 1887 President Grover Cleveland famously vetoed a bill that would have provided $10,000 in aid to drought-stricken Texas farmers because of his concerns about constitutional federalism. In his veto message, Cleveland said, I can find no warrant for such an appropriation in the Constitution; and I do not believe that the power and duty of the General Government ought to be extended to the relief of individual suffering which is in no manner properly related to words the public service or benefit. A prevalent tendency to disregard the limited mission of of public, this power and duty should, I think, be steadily resisted, to the end that the lesson should be constantly enforced that, though the people support the Government, the Government should not support the people.” 18. In 1906 San Francisco was struck by a massive earthquake and fire that destroyed 80 percent of the resume keys city and ethics essay killed about 3,000 people. Keys Words? 19 At least 225,000 people out of about 400,000 in essay the city were left homeless, and 28,000 buildings were wrecked. 20.

The San Francisco earthquake is remembered not just for the terrible destruction it caused, but also for resume keys the remarkably rapid rebuilding of the city. More than 200,000 residents initially left the city, but the population recovered to pre-quake levels within just three years, and residents quickly rebuilt about essay islam, 20,000 buildings. 21. The private sector response to the disaster was extremely impressive. Voluntary aid poured in from around the keys words country. John D. And Science? Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and W.W. Astor, for example, each donated $100,000.

22 Charitable groups, including the Salvation Army and the Red Cross, played a large role in resume words relief efforts. The health care and computing coursework home-products company Johnson and keys words Johnson quickly loaded rail cars full of donated medical supplies and sent them to introduction report writing San Francisco. 23. The insurance industry was crucial to the rebuilding. About 90 percent of San Francisco residents had fire insurance from resume, more than 100 different companies. Layout For A Uk? 24 The companies ended up paying out a massive $225 million in claims, which was equal to what the entire U.S. Keys Words? insurance industry had earned in profits in the prior four decades.

25 Insurance payouts totaled about 90 percent of what was owed, as only a relatively small number of companies failed. 26. The banking system was devastated, with nearly all of San Francisco’s bank buildings destroyed. The small bank owned by Amadeo Giannini, which he had opened just two years earlier, was also ruined. But Giannini was able to rescue his gold and securities, and layout uk the next day he opened for business on a wharf on San Francisco Bay. His rapid response and willingness to provide loans to resume keys all types of people after the disaster helped him gain the respect of the city.

His bank would eventually grow to computing coursework be the second-largest in the nation, the Bank of America. Another impressive story is that of the Southern Pacific Railroad, which immediately swung into action and provided free evacuation for more than 200,000 city residents to anywhere in the country. 27 Within five days of the resume words earthquake, the company had filled 5,783 rail cars with passengers leaving the ethics environment essay city. 28 Southern Pacific president Edward Harriman made disaster response the highest priority of his rail network. 29 Only one day after the earthquake, the keys words first of his rail cars full of layout for a cover, emergency supplies left Omaha for San Francisco. Keys? 30 Harriman personally donated $200,000 to relief efforts.

31. What about the for a letter uk government response to the San Francisco conflagration? The city had unfortunately suffered for years from a corrupt local government. The good news was that in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, leading citizens formed essentially a new city government called the “Committee of 50,” which was credited with a very organized and effective disaster response. Words? 32 For its part, Congress appropriated just $2.5 million for relief to San Francisco, or about $50 million in today’s dollars. 33. The main federal organization that responded was the U.S. Army, which moved quickly to take control of the city and provide water, food, tents, and other relief items. Within five hours of the earthquake hitting, the Army had 1,500 troops in the city. Fear? 34 Some of the actions of the Army were controversial, but the swift response by the commander of the nearby Presidio base is an example of keys words, how local resources and local decisionmaking are crucial in the aftermath of disasters. 35.

In 1913 the Great Easter Flood ravaged a huge area in one of the most widespread and damaging disasters to ever strike the United States. Narrative? 36 High winds and massive flooding caused destruction and more than 1,000 deaths across 14 states from Vermont to Alabama. Words? The U.S. military aided with relief operations, and the National Guard was mobilized in numerous states. Americans responded with huge contributions to the Red Cross and other charitable organizations aiding victims. 37. Ohio was the aqa a-level computing hardest hit state, and Dayton probably the hardest hit city.

It was built on a flood plain, so when the resume words city’s levee system collapsed it resulted in introduction report writing disastrous flooding. Fortunately for Dayton, it was home to the National Cash Register Company (NCR) under President John Patterson. Resume Words? Seeing the flood disaster that was about to essay and science happen, Patterson seized the initiative and NCR become the central funder and organizer of relief in resume keys words the city. NCR built 300 boats to rescue flood victims, organized search teams, and provided meals and cover shelter for thousands of people. On its peak day, NCR’s kitchens provided meals for 83,000 flood victims. Resume? 38 NCR headquarters also became the base of operations for the Red Cross and cover Ohio National Guard. 39. John Patterson was an interesting leader.

He instituted innovative and enlightened management practices, such as providing a wide range of keys words, recreation and medical amenities for workers. But he was also an aggressive businessman, and he and other NCR executives were found guilty of violating federal antitrust laws just weeks before the flood, although this was reversed on to thesis report, appeal. Resume? 40 NCR’s leaders apparently saw a chance to redeem themselves in the eyes of the community, and aqa a-level coursework their remarkable efforts to save their city during the flood gained them national praise. Historian Trudy Bell writes in detail about the resume keys 1913 disaster. 41 One of her interesting findings is that there were widespread refusals of aid by affected individuals and communities, apparently because of cultural norms at the time regarding personal pride and the belief in standing on one’s own feet. 42 In 1913 some people and communities even gave back unused amounts of aid that they had received.

These days, sadly, the situation is the reverse: there is ethics and the, a large amount of fraud in relief programs in resume words the wake of disasters. In 1917 War Department regulations established precedents that guided the federal role in disaster relief in subsequent decades. 43 The rules specified that state governments have primary responsibility for disaster response, federal resources should supplement not supplant state efforts, and federal aid is appropriate only when state governments are truly overwhelmed. In 1927 one of the most damaging floods in U.S. history occurred when the Mississippi River and tributaries broke out of levee systems in many places. Report? The Great Mississippi Flood highlighted failures of the Army Corps of Engineers’ approach to resume keys words flood control.

44 In annual reports before the flood, the aqa a-level computing coursework Corps told Congress that the resume keys words Mississippi was safe from aqa a-level computing coursework, serious flooding. 45. In the flood’s aftermath, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Herbert Hoover to lead the federal disaster response, which mainly involved helping to coordinate private relief efforts. 46 Those private efforts included the Red Cross’s huge achievement in providing hundreds of thousands of resume keys, people food and shelter in temporary camps. Computing? 47 Hoover made appeals to the public for resume keys donations and was impressed by ethics and the environment, the generosity of resume words, so many people: “No other Main Street in the world could have done what the American Main Street did in the Mississippi flood… . The safety of the aqa a-level computing United States is its multitudinous mass leadership.” 48. Despite Hoover’s prominent role in keys words the 1927 flood, federal relief spending for natural disasters remained modest and sporadic. It was the aqa a-level computing Disaster Relief Act of 1950 that started to change that by creating a permanent, civilian structure for federal disaster relief. The Act authorized only a small amount of funding, but it gave the keys president continuing authority to respond to hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, floods, and correct layout cover other events with various types of aid. 49. The 1950 law reaffirmed that the federal role was to provide supplementary aid to state and local governments only in the severest of emergencies.

In 1953 President Harry Truman issued Executive Order 10427, which said that federal disaster relief should be “supplementary to relief afforded by state, local, or private agencies and not in substitution.” 50. In the decades after the 1950 law, Congress expanded the resume words scope of federal aid in more than a dozen laws. Ethics And The Essay? As an resume keys, example, federal aid was initially only provided to on overcoming fear of public local governments, and generally not individuals. Keys Words? But Congress added aid for individuals in the Disaster Relief Act of 1970. 51. In 1968 the National Flood Insurance Act offered federal insurance to properties at risk for flooding. A key justification by supporters of federal flood insurance was that it would alleviate the need to pass special aid legislation after each flood disaster. As it has turned out, however, taxpayers are now both subsidizing flood insurance and paying for special relief bills passed after floods.

The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 created the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. This administration was the main forerunner of FEMA. The 1974 Act also created the current system of presidential “emergency” and “major disaster” declarations for adverse events. The main purpose of the declarations is to authorize a flow of essay islam and science, federal dollars to aid state and local governments and individuals. The number of presidential declarations has soared since the 1970s, as discussed below. In 1979 President Jimmy Carter issued Executive Orders 12127 and 12148 to create and structure the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Carter was prompted to create the new agency after the words confused and ineffective federal responses to Hurricane Agnes in 1972 and the Three Mile Island incident of 1979. 52 His administration patched FEMA together from existing agencies located in aqa a-level coursework various departments.

FEMA’s main responsibilities are to hand out aid and to coordinate the federal response to resume keys words major disasters that overwhelm state and local governments. In 1988 the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act updated the correct layout for a letter framework for presidential disaster declarations and the coordination of keys words, FEMA’s response. 53 The governor of a state may request the president to declare an very narrative, “emergency” or a “major disaster” if an resume words, event “is of such severity and magnitude that effective response is ethics environment essay, beyond the capabilities of the state and the affected local governments and that federal assistance is necessary.” 54 “Emergency” declarations are usually made before disasters such as hurricanes hit, while “major disaster” declarations come after disasters hit and create broad authority for resume keys words federal agencies to aid state and local governments and individuals. In recent years, 86 percent of major disaster declarations requested by governors have been approved by the president. 55.

Aid authorized under the Stafford Act is disbursed from FEMA’s Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). DRF spending fluctuates from year to essay and science year depending on events, but since 2000 has averaged $8.3 billion annually. Resume? 56 Spending peaked at $24 billion in 2006 after Hurricane Katrina. In recent years, 50 percent of DRF spending has gone to aqa a-level computing coursework state and local governments for damaged public facilities and debris removal, 29 percent was spent on individual aid, and the rest was spent on resume, administration and other costs. 57 For public facilities and debris removal, the for a letter uk federal government generally pays 75 percent of the costs and state and keys words local governments pay the good essays other 25 percent. Words? But the president can increase the federal share of these costs, and environment he has done so about three-quarters of the time that governors have asked him to.

58. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) finds that the share of resume keys, DRF funding spent on administration doubled between 1989 and 2011 from 9 percent to 18 percent. 59 Thus, almost a fifth of federal disaster aid is consumed by the paperwork costs. Aqa A-level Computing? The GAO notes that the resume cost to administer some small disaster declarations actually exceeds the amount of federal aid provided. 60. On paper, the aqa a-level coursework Stafford Act reaffirms principles of federalism in disaster response, but in practice it has spurred increased federal intervention in smaller-scale disasters.

Few of the “major disasters” declared in recent decades have actually been major enough to meet the plain language of the statute. 61 Heritage Foundation FEMA expert Matt Mayer notes, “it is clear that the current definition used by FEMA to issue declarations is routinely ignored.” 62 He observes that some declarations are made months after disasters occur, which indicates that the keys words purpose is simply for aqa a-level computing states to get a federal bailout. In 2002 President George W. Bush signed into resume keys words law the Homeland Security Act creating the massive Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which merged 22 existing federal agencies including FEMA. Islam? President Bush promised that the new DHS would “improve efficiency without growing government,” create “future savings,” and cut out “duplicative and redundant activities that drain critical homeland security resources.” 63. It has not turned out that way. Resume Keys Words? DHS’s budget tripled from $18 billion in 2002 to $57 billion by 2013. 64 And, like other federal departments, DHS has become known for mismanagement and essay on overcoming fear speaking wasteful spending. For example, the department’s gigantic new headquarters being planned in Washington, D.C., is over-budget by resume keys, $1.5 billion. 65. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina caused massive damage to the Gulf Coast, flooded New Orleans, and killed more than 1,800 people.

The storm damage was greatly exacerbated by the failures of FEMA, Congress, the Army Corps of Engineers, and state and of public local governments. 66 The fact that FEMA had been buried inside of the new DHS bureaucracy was one factor that may have contributed to the agency’s failed response. Resume Keys Words? Congress appropriated more than $100 billion for environment essay FEMA and other federal agencies for the Katrina response and keys words rebuilding, much of good narrative, which was spent years after the resume keys disaster. 67. FEMA appears to essay on overcoming of public have done a better job in responding to Hurricane Sandy in 2012, although there was still plenty of criticism. 68 With a presidential election only a week away, the Obama administration seemed determined not to be tarred with failure, as was the Bush administration with Katrina. The storm caused an estimated 159 deaths and tens of billions of dollars in damage in New York, New Jersey, and other states. Congress passed a $60 billion relief bill after Sandy, but most the funds were for rebuilding years down the road and other purposes, not for immediate relief. 69 Such spending should be a state, local, and words private responsibility, not a federal one. One interesting aspect of the federal Sandy response was that the aqa a-level coursework president pushed aside FEMA as the lead agency for disaster recovery and keys created a new Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force chaired by the secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). A larger share of the for a cover uk $60 billion Sandy aid money was channeled through HUD than FEMA.

70 These developments suggest an unfortunate broadening of resume keys words, federal subsidy efforts in response to major disasters. Federalization of Disaster Relief. In the U.S. disaster response system, the primary government responsibility is supposed to lie with the states. The federal government is only supposed to play a supporting role in the largest of disasters. Here’s how the and science Congressional Research Service describes the system: The United States takes a “bottom up” approach to both managing and providing assistance during a disaster.

The responsibility for responding to disasters begins at the local level with elected officials and emergency service personnel. If the keys local governmental resources are overwhelmed, non-governmental organizations in the community and narrative neighboring governmental jurisdictions may be called upon to provide assistance. If those become exhausted, the state and keys tribal governments may supplement the local government’s resources, and the governor may make a state disaster declaration. Very Narrative Essays? Only after both local and state/tribal government resources have been overwhelmed, and the governor of the state has requested assistance, does the federal government begin to “supplement the resume efforts and aqa a-level computing coursework available resources of States, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering. Under this principle, except in the most extraordinary circumstances, the local and state/tribal governments are in resume keys charge of the to thesis disaster response. Resume? FEMA, or any other federal agency, is there to aid the disaster response process through the National Response Framework and programs it administers, and to coordinate federal resources in introduction to thesis report response to state requests—not to be in the lead or take command. 71.

A decentralized approach to disasters makes sense. Under the U.S. Constitution, the powers delegated to the federal government are “few and defined,” as James Madison observed in Federalist 45, while state powers “will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and properties of the keys people, and the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the coursework State.” Constitutionally, the states should generally handle their own disasters. From a practical perspective, it is state, local, and private organizations and resources that are on the scene and available to immediately assist in resume emergencies. State and local governments employ 1.3 million people in police forces and fire departments, and those first responders are spread out across our huge nation. 72 State governors have wideranging responsibilities during disasters, and islam and science they typically have access to special powers, such as being able to order evacuations. As for the private sector, the keys words 9/11 Commission report noted that “because 85 percent of our nation’s critical infrastructure is controlled not by introduction report, governments but by the private sector, private-sector civilians are likely to be the first responders in any future catastrophes.” 73. Nonetheless, the federal government’s role in disasters has been growing steadily in recent decades. This is words, a troubling development. Excessive federal intervention threatens to undermine and crowd out more efficient state, local, and layout for a private disaster response efforts.

Also, federal interventions usually come with top-down rules that stifle innovation and reduce the efficiency of state and local government services. What is the cause of rising federal intervention in disasters? Partly it was the response to 9/11, and partly it is the result of today’s media environment. News reports often imply that the federal government should come to the rescue in response to local emergencies. Presidents often visit disaster sites hoping to make it look like they are in keys words charge.

Television coverage shows officials from FEMA and introduction to thesis report writing other federal agencies on the scene. However, such images give a misleading impression since state governments are actually in charge of disaster situations, and local and private organizations carry out the bulk of response and relief. Homeland security expert James Miskel notes that FEMA leaders in resume keys words disaster areas have “no directive authority and can only ethics environment request or suggest actions by the state.” 74. The bipartisan House report on resume, Katrina in 2006 noted that “many Americans—and perhaps even some state and local officials—falsely viewed FEMA as some sort of national fire and rescue team” but “FEMA is not a first responder agency.” 75 Instead, for most disasters, the purpose of federal intervention is simply to pay for state, local, and private costs with federal taxpayer dollars. The only federal role for the “vast majority” of declared major disasters is financial.

76. In his book, Disaster Response and Homeland Security , James Miskel writes: In all but a handful of instances, federal disaster relief amounts to a book-keeping exercise in which costs are shifted from the state’s ledger to the federal government’s and the federal action consists of little more than writing a check to the affected state and/or local government and subsequently auditing the expenditure. Thus for the typical disaster, the on-the-ground response action is really confined to two of the three system elements: the private sector and essay islam and science the state/local government agencies. In the typical disaster—even the resume keys words typical federally declared disaster—the federal government plays no operational role at all. Even in major disasters the coordination function is led by the affected state or states. When a federal coordinator is appointed, his or her job is to orchestrate the response efforts of federal agencies, not to islam ‘take over’ the keys entire response. 77. The large amount of federal disaster aid that is potentially available to the states has created a political dynamic that has pushed up federal costs. After even small, localized disasters, governors, state politicians, and state congressional delegations often lobby the White House to declare the event a “major disaster” so that the state can access federal aid. As a consequence, the aqa a-level computing number of keys words, disaster declarations has soared in recent decades.

The annual average number was 51 in the 1970s, 29 in the 1980s, 74 in the 1990s, 127 in the 2000s, and 139 so far in the 2010s. 78 There has been more than one disaster declaration every three days, on average, in report writing recent years. Politics infuses the process. Resume Keys Words? Studies find states that are politically important to the president have a better chance of receiving a disaster declaration, and also that states with a member of good essays, Congress serving on the House committee overseeing FEMA typically receive more funding. 79. Recent presidents have tended to declare the most major disasters in the year that they were up for reelection. That was true for Ronald Reagan in 1984, George H. W. Words? Bush in 1992, and Bill Clinton in 1996. Essay Fear Speaking? George W. Bush declared the resume most disasters of his first term in his reelection year of 2004. Aside from politics, another cause of increasing federal intervention is good essays, that the threshold that FEMA uses to determine whether federal aid is appropriate is resume words, “artificially low,” says the GAO. 80 FEMA mainly relies on a per capita damage threshold to determine if federal aid is needed. In 2012 the threshold for damage to public facilities was $1.35 per capita, so that a state with 10 million people would receive federal aid to pay for all disasters causing $13.5 million or more in introduction to thesis report writing damage.

81. GAO finds that FEMA’s dollar thresholds have not kept pace with inflation and growth, so that over time a larger share of disasters are meeting the threshold for aid. Occasional efforts to impose stricter limits have been rebuffed by Congress. 82 Yet the resume words thresholds for federal intervention are absurdly low. GAO finds that in recent years 60 percent of federally declared disasters had a cost of less than $25 million. 83 Even the islam and science smallest state could easily find the money to pay for a disaster of that size. What are the problems created by rising federal intervention?

As noted, it goes against words, the grain of constitutional federalism. And, practically, the great majority of first responder resources are owned and managed locally. Matt Mayer notes, “almost all disasters are indeed local, which is for a letter uk, why the vast majority of them should be responded to, run by, and keys words funded by state and local governments and their taxpayers.” 84. Federal intervention impedes disaster response and rebuilding because of all the extra paperwork involved. James Fossett of the Rockefeller Institute of Government notes that FEMA’s program for aiding state and local governments, “requires local governments to obtain advance approval for each project and pay for each project up front before getting federal reimbursement for their costs, which must be exhaustively documented. These lengthy, complex processes inevitably delay the recovery process and make it difficult to correct for a uk spend money in a timely fashion.” 85 Fossett notes that FEMA does not have sufficient staff to review in a timely fashion the thousands of state and local projects submitted to it for approval after a large storm.

86. Another problem with federal intervention is resume, that it creates inequities between the states. Federal disaster aid means that the costs of aqa a-level coursework, living in more dangerous places, such as on the Florida seacoast, are partly imposed on words, the residents of other states. Some states, such as Michigan, have very few federally declared disasters, but have to foot the bill for ethics essay the states where disasters are more costly 87. People should balance the full costs and benefits of resume words, living in different places in an unsubsidized manner. Florida has more costly natural disasters than Michigan, but people should trade that off against the extra sun and warmth. The federal government should not incentivize people to live in Florida, but that is what federal disaster aid does. Perhaps the main problem with federal aid is coursework, that it reduces the resume incentive for state and local governments to essay on overcoming of public speaking prepare for disasters themselves. In his book, Disasters and Democracy , Professor Rutherford Platt concludes that it is “good politics for state and local governments to neglect their own disaster response capabilities in order to make it easier to resume qualify for a presidential declaration.” 88.

A Heritage Foundation study finds that the states have cut their preparedness budgets and rainy day funds in recent years, apparently because they assume that Uncle Sam will pay for disasters. 89 As federal subsidies expand, it may cause a “ratcheting down” of state disaster response capabilities. 90 Adding to for a cover letter uk the problem, FEMA may have a bias toward turning down disaster aid for states that have strong emergency capabilities because such states do not “need” federal aid. 91. Experts have long been concerned about these negative incentive effects of federal aid. A White House study under Richard Nixon warned against federal disaster aid that was “so generous that individuals, businesses, and communities have little incentive to resume take initiatives to reduce personal and local hazards.” 92 Vice President Al Gore’s “reinventing government” initiative looked at America’s disaster relief system in the 1990s, and concluded that it “encourages state and islam local elected officials to ask for maximum federal disaster assistance.” 93 The report warned that “the ready availability of keys words, federal funds may actually contribute to disaster losses by reducing incentives for hazard mitigation and preparedness.” 94 Similarly, House and Senate reports after the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake concluded that the availability of federal aid had encouraged state and local governments to neglect disaster preparation and mitigation. 95. In the wake of FEMA’s failures during Hurricane Katrina, Florida governor Jeb Bush warned against proposals that would strengthen federal powers at the expense of the states. He said, “As the governor of introduction to thesis writing, a state that has been hit by seven hurricanes and two tropical storms in the past 13 months, I can say with certainty that federalizing emergency response to catastrophic events would be a disaster as bad as Hurricane Katrina.” 96 And, he said, “if you federalize, all the innovation, creativity and knowledge at the local level would subside.” 97. The upshot is resume, that increased federal intervention would backfire. Essay On Overcoming Fear Of Public Speaking? As Matt Mayer says, the “states should not be rewarded for being underprepared,” which they are under the current system.

98 Indeed, federal disaster aid in recent years is almost treated as if a state has won the lottery. After Hurricane Sandy, politicians in the affected states announced grand ideas about how they wanted to words spend the tens of billions of dollars of federal relief money. Aqa A-level Coursework? A Bloomberg headline captured the essence: “Sandy Seen as Stimulus, Thanks to Rebuilding.” 99. A federal response is, of course, crucial for terrorism and other threats where federal agencies have unique capabilities that states do not have. Federal agencies, for example, have specialized resources to handle chemical and biological attacks, pandemics, and nuclear threats.

And, as discussed in this essay, the Coast Guard plays a crucial role in hurricane disasters, while the U.S. military is sometimes called into service for relief in truly major disasters. Resume? But nearly all of FEMA’s spending is for natural disaster preparedness, response, and relief that should be funded at aqa a-level the state, local, and resume keys words private levels. After numerous disasters, FEMA has been criticized for its slow response, wasteful spending, red tape, and poor coordination. FEMA’s response to Hurricane Katrina exemplified those problems, but it was only one “in a series of introduction, major hurricanes in which the overall system performed poorly,” according to security expert James Miskel. 100 He notes that “an objective examination of FEMA’s history suggests that bureaucratic weakness is the rule rather than the exception for the agency.” 101. FEMA’s poor response to words Hurricane Andrew in 1992 illustrated some of the agency’s shortcomings.

Andrew, which struck southern Florida, caused 61 deaths and was the third most costly hurricane in U.S. history, after Katrina and Sandy. 102 “The federal response … was fraught with delays and computing major problems,” notes Platt. 103 It took a long time for FEMA to get a detailed assessment of damage and to determine the needs of the resume words victims. Ethics And The? 104 The agency made poor decisions, such as setting up telephone banks for victims to call in for aid—even though 150,000 people had lost phone service. Words? 105. Another blunder was that FEMA did not arrange for pre-positioned supplies at essay and science locations close to the coming hurricane because of its misunderstanding of actions allowed before a presidential disaster declaration. 106 In the resume keys words days leading up to Andrew’s landfall, the essay islam and science Department of Defense readied supplies to keys words be shipped to South Florida, but because of aqa a-level, FEMA’s flawed understanding of proper procedures, it did not authorize the shipments. One official report on Hurricane Andrew concluded that too many senior federal officials were political appointees without adequate experience in disaster response. 107 There were also many reports of fraud and waste in FEMA’s relief efforts. Overseeing a hearing on Andrew in 1992, Sen.

Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) said, “I am outraged by words, the federal government’s pathetically sluggish response and ill-planned response to the devastating disaster wrought by ethics and the essay, Hurricane Andrew … Time and again the federal government has failed to respond quickly and effectively to resume keys major disasters.” 108. Meanwhile, the U.S. Of Public Speaking? military, the National Guard, and the private sector played large and effective roles in responding to Hurricane Andrew. 109 The military provided supplies such as meals and medical care. National Guardsmen under state command aided local law enforcement. 110 And the private sector response was exemplified by resume, the impressive efforts of very, electric utilities to restore power. Hundreds of crews of resume words, utility workers from across Florida and numerous other states worked tirelessly to fix the huge number of writing, outages. 111. FEMA’s shortcomings, which were apparent during Andrew, were magnified during the agency’s dismal response to keys Hurricane Katrina. Katrina resulted in the flooding of New Orleans, massive destruction along the essay islam Gulf Coast, $100 billion in property damage, and about 1,800 deaths. Weather forecasters warned the public and policymakers about the hurricane’s approach, and so governments should have been ready for it. But they were not, and resume Katrina exposed major failures in correct cover disaster preparedness and response by FEMA and other federal, state, and local agencies.

Here are a few of the federal failures in the Katrina response: Confusion . Key officials in FEMA and resume DHS were not proactive, they gave faulty information to the public, and they were not adequately trained to aqa a-level computing carry out their roles. Resume Words? The 2006 bipartisan House report on the disaster, A Failure of Initiative , says, “federal agencies, including DHS, had varying degrees of unfamiliarity with their roles and responsibilities under the National Response Plan and National Incident Management System.” 112 The report says there was “general confusion over mission assignments, deployments, and introduction to thesis command structure.” 113 One reason that FEMA was confused was that its executive suites were full of political appointees with little disaster experience. 114 That has been the rule, not the exception with FEMA, which “has often been staffed with executives who were not highly regarded in the field of resume words, disaster relief.” 115 Failure to layout letter Learn . The government was unprepared for Katrina even though it was widely known that such a hurricane was probable, and weather forecasters had been accurate in predicting the advance of Katrina before landfall. 116 A year prior to Katrina, government agencies had performed a simulation exercise—“Hurricane Pam”—for a hurricane of similar strength hitting New Orleans, but governments “failed to learn important lessons” from the exercise. 117 Communications Breakdown . The House report found that there was “a complete breakdown in communications that paralyzed command and control and made situational awareness murky at best.” 118 Agencies could not communicate with each other due to equipment failures and a lack of system interoperability. 119 These problems occurred despite the fact that FEMA and predecessor agencies have been giving grants to state and local governments for emergency communication systems since the beginning of the Cold War.

120 Supply Failures . Resume Keys? Some emergency supplies were prepositioned before the storm, but there was nowhere near enough. Ethics And The Essay? 121 In places that desperately needed help, such as the New Orleans Superdome, it took days to deliver medical supplies. 122 And FEMA wasted huge amounts of resume keys, supplies. It delivered millions of pounds of ice to holding centers in cities far away from the Gulf Coast. FEMA sent truckers carrying ice on wild goose chases across the country. 123 Two years later, the essay islam and science agency ended up throwing out $100 million of words, ice unused. 124 FEMA similarly gave away $85 million worth of household goods purchased for victims that sat unused in warehouses for for a cover letter two years.

125 The agency paid for 25,000 mobile homes costing $900 million, but these went almost totally unused due to FEMA’s own regulations that such homes cannot be used on flood plains, which is where most Katrina victims lived. 126 Indecision . Indecision plagued government leaders in resume keys words numerous areas, such as the deployment of supplies, medical personnel, and other items. 127 Even the grisly task of body recovery after Katrina was slow and confused. Correct Uk? Bodies went uncollected for days “as state and federal officials remained indecisive on a body recovery plan.” 128 FEMA waited for Louisiana to make decisions about resume keys words, bodies, but the essay of public governor of Louisiana blamed FEMA’s tardiness in keys words making a deal with a contractor. Similar problems of too many bureaucratic cooks in the kitchen hampered decisionmaking in areas such as organizing evacuations and providing law enforcement resources to Louisiana. And before the storm, too many agencies were responsible for New Orleans’ levees, so nobody took responsibility for the deficiencies. Fraud and Abuse . Free-flowing Katrina aid unleased a torrent of fraud and for a cover letter uk abuse. GAO estimated that $1 billion or more in aid payments for individuals were invalid or fraudulent. Resume Keys Words? 129 Other estimates put the total waste at up to $2 billion.

130 An Associated Press analysis found that “people claiming to live in as many as 162,750 homes that did not exist before the essay storms may have improperly received as much as $1 billion in tax money.” 131 A New York Times investigation concluded: “Among the resume keys many superlatives associated with Hurricane Katrina can now be added this one: it produced one of the most extraordinary displays of scams, schemes and stupefying bureaucratic bungles in modern history, costing taxpayers up to $2 billion.” 132. Perhaps the computing most appalling aspect of the federal response was that FEMA frequently obstructed the resume keys words relief efforts of essay, other organizations. Keys? Here are some examples: FEMA repeatedly blocked the delivery of emergency supplies ordered by the Methodist Hospital in New Orleans from its out-of-state headquarters. 133 FEMA turned away doctors volunteering their services at environment emergency facilities. Methodist’s sister hospital, Chalmette, for example, sent doctors to the emergency facility set up at New Orleans Airport to keys offer their services, but were turned away because their names were not in very narrative essays a government database. Resume Words? 134 Private medical air transport companies played an important role in aqa a-level computing coursework evacuations after Katrina. But FEMA officials provided no help in coordinating these services, and they actively blocked some of the flights.

135 FEMA “refused Amtrak’s offer to resume words evacuate victims, and wouldn’t return calls from the American Bus Association.” 136 Indeed, both the Motorcoach Association and the American Bus Association could not get through to anyone at FEMA to offer help for evacuations. 137 The Red Cross was denied access to aqa a-level computing the Superdome in New Orleans to resume keys words deliver emergency supplies. 138 FEMA turned away trucks from Walmart loaded with water for New Orleans, and it prevented the aqa a-level computing Coast Guard from delivering diesel fuel. 139 Offers of emergency supplies, vehicles, and specialized equipment from resume words, other nations were caught in federal red tape and shipments were delayed. 140. A New York Times article during the disaster said there was “uncertainty over who was in charge” and and the essay “incomprehensible red tape.” 141 A key problem that Katrina made clear is that the government’s emergency response system has become far too complex. The system “fractionates responsibilities” across multiple layers of governments and multiple agencies. 142 There are 29 different federal agencies that have a role in disaster relief under the National Response Framework. 143 These agencies are involved in 15 different cross-agency “Emergency Support Functions.” There is keys words, also a National Incident Management System, a National Disaster Recovery Framework, and numerous other “national” structures that are supposed to coordinate action. In 2006 the head of the bipartisan Senate committee that investigated Katrina, Sen.Susan Collins (R-ME), concluded that FEMA was a “shambles and beyond repair.” 144 But her committee proposed replacing it with a larger and correct layout for a more powerful agency, which is exactly the resume keys wrong way to go.

It is the intense bureaucracy that helped to cause the indecision and mismanagement we saw with Katrina, and so we do not need more of very good essays, that. Disaster expert Rutherford Platt noted in his 1999 book that “during the words past 50 years, Congress has created a legal edifice of byzantine complexity to cope with natural disasters.” 145 We have arrived at a point where “the numbers of and variety of federal agencies involved in disaster-related activities are breathtaking.” 146 The complexity has become worse over ethics environment, the past 15 years. Here is one example: in an 84-page memo describing a single FEMA program, I counted 113 different acronyms, each referring to different homeland security structures, laws, and procedures. 147 The federal government’s official response framework is keys, so complicated that it is has been partly ignored during some disasters. 148. That said, some government agencies performed very well, even heroically, during Katrina. Aqa A-level Computing? The Coast Guard’s performance, for words example, was widely lauded. Introduction? It rapidly deployed 4,000 service members, 37 aircraft, and 78 boats to the area. 149 The agency rescued more than 30,000 people in the days following the storm. 150.

Why did the Coast Guard succeed? Unlike FEMA, it has decentralized operations and relies much more on local decisionmaking. Coast Guard employees live in local communities and words are familiar with local leaders and institutions, so they were able to good essays make decisions rapidly during Katrina based on the best information. 151 One expert writing about the keys words Coast Guard’s culture says, “the Coast Guard has always emphasized decentralization with much decisionmaking authority vested in the commander on the scene.” 152. Coast Guard officers have an “ethos of essay and science, independent action,” which was crucial in the first days after Katrina when communications with higher authorities were down. 153 Indeed, some people in the Coast Guard viewed it as a “blessing” that communications were down because that allowed them to swing into action quickly, rather than having to wait for instructions and fill out paperwork. 154 The Coast Guard also has a fairly precise set of missions, while FEMA has more amorphous functions. A final factor is that the Coast Guard is more insulated from politics than is FEMA.

The National Guard under state command also played a crucial role during Katrina, as it has during other disasters. The Guard helped to reestablish law and order in New Orleans after the local police force was devastated. A key strength of the National Guard is the keys words cross-state agreements in essay place for Guard units to share personnel and resume assets when disaster strikes. The 50,000 National Guardsmen providing relief after Katrina were from fear of public, 49 states of the union. They “participated in every aspect of resume words, emergency response, from medical care to law enforcement and debris removal, and good narrative were considered invaluable by Louisiana and Mississippi officials.” 155. The private sector also played a huge and effective role during Katrina. Within the first four months after Katrina, private donations had topped $3 billion. 156 The Red Cross, which swelled to a 220,000-person operation, had 239 shelters ready to house 40,000 evacuees on the day Katrina made landfall.

In subsequent days, the shelters expanded to resume keys words a peak of 146,000 evacuees and the organization served 52 million meals and snacks to hurricane survivors. 157 The Salvation Army housed a peak of 30,000 evacuees in 225 shelters. During Katrina and letter uk other disasters, for-profit businesses have also been very important. Insurance companies send teams to affected areas that accelerate pay-outs to keys words covered homeowners and offer quick loans to essay fear of public help people cover costs while their claims are being processed. 158 Electric utilities rush extra crews to disaster areas. They usually have standing agreements with nearby utilities for mutual aid. Utility companies have a strong financial incentive to return power rapidly, and that incentive works in their customers’ favor. Walmart’s rapid, organized, and proactive response bringing life-saving supplies into damaged areas after Katrina was remarkable and widely lauded. Walmart had a war room in place days ahead of keys, Katrina’s landfall and supplies stationed and ready for the storm’s immediate aftermath.

Electric utility Southern Company was also well-prepared for Katrina based on its detailed disaster plans and a large-scale prepositioning of on overcoming fear speaking, people and assets. 159. Walmart employees distinguished themselves with independent decisionmaking based on local information. Resume Keys Words? Employees on the front lines knew that their on-the-spot decisions would be backed by higher management. 160 The Washington Post reported that within days, Walmart delivered “an unrivaled $20 million in cash donations, 1,500 truckloads of essay islam, free merchandise, food for 100,000 meals and the promise of a job for every one of its displaced workers.” 161.

Economist Steven Horowitz studied the performance of keys, FEMA, the Coast Guard, and Walmart during Katrina. 162 He concluded that a government bureaucracy in Washington, such as FEMA, cannot operate effectively in response to essay fear local disasters. It does not have the right incentives, is too risk-averse, and resume tends not to learn lessons. The bipartisan House report on Katrina noted that the introduction to thesis report “government failed because it did not learn from past experiences” and resume words because of the report “risk-averse culture that pervades big government.” 163. Home Depot also earned wide respect for its rapid and efficient relief efforts during Katrina. Such companies acted with charity, providing many supplies free to needy people in the affected region.

Horowitz notes that businesses also have strong incentives to aid the public when disasters strike because in the long run they gain respect and loyal customers in keys the communities that they serve. When Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast in 2012, it was once again institutions other than FEMA that put in essay the best performance. The Coast Guard and the National Guard performed admirably, with the latter performing a wide variety of relief and civil order functions. 164 The Red Cross had hundreds of shelters ready for thousands of resume keys, people on the day Sandy hit, and the Salvation Army supplied a huge amount of meals to victims in very good essays the days after the storm. Keys? 165 The United Way, faith-based groups, and corporations also made large efforts in subsequent months during rebuilding. FEMA appeared to do a better job responding to essay and science Hurricane Sandy than Katrina. Former mayor Rudy Giuliani (R-NY) claimed that FEMA’s response to Sandy was “as bad as Katrina,” but that does not seem to be the case. 166 However, FEMA is still a troubled agency. A recent study by resume, the Partnership for Public Service, for example, ranked it one the worst places to work in the federal government. 167. A September 2014 report by the Inspector General (IG) of DHS reviewed FEMA’s new logistics system—a system that Congress required FEMA to essay fear of public build after the many supply failures of Katrina.

The new FEMA system is expected to cost $556 million, up from the original estimate of $325 million, and words it is writing, far behind schedule. 168 After DHS spending of $247 million on the system so far, the IG concluded that the system “may not be effective during a catastrophic disaster” and “may not ever meet critical performance requirements.” 169 The IG said that it attributes the deficiencies to resume “inadequate program management and oversight.” 170. A June 2013 Associated Press poll of the region affected by Sandy found that “families and communities—not the government—were the most helpful source of assistance and support.” 171 Only 19 percent of those who sought help from the government said that it was helpful, and almost 40 percent said that FEMA was of no help. Very Essays? 172. FEMA spends roughly $2.5 billion a year on a dozen grant programs that provide ongoing funding for state and local first responders. Nine of these programs are “preparedness” grants, which the DHS says “strengthen our nation’s ability to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from resume words, terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies.” 173.

Most of the preparedness grants were either created or expanded after the September 11, 2001, attacks, and they have distributed almost $40 billion to essay state and local governments since then. Words? 174 The grants are mainly for local governments to pay for such things as vehicles, equipment, planning, conferences, training, and public awareness campaigns. Here is a list of the preparedness grants with the 2014 spending amounts: 175. Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI)—$587 million for urban preparedness against terrorism. Islam? State Homeland Security Program (SHSP)—$401 million for preparedness in urban and rural areas. Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG)—$350 million for all-hazards emergency management. Operation Stonegarden—$55 million to enhance coordination between government agencies for border security. Tribal Homeland Security—$10 million to tribal governments for keys security enhancements. Computing Coursework? Nonprofit Security—$13 million to nonprofit groups for security enhancements. Words? Port Security—$100 million for seaport security. Transit Security—$90 million for transit system security.

Intercity Passenger Rail—$10 million for Amtrak security. A fundamental problem with such grants is that federal funding of local activities is less efficient than local funding of local activities. In part, that is because federal politicians focus on maximizing spending in their states, not on program effectiveness. In a 2012 report on FEMA grants, Senator Tom Coburn of Oklahoma said that Congress is preoccupied with the amount of correct layout for a cover letter uk, money spent, not “how the words money is writing, spent, or whether it is needed in words the first place.” 176. The expansion of the islam and science UASI program illustrates the importance of politics.

UASI originally provided funds to the 7 U.S. cities with the highest terrorism risks. But cities that did not receive funds—and their members of keys words, Congress—immediately started lobbying for inclusion, and over time Congress added more cities. 177 In due course, Congress expanded the layout for a uk program to 64 cities, although it has recently been cut back to 37. 178. The political pressure to spread spending widely is also evident with SHSP funding. It is distributed by a formula that takes disaster risks into account, but that is undermined because a minimum amount must be spent on every state. Words? 179 Wyoming, for example, has just one-fifth of one percent of the U.S. population and a low risk of terrorism, but it receives almost 1 percent of introduction report writing, SHSP funding.

180 Similarly, for the EMPG program, spending does not depend on terrorism risk, and small states receive a disproportionate share. Looking at the big picture, there are two types of FEMA grant, but neither makes sense. Coburn’s report says that some grants “subsidize expenditures that would otherwise have been made by state and local governments.” 181 His report finds that FEMA aid often pays for such things as office supplies, camera systems, athletic equipment for fire and police departments, and wages for keys words local first responders. Layout For A Letter? Funding such items federally rather than locally just creates unneeded paperwork. Alternately, federal aid can induce local governments to purchase low-value items that they would not otherwise purchase. FEMA money is “free” to local governments, so they tend to squander it.

Coburn’s report provides examples of cities using preparedness grants to buy hovercrafts, underwater robots, and resume other fancy equipment that is little used. Knox County, Ohio—population 54,000—spent a $100,000 FEMA grant on a hazardous materials truck. The truck sat unused, and a local official admitted that it had been “a total waste of taxpayer dollars from the federal government on down.” 182. FEMA’s aid has raised civil liberties concerns. Numerous cities have purchased license plate reader systems and video surveillance systems with FEMA grants, for example. 183 And many cities have used FEMA grants to correct layout cover letter purchase military-style equipment for keys words their police forces, such as militarized vehicles, aerial drones, and sound cannons. 184.

The Wall Street Journal noted that “six-figure grants from the Department of correct for a uk, Homeland Security have been funding BearCats and other heavily fortified vehicles in resume towns and cities nationwide.” 185 A BearCat is an armored personnel carrier. Concord, New Hampshire, received a $258,000 FEMA grant to buy a BearCat, and other small cities, such as Fargo, North Dakota, have received similar grants. 186 It makes no sense for essay islam and science the federal government to pay for such controversial items. If the leaders of a town think that they face a major threat and need new security equipment, they should make the case to their own taxpayers for the funding. Aside from the words grants listed above, FEMA also provides firefighter assistance grants of about $600 million a year.

187 These grants aid local fire departments in paying salaries and buying trucks, protective gear, and other items. Having well-funded fire departments is important, but local governments have traditionally paid these costs without federal aid. Indeed, firefighting is the archetypal local service that traces back to at least the Union Fire Company organized by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1736. 188 Cities and towns have long been proud of their local firefighters, who are either paid employees or volunteers. It is and the environment, a service that citizens everywhere demand from their local governments, and they are supportive of the local taxes needed to keys words fund it.

So there is essay, no reason for the federal government to intervene in this activity. Currently, local governments in resume keys America spend more than $42 billion annually on essay speaking, firefighting. 189 FEMA firefighting grants amount to just 1.5 percent of this total, so it is a small share. The problem is that along with federal grants come top-down regulations from keys words, Washington. Ethics? Few people would want federal politicians controlling their local fire departments, but that will be a growing problem if the resume keys money keeps flowing. A 2010 news article in San Antonio on a FEMA grant illustrates the problem:

The city was poised to spend its own money to introduction to thesis build two new fire stations and already had hired a contractor, Bartlett Cocke. Then the Federal Emergency Management Agency awarded the city $7.3 million from the stimulus program in September 2009 to keys pay for the stations and speed up response times by firefighters to keep residents safe. But San Antonio hit a bureaucratic snag at FEMA that could delay the project by a year. Meeting the federally mandated environmental standards could increase the project’s cost by $2.2 million. Essay And Science? And the city decided to keys rebid the construction contract to make sure it met FEMA’s requirements, which meant Bartlett Cocke was out of a job. In San Antonio, Councilman Reed Williams, whose district includes the site for fire station 51, complained at Thursday’s City Council meeting that the stations are getting more expensive. The council approved a motion to correct for a uk increase the design costs of resume keys words, both stations by essay, nearly $200,000 so the structures will be certified under standards set by resume keys words, the U.S. Green Building Council. “This thing’s going to be a year late, and it’s going to cost us more money,” Williams said. Williams asked how much more the stations were going to cost in the stimulus program, compared to the original costs when the city planned to build the stations without federal assistance. City staffers didn’t have an answer at the ready, but Walsh said in an interview that federal requirements could add an estimated $2.2 million to the price tag.

190. Federal aid programs not only impose costly regulations, they also consume state and local time on paperwork. You can see some of the firefighter paperwork at www.fema.gov/firegrants. There are three different grants, each with different rules. Local officials must fill out ethics environment federal grant paperwork explaining why they need the money and how they will spend it. Keys? Recipients have to fill out regular financial reports, “Investment Justifications,” “Biannual Implementation Reports,” and other reports. The FEMA funding announcement for the firefighter grants is essay islam and science, 75 pages long, and a workshop presentation is 94 pages.

FEMA has a “Get Ready Guide,” a “Self Evaluation Sheet,” and a “Vehicle Acquisition Guide” for resume keys the firefighter grants. Even after all the paperwork, there is no guarantee that a local government will receive funding. Writing? The key is to have a skilled representative on your side. Here is a 2013 press release from Rep. Patrick Maloney (D-NY)indicating how the process works: Earlier this year, Rep.

Maloney secured an investment for $2,400,000 to hire fifteen new firefighters through the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program— Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER). Resume Keys Words? Although their grant application was initially denied, Rep. Aqa A-level Computing? Maloney worked closely with the Newburgh Fire Department and DHS personnel to ensure the Department received this SAFER award. 191. The SAFER grant pays for firefighter salaries for a fixed period of time.

After the grant money runs out, the town of Newburgh will have to find another funding source to keep its 15 new firefighters. So the federal aid did not really solve any problem, it simply delayed the town from finding a stable long-term funding source. America would be better off without FEMA grants for firefighters and resume words other local emergency services. Ending FEMA aid would cut paperwork, regulations, and pork barrel politics. Decisionmaking about local emergency services would be more efficient if the services were funded locally.

Americans know that police and firefighter services are vital to their communities—and that is exactly why we do not need federal intervention. Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in 1968 to computing help property owners in flood-prone areas purchase government-backed insurance. The NFIP provides coverage against keys, flooding from overflowing rivers and from storms on the seacoasts. Flooding is “the most frequent and ethics essay costly natural hazard in the United States. More than 90 percent of all natural disasters in the nation involve flooding.” 192. The NFIP was supposed to words save taxpayers money by alleviating the need for Congress to correct layout cover letter pass emergency aid packages after floods. Taxpayers were also not supposed to resume keys be burdened by the program itself because insurance premiums were to cover the system’s costs.

Also, the NFIP included floodplain regulations that are imposed on communities adopting the essay fear of public program. These regulations were supposed to mitigate the harm from words, floods. None of the promises panned out. Computing Coursework? Congress continues to pass large disaster aid bills after floods. The NFIP has become hugely indebted, and will probably need a taxpayer bailout as payouts have far exceeded premiums in recent years.

Most importantly, rather than reducing the resume keys nation’s flooding problems, the NFIP has likely made flood damage worse by for a cover letter, encouraging more development in hazardous areas. Since 1970, the estimated number of Americans living in coastal areas designated as Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs) by keys, FEMA has increased from 10 million to more than 16 million. 193 Subsidized flood insurance has backfired by helping to draw more people and development into flood zones. Flood insurance is available to homeowners and businesses in aqa a-level the roughly 20,000 jurisdictions across the nation that have decided to participate in resume the NFIP. To Thesis Report Writing? 194 In return for the benefit of subsidized insurance, communities become subject to federal floodplain regulations. People who live in SFHAs and resume keys have a federally backed mortgage are required to have flood insurance. However, compliance with this mandate is essay, very low. 195. There are currently 5.6 million flood insurance policies in place with a combined insured value of $1.2 trillion.

196 Policies are serviced by private insurance companies, but the insurance risks fall on federal taxpayers. Keys? 197 Many insurance companies do not participate in the NFIP, apparently because of the political instability that surrounds the essay fear of public speaking system. Words? 198. FEMA has trouble administering the NFIP. The GAO has had the NFIP on essay, its “high-risk” list of resume keys, troubled programs for years. One problem is very essays, that flood claims are handled by an outdated computer system, and FEMA has had major problems installing a new one called NextGen. The GAO reported in 2010 that “despite having invested roughly $40 million over 7 years, FEMA has yet to implement NextGen … as a result, use of resume keys words, NextGen was halted.” 199. FEMA collects about $3.5 billion in annual NFIP premiums. 200 When the premiums are insufficient to pay claims, FEMA borrows from the U.S. Treasury. In recent years, the program has accumulated more than $24 billion in debt because payouts have far exceeded premiums.

201 Today, the program is in financial crisis and taxpayers will likely bear the correct layout cover burden of its large debt. The NFIP’s financial shortcomings are typical of resume keys, government-run businesses. Unlike private insurance, the NFIP charges artificially low rates, does not build capital surpluses, and does not purchase reinsurance to cover catastrophic losses. 202 Furthermore, the NFIP cannot reject applicants in order to manage the system’s risk, and it is legally constrained in its ability to raise rates. The GAO says that “by design, NFIP is not an actuarially sound program.” 203. About one-fifth of of public speaking, NFIP policyholders pay “subsidized rates,” while the other four-fifths pay “full-risk” rates. 204 But even the full-risk rates are below what market rates would be.

A 2011 insurance industry study found that overall NFIP premiums are only half the level needed to cover the system’s full costs, and property owners in high-risk areas pay just one-third of full market rates. 205 These artificially low rates subsidize people to live in high-risk flood areas. One problem is that “FEMA generally lacks information needed to establish full-risk rates.” 206 Rates are based on Flood Insurance Rate Maps, but FEMA’s maps have long been criticized as not being up to date. FEMA maps often do not reflect changes in resume the landscape caused by factors such as ongoing development and erosion. 207. Another problem with the coursework NFIP is that it undermines federalism. If a jurisdiction is in resume keys words the NFIP, it must comply with FEMA-approved building standards, land-use controls, and writing other regulations. The NFIP runs essentially a top-down local planning system called the Community Rating System (CRS). Under the CRS, communities receive discounts on flood insurance rates based on keys words, how many of 19 “creditable activities” or federal mandates they comply with.

208. The Congressional Research Service says that with the to thesis NFIP, the keys federal “government became a de facto regulator of certain economic activity in flood-prone areas.” 209 However, local governments have been hesitant to enforce the tougher zoning rules and building standards because they are eager to receive the higher tax revenues that stem from new development. The broader policy issue is correct layout for a cover letter uk, that the keys words NFIP undermines federalism by extending Washington’s regulatory power into what should be local decisionmaking. The most serious problem with NFIP is that it has encouraged development in hazardous areas. As Duke University coastal geologist Orrin Pilkey puts it, “we are subsidizing, even encouraging, very dangerous development.” 210 Federal flood insurance has incentivized individuals and developers to and the essay build in hazardous areas they would otherwise not build in. Local governments have an incentive to approve development in hazardous areas because they are eager to increase their property tax bases. As more of the keys U.S. population has moved to flood-prone areas, more lives and introduction writing property are put in words harm’s way.

211 As development expands in seacoast areas it shrinks wetlands. Essay And Science? Wetlands provide habitats for wildlife and form a defense against hurricanes along the seacoast. “The financial costs of the NFIP are considerable,” one study observed, “but they are likely dwarfed by the ecological damages that the program encourages.” 212 That is resume keys, why cutting the very essays NFIP is one policy area where environmentalists and resume pro-market economists see eye to correct eye. The NFIP creates “moral hazard,” which is when people take risks that they would not otherwise take because they do not bear the full costs of keys, failure. Government subsidies reduce individual costs and thus induce excessive risk-taking. The Congressional Research Service noted of the NFIP: “the assurance of federal assistance in the event or repeated disaster-related losses may create a ‘moral hazard’ by lowering the incentives to take appropriate steps to mitigate loss.” 213. The moral hazard problem is clear when you consider the NFIP’s large payouts to correct for a letter property owners who have made multiple claims.

The NFIP cannot charge market rates, must accept all applicants, and is not allowed to resume cut off properties that suffer repeated damage. 214 Furthermore, unlike with private insurance, FEMA does not increase insurance rates after claims. For A Letter? Not surprisingly then, some property owners repeatedly rebuild in hazardous locations knowing that the keys words government will bail them out computing after each flood. Repetitive loss properties account for only about 1 percent of all policies, but are responsible for about one-third of all NFIP claims. 215.

USA Today reviewed FEMA records in 2010 and found thousands of homes that had collected multiple insurance payouts that added up to much more than what the resume keys properties were worth. One Mississippi home valued at $69,900 has flooded 34 times since 1978, and the owner has received $663,000 in NFIP payments over correct for a uk, the years. 216 Any private insurance company would cancel coverage on individuals like this who are taking high risks, but the NFIP does not. Fox News anchor John Stossel has discussed his personal experience with flood insurance. 217 He built a beach house in a risky location along the ocean on Long Island in 1980. His architect told him that the government would pay for resume words a new one if a disaster struck, so he went ahead. Sure enough, the ocean destroyed his house, and Stossel received the government-funded bailout. As Stossel has noted, the NFIP is welfare for the well-to-do. A 2010 study looked at claims data over a 10-year period and concluded that “the benefits of the NFIP appear to ethics essay accrue largely to wealthy households concentrated in a few highly-exposed states.” 218 One reason is that many properties along U.S. seacoasts are vacation residences for resume keys words well-heeled individuals. The NFIP is environment essay, not the only federal program encouraging Americans to live in flood-prone areas.

Since the 19th century, the Army Corps of Engineers has built levees, flood walls, and resume keys other flood protection structures. These projects are supposed to create an engineering solution to flooding. But, to correct for a uk an extent, the huge investment in these projects has backfired because they have encouraged more Americans to live in flood-prone areas, believing that they are protected. The increase in perceived safety created by keys, the Corps’ projects has also created a disincentive for correct cover letter individuals to buy flood insurance and thus undermined the development of a private flood insurance market. 219. Rutherford Platt observed that “structural flood control and shore protection projects often induce a false sense of security leading to new investment in the area thought to resume be protected by essay islam, the project.” 220 The result is resume, that areas ostensibly protected by flood control projects “experienced greater losses when floods exceeded the fear of public design capacity of dams, levees, and resume words sea walls than would have occurred without the projects.” 221. These days, there are many federal agencies involved variously in essay islam and science subsidizing and regulating flood-prone areas, and the interventions often work at resume keys words cross purposes. 222 The Army Corps of Engineers builds flood-control structures and subsidizes seacoast beach replenishment.

Those activities encourage more seaside development. A FEMA study after Hurricane Frederic in 1979 on the Gulf Coast found that “the federal government had originally encouraged development on such coastal barriers through flood insurance, sewer and water grants, beach nourishment, and ethics environment other development incentives.” 223. In the 1990s, Topsail Island, North Carolina, was repeatedly hit by hurricanes, and each time FEMA came in to rebuild infrastructure, which encouraged more development. 224 And then there is resume, New Orleans, where for decades massive flood control infrastructure built by the Corps encouraged development in dangerous, low-lying areas around the city. That greatly magnified the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In his book, Platt discusses the tension between some government agencies subsidizing people to live in risky places and very narrative other agencies imposing regulations to resume words prevent people living in those places. He looks at Fire Island along the coast of Long Island, New York, which is vulnerable to hurricanes. Local activist groups “have each lobbied intensely to win government benefits for Fire Island while opposing any limits on the freedom of correct layout for a cover letter, private owners to build or rebuild along the oceanfront.” 225. People want to resume words live on introduction to thesis report writing, this dangerous island, but they also want subsidized beach nourishment projects, flood insurance, and disaster aid. Resume Keys Words? Platt concludes that the islam current patchwork of regulations and subsidies from federal programs has “proved futile in achieving a safe and words sensible balance of human presence and nature.” 226 But part of the solution is straightforward: governments should repeal programs that subsidize development in hazardous places.

People who choose to live in flood-prone areas should purchase insurance from private insurance carriers, which would charge premiums based on the actual risk. If companies will not offer flood coverage, that is a market signal that it is not a safe place to live. It is not a “market failure” if private flood insurance is not available for dangerous locations, as some commentators have suggested. 227. Before the creation of the NFIP in 1968, little private flood insurance existed. Coursework? There were marketplace reasons for resume words that, but government interventions also created a hurdle for islam private flood insurance.

228 Today, however, numerous experts think that flood insurance could be privatized. For one thing, private insurers today have more sophisticated computer models than in the past, and much more is known about flood risks on a detailed basis throughout the nation. There is currently a very small but growing market for private flood insurance. 229. Federal and state governments can encourage the resume keys words development of private flood insurance by getting out of the way. Cutting disaster aid would increase individual and business demand for insurance.

Eliminating federal and state regulations that interfere with insurance pricing would increase the supply of introduction report, insurance, as would reforming income taxes, which are biased against keys words, insurance companies holding capital to cover large but infrequent losses. 230 GAO has discussed steps toward partial privatization of flood insurance. 231 And a report by Deloitte noted that “flood insurance theoretically presents a tremendous growth opportunity for private carriers,” but only if reforms are made to essay and science federal policies. 232. Congress enacted modest NFIP reforms in 2012, but then took steps backward in 2014. Under the 2012 Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act, FEMA was to gradually increase premiums to better reflect actual risk for more of NFIP’s policyholders. 233 Then in response to complaints about premium increases from constituents, Congress in resume keys words 2014 passed changes to cap premium increases and to correct layout cover letter uk reverse other reforms.

234. Congress should revisit this issue. The NFIP should be phased out as barriers to resume private insurance are repealed. Rep. Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) calls the NFIP “ineffective, inefficient and indisputably costly to hardworking American taxpayers.” 235 He says that he is considering “legislation to transition to a private, innovative, competitive, sustainable flood insurance market. 236. Rep. Candice Miller (R-MI) has introduced legislation to end the NFIP.

237 She summarizes some of the reasons for repeal: It is ridiculous that the federal government remains in the flood insurance business. With no end in sight for the NFIP in racking up new debt, continuing subsidized rates for those who live in flood prone areas, skyrocketing rates for aqa a-level computing coursework many who live in keys areas that never flood and 40 years of history showing clearly that the federal government is writing, a very bad insurance company; it is time to take decisive action to wind down the NFIP instead of offering up more bailouts… . I believe in resume keys the 10th Amendment and our nation must stop centralizing power in Washington on a wide variety of issues… . It is time to essay on overcoming speaking stop looking to Washington for one size fits all solutions and allow states to provide real and affordable solutions to residents who require flood insurance protection. It is time to remove the federal government from the flood insurance business, end the resume unfair debt liability being placed upon introduction to thesis report writing all taxpayers by this unsound federal program, stop the practice of resume keys, forcing unjustly high rates on those living in areas under little risk of flooding, stop the politically motivated subsidizing of people who live in highly flood prone areas and restore power to the states. 238. One of the rules that every doctor learns is “first, do no harm.” That rule should be applied to very good narrative policymaking on natural disasters.

This essay focuses mainly on floods and hurricanes, which are the nation’s most costly and prevalent natural disasters. Keys Words? The number of Americans living in very good narrative essays risky locations on floodplains and seacoasts has grown in resume words recent decades, and numerous federal policies have encouraged that trend. 239. Those policies should be repealed, starting with subsidized flood insurance. Good Essays? The NFIP has fallen deep into debt, and the program amounts to welfare for the well-to-do. Congress created the NFIP in 1968 partly in the belief that private sector could not provide flood coverage. Resume Keys Words? Today, however, the insurance industry is essay islam, more sophisticated and in a better to position to provide private coverage. Congress should phase out the NFIP in combination with regulatory and tax reforms encouraging private participation in the flood insurance market. Congress should repeal Army Corps spending—such as beach replenishment and new flood control structures—that encourages development of flood-prone areas.

240 Army Corps spending is supposed to protect communities, but as we have seen in New Orleans and elsewhere, the agency’s projects can encourage development in dangerous, low-lying areas. Resume Keys? 241 The Corps’ infrastructure has also depleted coastal wetlands, which are a natural defense against hurricanes. “First, do no harm” also applies to growing federal intervention in disaster preparedness, response, and relief. That intervention will backfire if it reduces the efforts of state and local governments and the private sector. If federal efforts continue to expand, “the result will be the displacement of the correct letter very things that make the system work most of the time—state, local, and private sector preparedness and initiative.” 242. Unfortunately, the federal urge to spend has triumphed in recent years.

Most of the huge $60 billion Sandy aid package passed in 2013, for example, was for long-term infrastructure projects, not for short-term emergency relief. 243 There is resume keys words, no reason why state and local governments could not issue bonds and build rainy day funds to very good essays finance disaster response and rebuilding. Indeed, an keys, advantage in essay islam ending federal aid would be to create a strong incentive for states to prepare in advance for disasters, both by putting resources aside and by pursuing mitigation projects to reduce the harm of disasters. State and local governments and the private sector are in words a much better position to handle most disaster response. Aqa A-level Computing Coursework? Federal bureaucracies are typically poor at trying to resume words centrally manage large and complex problems. FEMA is no exception: it is slow, risk averse, subservient to essay politics, and it does not have the local knowledge needed to effectively handle many disasters. First responders and keys words their assets are mainly owned and managed locally, and environment so a bottom-up structure makes sense. As noted, FEMA intervention can slow state and local relief and rebuilding after disasters because of resume keys, all the extra paperwork required on each project. By reducing the introduction to thesis federal role, we would reduce ambiguity in words the system.

As we saw with Katrina, decisionmaking was hampered by the uncertainly over bureaucratic rules and responsibilities. Our disaster relief system has become “too complex for fear of public speaking its own good.” 244 The federal government has made it that way. When you read FEMA and DHS reports, it is striking the huge number of goals, plans, strategies, frameworks, agencies, systems, directives, offices, and other structures that are supposed to come together during disasters. A better approach than such top-down planning would be to keys greatly cut the very good essays federal role and let state, local, and private institutions perform their specialized functions and coordinate among themselves. The disaster response systems in Canada and Australia are more decentralized than ours. 245 The federal emergency management agencies in those countries do not have operational roles. They do provide disaster aid to lower governments, but the thresholds for aid are more objective than in the United States. Miskel argues that a similar more decentralized approach in the United States would “give a stronger incentive for states to take emergency preparedness seriously because that helps reduce costs and to manage their disaster relief expenditures carefully.” 246. One encouraging U.S. development is the expansion of horizontal relationships between the states in disaster response.

All the state governments have joined the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), which was created in 1996. 247 EMAC expedites the resume keys legal process of states aiding other states with manpower and resources during a disaster. Environment? During Hurricane Katrina, for example, Florida provided stockpiled commodities to Mississippi under EMAC procedures. 248. Over the past two decades, there has also been an expansion in mutual aid agreements between local governments to resume words share police and fire assets during emergencies. 249 And, as discussed, private electric utilities across the country routinely aid each other with crews and essay on overcoming of public equipment to speed repairs after storms. Such horizontal relationships make more sense than officials trying to vertically plan everything from Washington. Words? Miskel argues, “the very last thing that the federal government should do is writing, crowd initiative at nonfederal levels out of the system in keys words the name of good, improving the federal response to catastrophic disasters.” 250. There are other ideas to resume words help improve state disaster response. One is to aqa a-level coursework reform Good Samaritan laws to ensure that emergency workers do not stay away from words, disasters in ethics environment other states for fear of civil liability.

251 Another is to resume keys words expand State Defense Forces (SDFs). Coursework? 252 Currently, 22 states have SDFs, which are voluntary, part-time militaries under state command. SDFs often consist of retired military service members and professionals such as doctors and keys engineers, who have disaster-relevant skills. During the Sandy recovery, SDFs from New York, Maryland, and other states played important roles. FEMA disaster aid to essay islam individuals and state and local governments should be eliminated. Resume Keys? FEMA aid has often been wasteful, and the federal government has no unique skill in providing aid. Ending federal aid would have the positive effect of ethics and the environment, increasing the demand for private insurance and in stimulating greater state, local, and private disaster preparation. Keys? Also, removing FEMA intervention would prevent the and the environment essay damaging situation that occurred during Katrina of FEMA repeatedly blocking private aid efforts. Since the 19th century, private donations have poured into American cities hit by disasters.

In recent decades, charitable groups such as the Red Cross and keys Salvation Army have channeled donations to to thesis report victims. Words? Historically, businesses have also played a large role in relief, such as after the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 and the Dayton Flood of 1913. Aqa A-level Computing Coursework? More recently, the efforts of Walmart and other companies after hurricanes show that businesses are ready to use their logistical skills to aid communities when calamities strike. If private donations are not sufficient for resume the largest of disasters, state governments using their own funds are likely to provide more efficient disaster aid than the federal government. Essay Of Public? Besides, all federal aid ultimately comes from the taxpayers who live in the 50 states.

So it makes more sense for the states to keys words raise their own funding and to essay plan ahead for the financial demands of resume keys words, future emergencies and disasters. In sum, FEMA funding for aqa a-level disaster aid to states and individuals should be ended and keys flood insurance privatized. Introduction Report? Those activities represent more than 90 percent of FEMA’s current budget. Some of the remaining activities include flood mapping, continuity of operations, the public alert system, training programs, and technological and radiological hazards preparedness. Resume Words? Those activities should be moved to other agencies, and FEMA closed down. Outside of FEMA, numerous federal agencies would continue to play crucial roles in disaster response. Those include the computing Coast Guard, the active duty military, the words agencies that prepare for pandemics and other health threats, and the agencies that handle such threats as terrorism, cyber attacks, and report writing biological and resume keys words chemical agents. The problem with federal disaster activities is a common one: the government tries to do too much, and ethics environment it ends up doing little well. Keys Words? In government, less is nearly always more. The federal government should be tasked with only those roles for which it can provide added value not provided by state and local governments or the private sector. But FEMA’s large and essay growing budget consists mainly of counterproductive and inefficient aid programs that should be eliminated.

1 Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2015, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), Table 4.1. Updated to resume keys the final 2014 figure. 2 Calculated from the Office of and science, Management and Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 3 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, P.L. 93-288. For a discussion, see Francis X. McCarthy, “FEMA’s Disaster Declaration Process: A Primer,” Congressional Research Service, May 18, 2011. 4 James F. Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008), chap. 3.

5 Henry Hogue and resume Keith Bea, “Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options,” Congressional Research Service, June 1, 2006, pp. 4–5. 6 Rutherford H. Platt, Disasters and computing coursework Democracy (Washington: Island Press, 1999), p. 1. Platt is citing research by Peter May. 8 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” November 2010, p. 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf. 9 Janet Sharp Hermann, “Disaster Relief Then and Now,” The Freeman , May 1, 2000. 11 Patrick S. Roberts, Disasters and the American State: How Politicians, Bureaucrats, and the Public Prepare for resume keys words the Unexpected (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 24–25. And see Judy G. Russell, “A Matter of Debate,”August 20, 2012, www.legalgeneologist.com. 12 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf.

14 Emily C. Sharbek, “The Chicago Fire of 1871: A Bottom-Up Approach to Disaster Relief,” Public Choice 160 (2014): 155–80. 16 For a discussion, see Miskel, p. Good Essays? 49. 17 Jennifer K. Resume Keys? Elsea and R. Chuck Mason, “The Use of Federal Troops for Disaster Assistance: Legal Issues,” Congressional Research Service, November 28, 2008. 18 Quoted in Robert Higgs, “Why Grover Cleveland Vetoed the Texas Seed Bill,” Independent Institute, July 1, 2003. 19 Christoph Strupp, “Dealing with Disaster: The San Francisco Earthquake of layout letter uk, 1906,” German Historical Institute, (Washington), March 22, 2006, p. 8. 20 Morgan O’Rourke, “The Big Shake Up: Revisiting the Great San Francisco Earthquake,” Risk Management , April 2006. 21 Douglas Coate, “Disaster and Recovery: The Public and Private Sectors in the Aftermath of the 1906 Earthquake in San Francisco,” Working Paper, Rutgers University, July 2010. 23 Margaret Gurowitz, “The Origins of resume keys, Our Disaster Relief: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906,” Kilmer House, Johnson and Johnson, August 20, 2008. 24 O’Rourke. And Science? Generally, the policies covered fire, not earthquakes. 26 Dalit Baranoff, “Fire Insurance in the United States,” EH.net, March 16, 2008.

27 The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco, “The Great 1906 Earthquake and Fire,” www.sfmuseum.org/1906/06.html. 33 Edward Epstein, “The Great Quake: 1906-2006,” San Francisco Chronicle , April 18, 2006. 35 The actions of Gen. Frederick Funston were controversial for numerous reasons. First, he acted without checking with his superiors in Washington. Words? Second, he acted to send regular troops into the city for essay and science policing purposes. Third, his command of the city was very aggressive, and words apparently led to the deaths of numerous people. 36 Christopher Klein, “The Superstorm That Flooded America 100 Years Ago,” www.history.com, March 25, 2013. 37 Trudy E. Bell, “Aid and very narrative Ambivalence,” 2009, http://trudyebell.com/1913flood.php.

Bell is a former editor of Scientific American and her website is devoted to the 1913 disaster. 38 Trudy E. Resume? Bell, “Our National Calamity: The Great Easter 1913 Flood,” December 9, 2012, http://www.trudyebell.com/1913flood.php. 42 Trudy E. Bell, “Aid and Ambivalence.” 43 Miskel, pp. 8, 9, 41,and 45. 44 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of correct letter uk, Engineers,” Cato Institute, March 2012, www.downsizinggovernment.org/usace. 45 Arthur E. Morgan, Dams and Other Disasters: A Century of the Army Corps of Engineers in Civil Works (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1971), p. 233.

46 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 5. 48 Jim Sam, “Herbert Hoover and the Great Mississippi Flood,” Behind the Scenes blog, Hoover Institution, May 19, 2011. 49 Platt, pp. 12–18. 51 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 6. 53 The law’s full title is the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of resume words, 1988, P.L. 93-288.

See Bruce R. Lindsay and Justin Murray, “Disaster Relief Funding and on overcoming fear speaking Emergency Supplemental Appropriations,” Congressional Research Service, April 2011 , p. 4. And see Francis X. McCarthy and Jared T. Brown, “Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies,” Congressional Research Service, May 2013. 54 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and resume keys Emergency Assistance Act of 1988, P.L. 93-288. For a discussion, see McCarthy. 55 This figure is for essay speaking 2004–2011. See Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to keys words Respond and Recover on coursework, Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012.

56 Calculated from the resume keys words Office of Management and Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 57 These figures are for ethics environment essay DRF spending 2004–2011. See GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to resume Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 19. 58 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance,”: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 34. 61 Matt Mayer, “New York Times: A Big Storm Requires a Big Government,” Heritage Foundation, October 30, 2012. 62 Matt Mayer, “States: Stop Subsidizing FEMA Waste and Manage Your Own Local Disasters,” Heritage Foundation, September 29, 2009, p. Computing? 7. 63 President George W. Bush, “The Department of Homeland Security,” June 2002, www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/book.pdf, pp. Words? 1, 7, 16. 64 Budget of the U.S.

Government, Fiscal Year 2014, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2013), Table 4.1. 65 Jerry Markon, “DHS Headquarters Funding in Jeopardy,” Washington Post , July 4, 2014. 66 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers.” And see Thomas Birkland and Sarah Waterman, “Is Federalism the Reason for Policy Failure in Hurricane Katrina?” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 38, no. 4 (2008): 692–714. 67 Daniel Hoople, “The Budgetary Impact of the Federal Government’s Response to Disasters,” Congressional Budget Office, September 23, 2013. 68 FEMA’s Sandy response is discussed in Steven P. Bucci, et al., “After Hurricane Sandy: Time to Learn and Implement the and the essay Lessons in Preparedness, Response, and Resilience,” Heritage Foundation, October 24, 2013. 69 Ibid., p. 10.

About $10 billion of the resume keys spending was for the NFIP. 70 James W. Islam? Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery,” Nelson A. Resume Keys? Rockefeller Institute of Government, July 2013. 71 McCarthy and Brown, p. 5. 72 Bureau of the Census, Government Employment and Payroll, www.census.gov/govs/apes. 73 Quoted in Bucci, et al., p. Aqa A-level? 6. 75 House of Representatives, Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Katrina, “A Failure of Initiative,” February 15, 2006, p. Keys? 13.

78 FEMA keeps a count at www.fema.gov/disasters/grid/year. I am including “major disasters,” “emergencies,” and “fire management assistance declarations.” 79 Thomas A. Garrett and Russell S. Sobel, “The Political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments,” Economic Inquiry 41, no. 3 (July 2003): 496–509. See also Russell S. Sobel and Peter T. Leeson, “Flirting with Disaster: The Inherent Problems with FEMA,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. Good? 573, July 19, 2006, pp.

8–9. And see Gene Healy, “Obama’s Disaster-Prone Presidency,” Washington Examiner , July 2, 2012. 80 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to keys Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” p. 22. 83 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and correct layout for a letter uk Recover on Its Own,” p. 49. 84 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. 9. 85 James W. Keys? Fossett, “A Tale of Two Hurricanes: What Does Katrina Tell Us About Sandy?” Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, January 2013. 86 James W. Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery.” . 87 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” pp. 16, 20. 89 Bucci, et al., p. 3. 90 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. 7.

91 These issues are discussed in McCarthy. 92 Quoted in environment Miskel, p. 127. 93 Quoted in Platt, p. 58. 94 Quoted in Platt, p. Keys Words? 89. 96 Jeb Bush, “Think Locally on and the environment, Relief,” op-ed, Washington Post , September 30, 2005.

97 Quoted in House of Representatives, , p. Resume? 322. 98 Matt Mayer, “Five Lessons from Hurricane Sandy,” November 29, 2012, p. 1. 99 Quoted in ibid., p. 1. 101 Miskel, p. 15. 102 Brad Plumer, “Is Sandy the Second-Most Destructive U.S. Hurricane Ever,” Washington Post , November 5, 2012. 104 GAO, “Disaster Management: Improving the Nation’s Response to islam and science Catastrophic Disasters,” GAO/RCED-93-186, July 1993, p. 3.

105 Miskel, p. 81. 107 This was a report by the National Academy of Public Administration, which is discussed in Miskel, p. 87. 108 Quoted in resume words Miskel, p. 85. 109 Miskel, pp. 41, 83–85. 112 House of Representatives, p. 1. 114 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and essay Government Affairs, “Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared,” March 1, 2006, chap. 14. 115 Miskel, p. 15.

116 House of Representatives, pp. 1, 11. 120 Miskel, p. 136. 123 Scott Shane, “Stumbling Storm-Aid Effort Put Tons of Ice on Trips to Nowhere,” New York Times , October 2, 2005. 124 John Cochran, “85M Pounds of Ice Growing Down the Drain, abcnews.com, July 15, 2007. And see Rep.

Bennie G. Thompson and Democratic Staff of the resume keys words House Committee on Homeland Security, “One Year Later: Katrina’s Waste,” August 28, 2006, p. 14. 125 Abbie Boudreau and Scott Zamost, “FEMA Gives Away $85 Million of Supplies for Katrina Victims,” CNN.com, June 12, 2008. 126 Rep. Bennie G. Thompson and writing Democratic Staff of the House Committee on resume keys, Homeland Security, p. 3. 127 House of Representatives, pp.

300–302. 128 House of Representatives, p. 299. 129 GAO, “Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Disaster Relief,” GAO-06-844T, June 114, 2006. And see Brad Heath, “Katrina Fraud Swamps System,” USA Today , July 6, 2007. 130 Associated Press, “Abuse Could Push Katrina Costs to $2 Billion,” December 25, 2006. 131 Frank Bass and Eileen Sullivan, “Scammers Scooped Up $500M in Katrina Aid,” Associated Press, December 4, 2007. 132 Eric Lipton, “Breathtaking Waste and Fraud in very Hurricane Aid,” New York Times , June 27, 2006. 133 House of resume words, Representatives, p. 286. 136 Sobel and correct uk Leeson. 137 House Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina, Rep.

Jefferson questioning of Michael Brown, September 27, 2005. 138 Ann Rodgers, “Homeland Security Won’t Let Red Cross Deliver Food,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , September 3, 2005. 139 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game,” New York Times , September 5, 2005. 140 Elizabeth Williamson, “Offers of Aid Immediate, but U.S. Approval Delayed for Days,” Washington Post , September 7, 2005. 141 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game.” 142 Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), p. 6.

144 Associated Press, “Agency ‘Beyond Repair’ and Must Be Replaced, Republican Chairwomen Says,” April 27, 2006. 145 Platt, p. 277. 146 Platt, p. 277. 147 Chris Edwards, “Department of resume keys, Homeland Bureaucracy,” Cato Institute, June 12, 2014. 148 Miskel, p. 83. 150 Gregory J. Sanial, “The Response to Hurricane Katrina: A Study of the Coast Guard’s Culture, Organizational Design and Leadership in Crisis,” masters degree thesis, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2007. 151 Steven Horwitz, “Making Hurricane Response More Effective,” Mercatus Center, George Mason University, March 2008.

152 Sanial, p. 26. 154 Ibid., pp. Ethics And The Essay? 71, 70. 155 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, p. 10. See also James F. Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), pp. 40, 96, 97. 156 House of keys words, Representatives, p. 343. 157 Ibid., pp.

312, 344. 158 Miskel, p. 25. 159 House of Representatives, p. Very Narrative? 328. 161 Michael Barbaro and Justin Gillis, “Wal-Mart at the Forefront of Hurricane Relief,” Washington Post , September 6, 2005, p. Resume Keys Words? D1. 163 House of Representatives, pp. xi, 2. 164 Bucci, et al., 166 Quoted in ibid., p. 4. 167 Partnership for introduction Public Service, “The Best Places to Work in the Federal Government,” 2013, www.bestplacestowork.org. 168 Department of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General, “FEMA’s Logistics Supply Chain Management System May Not Be Effective During a Catastrophic Disaster,” September 2014, p. Keys? 5.

171 Meghan Barr, “AP-NORC Poll: Friends, Kin Key to Sandy Survival,” Associated Press, June 24, 2013. 173 Department of Homeland Security, “DHS Announces Grant Allocation for Fiscal 2013 Preparedness Grants,” press release, August 23, 2013. 175 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no. 393, March 10, 2014. Introduction To Thesis Writing? And see Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no.

394, March 18, 2014. 176 Office of Senator Tom Coburn, “Safety at Any Price: Assessing the Impact of Homeland Security Spending in U.S. Cities,” December 2012, p. 5. 177 Ibid., pp. 14, 15, 19, 20, 21.

178 Department of Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement: Homeland Security Grant Program,” DHS-14-GPD-067-000-01, 2014. 179 Matt A. Mayer, Homeland Security and Federalism: Protecting America from Outside the Beltway (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International, 2009), p. 64. 180 Department of keys words, Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement,” Appendix A. 181 Coburn, p. To Thesis Report Writing? 23. 182 Melissa Raines, “Hazmat Trailer, Truck to resume words Be Sold,” Mount Vernon News , Au­gust 26, 2008. 183 Coburn, p. 26. 184 The Department of Defense has also been giving excess military equipment to correct layout for a cover letter local police forces. See Matt Apuzzo, “Officer Friendly, In a Tank? War Gear Flows to Local Police,” New York Times , June 9, 2014. 185 Jennifer Levitz, “Towns Say No Tanks to Militarized Police,” Wall Street Journal , February 7, 2014. 186 Coburn, pp.

4, 36–41. 187 Budget of the U.S. Government, FY2015, Appendix (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), p. Keys? 548. For general information, see www.fema.gov/assistance-firefighters-grant. 188 PBS.org, “ Citizen Ben : Firefighter,” 2002, www.pbs.org/benfranklin. 189 Bureau of the fear speaking Census, State and resume keys Local Government Finances, Table 1, www.census.gov/govs/local.

The 2011 total is layout for a cover letter, $42 billion. 190 Sandra Santos, “Red Tape Delays Some Stimulus Projects,” www.mysanantonio.com, June 29, 2010. 191 Office of Representative Sean Patrick Maloney, “Maloney Joins New Newburgh Firefighters at Live Burn,” press release, December 20, 2013. 192 FEMA, Congressional Budget Justification, FY2013, Flood Hazard Mapping and Risk Analysis, www.fema.gov/fiscal-year-2013-budget. 193 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “NOAA’s State of the Coast,” 2012, http://stateofthecoast.noaa.gov/pop100yr/welcome.html. 194 GAO, “Flood Insurance: More Information Needed on Subsidized Properties,” GAO-13-607, July 2013, p. 4. 195 Rawle O. King, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and Remaining Issues for Congress,” Congressional Research Service, February 6, 2013, p. 3. 197 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Opportunities Exist to Improve Oversight of the WYO Program,” GA0-09-455, August 2009, p. 1.

198 Annmarie Geddes Baribeau, “The National Flood Insurance Program Is Under Water: Can the Private Sector Help?” Contingencies , July/August 2013, p. 30. 199 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to resume Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 12. 200 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” GAO-13-858T, September 18, 2013, p. 1. 202 For some of the differences between NFIP and private insurance, see Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, “True Market-Risk Rates for to thesis Flood Insurance,” June 2011. And see American Academy of Actuaries, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Past, Present, and Future?” July 2011. 203 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 5. 205 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, p. 4. 206 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continue Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” p. 9.

207 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and words Operational Issues,” p. Ethics And The? 7. 210 Quoted in The Week , “After Hurricane Sandy: Is Flood Insurance Bad for Taxpayers?” editorial, www.theweek.com, December 8, 2012. 211 National Oceanic and resume Atmospheric Administration. 212 J. Scott Holladay, “Flooding the Market,” Institute for Policy Integrity, New York University School of Law, April 2010, p. 3. 214 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America. 215 King, p. 20. And see GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 8. Repetitive loss properties are those with two or more claims payments of $1,000 or more over fear of public, 10 years. 216 Thomas Frank, “Huge Losses Put the Federal Flood Insurance Plan in the Red,” USA Today , August 26, 2010. 217 John Stossel, “Taxpayers Get Soaked by Government’s Flood Insurance,” abcnews.com, September 20, 2009. 218 Holladay, p. 6.

219 Eli Lehrer, “Watery Marauders,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, August 2007, p. 8. 221 Ibid., p. xvii. 224 James Bovard, “Uncle Sam’s Flood Machine,” The Freeman , January 1, 2006. 225 Platt, pp. Resume Keys? 194, 199. 227 Some commentators have suggested that the market failure of “adverse selection” is correct for a cover uk, a barrier to private flood insurance.

But adverse selection is based on the idea that insurance buyers have hidden information not available to insurance companies. That is not the case with flood insurance because flood risks are public knowledge. 229 Andrew G. Simpson, “Private Flood Insurance Agency Now Selling in 15 States,” www.insurancejournal.com, February 10, 2014. 230 Scott E. Resume Keys? Harrington, “Rethinking Disaster Policy,” Cato Institute, Regulation 23, no 1. And see Scott E. Harrington and Tom Miller, “Insurance Regulation and Government Insurance,” Cato Handbook for Congress, 108th Congress . 231 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Strategies for Increasing Private Sector Involvement,” GAO-14-127, January 22, 2014. 232 Deloitte Center for Financial Services, “The Potential for Flood Insurance Privatization in the U.S.,” 2014, p. 3. 233 For a discussion, see King. 234 Nedra Pickler, “President Obama Signs Flood Insurance Relief Bill,” www.insurancejournal.com, March 24, 2014. The 2014 law was the Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act. 235 Mark A. Environment? Hofmann, “Congress to Consider Privatizing the NFIP,” www.businessinsurance.com, January 27, 2013. 237 Office of Rep.

Candice S. Miller, “Rep. Miller: Eliminate the National Flood Insurance Program,” press release, April 8, 2013. 239 For data on resume words, the seacoasts, see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This is the computing population in resume words Special Flood Hazard Areas. 240 I’ve argued that most of the aqa a-level computing functions of the Corps should be privatized. See Chris Edwards, “Cutting the keys words Army Corps of Engineers.”

241 Ibid. And see Michael Grunwald, “The Threatening Storm,” Time , August 2, 2007, and Michael Grunwald, “Setting the Stage for More Katrinas,” Time , August 2, 2007.