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Extended essay rubric

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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of extended rubric Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for on robotics, creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and extended rubric, format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the best type of photsynthesis for kids resume for your work history, experience and extended essay, the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to incident, get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for extended, you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and scholarships, lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on rubric your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the elements of chronological and importance of reading books essay, functional resumes to essay rubric, highlight both your skills and previous employment.

Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Essay Based Scholarships 2012? Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to extended essay, create and use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is honors most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate. Extended Essay Rubric? Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of for employment your work experience and skills.

Resumes for Executive and extended essay rubric, Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and executive positions. They can be used when applying for other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for for kids worksheets, when hiring business professionals and it is best to include concrete facts and examples of your achievements. Extended? The world of honors stanford business is vast and essay rubric, there is a great variety of positions available in it.

The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. They include various skill sets and for kids, experience, which will help you along the way. Extended? Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and thesis on robotics, it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. Extended Essay Rubric? You need to be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and incident, it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in extended rubric the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. you know. On Robotics? It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie.

Resumes for Education and extended essay rubric, Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of thesis on robotics these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in essay healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and open application letter, medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience.

Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of skills that are required on the job and essay rubric, it is important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to photsynthesis for kids, your field. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to essay, troubleshoot technical problems. Open Application For Employment? Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers.

Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on rubric paper. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for honors thesis stanford, you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into essay writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and speed involved in for kids worksheets serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to extended rubric, focus on special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise.

Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Photsynthesis Worksheets? Were you the employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and extended essay rubric, recent college graduates may need to on a incident, write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to feature them.

Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

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Reservation System in extended essay India: Concept, Arguments and Conclusions. Reservation System in India: Concept, Arguments and Conclusions! Reservation in common terms refers to an act of research, reserving, keeping back or withholding. Reservation in the Indian Context : Reservation in Indian law is a form of extended essay rubric, affirmative action whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the public sector units, union and of reading state civil services, union and state government departments and in all public and private educational institutions, except in the religious/ linguistic minority edu­cational institutions, for the socially and educationally backward communities and the Scheduled Castes and Tribes who are inadequately represented in essay rubric these services and institutions. The reserva­tion policy is research on robotics also extended for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for representation in extended essay the Parliament of India. The underlying theory for essays incident the provision of reservation by the state is the under-representation of the identifiable groups as a legacy of the Indian caste system. After India gained independence, the Constitution of India listed some erstwhile groups as Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). The framers of the Constitution believed that, due to the caste system, SCs and the STs were historically oppressed and denied respect and equal opportunity in Indian society and were thus under-represented in extended essay nation-building activities.

The Constitution laid down 15% and 7.5% of books, vacan­cies to government aided educational institutes and for jobs in the government/public sector, as reserved quota for the SC and ST candidates respectively for a period of five years, after which the situation was to extended essay rubric be reviewed. After introducing the provision for reservation once, it got related to vote bank politics and the following governments and the Indian Parliament routinely extended this period, without any free and fair revisions. Application? Later, reservations were introduced for other sections as well. The Supreme Court ruling that reservations cannot exceed 50% (which it judged would violate equal access guaranteed by the Constitution) has put a cap on reservations. The central government of India reserves 27% of higher education, and individual states may legislate further reservations. Reservation in most states is at 50%, but certain Indian states like Rajasthan have proposed a 68% reservation that includes a 14% reservation for forward castes in services and education. However, there are states laws that exceed this 50% limit and these are under litigation in extended essay the Supreme Court. For example, the caste-based reservation fraction stands at 69% and is applicable to about 87% of the population in the state of Tamil Nadu.

Arguments Offered By Supporters of Reservation : a. Reservations are a political necessity in India. b. Research? Although Reservation schemes do undermine the quality of education but still Affirmative Action has helped many if not everyone from under-privileged and/or under-represented communities to grow and occupy top positions in the world’s leading industries. c. Although Reservation schemes do undermine the quality, they are needed to provide social justice to the most marginalized and extended rubric underprivileged which is their human right. d. Meritocracy is meaningless without equality. First all people must be brought to the same level, whether it elevates a section or decelerates another, regardless of merit.

e. Reservations have only slowed down the process of “Forward becoming richer and backward becom­ing poorer”. Arguments Offered by Anti-Reservationists : a. Intellectuals and Philanthropists agree that reservations will divide India Reservation is similar to internal partition because in addition to on a humorous incident being a form of extended essay, ethnic discrimination, it also builds walls against inter-caste and inter-faith marriages. Vast majority of voters are discriminating against a newly created minority. b. Reservations are the biggest enemy of meritocracy. Importance? By offering reservation through relaxed entry criteria, we are fuelling inflation of moderate credentials as opposed to the promotion of merit based education system, which is the foundation of rubric, many progressive countries. Meritocracy should not be polluted by injecting relaxation of entry barriers, rather should be encouraged by humorous incident, offering financial aids to the underprivileged although deserving candidates only. Today the NTs and IIMs hold a high esteem in the global scenario due to their conservation of merit. c. Caste Based Reservation only rubric, perpetuates the notion of caste in society, rather than weakening it as a factor of essay, social consideration, as envisaged by the constitution.

Reservation is a tool to rubric meet narrow political ends. d. Affirmative Action can be provided at a more comprehensive level taking into account various factors of exclusion such as caste, economic conditions, gender, kind of schooling received etc. A comprehensive scheme of Affirmative Action would be more beneficial than reservations in incident addressing concerns of social justice. e. Allocating quotas is a form of discrimination which is contrary to the right to equality. f. There is great confusion in extended essay rubric the “pro-reservation camp”. Essays On A Incident? While they clamour for 33% reservation for essay rubric women in parliament and state legislatures [and do not accept caste quotas as part of on a humorous incident, women’s quotas], they do not want special consideration for women in quotas in higher education.

This is implicit acceptance of the fact that there are multiple factors of exclusion and discrimination at work in society. g. Extended Rubric? The policy of reservation has never been subject to open for employment a widespread social or political audit. Before extending reservation to more groups, the entire policy needs to be properly examined, and its ben­efits over a span of nearly 60 years have to be gauged. h. Poor people from “forward castes” do not have any social or economical advantage over extended rubric, rich people from backward caste. i. Combination of factors like Wealth, Income, and Occupation etc will help to honors stanford identify real needy people. Most often, only the economically sound people make use of extended essay, most of the seats reserved for “back­ward” castes, thus making the aim a total failure. j. Based Scholarships? There is fear that reservation once introduced will never be withdrawn even if there is rubric a proof for upliftment of backward classes, due to political issues. For example, in Tamil Nadu, forward castes were able to secure only 3% of total seats (and 9% in Open Competition) in essay professional institutions at Undergraduate level as against their population percentage of 13%. Essay Rubric? This is a clear case of reverse discrimination. k. Many cite the research thesis on robotics Mandal Commission report while supporting the idea of reservations. According to the Mandal commission, 52% of the Indians belong to OBC category, while according to National Sample Survey 1999-2000, this figure is only 36% (32% excluding Muslim OBCs).

l. This policy of the government has already caused increase in brain drain and may aggravate further. Under graduates and graduates will start moving to foreign universities for higher education. Committees and Commissions on the Issue of Reservation : a. 1882 – Hunter Commission was appointed. Mahatma Jyotirao Phule made a demand of free and compulsory education for all along with proportionate reservation/representation in extended essay government jobs. b. 1953-Kalelkar Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward class. The report was accepted as far as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes were concerned. The recommendations for OBC’s were rejected.

c. Photsynthesis Worksheets? 1979-Mandal Commission was established to assess the situation of the extended essay rubric socially and educationally backward. Essays On A Humorous Incident? The commission didn’t have exact figures for a sub-caste, known as the Other Backward Class (OBC), and used the 1930 census data, further classifying 1,257 communities as backward, to estimate the OBC population at 52%.ln 1980, the commission submitted a report, and recommended changes to the existing quotas, increasing them from 22% to 49.5%.ln 1990, the Mandal commission recommendations were implemented in Government Jobs by Vishwanath Pratap Singh. Student Organisations launched nationwide agitations. Rajiv Goswami, a Delhi university student attempted self-immolation. Many students followed suit. d. Extended Rubric? 2003- The Sachar Committee headed by Justice Rajinder Sachar, and importance of reading books including Sayyid Hamid, Dr. T.K. Ooman, M.A. Basith, Dr.Akhtar Majeed, Dr.Abu Saleh Shariff and Dr.Rakesh Basant was appointed for preparation of a report on the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim community of India. Dr.Syed Zafar Mahmood was the civil servant appointed by extended, the PM as Officer on Special Duty to the Committee. The committee submitted its report in the year 2006.

Implementation of Sachar Committee Recommendations: Marching Towards ‘Inclusive Growth’: Welfare of Minorities, specially of the underprivileged section of them, has been put high on the agenda of the UPA Government ever since it adopted ‘inclusive growth’ as its guiding principle of honors thesis stanford, governance. Essay Rubric? Otherwise too, in every meaningful democracy, it’s the duty of the state, and as a corollary, responsibility of the majority community to ensure the welfare of minorities so that all sections of the society feel proud to be part of the democratic setup and application thus contribute their best to the development of the nation. Specially in our historical context: where all communities and sections of people had marched shoulder to shoulder and extended laid down their lives in the War of Independence, the concept of ‘Inclusive Growth’ becomes sine qua non for the roadmap of devel­opment and progress. It was in this context that the Prime Minister, Dr.

Manmohan Singh, had appointed in March 2005 a High Level Committee under the Chairmanship of Justice Rajindar Sachar to prepare a report on social, economic and educational status of the Muslim Community of photsynthesis worksheets, India. This study was necessary because till then there was no authentic information on the social, economic and educational backwardness, of this community, thereby hampering proper formulation and implementation of specific policies, interventions and programmes to address the issues relating to its socio-economic backwardness. This 7-member High Level Committee, popularly known as Sachar Committee, gave its report in November 2006 – and essay it clearly found that the Muslim community was really “seriously lagging behind in terms of most of the human development indicators.” The Government immediately sensed the gravity of the based 2012 problem and started working on the follow-up action in essay right earnest. Of the 76 recommendations of the Committee, 72 were accepted. Ministry of Minority Affairs being the essays humorous Nodal Ministry for examining these recommendations. And in less than a year, i.e., on 31 August, 2007 a statement on the follow-up action taken on the recommendations of the Sachar Committee was laid in both Houses of Parliament. Extended Essay Rubric? The progress of implementation is being reviewed regularly. Ever since the photsynthesis Government has been taking regular steps towards implementation of major recommendations of the Sachar Committee. Education being the extended essay most powerful means of socio­economic transformation, a multi-pronged strategy to address the educational backwardness of the Muslim community, as brought out by the Sachar Committee, has been adopted.

The Madrasa modernization programme has been revised to make it more attractive by providing better salary to teachers, increased assistance for books, teaching aids and computers, and introduction of vocational subjects, etc. This scheme, now known as Quality Improvement in Madrasa Education, has been launched by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. A new centrally sponsored scheme of financial assistance for Infrastructure Development of application letter, Privately Managed Elementary/Secondary/Senior Secondary schools set up for minorities has been launched. National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has prepared text books for all classes in the light of the National Curriculum Framework-2005. Thirteen universities have been provided Rs.40 lakh each for starting centers for studying social exclusion and inclusive policy for minorities and scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Under the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya scheme (KGBV), criteria of extended essay, educational backward blocks has been revised with effect from 1st April 2008 to cover blocks with less than 30% rural female literacy and in urban areas with less than national average of female literacy 53.67 % (Census 2001). Universalization of access to quality education at secondary stage (SUCCESS) has been approved. Setting up of new Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs) is being incorporated in the revised schemes by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Provision of more girls’ hostels in colleges and universities in minority concentration districts/blocks is proposed under the existing University Grants Commission scheme of the Ministry of HRD. Three scholarship schemes for minority communities viz., Pre-Matric, Post-Matric and Merit- cum-Means were launched and 6.89 lakh scholarships were awarded to students belonging to minority communities in 2008-09. The corpus of Maulana Azad Education Foundation, which stood at Rs.

100 crores, was doubled to Rs. Honors Thesis? 200 crores in December, 2006. The corpus was increased by Rs. 50 crores in 2007-08 and by Rs. 60 crore in 2008-09.

A budget provision of Rs.115 crore has been made in 2009-10. A revised Coaching and Allied scheme was launched and 5522 candidates belonging to minority communities were provided assistance in 2008-09. The Multi-sectoral Development Programme was launched in rubric identified minority concentration districts in 2008-09. Plans of 47 Minority Concentration Districts (MCDs) in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Manipur, Bihar, Meghalaya, Jharkhand, Andaman Nicobar Islands and Orissa were approved and Rs.270.85 crores were released in 2008-09. In the current Financial Year. Plans of more than a dozen more MCDs have been approved till date. An inter-ministerial Task Force constituted to devise an appropriate strategy and action plan for developing 338 identified towns, having substantial minority population, rapidly in a holistic manner submitted its report on 8th November, 2007. The concerned Ministries/Departments have been advised to give priority towards implementation of their schemes in 338 towns. Economic factor being an important tool in the upliftment of a community, all public sector banks have been directed to open more branches in districts having a substantial minority population. Thesis On Robotics? In 2007-08, 523 branches were opened in such districts.

In 2008-09, 524 new branches were opened. Reserve Bank of India revised its Master Circular on 5th July, 2007 on priority sector lending for extended essay rubric improving credit facilities to minority communities. Rs 82864 crore were provided to minorities under priority sector lending during 2008-09. District Consultative Committees (DCCs) of lead banks have been directed to regularly monitor disposal and rejection of loan applications from minorities. Thesis On Robotics? The Government has accorded ‘in principle’ approval for restructuring of National. Minorities Development and Finance Corporation: A National Data Bank, to compile data on the various socio-economic and basic amenities parameters for socio-religious communities, has been set up in the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. An autonomous Assessment Monitoring Authority (AMA), to analyse data collected for extended taking appropriate and of reading corrective policy decisions, has been set up in extended essay rubric the Planning Commission. A training module has been developed by open application for employment, the Indian Institute of extended essay rubric, Public Administration, for sensitization of government officials. The module has been sent to the Central/ State Training Institutes for implementation. Essay 2012? Lai Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA) has prepared a module for extended essay sensitization of organized civil services and it has been incorporated in their training programmes.

Under Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT), additional central assistance of essays on a humorous, Rs 1602.20 crore has been sanctioned for 69 towns having substantial minority population, out of which Rs.659.37 crore was released in 2008-09. A High Level Committee, set up to essay review the Delimitation Act, has considered the concerns expressed in the Sachar Committee report and submitted its report. Guidelines on Communal Harmony have been issued by of reading, the Ministry of Home Affairs. Dissemination of extended essay rubric, information regarding health and family welfare schemes is being undertaken in regional languages in essays minority concentration areas. State Governments and extended UTs have been advised by Department of Personnel Training for posting of Muslim police personnel in thanas and Muslim health personnel and teachers in Muslim concentration areas. On Robotics? State Governments have been advised by Ministry of Panchayati Raj and extended rubric Ministry of Urban Development, to application letter improve representation of minorities in local bodies.

The recommendations of the Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) on Wakfs have been received. These have been processed as per extended essay rubric approved modalities. An expert group constituted to study and recommend the letter structure and functions of an Equal Opportunity Commission submitted its report on 13th March, 2008. This has been processed, along with the report of the expert group on diversity index, as per the approved modalities. To meet the ever growing need for ameliorating the condition of minorities, and Muslim community in particular, the Annual Plan allocation for the Ministry of Minority Affair is rubric has been increased substantially to Rs 1,740 crore for the year 2009-10. The issue of honors stanford, reservation has remained a cause of disagreement between the extended reserved and the non- reserved sections of the society. While the unreserved segments, keep on opposing the provision, the neediest sections from within the reserved segments are hardly aware about how to get benefited from the provision or even whether there are such provisions. On the contrary, the creamy layer among the same segment is enjoying special privileges in the name of reservation and political factions are supporting them for vote banks.

Reservation is research thesis no doubt good, as far as it is a method of extended essay, appropriate positive discrimination for the benefit of the photsynthesis for kids worksheets downtrodden and economically backward Sections o, the society but when it tends to essay harm the society and ensures privileges for some at the cost of others for narrow political ends, as it is in letter for employment the present form, it should be done away with, as soon possible. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on extended essay this site, please read the following pages:

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The Neuroscience Revolution, Ethics, and the Law. There's no art to find the mind's construction in the face; He was a gentleman on whom I built an absolute trust. 1. The lament of extended essay rubric Duncan, King of Scotland, for the treason of the Thane of Cawdor, his trusted nobleman, echoes through time as we continue to feel the sting of not knowing the minds of those people with whom we deal. From we have a deal to will you still love me tomorrow?, we continue to honors thesis stanford, live in fundamental uncertainty about the minds of others. Duncan demonstrated this by immediately giving his trust to Cawdor's conqueror, one Macbeth, with fatal consequences. But at least some of this uncertainty may be about to lift, for better or for worse.

Neuroscience is rapidly increasing our knowledge of the functioning, and malfunctioning, of that intricate three-pound organ, the extended, human brain. Humorous Incident? When science expands our understanding of something so central to human existence, these advances will necessarily cause changes in both our society and extended essay, its laws. This paper seeks to forecast and explore the essay based scholarships, social and legal changes that neuroscience might bring in four areas: prediction, litigation, confidentiality and essay, privacy, and patents. Stanford? It complements the paper in this volume written by Professor Stephen Morse, which covers issues of essay rubric personhood and responsibility, informed consent, the thesis stanford, reform of existing legal doctrines, enhancement of extended essay normal brain functions, and stanford, the admissibility of neuroscience evidence. Two notes of caution are in order.

First, this paper may appear to paint a gloomy picture of future threats and abuses. The technologies discussed may, in fact, have benefits far outweighing their harms. It is the job of people looking for ethical, legal, and social consequences of new technologies to look disproportionately for extended rubric troublesome consequences — or, at least, that's the convention. Second, as Nils Bohr (probably) said, It is always hard to predict things, especially the future. Essays Humorous Incident? 2 This paper builds on experience gained in studying the ethical, legal, and social implications of human genetics over the last decade. That experience, for me and for the whole field, has included both successes and failures. Rubric? In neuroscience, as in genetics, accurately envisioning the future is particularly difficult as one must foresee successfully both what changes will occur in the science and how they will affect society. I am confident about only two things concerning this paper: first, it discusses at length some things that will never happen, and, second, it ignores what will prove to be some of the most important social and legal implications of neuroscience. Nonetheless, I hope the importance of reading, paper can be useful as a guide to beginning to think about extended rubric, these issues.

Advances in neuroscience may well improve our ability to make predictions about an individual's future. This seems particularly likely through neuroimaging, as different patterns of brain images, taken under varying circumstances, will come to be strongly correlated with different future behaviors or conditions. The images may reveal the structure of the of reading books essay, living brain, through technologies such as computer-assisted tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or they may show how different parts of the brain function , through positron emission tomography (PET) scans, single photon emission tomography (SPET) scans, or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Neuroscience might make many different kinds of predictions about extended rubric, people. It might predict, or reveal, mental illness, behavioral traits, or cognitive abilities, among other things. For the purposes of this paper, I have organized these predictive areas not by the nature of the prediction but by who might use the predictions: the health care system, the criminal justice system, schools, businesses, and parents. The fact that new neuroscience methods are used to make predictions is honors thesis stanford not necessarily good or bad.

Our society makes predictions about people all the time: from a doctor determining a patient's prognosis, to a judge (or a legislature) sentencing a criminal, to essay, colleges using the Scholastic Aptitude Test, to automobile liability insurers setting rates. But although prediction is common, it is not always uncontroversial. The Analogy to Genetic Predictions. The issues raised by predictions based on neuroscience are often similar to those raised by genetic predictions. Open Application For Employment? Indeed, in some cases the two areas are the same — genetic analysis can powerfully predict several diseases of the extended, brain, including Huntington disease and some cases of essays on a early-onset Alzheimer disease.

Experience of genetic predictions teaches at least three important lessons. First, a claimed ability to predict may not, in rubric fact, exist. Many associations between genetic variations and various diseases have been claimed, only to photsynthesis, fail the extended rubric, test of honors stanford replication. Extended Essay Rubric? Interestingly, many of these failures have involved two mental illnesses, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Second, and more important, the strength of the predictions can vary enormously. For some genetic diseases, prediction is overwhelmingly powerful. As far as we know, the only way a person with the worksheets, genetic variation that causes Huntington disease can avoid dying of that disease is to extended essay, die first from something else. On the other hand, the letter, widely heralded breast cancer genes, BRCA 1 and BRCA 2, though they substantially increase the extended essay rubric, likelihood that a woman will be diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer, are not close to determinative. Somewhere between 50 and 85 percent of women born with a pathogenic mutation in for kids either of rubric those genes will get breast cancer; 20 to 30 percent (well under half) will get ovarian cancer. Importance Essay? Men with a mutation in BRCA 2 have a hundred-fold greater risk of breast cancer than average men — but their chances are still under five percent. A prediction based on an association between a genetic variation and a disease, even when true, can be very strong, very weak, or somewhere between.

The popular perception of genes as extremely powerful is probably a result of rubric ascertainment bias: the diseases first found to be caused by essay 2012, genetic variations were very powerful — because powerful associations were the easiest to extended essay rubric, find. If, as seems likely, the same holds true for predictions from neuroscience, such predictions will need to be used very carefully. Finally, the use of genetic predictions has proven controversial, both in medical practice and in social settings. Much of the debate about the uses of on robotics human genetics has concerned its use to predict the future health or traits of patients, insureds, employees, fetuses, or embryos. Neuroscience seems likely to raise many similar issues. Much of health care is about prediction — predicting the outcome of extended rubric a disease, predicting the results of a treatment for a disease, predicting the open application for employment, risk of extended getting a disease. When medicine, through neuroscience, genetics, or other methods, makes an accurate prediction that leads to a useful intervention, the prediction is clearly valuable. But predictions also can cause problems when they are inaccurate (or are perceived inaccurately by patients). Honors? Even if the extended essay rubric, predictions are accurate, they still have uncertain value if no useful interventions are possible. These problems may justify regulation of on robotics predictive neuroscientific medical testing. Some predictive tests are inaccurate, either because the scientific understanding behind them is wrong or because the test is poorly performed.

In other cases the test may be accurate in rubric the sense that it gives an accurate assessment of the probability of a certain result, but any individual patient may not have the most likely outcome. In addition, patients or others may misinterpret the test results. In genetic testing, for example, a woman who tests positive for a BRCA 1 mutation may believe that a fatal breast cancer is inevitable, when, in open letter fact, her lifetime risk of breast cancer is between 50 and 85 percent and rubric, her chance of dying from a breast cancer is research roughly one-third of the risk of extended essay rubric diagnosis. Alternatively, a woman who tests negative for the mutation may falsely believe that she has no risk for breast cancer and could stop breast self-examinations or mammograms to her harm. Even very accurate tests may not be very useful. Genetic testing to predict Huntington disease is research quite accurate, yet, with no useful medical interventions, a person may find foreknowledge of Huntington's disease not only unhelpful but psychologically or socially harmful. These concerns have led to widespread calls for regulation of genetic testing.

3. The same issues can easily arise through neuroscience. Neuroimaging, for essay rubric example, might easily lead to research on robotics, predictions, with greater or lesser accuracy, of a variety of extended neurodegenerative diseases. Such imaging tests may be inaccurate, may present information patients find difficult to evaluate, and may provide information of dubious value and essays on a, some harm. One might want to regulate some such tests along the rubric, lines proposed for genetic tests: proof that the test was effective at predicting the condition in question, assessment of the based scholarships, competency of those performing the tests, required informed consent so that patients appreciate the test's possible consequences, and assurance of post-test counseling to assure that patients understand the results. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has statutory jurisdiction over the use of drugs, biologicals, or medical devices. For covered products, it requires proof that they are both safe and extended, effective. Letter For Employment? FDA has asserted that it has jurisdiction over genetic tests as medical devices, but it has chosen only to impose significant regulation on genetic tests sold by manufacturers as kits to clinical laboratories, physicians, or consumers.

Tests done as home brews by clinical laboratories have only been subject to very limited regulation, which does not include proof of safety or efficacy. Neuroscience tests might well be subject to even less FDA regulation. If the extended essay rubric, test used an existing, approved medical device, such as an MRI machine, no FDA approval of essays humorous this additional use would be necessary. The test would be part of the extended essay, practice of medicine, expressly not regulated by the FDA. The FDA also implements the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments Act (CLIA), along with the Center for 2012 Disease Prevention and Control and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. CLIA sets standards for the training and working conditions of clinical laboratory personnel and requires periodic testing of laboratories' proficiency at different tests.

Unless the tests were done in a clinical laboratory, through, for example, pathological examination of brain tissue samples or analysis of chemicals from the brain, neuroscience testing would also seem to avoid regulation under CLIA. At present, neuroscience-based testing, particularly through neuroimaging using existing (approved) devices seems to be entirely unregulated except, to a very limited extent, by malpractice law. One important policy question should be whether to regulate such tests, through government action or by professional self-regulation. The criminal justice system makes predictions about individuals' future behavior in sentencing, parole, and essay rubric, other decisions, such as civil commitment for sex offenders. 4 The trend in recent years has been to limit the discretion of judges and parole boards to use predictions by setting stronger sentencing guidelines or mandatory sentences. Neuroscience could conceivably affect that trend if it provided scientific evidence of a person's future dangerousness. Such evidence might be used to open, increase sentencing discretion - or it might provide yet another way to limit such discretion. 5. One can imagine neuroscience tests that show a convicted defendant was particularly likely to commit dangerous future crimes by showing that he has, for example, poor control over his anger, his aggressiveness, or his sexual urges.

This kind of evidence has been used in the past; neuroscience may come up with ways that either are more accurate or that appear more accurate (or more impressive). For example, two different papers have already linked criminality to variations in the gene for monoamine oxidase A, a protein that plays an important role in the brain. Essay? 6 Genetic tests may seem more scientific and more impressive to stanford, a judge, jury, or parole board than a psychologist's report. The use of neuroscience to make these predictions raises at least two issues: are the neuroscience tests for future dangerousness or lack of self-control valid at all and, if so, how accurate do they need to be before they should be used? The law has had prior experience with claims of tests for inherent violent tendencies. The XYY syndrome was widely discussed and , accepted, , in the literature though not by the courts 7 , in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Men born with an additional copy of the Y chromosome were said to essay rubric, be much more likely to on robotics, become violent criminals. Essay Rubric? Further research revealed, about a decade later, that XYY men were somewhat more likely to have low intelligence and to have long arrest records, typically for petty or property offenses.

They did not have any higher than average predisposition to violence. If, unlike XYY syndrome, a tested condition were shown reliably to predict future dangerousness or lack of control, the question would then become how accurate the test must be in order for it to open, be used. A test of dangerousness or lack of control that was only slightly better than flipping coins should not be given much weight; a perfect test could be. At what accuracy level should the line be set? In the context of civil commitment of extended sexual offenders, the Supreme Court has recently spoken twice on importance of reading, this issue, both times reviewing a Kansas statute. 8 The Kansas act authorizes civil commitment of extended rubric a sexually violent predator, defined as any person who has been convicted of or charged with a sexually violent offense and who suffers from thesis a mental abnormality or personality disorder which makes the person likely to engage in extended essay rubric repeat acts of sexual violence. 9 In Kansas v. Hendricks , the Court held the Act constitutional against a substantive due process claim because it required, in addition to proof of dangerousness, proof of the defendant's lack of control. This admitted lack of volitional control, coupled with a prediction of future dangerousness, adequately distinguishes Hendricks from open application other dangerous persons who are perhaps more properly dealt with exclusively through criminal proceedings. 10 Id. at 360. It held Hendricks's commitment survived attack on ex post facto and essay rubric, double jeopardy grounds because the research on robotics, commitment procedure was neither criminal nor punitive.

11. Five years later, the Court revisited this statute in Kansas v. Crane . 12 It held that the Kansas statute could only be applied constitutionally if there were a determination of the defendant's lack of control and not just proof of the existence of a relevant mental abnormality or personality disorder: It is enough to say that there must be proof of serious difficulty in extended essay rubric controlling behavior. And this, when viewed in light of such features of the essays, case as the nature of the psychiatric diagnosis, and the severity of the mental abnormality itself, must be sufficient to extended rubric, distinguish the dangerous sexual offender whose serious mental illness, abnormality, or disorder subjects him to civil commitment from the essay, dangerous but typical recidivist convicted in extended essay an ordinary criminal case. 13. We know then that, at least in essays on a humorous incident civil commitment cases related to prior sexually violent criminal offenses, proof that the extended rubric, particular defendant had limited power to control his actions is constitutionally necessary. On A? There is no requirement that this evidence, or proof adduced in sentencing or parole hearings, convince the trier of fact beyond a reasonable doubt. The Court gives no indication of how strong that evidence must be or how its scientific basis would be established. Would any evidence that passed Daubert or Frye hearings be sufficient for extended rubric civil commitment (or for enhancing sentencing or denying parole) or would some higher standard be required?

It is photsynthesis also interesting to speculate on how evidence of the essay, accuracy of such tests would be collected. It is honors thesis stanford unlikely that a state or federal criminal justice system would allow a randomized double-blind trial, performing the neuroscientific dangerousness or volition tests on all convicted defendants at the time of essay rubric their conviction and then releasing them to see which ones would commit future crimes. That judges, parole boards, or legislatures would insist on rigorous scientific proof of essays on a connections between neuroscience evidence and extended, future mental states seems doubtful. It is conceivable that neuroscience could provide other methods of essays testing ability or aptitude. Of course, the standard questions of the extended, accuracy of those tests would apply. Tests that are highly inaccurate usually should not be used.

But even assuming the tests are accurate, they would raise concerns. Humorous Incident? Those tests might be used only positively, as Dr. Binet intended his early intelligence test to be used to essay rubric, identify children who need special help. To the extent they were used to essays incident, deny students, especially young children, opportunities, they seem more troubling. It is not clear why a society that uses aptitude tests so commonly for admission into essay elite schools should worry about their neuroscience equivalents. The SAT and research thesis, other similar aptitude tests claim that student preparation or effort will not substantially affect student results, just as, presumably, preparation (at least in the short term) seems at least as unlikely to alter neuroscience tests of aptitude.

The existing aptitude tests, though widely used, remain controversial. Neuroscience tests, particularly if given and extended essay, acted upon at an early age, are likely to essays humorous incident, exacerbate the discomfort we already feel with predictive uses of essay rubric aptitude tests in photsynthesis for kids education. The possibilities for neuroscience discrimination seem at least as real as with genetic discrimination. A predictive test showing that a person has a high likelihood of developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, early-onset Alzheimer disease, early-onset Parkinson disease, or Huntington disease could certainly provide insurers or employers with an essay, incentive to avoid that person. To the extent one believes that health coverage should be universal or that employment should be denied or terminated only for good cause, banning neuroscientific discrimination might be justified as an incremental step toward this good end. Otherwise, it may be difficult to say why people should be more protected from adverse social consequences of neuroscientific test results than of cholesterol tests, x-rays, or colonoscopies.

Special protection for genetic tests has been urged on the ground that genes are more fundamental, more deterministic, and essays on a humorous incident, less the result of personal actions or chance than other influences on health. Others have argued against such genetic exceptionalism, denying special power to genes and essay, contending that special legislation about essay based, genetics only confirms the public a false view of genetic determinism. Still others, including me, have argued that the public's particularly strong fear of genetic test results, even though exaggerated, justifies regulation in order to gain concrete benefits from reducing that fear. The same arguments could be played out with respect to predictive neuroscience tests. Although this is an open empirical question, it does seem likely that the rubric, public's perception of the open application, fundamental or deterministic nature of genes does not exist with respect to neuroscience. One other possible business use of neuroscience predictions should be noted, one that has been largely ignored in genetics. Essay? Neuroscience might be used in marketing. Firms might use neuroscience techniques on test subjects to enhance the appeal of essays incident their products or the essay, effectiveness of thesis on robotics their advertising.

Individuals or focus groups could, in the future, be examined under fMRI. At least one firm, Brighthouse Institute for Thought Sciences, has embraced this technology, and, in a press release from 2002, announced its intentions of revolutionizing the marketing industry. Extended Essay? 17. More alarmingly, if neuro-monitoring devices were perfected that could study a person's mental function without his knowledge, information to predict a consumer's preferences might be collected for marketing purposes. Worksheets? Privacy regulation seems appropriate for the undisclosed monitoring in the latter example. Regulating the extended essay rubric, former seems less likely, although it might prove attractive if such neuroscience-enhanced market research proved too effective an aid to selling. The prenatal use of genetic tests to predict the future characteristics of fetuses, embryos, or as-yet unconceived offspring is one of the most controversial and interesting issues in human genetics. Neuroscience predictions are unlikely to have similar power prenatally, except through neurogenetics. It is possible that neuroimaging or other non-genetic neuroscience tests might be performed on a fetus during pregnancy.

Structural MRI has been used as early as about 24 weeks to look for major brain malformations, following up on earlier suspicious sonograms. At this point, no one appears to have done fMRI on the brain of a fetus; the for kids worksheets, classic method of essay rubric stimulating the subject and watching which brain regions react would be challenging in utero, though not necessarily impossible. In any event, fetal neuroimaging seems likely to give meaningful results only for serious brain problems and for kids worksheets, even then at fairly late stage of fetal development so that the most plausible intervention, abortion, would be rarely used and extended essay rubric, only in the most extreme cases. 18. Parents, however, like schools, might make use of research predictive neuroscience tests during childhood to help plan, guide, or control their children's lives. Of course, parents already try to extended rubric, guide their children's lives, based on everything from good data to wishful thinking about a child's abilities. Would neuroscience change anything?

It might be argued that parents would take neuroscience testing more seriously than other evidence of a child's abilities because of its scientific nature, and thus perhaps exaggerate its accuracy. 2012? More fundamentally, it could be argued that, even if the rubric, test predictions were powerfully accurate, too extreme parental control over a child's life is a bad thing. Open Application Letter For Employment? From this perspective, any procedures that are likely to add strength to parents' desire or ability to extended rubric, exercise that control should be discouraged. Thesis? On the other hand, society vests parents with enormous control over rubric their children's upbringing, intervening only in honors thesis strong cases of abuse. Extended Rubric? To some extent, this parental power may be a matter of federal constitutional right, established in a line of cases dating back 80 years.

19. This issue is stanford perhaps too difficult to be tackled. It is worth noting, though, that government regulation is not the only way to approach it. Professional self-regulation, insurance coverage policies, and parental education might all be methods to discourage any perceived overuse of children's neuroscience tests by their parents. Predictions may themselves be relevant in some litigation, particularly the criminal cases discussed above, but other, non-predictive uses of neurosciences might also become central to litigated cases. Neuroscience might be able to provide relevant, and essay rubric, possibly determinative, evidence of a witness's mental state at the time of importance testimony, ways of eliciting or evaluating a witness's memories, or other evidence relevant to a litigant's claims. This section will look at a few possible litigation uses: lie detection, bias determination, memory assessment or recall, and other uses.

Whether any of extended rubric these uses is stanford scientifically possible remains to be seen. It is also worth noting that the extent of the use of any of essay these methods will also depend on their cost and intrusiveness. A method of, for example, truth determination that required an intravenous infusion or examination inside a full scale MRI machine would be used much less than a simple and open letter, portable headset. The implications of any of essay these technologies for litigation seem to depend largely on four evidentiary issues. First, will the technologies pass the Daubert 20 or Frye 21 tests for the admissibility of scientific evidence? (I leave questions of Daubert and Frye entirely to Professor Morse.) Second, if they are held sufficiently scientifically reliable to books essay, pass Daubert or Frye , are there other reasons to forbid or to compel the admissibility of the results of such technologies when used voluntarily by a witness? Third, would the essay rubric, refusal — or the agreement — of a witness to use one of thesis stanford these technologies itself be admissible in evidence?

And fourth, may a court compel witnesses, under varying circumstances, to use these technologies? The answers to these questions will vary with the setting (especially criminal or civil), with the technology, and with other circumstances of the case, but they provide a useful framework for analysis. Detecting Lies or Compelling Truth. The concept behind current polygraph machines dates back to the early 20th century. 22 They seek to rubric, measure various physiological reactions associated with anxiety, like sweating, breathing rate, and importance of reading, blood pressure, in the expectation that those signs of nervousness correlate with the extended essay rubric, speaker's knowledge that what he is saying is false. American courts have generally, but not universally, rejected them, although they are commonly used by the federal government for essays on a humorous various security clearances and investigations. 23 It has been estimated that their accuracy is about 85 to essay rubric, 90 percent.

24. Now imagine that neuroscience leads to thesis, new ways to determine whether or not a witness is telling a lie or even to compel a witness to tell the truth. A brain imaging device might, for extended rubric example, be able to detect patterns or locations of brain activity known from experiments to be highly correlated with the subject's consciousness of falsehood. (I will refer to essays, this as lie detection.) Alternatively, drugs or other stimuli might be administered that made it impossible for essay rubric a witness to do anything but tell the truth — an effective truth serum. Thesis? (I will refer to this as truth compulsion and to the two collectively as truth testing.) Assume for the moment, unrealistically, that these methods of truth testing are absolutely accurate, with neither false positives nor false negatives. How would, and should, courts treat the results of such truth testing? The question deserves much more extensive treatment than I can give it here, but I will try to sketch some issues. Consider first the non-scientific issues of admissibility. One argument against admissibility was made by four justices of the essay rubric, Supreme Court in United States v. Scheffer 25 , a case involving a blanket ban on the admissibility of polygraph evidence.

Scheffer, a enlisted man in the Air Force working with military police as an informant in research thesis on robotics drug investigations, wanted to introduce the results of a polygraph examination at extended, his court-martial for illegal drug use. 26 The polygraph examination, performed by the military as a routine part of thesis on robotics his work as an informant, showed that he denied illegal drug use during the same period that a urine test detected the extended, presence of methamphetamine. 27 Military Rule of Evidence 707, promulgated by President George H.W. Bush in 1991, provides that Notwithstanding any other provision of importance of reading books law, the results of a polygraph examination, the opinion of extended essay rubric a polygraph examiner, or any reference to an offer to take, failure to of reading books essay, take, or taking of a polygraph examination, shall not be admitted into evidence. The court-martial refused to admit Scheffer's evidence on essay, the basis of Rule 707. His conviction was overturned by the Court of for kids worksheets Appeals for the Armed Forces, which held that this per se exclusion of all polygraph evidence violated the Sixth Amendment. 28 The Supreme Court reversed in turn, upholding Rule 707, but in a fractured opinion. Justice Thomas wrote the opinion announcing the decision of the Court and finding the rule constitutional on essay rubric, three grounds: continued question about the reliability of polygraph evidence, the honors thesis, need to preserve the jury's core function of making credibility determinations in extended rubric criminal trials, and the avoidance of importance books collateral litigation.

29 Justices Rehnquist, Scalia, and Souter joined the Thomas opinion in full. Justice Kennedy, joined by Justices O'Connor, Ginsburg, and Breyer, concurred in the section of the Thomas opinion based on reliability of polygraph evidence. Those four justices did not agree with the other two grounds. 30 Justice Stevens dissented, finding that the reliability of polygraph testing was already sufficiently well established to invalidate any per se exclusion. 31. Our hypothesized perfect truth testing methods would not run afoul of the reliability issue.

Nor, assuming the extended essay rubric, rules for thesis on robotics its admissibility were sufficiently clear, would collateral litigation appear to be a major concern. It would seem, however, even more than the polygraph, to evoke the concerns of four justices about invading the sphere of the jury even when the witness had agreed to the use. Extended? Although at this point Justice Thomas's concern lacks the stanford, fifth vote it needs to become a binding precedent, the rubric, preservation of the jury's role might be seen by open application, some courts as rising to extended, a constitutional level under a federal or state constitutional right to a criminal, or civil, jury trial. It could certainly be used as a policy argument against allowing such evidence and, as an stanford, underlying concern of the rubric, judiciary, it might influence judicial findings under Daubert or Frye about the research, reliability of the methods. Essay Rubric? 32 Assuming robust proof of reliability, it is hard to see any other strong argument against the admission of this kind of evidence. (Whether Justice Thomas's rationale, either as a constitutional or a policy matter, would apply to based scholarships 2012, non-jury trials seems more doubtful.) On the extended essay, other hand, some defendants might have strong arguments for the admission of stanford such evidence, at extended rubric, least in of reading essay criminal cases. Courts have found in the Sixth Amendment, perhaps in combination with the Fifth Amendment, a constitutional right for criminal defendants to present evidence in their own defense. Essay Rubric? Scheffer made this very claim, that Rule 707, in the context of his case, violated his constitutional right to present a defense. The Supreme Court has two lines of cases dealing with this right. In Chambers v. Mississippi , the Court resolved the defendant's claim by balancing the importance of the evidence to the defendant's case with the based scholarships 2012, reliability of the evidence.

33 In Rock v. Arkansas , a criminal defendant alleged that she could remember the events only after having her memory hypnotically refreshed. 34 The Court struck down Arkansas's per se rule against hypnotically refreshed testimony on the ground that the rule, as a per essay se rule, was arbitrary and therefore violated the Sixth Amendment's rights to present a defense and to testify in her own defense. Stanford? The Rock opinion also stressed that the Arkansas rule prevented the defendant from telling her own story in any meaningful way. Extended? That might argue in for kids worksheets favor of the admissibility of a criminal defendant's own testimony, under truth compulsion, as opposed to extended, an examiner giving his expert opinion about the truthfulness of the witness's statements based on the truth detector results. These constitutional arguments for the admission of such evidence would not seem to arise with the prosecution's case or with either the plaintiff's or defendant's case in a civil matter (unless some state constitutional provisions were relevant). 35. Assuming truth tested testimony were admissible, should either a party's, or a witness's, offer or refusal to undergo truth testing be admissible in evidence as relevant to their honesty? Consider how powerful a jury (or a judge) might find a witness's refusal to open for employment, be truth tested, particularly if witnesses telling contrary stories have successfully passed such testing.

Such a refusal could well prove fatal to the witness's credibility. The Fifth Amendment would likely prove a constraint with respect to criminal defendants. The fact that a defendant has invoked the Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination cannot normally be admitted into essay rubric evidence or considered by the trier of fact. Of Reading Essay? Otherwise, the courts have held, the defendant would be penalized for having invoked the privilege. A defendant who takes the extended, stand might well be held to have waived that right and so might be impeached by his refusal to undergo truth testing. On Robotics? To what extent a criminal defendant's statements before trial could constitute a waiver of his right to avoid impeachment on this ground seems a complicated question, involving both the Fifth Amendment and the effects of the rule in Miranda v. Arizona . 36 These complex issues would require a paper of their own; I will not discuss them further here. Apart from a defendant in a criminal trial, it would seem that any other witnesses should be impeachable for their refusal to rubric, be truth tested; they might invoke the privilege against self-incrimination but the humorous, trier of fact, in weighing their credibility in essay rubric this trial, would not be using that information against them. And this should be true for prosecution witnesses as well as defense witnesses.

Both parties and based scholarships 2012, non-party witnesses at civil trials would seem generally to be impeachable for their refusal to be truth-tested, except in extended rubric some jurisdictions that hold that a civil party's invocation of the thesis stanford, Fifth Amendment may not be commented upon extended essay even in a civil trial. It seems unlikely that a witness's willingness to undergo truth testing would add anything to the results of a test in most cases. It might, however, be relevant, and presumably admissible, if for some reason the based, test did not work on that witness or, unbeknownst to the witness at the time she made the offer, the extended, test results turned out to importance books, be inadmissible. The questions thus far have dealt with the admissibility of evidence from witnesses who have voluntarily undergone truth testing or who have voluntarily agreed or refused to undergo such testing. Could, or should, either side have the power to compel a witness to undergo either method of truth testing? At its simplest, this might be a right to extended, re-test a witness tested by application, the other side, a claim that could be quite compelling if the results of these methods, like the results of polygraphy, were believed to be significantly affected by the means by extended rubric, which it was administered — not just the scientific process but the substance and style of the questioning. More broadly, could either side compel a witness, in a criminal or a civil case, to letter, undergo such truth testing as part of either a courtroom examination or in pretrial discovery? Witnesses certainly can be compelled to testify, at extended, trial or in deposition. They can also be compelled, under appropriate circumstances, to importance of reading books essay, undergo specialized testing, such as medical examinations. (These latter procedures typically require express authorization from the court rather than being available as of right to the other side.) Several constitutional protections might be claimed as preventing such compulsory testimony using either lie detection or truth compulsion.

A witness might argue that the extended essay rubric, method of open for employment truth testing involved was so great an intrusion into the person's bodily (or mental) integrity as to shock the conscience and violate the extended, Fifth or Fourteenth Amendment, as did the stomach pumping in for kids Rochin v. California . 37 A test method involving something like the wearing of headphones might seem quite different from one involving an intravenous infusion of a drug or envelopment in the coffin-like confines of a full-sized MRI machine. The strength of such a claim might vary with whether the process was lie detection and merely verified (or undercut) the witness's voluntarily chosen words or whether it was truth compulsion and rubric, interfered with the worksheets, witness's ability to choose her own words. The Fifth Amendment's privilege against self-incrimination would usually protect those who choose to invoke it (and who had not been granted immunity). Extended Rubric? As noted above, that would not necessarily protect either a party in a civil case or a non-defendant witness in a criminal case from impeachment for invoking the application letter, privilege. Would a witness have a possible Fourth Amendment claim that such testing, compelled by court order, was an extended essay rubric, unreasonable search and seizure by the government? I know of essay scholarships no precedent for considering questioning itself as a search or seizure, but this form of questioning could be seen as close to essay rubric, searching the application for employment, confines of the witness's mind. In that case, would a search warrant or other court order suffice to authorize the test against essay rubric, a Fourth Amendment claim?

And, if it were seen in that light, could a search warrant issue for the interrogation of a person under truth testing outside the context of any pending criminal or civil litigation - and possibly even outside the essay scholarships 2012, context of an arrest and its consequent Miranda rights? If this seems implausible, consider what an attractive addition statutory authorization of such mental searches might seem to the Administration or the Congress in the next version of the USA PATRIOT Act. 38. In some circumstances, First Amendment claims might be plausible. Truth compulsion might be held to violate in some respects the right not to speak, although the precedents on this point are quite distant, involving a right not to be forced to say, or to publish, specific statements.

It also seems conceivable that some religious groups could object to these practices and might be able to make a free exercise clause argument against such compelled speech. These constitutional questions are many and knotty. Rubric? Equally difficult is the stanford, question whether some or all of them might be held to be waived by extended essay, witnesses who had either undergone truth testing themselves or had claimed their own truthfulness, thus putting it in open application question. And, of extended essay course, even if parties or witnesses have no constitutional rights against being ordered to undergo truth testing, that does not resolve the policy issue of whether such rights should exist as a matter of statute, rule, or judicial decision. Parties and based scholarships 2012, witnesses are not the only relevant actors in trials. Truth testing might also be used in voir dire. Prospective jurors might be asked about their knowledge of the parties or of the case or their relevant biases.

Could a defendant claim that his right to an unbiased juror was infringed if such methods were not used and hence compel prospective jurors to undergo truth testing? Could one side or the rubric, other challenge for cause a prospective juror who was unwilling to undergo such testing? In capital cases, jurors are asked whether they could vote to convict in light of a possible death penalty; truth testing might be demanded by the prosecution to make sure the prospective jurors are being honest. It is also worth considering how the existence of such methods might change the pretrial maneuvers of the parties. Currently, criminal defendants taking polygraph tests before trial typically do so through a polygrapher hired by on robotics, their counsel and thus protected by the attorney-client privilege. Whatever rules are adopted concerning the admissibility of evidence from truth testing will undoubtedly affect the incentives of the parties, in civil and criminal cases, to undergo truth testing. This may, in extended essay rubric turn, have substantial, and perhaps unexpected, repercussions for the practices of criminal plea bargaining and civil settlement. As the vast majority of criminal and civil cases are resolved before trial, the effects of truth testing could be substantial. Even more broadly, consider the possible effects of truth testing on essay based scholarships 2012, judicial business more generally. Certainly not every case depends on the honesty of witness testimony.

Some hinge on conclusions about extended, reasonableness or negligence; others are determined by photsynthesis for kids, questions of law. Even factual questions might be the focus of subjectively honest, but nevertheless contradictory, testimony from different witnesses. Extended Rubric? Still, it seems possible that a very high percentage of cases, both criminal and essay based scholarships 2012, civil, could be heavily affected, if not determined, by essay, truth-tested evidence. If truth testing reduced criminal trials ten-fold, that would surely raise Justice Thomas's concern about the proper role of the jury, whether or not that concern has constitutional implications. Open Application? It would also have major effects on the workload of the judiciary and, perhaps, on extended, the structure of the courts. The questions raised by a perfect method of truth testing are numerous and complicated. They are also probably unrealistic given that no test will be perfect.

Most of these questions would require reconsideration if truth testing turned out to be only photsynthesis worksheets, 99.9% accurate, or 99% accurate, or 90% accurate. That reconsideration would have to extended, consider not just overall accuracy but the rates of both false positives (the identification of a false statement as true) and essays on a humorous, false negatives (the identification of a true statement as false), as those may have different implications. Extended Rubric? Similarly, decisions on admissibility might differ if accuracy rates varied with a witness's age, sex, training in beating the machine, or other traits. And, of course, proving the thesis, accuracy of such methods as they are first introduced or as they are altered will be a major issue in court systems under the Daubert or Frye tests. In sum, the invention by neuroscientists of perfectly or extremely reliable lie detecting or truth compelling methods might have substantial effects on almost every trial and on the entire judicial system.

How those effects would play out in light of our current criminal justice system, including the constitutional protections of the Bill of Rights, is not obvious. Evidence produced by neuroscience may play other significant roles in the courtroom. Consider the possibility of testing, through neuroimaging, whether a witness or a juror reacts negatively to particular groups. Already, neuroimaging work is going on that looks for — and extended essay, finds — differences in a subject's brain's reaction to for kids, people of different races. Rubric? If that research is able to essay based scholarships, associate certain patterns of activity with negative bias, its possible use in litigation could be widespread. As with truth testing, courts would have to decide whether bias testing met Daubert or Frye , whether voluntary test results would be admissible, whether a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to take the test could be admitted into evidence, and whether the testing could ever be compelled.

The analysis on these points seems similar to that for essay truth testing, with the based scholarships, possible exception of a lesser role for the privilege against self-incrimination. If allowed, neuroscience testing for essay rubric racial bias might be used where bias was a relevant fact in the case, as in honors stanford claims of employment discrimination based on race. It might be used to test any witness for bias for or against a party of a particular race. It might be used to test jurors to ensure that they were not biased against extended rubric, the parties because of their race. One could even, barely, imagine it being used to test judges for bias, perhaps as part of a motion to disqualify for bias. And, of course, such bias testing need not to be limited bias based on essay based, race, nationality, sex, or other protected groups. One could seek to test, in appropriate cases, for bias against parties or witnesses based on their occupation (the police, for example), their looks (too fat, too thin), their voices (a southern accent, a Bahston accent), or many other characteristics. If accurate truth testing were available, it could make any separate bias testing less important. Witnesses or jurors could simply be asked whether they were biased against the relevant group. On the other hand, it is possible that people might be able to answer honestly that they were not biased, when they were in fact biased.

Such people would actually act on negative perceptions of different groups even though they did not realize that they were doing so. Essay? If the neuroimaging technique were able accurately to detect people with that unconscious bias, it might still be useful in addition to truth testing. Bias testing might even force us to importance of reading books, re-evaluate some truisms. We say that the parties to litigation are entitled to unbiased judges and juries, but we mean that they are entitled to judges and juries that are not demonstrably biased in a context where demonstrating bias is difficult. What if demonstrating bias becomes easy — and bias is ubiquitous? Imagine a trial where neuroimaging shows that all the prospective jurors are prejudiced against a defendant who looks like a stereotypical Hell's Angel because they think he looks like a criminal.

Or what if the extended, only potential jurors who didn't show bias were themselves members of quasi-criminal motorcycle gangs? What would his right to a fair trial mean in that context? Evaluating or Eliciting Memory. The two methods discussed so far involve analyzing (or in the case of truth compulsion, creating) a present state of mind. It is conceivable that neuroscience might also provide courts with at photsynthesis worksheets, least three relevant tools concerning memory. In each case, courts would again confront questions of the extended rubric, reliability of the honors thesis, tools, their admissibility with the witness's permission, impeaching witnesses for failing to use the tools, or compelling a witness to use such a memory-enhancing tool. The first tool might be an intervention, pharmacological or otherwise, that improved a witness's ability to remember events. It is certainly conceivable that researchers studying memory-linked diseases might create drugs that help people retrieve old memories or retrieve them in essay rubric more detail. This kind of intervention would not be new in research thesis on robotics litigation. The courts have seen great controversy over the past few years over extended repressed or recovered memories, typically traumatic early childhood experiences brought back to adult witnesses by therapy or hypnosis.

Similarly, some of the child sex abuse trials over the past decade have featured questioned testimony from young children about their experiences. In both cases, the validity of these memories has been questioned. For Kids? We do know from essay rubric research that people often will come to remember, in good faith, things that did not happen, particularly when those memories have been suggested to them. 39 Similar problems might arise with enhanced memories. 40. A second tool might be the books essay, power to assess the validity of a witness's memory. Extended Essay? What if neuroscience could give us tools to distinguish between true and false memory? One could imagine different parts of a witness's brain being used while recounting a true memory, a false memory, or a creative fiction. Or, alternatively, perhaps neuroscience could somehow date memories, revealing when they were laid down. These methods seem more speculative than either truth testing or bias testing, but, if either one (or some other method of testing memory) turned out to be feasible, courts would, after the open letter for employment, Daubert or Frye hearings, again face questions of rubric admitting testimony concerning their voluntary use, allowing comment on thesis on robotics, a witness's refusal to take the test, and possibly compelling their use. A third possible memory-based tool is still more speculative but potentially more significant.

There have long been reports that electrical stimulation can, sometimes, trigger a subject to have what appears to be an extremely detailed and rubric, vivid memory of a past scene, almost like reliving the experience. At this point, we do not know whether these experiences are truly memories or are more akin to hallucinations; if it is essay scholarships a memory, how to reliably call it up; how many memories might potentially be recalled in extended essay rubric this manner; or, perhaps most importantly, how to recall any specific memory. Whatever filing system the brain uses for memories seems to be, at this point, a mystery. Assume that it proves possible to cause a witness to recall a specific memory in its entirety, perhaps by essays incident, localizing the site of the memory first through neuroimaging the witness while she calls up her own existing memories of the extended, event. A witness could then, perhaps, relive an event important to trial, either before trial or on photsynthesis for kids worksheets, the witness stand. One could even, just barely, imagine a technology that might be able to read out the witness's memories, intercepted as neuronal firings, and translate it directly into voice, text, or the equivalent of extended rubric a movie for review by essay based scholarships, the finder of fact.

Less speculatively, one could certainly imagine a drug that would improve a person's ability to retrieve specific long-term memories. While a person's authentic memories, no matter how vividly they are recalled, may not be an accurate portrayal of what actually took place, they would be more compelling testimony than provided by typically foggy recollections of extended rubric past events. Once again, if the essays humorous, validity of extended rubric these methods were established, the key questions would seem to be whether to allow the admission of evidence from thesis such a recall experience, voluntarily undertaken; whether to admit the fact of a party's or witness's refusal or agreement to use such method; and whether, under any circumstances, to compel the use of such a technique. 41. Other Litigation-Related Uses. Neuroscience covers a wide range of brain-related activities. The three areas sketched above are issues where neuroscience conceivably could have an impact on almost any litigation, but neuroscience might also affect any specific kind of litigation where brain function was relevant.

Consider four examples. The most expensive medical malpractice cases are generally considered so-called bad baby cases. In these cases, children are born with profound brain damage. Damages can be enormous, sometimes amounting to the cost of extended essay round-the-clock nursing care for seventy years. Evidence of causation, however, is often very unclear. The plaintiff parents will allege that the defendants managed the delivery negligently, which led to a lack of oxygen that in turn caused the brain damage. On A Incident? Defendants, in addition to denying negligence, will usually claim that the damage had some other, often unknown, cause. Jurors are left with a family facing a catastrophic situation and no strong evidence about what caused it. Trial verdicts, and settlements, can be extremely high, accounting in part for the high price of malpractice insurance for obstetricians. If neuroscience would reliably distinguish between brain damage caused by oxygen deprivation near birth and that caused earlier, these cases would have more accurate results, in terms of compensating only essay rubric, families where the damage was caused around delivery. Similarly, if fetal neuroimaging could reveal serious brain damage before labor, those images could be evidence about the cause of the open application letter, damage. (One can even imagine obstetricians insisting on prenatal brain scans before delivery in order to establish a baseline.) By making the determination of essay causation more certain, it should also lead to more settlements and less wasteful litigation. (Of course, in cases where neuroscience showed that the damage was consistent with lack of on a humorous oxygen around delivery, the defendants' negligence would still be in question.)

In many personal injury cases, the existence of extended essay rubric intractable pain may be an issue. In some of those cases there may be a question whether the plaintiff is exaggerating the extent of the pain. Open Application Letter? It seems plausible that neuroscience could provide a strong test for whether a person actually perceives pain, through neuroimaging or other methods. It might be able to show whether signals were being sent by rubric, the sensory nerves to the brain from the painful location on the plaintiff's body. Alternatively, it might locate a region of the brain that is thesis always activated when a person feels pain or a pattern of brain activation that is always found during physically painful experiences.

Again, by reducing uncertainty about a very subjective (and hence falsifiable) aspect of a case, neuroscience could improve the litigation system. A person's competency is relevant in several legal settings, including disputed guardianships and competency to stand trial. Neuroscience might be able to establish some more objective measures that could be considered relevant to competency. (It might also reveal that what the law seems pleased to regard as a general, undifferentiated competency does not, in extended essay fact, exist.) If this were successful, one could imagine individuals obtaining prophylactic certifications of their competency before, for example, making wills or entering into unconventional contracts. Thesis On Robotics? The degree of mental ability is also relevant in capital punishment, where the extended essay rubric, Supreme Court has recently held that executing the mentally retarded violates the Eighth Amendment. 42 Neuroscience might supply better, or even determinative, evidence of mental retardation. Or, again, it may be that neuroscience would force the courts to importance of reading books essay, recognize that mental retardation is not a discrete condition. Finally, neuroscience might affect criminal cases for illegal drug use in several ways. Neuroscience might help determine whether a defendant was truly addicted to the drug in question, which could have some consequences for extended essay guilt or sentencing. Importance Of Reading Books? It might reveal whether a person was especially susceptible to, or especially resistant to, becoming addicted. Extended Essay Rubric? Or it could provide new ways to block addiction, or even pleasurable sensations, with possible consequences for sentencing or treatment. Again, as with the other possible applications of honors thesis stanford neuroscience addressed in this paper, these uses are speculative.

It would be wrong to count on neuroscience to solve, deus ex machina, our drug problems. It does not seem irresponsible, however, to consider the possible implications of neuroscience breakthroughs in this area. 43. I am using these two often conflated terms to mean different things. I am using confidentiality to refer to extended essay, the obligation of honors thesis a professional or an entity to limit appropriately the availability of extended rubric information about people (in this context, usually patients or research subjects). Privacy, as I am using it, means people's interest in essay based scholarships avoiding unwanted intrusions into their lives. Essay? The first focuses on photsynthesis for kids worksheets, limiting the distribution of information appropriately gathered; the second concerns avoiding intrusions, including the inappropriate gathering of information. Neuroscience will raise challenges concerning both concepts. Maintaining —and Breaking — Confidentiality.

Neuroscience may lead to the generation of sensitive information about individual patients or research subjects, information whose distribution they may wish to see restricted. Extended? Personal health information is everywhere protected in the United States, by varying theories under state law, by new federal privacy regulations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), 44 and by codes of professional ethics. Personal information about honors thesis stanford, research subjects must also be appropriately protected under the Common Rule, the federal regulation governing most (but not all) biomedical research in the United States. Extended Essay Rubric? 45 The special issue with neuroscience-derived information is whether some or all of it requires additional protection. Because of concerns that some medical information is more dangerous than usual, physicians have sometimes kept separate medical charts detailing patients' mental illness, HIV status, or genetic diseases. Some states have enacted statutes requiring additional protections for some very sensitive medical information, including genetic information. Because neuroscience information may reveal central aspects of a person's personality, cognitive abilities, and future, one could argue that it too requires special protection.

Consideration of such special status would have to research on robotics, weigh at least five counter-arguments. Extended? First, any additional recordkeeping or data protection requirements both increase costs and risk making important information unavailable to stanford, physicians or patients who need it. A physician seeing a patient whose regular physician is on rubric, vacation may never know that there is a second chart that contains important neuroscience information. Second, not all neuroscience information will be especially sensitive; much will prove not sensitive at all because it is not meaningful to anyone, expert or lay. Third, defining neuroscience information will prove difficult. Statutes defining genetic information have either employed an honors stanford, almost uselessly narrow definition (the result of DNA tests) or have opted for a wider definition encompassing all information about a person's genome. The latter, however, would end up including standard medical information that provides some information about a person's genetics: blood types, cholesterol level, skin color, and family history, among others.

Fourth, mandating special protection for a class of rubric information sends the message that the information is especially important even if it is not. In genetics, it is argued that legislation based on of reading, such genetic exceptionalism increases a false and harmful public sense of genetic determinism. Similar arguments might apply to neuroscience. Finally, given the many legitimate and often unpredictable needs for access to medical information, confidentiality provisions will often prove ineffective at keeping neuroscience information private, especially from the health insurers and employers who are paying for the medical care. This last argument in particular would encourage policy responses that ban bad uses of sensitive information rather than depending on extended essay, keeping that information secret. Laws and for kids, policies on confidentiality also need to consider the limits on confidentiality. Essay? In some cases, we require disclosure of otherwise private medical information to third parties. Barring some special treatment, the same would be true of neuroscience-derived information. A physician (including, perhaps, a physician-researcher) may have an obligation to report to a county health agency or the Centers for essays Disease Control neuroscience-derived information about a patient that is linked to a reportable disease (an MRI scan showing, for essay rubric example, a case of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the human version of mad cow disease); to a motor vehicle department information linked to essay based scholarships, loss-of-consciousness disorders; and to extended essay, a variety of of reading essay governmental bodies information leading to a suspicion of child abuse, elder abuse, pesticide poisoning, or other topics as specified by statute. Extended Essay? In some cases, it might be argued, as it has been in of reading essay genetics, that a physician has a responsibility to disclose a patient's condition to a family member if the family member is at higher risk of the same condition as a result. Finally, neuroscience information showing an imminent and serious threat from essay rubric a patient to a third party might have to based scholarships, be reported under the Tarasoff doctrine.

46 Discussion of the confidentiality of neuroscience-derived information needs to take all of these mandatory disclosure situations into account. Privacy Protections Against Mental Intrusions. Privacy issues, as I am using the term in this paper, would arise as a result of extended essay rubric neuroscience through unconsented and inappropriate intrusions into thesis on robotics a person's life. The results of a normal medical MRI would be subject to confidentiality concerns; a forced MRI would raise privacy issues. Some such unconsented intrusions have already been discussed in dealing with possible compulsory truth, bias, or memory interventions inside the litigation system.

This section will describe such interventions (mainly) outside a litigation context. Intrusions by the government are subject to essay rubric, the Constitution and its protections of privacy, contained in and emanating from the penumbra of the Bill of Rights. Whether or not interventions were permitted in the courtroom, under judicial supervision, the government might use them in other contexts, just as polygraphs are used in essays on a incident security clearance investigations. All of these non-litigation governmental uses share a greater possibility of abuse than the use of such a technology in a court-supervised setting. Presumably, their truly voluntary use, with the extended rubric, informed consent of a competent adult subject, would raise no legal issues. Situations where agreement to take the test could be viewed as less than wholly voluntary would raise their own set of sticky problems about the degree of coercion. Consider the possibility of truth tests for those seeking government jobs, benefits, or licenses. Honors Stanford? Admission to a state college (or eligibility for government-provided scholarships or government-guaranteed loans) might, for example, be conditioned on passing a lie detection examination on illegal drug use. Frankly compelled uses might also be used, although they would raise constitutional questions under the extended essay, Fourth and Fifth Amendments.

One could imagine law enforcement officials deciding to interrogate one member of research thesis on robotics a criminal gang under truth compulsion in violation of Miranda and of the extended essay, Fifth Amendment (and hence to forego bringing him to trial) in honors order to get information about his colleagues. Even if a person had been given a sufficiently broad grant of extended immunity to on a humorous, avoid any Fifth Amendment issues, would that really protect the interests of extended essay rubric a person forced to open letter for employment, undergo a truth compulsion process? Or would such a forcible intrusion into one's mind be held to violate due process along the lines of Rochin v. California ? 47. Of course, even if the interrogated party could bring a constitutional tort claim against the police, how often would such a claim be brought? And would we — or our courts — always find such interrogations improper? Consider the interrogation of suspected terrorists or of enemy soldiers during combat, when many lives may be at stake. (This also raises the interesting question of how the U.S. could protect its soldiers or agents from extended rubric similar questioning). Although more far-fetched scientifically, consider the possibility of less intrusive neuroscience techniques.

What if the government developed a neuroimaging device that could be used at importance of reading essay, a distance from a moving subject or one that could fit into the arch of extended essay rubric a airport metal detector? People could be screened without any obvious intrusion and perhaps without their knowledge. Should remote screening of airline passengers for violent or suicidal thoughts or emotions be allowed? Would it matter whether the research thesis, airport had signs saying that all travelers, by their presence, consented to such screening? Private parties have less ability than the government to compel someone to undergo a neuroscience intervention - at least without being liable to arrest for essay assault. Still, one can imagine situations where private parties either frankly coerce or unduly influence someone else to take a neuroscience intervention. If lie detection or truth compulsion devices were available and usable by laymen, one can certainly imagine criminal groups using them on their members without getting informed consent. Employers might well want to test their employees; parents, their teenagers. If the intervention requires a full-sized MRI machine, we would not worry much about private, inappropriate use. If, on the other hand, truth testing were to require only the equivalent of headphones or a hypodermic needle, private uses might be significant and would seem to require regulation, if not a complete ban.

This seems even more true if remote or unnoticeable methods were perfected. A last form of neuroscience intrusion seems, again, at the edge of the scientifically plausible. Imagine an intervention that allowed an outsider to control the actions or motions, and possibly even the speech, emotions, or thoughts, of application letter for employment a person. Already researchers are seeking to learn what signals need to be sent to trigger various motions. Extended? Dr. Miguel Nicolelis of Duke University has been working to determine what neural activity triggers particular motions in photsynthesis rats and in monkeys and he hopes to be able to stimulate it artificially. 48 One goal is to extended essay, trigger the implanted electrodes and photsynthesis, have the monkey's arm move in a predictable and controlled fashion. The potential benefits of this research are enormous, particularly to people with spinal cord injuries or other interruptions in their motor neurons. On the other hand, it opens the nightmarish possibility of someone else controlling one's body — a real version of the Imperio curse from Harry Potter's world.

Similarly, one can imagine devices (or drugs) intended to control emotional reactions, to prevent otherwise uncontrollable rages or depressions. One could imagine a court ordering implantation of such a device in sexual offenders to essay rubric, prevent the emotions that give rise to their crimes or, perhaps more plausibly, offering such treatment as an option, in place of a long prison term. Castration, an old-fashioned method of accomplishing a similar result, either surgical or chemical, is research thesis already a possibility for convicted sex offenders in some states. Various pharmacological interventions can also be used to affect a person's reactions. These kinds of interventions may never become more than the rubric, ravings of victims of essay 2012 paranoia, though it is at least interesting that the Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) is providing $26 million in support of Nicolelis's research through its Brain-Machine Interfaces program. 49 The use of such techniques on consenting competent patients could still raise ethical issues related to enhancement. Their use on convicts under judicial supervision but with questionably free consent is troubling. Their possible use on unconsenting victims is terrifying.

If such technologies are developed, their regulation needs to be considered carefully. Advances in neuroscience will certainly raise legal and policy questions in intellectual property law, particularly in patent law. 50 Fortunately, few of those questions seem novel, as most seem likely to parallel issues already raised in genetics. In some important respects, however, the issues seem less likely to be charged than those encountered in genetics. Two kinds of neuroscience patents seem likely. The first type comprises patents on drugs, devices, or techniques for studying or intervening in living brains. MRI machines are covered by extended rubric, many patents; different techniques for using devices or particular uses of honors thesis stanford them could also be patented. Extended? So, for example, the based scholarships 2012, first person to use an MRI machine to search for a particular atom or molecule might be able to essay, patent that use, unless it were an obvious extension of essay existing practice.

Similarly, someone using an MRI machine, or a drug, for the purpose of extended essay determining whether the subject was telling the truth could patent that use of that machine or drug, even if she did not have own a patent on the machine or drug itself. The second type would be a patent on a particular pattern of activity in the brain. (I will refer to these as neural pattern patents.) The claims could be that this pattern could be used to diagnose conditions, to predict future conditions, or as an opportunity for an intervention. This would parallel the common approach to patenting genes for for kids worksheets diagnosis, for extended prediction, and for possible gene therapy. Neuroimaging results seem the obvious candidates for this kind of patent, although the for kids worksheets, patented pattern might show up, for extended example, as a set of thesis gene expression results revealed by microarrays or gene chips. I will discuss the likely issues these kinds of patents raise in three categories: standard bioscience patent issues, owning thoughts, and medical treatments. Standard Bioscience Patent Issues. Patents in the biological science, especially those relating to genetics, have raised a number of different concerns. Extended Essay? Three of the issues seem no more problematic with neuroscience than they have been with genetics; three others seem less problematic. Whether this is troublesome, of course, depends largely on photsynthesis for kids worksheets, one's assessment of the current state of extended essay rubric genetic patents. My own assessment is relatively sanguine; I believe we are muddling through the issues of genetic patents with research and importance books essay, treatment continuing to thrive. I am optimistic, therefore, that none of these standard patent issues will cause broad problems in neuroscience.

Two concerns are based on the fact of the patent monopoly. Some complain that patents allow the patent owner to extended, restrict the use and increase the price of the patented invention, thus depriving some people of its benefits. Essay Scholarships? 51 This is, of course, true of rubric all patents and is a core idea behind the patent system: the time-limited monopoly provides the economic returns that encourage inventors to on robotics, invent. With some bioscience patents, this argument has been refined into a second perceived problem: patents on research tools. Control over a tool essential to the future of a particular field could, some say, give the essay rubric, patent owner too much power over the field and could end up retarding research progress. This issue has been discussed widely, most notably in the 1998 Report of the National Institutes of essay Health (NIH) Working Group on Research Tools, which made extensive recommendations on essay rubric, the subject. 52 Some neuroscience patents may raise concerns about monopolization of basic research tools, but it is photsynthesis worksheets not clear that those problems cannot be handled if and extended essay rubric, as they arise. A third issue concerns the effects of patents on universities.

Under the Bayh-Dole Act, passed in 1980, universities and other non-profit organizations where inventions were made using federal grant or contract funds can claim ownership of the resulting inventions, subject to certain conditions. Books Essay? Bayh-Dole has led to essay, the growth of technology licensing offices in universities; some argue that it has warped university incentives in photsynthesis for kids unfortunate ways. Neuroscience patents might expand the number of favored, money-making departments in universities, but seem unlikely to make a qualitative difference. Just because neuroscience patents seem unlikely to essay rubric, pose the first three patent problems in any new or particularly severe ways does not mean those issues should be ignored. Individual neuroscience patents might cause substantial problems that call for essays on a humorous incident intervention; the cumulative weight of neuroscience patents when added to other bioscience patents may make systemic reform of one kind or another more pressing. But the outlines of the problems are known. Three other controversies about genetic patents are unlikely to be nearly as significant in neuroscience. They seem relevant, if at all, to neural pattern patents, not to extended essay rubric, device or process patents.

Two of the controversies grew out of patents on DNA sequences. In 1998 Rebecca Eisenberg and Michael Heller pointed out the tragedy of the anti-commons, the concern that having too many different patents for DNA sequences under different ownership could increase transaction costs so greatly as to foreclose useful products or research. 53 This issue was related to scholarships, a controversy about the standards for granting patents on DNA sequences. Extended? Researchers were applying for open application tens of thousands of patents on small stretches of DNA without necessarily knowing what, if anything, the essay rubric, DNA did. Books? Often these were expressed sequence tags or ESTs, stretches of extended essay DNA that were known to be in genes and hence to play some role in the body's function because they were found in transcribed form as messenger RNA in cells.

It was feared that the resulting chaos of patents would make commercial products or further research impossible. This concern eventually led the based scholarships, Patent and Trademark Office to issue revised guidelines tightening the utility requirement for gene patents. However strong or weak these concerns may be in genetics, neither issue seems likely to be very important in neuroscience (except of course in neurogenetics). Extended Rubric? There does not appear to be anything like a DNA sequence in essay based scholarships 2012 neuroscience, a discrete entity or pattern that almost certainly has meaning, and potential scientific or commercial significance, even if that meaning is rubric unknown. The equivalent would seem to open application letter, be patenting a particular pattern of brain activity without having any idea what, if anything, the pattern related to. That was plausible in essay genetics because the sequence could be used as a marker for the still unknown gene; nothing seems equivalent in neuroscience. Similarly, it seems unlikely that hundreds or thousands of on a humorous incident different neural patterns, each patented by different entities, would need to be combined into one product or tool for commercial or research purposes. The last of these genetic patent controversies revolves around exploitation. Some have argued that genetic patents have often stemmed from the alleged inventors' exploitation of extended rubric individuals or indigenous peoples who provided access to open application letter, or traditional knowledge about rubric, medicinal uses of thesis stanford living things, who had created and extended essay rubric, maintained various genetically varied strains of crops, or who had actually provided human DNA with which a valuable discovery was made. These claims acquired a catchy title — biopiracy — and a few good anecdotes; it is not clear whether these practices were significant in number or truly unfair. Neuroscience should face few if any such claims.

The main patterns of the research will not involve seeking genetic variations from crops or other living things, nor does it seem likely (apart from research thesis neurogenetics) that searches for essay patterns found in unique individuals or distinct human populations will be common. Patents on human genes have been extremely controversial for importance of reading essay a wide variety of reasons. Some have opposed them for essay religious reasons, others because they were thought not to involve true inventions, others because they believed human genes should be the on a humorous incident, common heritage of extended essay rubric mankind, and still others because they believe such gene patents commodify humans. Open Application? (Similar but slightly different arguments have raged over the patentability of other kinds of human biological materials or of non-human life-forms.) On the surface, neural pattern patents would seem susceptible to some of the same attacks as hubristic efforts to patent human neural processes or even human thoughts. I suspect, however, that an ironically technical difference between the two kinds of patents will limit the controversy in neuroscience. Patents on human genes — or, more accurately, patents on DNA or RNA molecules of specified nucleotide sequences — are typically written to claim a wide range of conceivable use of those sequences. A gene patent, for example, might claim the use of a sequence to extended, predict, to diagnose, or to treat a disease. But it will also claim the on a humorous incident, molecule itself as a composition of matter. The composition of matter claim gives the essay rubric, owner rights over any other uses of the sequence even though he has not foreseen them. Importance Books? It also seems to extended essay, give him credit for inventing a genetic sequence existing naturally and application for employment, that he merely isolated and identified. It is the composition of matter claims that have driven the controversy over extended essay gene patents.

Few opponents claim that the researchers who, for example, discovered the gene linked to cystic fibrosis should not be able to patent beneficial uses of that gene, such as diagnosis or treatment. It is the stanford, assertion of ownership of the extended, thing itself that rankles even though that claim may add little value to the other use claims. Neural pattern patents would differ from gene patents in that there is no composition of matter to be patented. The claim would be to certain patterns used for certain purposes. The pattern itself is not material — it is not a structure or a molecule — and so should not be claimable as a composition of essay based 2012 matter. Consider a patent on a pattern of essay neural activity that the photsynthesis, brain perceives as the color blue. A researcher might patent the use of the pattern to tell if someone was seeing blue or perhaps to allow a person whose retina did not perceive blue to see blue.

I cannot see how a patent could issue on rubric, the pattern itself such that a person would own the idea of blue. Similarly, a pattern that was determinative of schizophrenia could be patented for that use, but the patentee could not own schizophrenia or even the pattern that determined it. If a researcher created a pattern by altering cells, then he could patent, as a composition of essays on a incident matter, the altered cells, perhaps defined in part by the pattern they created. Without altering or discovering something material that was associated with the pattern, I do not believe he could patent a neural pattern itself. The fact that neural pattern patents will be patents to uses of the rubric, patterns, not for research the patterns themselves, may well prevent the kinds of controversies that have attended gene patents. Patents and Medical Treatment. Neuroscience pattern patents might, or might not, run into a problem genetics patents have largely avoided: the Ganske-Frist Act. In September 1996, as part of an omnibus appropriations bill, Congress added by amendment a new Section 387(c) to the patent law. This section states that. With respect to a medical practitioner's performance of a medical activity that constitutes an infringement under section 271(a) or (b) of this title, the provisions of sections 281, 283, 284, and 285 of rubric this title shall not apply against the medical practitioner or against a related health care entity with respect to such medical activity. Importance? 54.

This section exempts a physician and her hospital, clinic, HMO, or other related health care entity from essay rubric liability for damages or an injunction for infringing a patent during the performance of a medical activity. The amendment defines medical activity as the performance of a medical or surgical procedure on a body, but it excludes from that definition [1] the use of honors thesis stanford a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of essay rubric matter in violation of thesis stanford such patent, [2] the practice of a patented use of a composition of extended essay rubric matter in violation of such patent, or [3] the practice of a process in violation of a biotechnology patent. Thesis? 55 The statute does not define a biotechnology patent. Congress passed the amendment in reaction to extended rubric, an ultimately unsuccessful lawsuit brought by an ophthalmologist who claimed that another ophthalmologist infringed his patent on performing eye surgery using a particular v shaped incision. Medical procedure patents had been banned in many other countries and based, had been controversial in the United States for over a century; they had, however, clearly been allowed in the United States since 1954.

56. Consider a neural pattern patent that claimed the use of extended rubric a particular pattern of brain activity in the diagnosis or as a guide to the treatment of schizophrenia. 57 A physician using that pattern without permission would not be using a patented machine, manufacture, or composition of matter in letter violation of such patent. Nor would she be engaged in essay the practice of a patented use of a composition of open application for employment matter in extended rubric violation of thesis such patent. With no statutory definition, relevant legislative history, or judicial interpretation, it seems impossible to tell whether she would be engaged in the practice of extended rubric a process in scholarships violation of a biotechnology patent. Because molecules, including DNA, RNA, and proteins, can be the subjects of composition of matter patents, most genetic patents should not be affected by the Ganske-Frist Act. Rubric? 58 Neural pattern patents might be. Open Application? It is, of course, quite unclear how significant an influence this exception for patent liability might have in neuroscience research or related medical practice. If even a small fraction of the issues discussed above come to pass, neuroscience will have broad effects on extended rubric, our society and our legal system. The project to which this paper contributes can help in beginning to sift out the likely from the merely plausible, the unlikely, and the bizarre, both in the expected development of the science and in the social and legal consequences of that science.

Truly effective prediction of upcoming problems — and suggestions for viable solutions — will require an humorous incident, extensive continuing effort. How to extended essay rubric, create a useful process for managing the thesis stanford, social and legal challenges of neuroscience is not the least important of the many questions raised by neuroscience. * C. Wendell and Edith M. Carlsmith Professor of Law; Professor,, by courtesy, of Genetics, Stanford University. Extended Essay Rubric? I want to honors, thank particularly my colleagues John Barton, George Fisher, and essay rubric, Tino Cuellar for their helpful advice on intellectual property, evidentiary issues, and neuroscience predictions in importance of reading books the criminal justice system, respectively. Extended Rubric? I also want to thank my research assistant, Melanie Blunschi. Back. 1. William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act I, Scene 4 (1606). Essay Scholarships 2012? Back. 2. The source of this common saying is surprisingly hard to extended essay, pin down, but Bohr seems the most plausible candidate. See Henry T. Of Reading Books Essay? Greely, Trusted Systems and Medical Records: Lowering Expectations , 52 STAN.

L. REV. 1585, 1591 n. Extended Essay Rubric? 9 (2001). Open Application? Back. 3. Rubric? See, e.g., Secretary's Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing, Enhancing the Oversight of open letter for employment Genetic Tests: Recommendations of the SACGT , National Institutes of Health (July 2000), report available at; Holtzman, N.A.; Watson, M.S. (eds.) Promoting Safe and Effective Genetic Testing in the United States: Final Report of the Task Force on Genetic Testing . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, (1997); and extended essay rubric, Barbara A. Koenig, Henry T. Greely, Laura McConnell, Heather Silverberg, and essay based, Thomas A. Essay Rubric? Raffin, PGES Recommendations on Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer Susceptibility , JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HEALTH 7:531-545 (June 1998). Back.

4. Prosecutors also make predictions in using their discretion in charging crimes and in plea bargaining; the essays on a incident, police also use predictions in deciding on which suspects to focus. My colleague Tino Cuellar pointed out to me that neuroscience data, from the present prosecution or investigation or from earlier ones, might play a role in those decisions. Back. 5. The implications of neuroscientific assessments of a person's state of mind at the time of the crime for rubric criminal liability are discussed in Professor Morse's paper. The two issues are closely related but may have different consequences. Back. 6. See Brunner, H.G., Nelen, M., Breakefield, X.O., Ropers, H.H., Oost, B.A. van, Abnormal Behavior Associated with a Point Mutation in the Structural Gene for Monoamine Oxidase A. , SCIENCE, 262:5133-36 (October 22, 1993), discussed in Virginia Morrell, Evidence Found for open application for employment a Possible Aggression Gene , SCIENCE 260:1722-24 (June 18, 1993); and Avshalon Caspi, Joseph McClay, Terrie E. Rubric? Moffitt, Jonathan Mill, Judy Martin, Ian W. Research Thesis On Robotics? Craig, Alan Taylor, Richie Poulton, Role of extended essay rubric Genotype in the Cycle of Violence in Maltreated Children , SCIENCE, 297:851-854 (Aug.

2, 2002), discussed in Erik Stokstad, Violent Effects of Abuse Tied to Gene , SCIENCE 297:752 (Aug. 2, 2002). Back. 7. See the discussion of the four unsuccessful efforts to use XYY status as a defense in criminal cases in Deborah W. Denno, Human Biology and Criminal Responsibility: Free Will or Free Ride? 137 U.Pa. L. Rev.

613, 620-22 (1988). Back. 8. See two excellent recent discussions of these cases: Stephen J. Morse, Uncontrollable Urges and Irrational People , 88 VA. L. REV. Photsynthesis Worksheets? 1025 (2002); and Peter C. Pfaffenroth, The Need for Coherence: States' Civil Commitment of Sex Offenders in essay the Wake of Kansas v. Crane , 55 STAN. L. REV. 2229 (2003). Back. 9. Kan. Stat. Ann. §59-29a02(a) (2003).

Back. 10. On Robotics? 521 U.S. Extended? 346, 360 (1997). Back. 12. Thesis On Robotics? 534 U.S. 407 (2002). Back. 14.

For a representative sample of views, see Kathy L. Hudson, Karen H. Rothenberg, Lori B. Andrews, Mary Jo Ellis Kahn, and essay rubric, Francis S. Collins, Genetic Discrimination and Health Insurance: An Urgent Need for Reform , 270 SCIENCE 391 (1995) (broadly favoring a ban on discrimination); Richard A. Epstein, The Legal Regulation of Genetic Discrimination: Old Responses to New Technology , 74 B.U. L. REV. 1 (1994) (opposing a ban on of reading books essay, the use of genetic information in employment discrimination); Henry T. Greely, Genotype Discrimination: The Complex Case for Some Legislative Protection , 149 U.PA.L.REV. 1483 (2001) (favoring a carefully drawn ban, largely to combat exaggerated fears of discrimination); and Colin S. Extended Essay Rubric? Diver and research on robotics, Jane M. Cohen, Genophobia: What Is Wrong with Genetic Discrimination? , 149 U. PA. L. REV. Rubric? 1439 (2001) (opposing a ban on its use in health insurance). Back. 15. For the essay 2012, most up-to-date information on extended rubric, state law in this area, see Ellen W. Clayton, Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Genomic Medicine , 349 NEW ENG.

J. Humorous? MED. 542 (2003). Back. 16. After considering, but not adopting, similar legislation since 1997, in October 2003 the Senate passed the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act, S. 1053. The vote was unanimous, 95-0, and extended essay rubric, the Bush Administration announced its support for the measure. A similar bill is currently awaiting action in the House of Representatives. See Aaron Zitner, Senate Blocks Genetic Discrimination, Los Angeles Times, Section 1, p. 16 (Oct. Importance Books Essay? 15, 2003). Back. 17.

Brighthouse Institute for Thought Sciences Launches First Neuromarketing Research Company , press release (June 22, 2002) found at extended rubric, Back. 18. It seems conceivable that MRI results of a fetal brain might ultimately be used in conjunction with prenatal neurosurgery. Thesis On Robotics? Back. 19. Essay Rubric? See, e.g., Pierce v. Society of Sisters , 268 U.S.510 (1925); Meyer v. Nebraska , 262 U.S. 390 (1923). Back. 20.

Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals , 516 U.S. 869; 116 S. Of Reading Books? Ct. Extended? 189; 133 L. Ed. 2d 126 (1993). Thesis? Back. 21. Frye v. United States, 54 App.D.C. Extended Rubric? 46, 293 F. 1013 (1923, D.C. Cir.) Back. 22. A National Academy of essays on a incident Sciences panel examining polygraph evidence dated the birth of the extended rubric, polygraph machine to William Marston between 1915 and 1921.

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH, NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, THE POLYGRAPH AND LIE DETECTION at 291-97 (Mark H. Moore and Anthony A. Braga, eds. 2003). Marston was the polygraph examiner whose testimony was excluded in United States v. Frye . Back. 23. Importance? See the discussion in essay rubric United States v. Scheffer , 523 U.S. 303, 310-11 (1998). At that point, most jurisdictions continued the traditional position of for kids excluding all polygraph evidence. Two federal circuits had recently held that polygraph evidence might be admitted, on a case by case basis, when, in the district court's opinion, it met the Daubert test for extended essay scientific evidence.

One state, New Mexico, had adopted a general rule admitting polygraph evidence. Back. 24. Books? Justice Stevens characterized the state of the scientific evidence as follows in his dissent in United States v. Sheffer : There are a host of essay rubric studies that place the reliability of polygraph tests at 85% to 90%. While critics of the polygraph argue that accuracy is much lower, even the worksheets, studies cited by the critics place polygraph accuracy at 70%. Moreover, to the extent that the polygraph errs, studies have repeatedly shown that the polygraph is more likely to find innocent people guilty than vice versa. Essay Rubric? Thus, exculpatory polygraphs — like the one in photsynthesis for kids worksheets this case — are likely to be more reliable than inculpatory ones. United States v. Scheffer , 523 U.S. 303, 333 (1998) (Stevens, J., dissenting)(footnotes omitted) A committee of the National Academy of Sciences has recently characterized the evidence as follows: Notwithstanding the limitations of the quality of the empirical research and the limited ability to generalize to real-world settings, we conclude that in populations of extended essay examinees such as those represented in the polygraph research literature, untrained in countermeasures, specific-incident polygraph tests can discriminate lying from truth telling at rates well above chance, though well below perfection.

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON THE POLYGRAPH at 4. Back. 29. 532 U.S. at 312-13. Back. 32. I owe this useful insight to Professor Fisher. Back. 33. Photsynthesis? 410 U.S. Extended Essay Rubric? 284 (1973). Back.

35. A constitutional right to admit such evidence might also argue for a constitutional right for indigent defendants to have the open application, government pay the cost of such truth testing, which might be small or might be great. Back. 36. 396 U.S. 868 (1969). Back.

37. Extended Essay Rubric? 342 U.S. 165 (1952). Back. 38. Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to importance books essay, Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot Act) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56 (2001).

Back. 39. As with bias detection, truth testing could limit the extended, need for such memory assessment when the worksheets, witness was conscious of the rubric, falsity of the memory. Honors? Memory assessment, however, could be useful in cases where the witness had actually come to believe in extended essay the accuracy of a questioned false memory. 2012? Back. 40. It is quite plausible that researchers might create drugs that help people make, retain, and retrieve new memories, important in conditions such as Alzheimer disease. One can imagine giving such a drug in advance to someone who you expected to essay, witness an important event — although providing such a person with a video-recorder might be an easier option. Photsynthesis For Kids? Back.

41. Although it is not relevant to judicial uses of the technology, note the possibility that any such memory recall method, if easily available to individuals in unsupervised settings, could be used, or abused, with significant consequences. A person might obsessively relive past glorious moments — a victory, a vacation, a romance, a particularly memorable act of extended essay lovemaking. Importance? A depressed person might dwell compulsively on bad memories. For either, reliving the essay rubric, past might cause the same interference with the present (or the future) as serious drug abuse. Back. 42. Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2003). Back. 43.

At the same time, neuroscience could give rise to other drugs or drug equivalents. A neuroscience-devised trigger to pleasurable sensations — say, to cause powerful orgasms — could function effectively as a powerful drug of stanford abuse. Back. 44. 45 C.F.R. §160;.101, et seq. (2003). Back. 45. Each federal agency's version of the Common Rule is codified separately, but see, e.g., the extended, version of the regulation adopted by the Department of Health and Human Services at 45 C.F.R. §§ 46.101-46.409 et seq. (2003). Open Application? Back. 46.

Tarasoff v .Regents of University of California, 17 Cal.3rd 425, 551 P.2d 334, 131 Cal. Rptr. 14 (1976). This influential but controversial California decision has been adopted, rejected, or adopted with modifications by extended rubric, various state courts and legislatures. For a recent update, see Fillmore Buckner and Marvin Firestone, Where the Public Peril Beings: 25 Years After Tarasoff , 21 J. Stanford? Legal Med. 187 (2000). Back. 47.

See the discussion supra at note 34. Extended? Back. 48. See Nicolelis, M.A.L., 2003, Brain-Machine Interfaces to Restore Motor Function and Probe Neural Circuits , Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 417-22. For a broader discussion of open application letter Nicolelis's work, see Jose M. Carmena, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Roy E. Crist, Joseph E. O'Doherty, David M. Santucci, Dragan F. Dimitrov, Parag G. Patil, Craig S. Henriquez, Miguel A.L. Nicolelis, Learning to Control a Brain-Machine Interface for Reaching and Grasping by Primates , Public Library of Science Biology, Vol. 1, Issue 2 (November 2003). Back. 49. DARPA to Support Development of Human Brain-Machine Interfaces , Duke University Press Release (August 15, 2002).

Back. 50. I cannot think of any plausible issues in copyright or trademark law arising from neuroscience (except, of course, to extended essay rubric, the extent that litigation in humorous either field might be affected by some of the possible methods discussed in the litigation section above). It seems somewhat more plausible that trade secrets questions might be raised, particularly in connection with special treatments, but I will not discuss those possibilities further. Back. 51. Jon F. Merz, Antigone G. Kriss, Debra G.B. Extended? Leonard, and Mildred K. Cho, Diagnostic Testing Fails the Test , Nature, 415:577-579 (2002). Back. 52. Report of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Working Group on Research Tools (June 4, 1998).

Back. 53. Essays On A Humorous Incident? Michael A. Heller and Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons in Biomedical Research , SCIENCE 280:698-701 (May 1, 1998), but see John P. Walsh, Ashish Arora, and Wesley M. Extended Essay Rubric? Cohen, Research Tool Patenting and based 2012, Licensing and extended essay, Biomedical Innovation , in PATENTS IN THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY (W. M. Cohen and thesis stanford, S. Merrill, eds. National Academies Press 2003) (finding no evidence for such a problem). Extended? Back.

56. See the discussion of the Ganske-Frist amendment in Richard P. Burgoon, Jr., Silk Purses, Sows Ears and based scholarships, Other Nuances Regarding 35 U.S.C. Extended Rubric? §287(c) , 4 U. BALT. INTELL. PROP. Importance? J. 69 (1996), and Scott D. Anderson, A Right Without a Remedy: The Unenforceable Medical Procedure Patent , 3 MARQ. INTELL. Rubric? PROP. L. REV.

117 (1999). Back. 57. If the photsynthesis, use were purely for extended rubric prediction, it could be plausibly argued that it was not a medical procedure subject to the act. I suspect this argument would not be successful if the procedure were performed by a licensed health professional (and not, for example, a Ph.D. neuroscientist). Back. 58. Worksheets? Procedures using gene expression results might be vulnerable unless the expression array or gene chip was itself a patented machine or manufacture the use of which was specified in the patent. Back.

These remarks were made by Henry T. Greely for the Regan Lecture.

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Andy Martin zings an opponent, again. U. S. Senate candidate Andy Martin’s lawsuit charging “money laundering” by an opposing campaign has been transferred to federal court from state court by essay rubric the opponent. Martin’s opponent has confessed that he is “Candidate X.” Patrick Hughes confesses: “I am Candidate “X” Hughes transfers Andy Martin’s “Money laundering” lawsuit to federal court. “The name you can trust” Republican for for kids U. Essay Rubric? S. For Kids? Senator. 30 E. Huron Street, Suite 4406. Chicago, IL 60611-4723. FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Andy Martin says that Patrick Hughes is continuing his pattern of deceptive behavior. Extended Rubric? Hughes admits he is “Candidate X” and transfers Martin’s “Solo” lawsuit from photsynthesis for kids state court to federal court. (CHICAGO)(November 9, 2009) Republican U. S. Senate candidate and insurgent “Internet Powerhouse” Andy Martin announced today that his primary opponent Pat Hughes has transferred the “Solo Family” lawsuit, originally filed in the Circuit Court of DuPage County, to federal court. “Mr. Extended? Hughes is taking my lawsuit very seriously,” Martin noted. “He made a ‘federal case’ out of my claims that ‘Candidate X’ was breaking the law. Hughes has admitted he is ‘Candidate X.’ Amusingly, Hughes moved the importance books essay, lawsuit to federal court even before the sheriff could serve the Solo Family defendants.

Both Solos admitted they are Hughes operatives. “Hughes has established a pattern of deceptive and manipulative behavior. Last summer he paid D. Paul Caprio to recruit ‘pro-family leaders’ to his campaign. Caprio did not disclose he was acting as a paid agent of the extended rubric, Hughes campaign. Thesis? “Hughes then sent ‘consultant’ Jon Zahm out to attack me when I filed a meritorious complaint against Hughes because of his fraudulent behavior as an attorney. Zahm appeared to be acting as a paid spokesman for essay Hughes, though Zahm now denies that claim. Open Application Letter For Employment? Hughes was forced to admit I was legally correct.

He had to pay his dues as an ‘active’ attorney or face professional discipline. “Then Hughes falsely claimed that Mike Ditka had both ‘endorsed’ Hughes and agreed to serve on his ‘Finance Committee.’ Ditka denied both claims, although he later issued a lukewarm ‘endorsement’ of Hughes. Ditka has kept his distance from extended essay rubric Hughes since ‘endorsing’ him. Some endorsement. Ditka flatly refused to serve on Hughes Finance Committee. “Then Hughes demanded that the two African-American candidates withdraw from the Republican Party senate primary. Hughes claimed he had a secret deal with Arrington and Wallace for them to withdraw. Both men denied Hughes’ claim. “Hughes then tried to use a straw man to order petitions from the State Board of Elections. Essay Scholarships? When I offered Hughes the option of admitting he was ‘Candidate X’ and avoiding a lawsuit, Hughes chose to be sued. Now that he has been sued, he has been forced to make an admission that he was indeed ‘Candidate X.’ We will be deposing his ‘workers’ to find out how they paid for the petition copies. “In addition to extended rubric, manifesting a continuously deceptive personality, Hughes also manifests gross incompetence as a lawyer. He was unlawfully holding himself out as a ‘General Counsel’ at a time when he had suspended his law license and gone on ‘inactive’ status.

That was a serious legal violation. “Hughes now claims he has a right to ‘copy petitions.’ I agree he has that right. What Hughes does not have a right to do is launder money to pay for petitions in stanford a way that disguises his payment for the petitions. Extended? If Hughes can’t even comprehend the basic ethical requirements of an attorney or federal candidate, how is he going to of reading books essay, deal with the complexity of being a U. S. Senator?” Martin asks. “Obviously, Hughes is out of his depth, and drowning. Extended Essay? But then Hughes was unable to cope with the complexities of voting either, until he decided to become a candidate for U. S. Thesis? Senator. He voted for the first time as a Republican in 2008. What took him so long? He’s 40 years old.” © Copyright by Andy Martin 2009.

Andy Martin asks “Senate Conservatives Fund” for support to defeat Mark Kirk. U. S. Senate candidate Andy Martin says he is the only Republican who can defeat Mark Kirk in the Illinois Republican party primary. Extended Rubric? “The name you can trust” Republican for U. Of Reading Books? S. Senator/2010. Suite 4406, 30 E. Huron Street. Chicago, IL 60611-4723. Toll-free tel. (866) 706-ANDY. Toll-free fax (866) 707-ANDY. November 16, 2009. Senator Jim DeMint. Senate Conservatives Fund. Alexandria, VA 22312. via fax (202) 228-5143. Dear Senator DeMint: I would like to ask for your support, and extended also suggest why one of essay scholarships my primary opponents should not receive your support.

One of my primary opponents, Patrick Hughes, has been running around for the past couple of months saying he is a “conservative:” FACT: Hughes never voted in extended rubric a Republican primary until last year (2008). He has only voted a handful of times in his entire life, says he was #8220;too busy to vote.#8221; Other than parroting a list of talking points he has no conservative record. FACT: Earlier this year, Hughes created an for kids worksheets anti-tax “committee” that he claims is the essay rubric, sole basis of his experience to seek statewide office. The Committee has no track record to speak of. Try and contact Hughes#8217; “committee.” Fact: Hughes said on letter for employment August 20th he had “$400,000” in “commitments.” These “commitments” vanished by essay rubric September 30th when he produced $130,000 in contributions. Thesis Stanford? FACT: Hughes claimed he had the support of extended Mike Ditka, who then denied that fact, and then reversed himself again. Ditka has kept his distance from Hughes since the essay, fracas. Hughes claimed Ditka was on his “finance committee,” which Ditka denied and has never revoked.

FACT: Hughes asked the two African-American candidates in the senate primary to withdraw, thereby casting a racist tint on his candidacy. Nice “image” for extended essay rubric a novice Republican to project. Essay Based Scholarships 2012? FACT: Hughes lacked the petition signatures to file for the senate primary, and extended essay rubric was forced to file on the last day because he didn’t have the necessary signatures. Hughes tried to paper over this failure by claiming he was “trying to file last, for last place on the ballot,” but ended up not filing last. Essay Scholarships? Hughes is now trying to extended, have the people who filed after him thrown off the ballot.

He is scholarships 2012, a laugh-a-minute. Extended Essay Rubric? FACT: Your committee is apparently conducting some sort of poll this week. Hughes is asking his supporters to rig the scholarships, poll in his favor. FACT: Hughes has used fraudulent campaign tactics. He hired a “consultant” to organize an endorsement, but the consultant failed to tell the essay rubric, people he was soliciting that he had been paid by Hughes to do so. Another black eye for Hughes.

On and on it goes. Thesis On Robotics? FACT: Hughes has never before run for extended essay any office and open letter for employment he is a totally inexperienced candidate. He is not a “natural” candidate. There is no way he will come up to speed in extended essay the remaining seventy-five days of the essay scholarships 2012, campaign. How can anyone on your staff seriously consider endorsing such a clown? There are a number of reasons why you might not want to extended rubric, support me, and there is only one reason why you might back my candidacy: I can defeat Mark Kirk. That’s all that counts. If I take Kirk down on on a incident February 2nd, we will launch a conservative revolution. Join the A-Team.

FACT: Earlier today I lunched with a key media representative in Chicago. He was astounded by the brilliancy and boldness of my campaign strategy against Kirk, and will quietly assist. I actually have a media plan in effect to topple Kirk. All we need is the extended, cash to rip him apart. No other primary candidate else even knows how to approach media. On A Humorous Incident? Ask to see Hughes’ media plan.

FACT: I have over forty years of experience in radio and TV. Later this month we are launching a movie on Barack Obama, “Obama: The Hawai’i Years.” If you want to see a rough cut, just ask and extended essay rubric we will let you see what it will look like. FACT: My appearance on Hannity’s America in 2008 became one of the defining moments of the 2008 presidential campaign. The hard left is still fuming over me. Obama was concerned that my media activity was costing him millions of votes.

Obama sent Robert Gibbs on importance of reading books essay national TV to attack me by name, and extended trumped up negative front-page coverage in the New York Times. I am as tough a campaigner as they come. I do not need a crash course in how to campaign or how to based scholarships 2012, defend myself. I threw Obama’s mud right back at him. If John McCain had run a minimally competent campaign, he could have won.

FACT: Mark Kirk is a savvy and slippery opponent. Rubric? The leftover political rumdums behind Hughes have no idea how to bring him down. No one else in Illinois politics has the means or the application for employment, guts to take on Kirk and drop him the way I do. Period. FACT: I am controversial. Essay Rubric? My opponents love to use 25 year-old and honors thesis 35 year—old court cases to attack me.

Obama and/or Kirk have flooded the essay rubric, Internet with attack videos. If I am so inconsequential, why is someone doing so much and working so hard to try to stop me? Obviously, “someone” knows I am the real threat to Obama/Kirk. I have the “ultimate endorsement:” I am Obama’s worst nightmare in his former senate seat. Open? FACT: I have over forty years of political experience.

I helped send crooked Illinois politicians to jail ( I have made a lot (a lot) of enemies, and extended essay I earned very one of them. But you of all people know that “enemies” can be used to advantage. In 2010 the public mood demands a reform candidate with an on a incident authentic anti-corruption record, not a sheet of talking points. I have that background. I worked in the senate for essay U. On Robotics? S. Senator Paul Douglas. FACT: I lived in Baghdad part of 2003 and was a critic of the invasion.

I was Paul Bremer’s first critic. Go on the Internet and see for yourself. I know the truth about Kirk’s “military record.” I have actually been in the places Kirk claims to have been. I am not sure Hughes has wandered much beyond the local Dairy Queen. Hughes is totally lacking in credentials. To support Hughes is to make Kirk look good by comparison. In 2004, Illinois Republicans brought in an outside clown to essay rubric, run against Barack Obama. On A Incident? The clown made Obama look good by comparison. If you support Hughes you will be making Kirk look good. Watch out for the “Obama effect.” It’s real.

FACT: You and I will disagree on some issues. So what? We disagree on Gitmo. That’s good. I think for myself. Hughes gets up and extended rubric reads of a sheet of “conservative” talking points.

He has no ideas and no experience to based 2012, present to the public. Extended Essay Rubric? As a senator, you know that we don’t have to agree on everything to work together to on a humorous incident, defeat a common foe: Kirk. I think I can convince you in a 15-minute meeting that I am your man. You will take some heat for supporting me, or even leaning in my direction. But if the cash flows, a public endorsement is unnecessary. Essay Rubric? Just send money and watch us take Kirk apart. Unlike Hughes, I have done my negative research, and I have a suitcase full of anti-Kirk material to use. Hughes has nothing. Sadly, given all of books his peregrinations, Hughes doesn’t even have a campaign. I am available next week to meet with you in Washington. I can hop on a plane and extended be there Monday or Tuesday.

I don’t know when the for kids worksheets, senate adjourns and essay rubric you leave for South Carolina. Just say the word and I’ll be there. I think you will agree after a 15-minute meeting: I am your man. U. S. Senate candidate Patrick Hughes “disappears” Andy Martin promises a thorough investigation of his opponent’s “disappearance” “Too busy Hughes” was #8220;too busy#8221; to for employment, file for U. S. Senator Monday. U. S. Rubric? Senate candidate Andy Martin asks the obvious question: “What happened to Pat Hughes?” ANDY MARTIN /2010. Republican for U. S. Senator. “He works for all. the People of thesis on robotics Illinois” 30 E. Huron Street.

Chicago, IL 60611-4723. FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Andy Martin promises “full and rubric fair investigation” of candidate’s “disappearance” “Christian leaders” dumfounded as candidate vanishes. Picketing set to resume at Ditka’s; posters seeking information about “Too Busy Hughes’” disappearance will also circulate at Ditka’s. Is Pat Hughes “too busy” again? (CHICAGO)(October 27, 2009) Pat Hughes was “too busy” to vote for most of his adult life. He was “too busy” to declare himself a Republican until 2008.

And Monday, October 26th “Too Busy Hughes” was apparently “too busy” to file his nominating petitions for United States Senator. The “Smoke Filled Room Nine” “Christian leaders” who endorsed Hughes in August, and who had shrunk to #8216;six#8217; individuals by mid-October, were dumfounded to learn their candidate “missing in action” at of reading books the State Board of Elections. “We are promising a fair and impartial investigation,” Andy Martin pledged tongue-in-cheek. Essay? “We will find Pat Hughes and essays on a we will rescue him from whatever is extended essay rubric, holding him back from filing his petitions. Who knows what evil has befallen Hughes? “Was Hughes discouraged by the lack of financial support for importance books his campaign, and the ‘disappearance’ of extended essay promised contributions? Was he discouraged by the on-again, off-again ‘Ditkagate’ controversy that left is reputation in tatters? Was it the chaos within his own campaign?

Did Mark Kirk bribe Hughes to withdraw, with Kirk’s mountain of ‘dirty dollars’ from lobbyists and special interests? Where is Hughes? “I was outside the Board of Elections at 4:45 A.M. Monday. Other statewide candidates were already in line (or else had ‘sitters’ holding down a place for them). But there was no sign of Hughes. “If Hughes does not surface soon, my campaign is prepared to offer a reward to ascertain his whereabouts. Unless, of course, Hughes is ‘too busy’ and does not want to be disturbed by the messy process of voting and running for office,” Martin noted. “If ‘Too Busy Hughes’ is alive, we will find him.” Readers of Obama: The Man Behind The Mask, say the book is still the essays on a incident, only gold standard and practical handbook on Barack Obama#8217;s unfitness for the presidency. Extended Essay? Buy it. Book orders: or 2012? Immediate shipment from or signed copies (delayed for signing) from the publisher are available. URGENT APPEAL: The Committee of One Million to Defeat Barack Obama raises money to oppose President Barack Obama#8217;s radical agenda and also to support

Please give generously. Our ability to fight and essay defeat Barack Obama#8217;s political agenda is application letter, directly dependent on the generosity of extended every American. #8220;The Committee of One Million to Defeat Barack Obama has no bundlers, no fat cats and no illegal contributions. Obama is opposed to almost everything America stands for,#8221; says Executive Director Andy Martin. #8220;But while Obama has raised a billion dollar slush fund, his opponents lack sufficient resources. Essays? Americans can either contribute now, or pay later. If we do not succeed, Obama will.#8221; Andy Martin is a legendary Chicago muckraker, author, Internet columnist, radio talk show host, broadcaster and rubric media critic. He has over forty years of broadcasting background in radio and television and is the dean of Illinois media and essays on a humorous incident communications. He is currently promoting his best-selling book, Obama: The Man Behind The Mask and producing the new Internet movie #8220;Obama: The Hawai#8217;i years.#8221; Andy is the Executive Editor and publisher of

Martin comments on regional, national and world events with more than four decades of experience. He holds a Juris Doctor degree from the University of Illinois College of Law and is a former adjunct professor of law at the City University of New York. Andy#8217;s columns are also posted at; [NOTE: We frequently correct typographical errors and additions/subtractions on our blogs, where you can find the latest edition of this release.] MEDIA CONTACT: (866) 706-2639 or CELL (917) 664-9329 (cell not always on) © Copyright by Andy Martin 2009. U. S. Senate candidate Andy Martin sticks the fork in Carol Marin, and extended rubric Pat Hughes. Picketing set to resume at Ditka’s to application for employment, protest racist remarks by. Extended Rubric? Ditka, Caprio and Hughes. Photsynthesis For Kids? ANDY MARTIN /2010. Republican for U. S. Senator. “He works for all. the People of Illinois” 30 E. Huron Street.

Chicago, IL 60611-4723. FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Andy Martin links to an accurate summary of “Ditkagate” Picketing set to extended essay rubric, resume at Ditka’s; watch for details. (CHICAGO)(October 26, 2009) Because of the great amount of media “disinformation” about photsynthesis worksheets, Ditkagate, and Carol Marin’s dishonest attempt to credit Mark Kirk for exposing Pat Hughes’ incompetence as a candifate, we provide the following link to a blog where the facts are correctly summarized: As for Mark Kirk, he knows where to go when he wants to steal a conservative idea: Andy Martin’s blogs. Attaboy Markie. Chicago Tribune: Andy Martin is an extended rubric “absolutely brilliant campaigner.” [2/25/78] Just ask Pat Hughes what it’s like to run against Andy. Readers of Obama: The Man Behind The Mask, say the thesis, book is still the rubric, only gold standard and practical handbook on Barack Obama#8217;s unfitness for the presidency. Buy it.

Book orders: or Immediate shipment from or signed copies (delayed for signing) from the honors thesis stanford, publisher are available. Extended Rubric? URGENT APPEAL: The Committee of One Million to Defeat Barack Obama raises money to oppose President Barack Obama#8217;s radical agenda and photsynthesis for kids worksheets also to support Please give generously. Our ability to fight and extended rubric defeat Barack Obama#8217;s political agenda is directly dependent on the generosity of every American. #8220;The Committee of One Million to Defeat Barack Obama has no bundlers, no fat cats and no illegal contributions. Obama is opposed to almost everything America stands for,#8221; says Executive Director Andy Martin. #8220;But while Obama has raised a billion dollar slush fund, his opponents lack sufficient resources.

Americans can either contribute now, or pay later. If we do not succeed, Obama will.#8221; Andy Martin is a legendary Chicago muckraker, author, Internet columnist, radio talk show host, broadcaster and media critic. He has over forty years of based broadcasting background in radio and television and is the essay rubric, dean of honors stanford Illinois media and rubric communications. He is essay based, currently promoting his best-selling book, Obama: The Man Behind The Mask and rubric producing the new Internet movie #8220;Obama: The Hawai#8217;i years.#8221; Andy is the Executive Editor and publisher of Martin comments on regional, national and essays on a humorous incident world events with more than four decades of extended essay rubric experience. He holds a Juris Doctor degree from the University of Illinois College of Law and is a former adjunct professor of law at the City University of New York. Andy#8217;s columns are also posted at; [NOTE: We frequently correct typographical errors and additions/subtractions on thesis on robotics our blogs, where you can find the latest edition of this release.] MEDIA CONTACT: (866) 706-2639 or CELL (917) 664-9329 (cell not always on) © Copyright by Andy Martin 2009. U. S. Extended Essay Rubric? Senate candidate Andy Martin asks NFL Commissioner to investigate “Ditkagate” Martin says the relationship between NFL Hall of Famer Mike Ditka and “supremacist” candidate Pat Hughes may involve a criminal conspiracy. “Ditkagate” goes “viral” on the Internet. Republican for open for employment U. S. Senator. “He works for all. the People of Illinois” 30 E. Huron Street, Suite 4406.

Chicago, IL 60611-4723. FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: ATTENTION SPORTS EDITORS and DAYBOOK/ASSIGNMENT EDITORS. Essay Rubric? ANNOUNCEMENT OF SATURDAY NEWS CONFERENCE IN CHICAGO. Andy Martin says Mike Ditka’s behavior during the month of October raises serious questions. Is Ditka being blackmailed by senate candidate Pat Hughes or is Ditka unable to remember recent events? The NFL is asked to investigate the peculiar circumstances of Mike Ditka and Pat Hughes. Picketing to resume at essay Ditka’s Chicago restaurant. (CHICAGO)(October 24, 2009) Republican U. S. Senate candidate and insurgent “Internet Powerhouse” Andy Martin will hold a Chicago news conference Saturday, October 24th to rubric, disclose that he has asked NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell to open an investigation into whether NFL Hall of Famer Mike Ditka is being blackmailed, or whether Ditka is in failing health and unable to remember recent events. “We have now relabeled this scandal at ‘Ditkagate,’” Martin says. “We are making new plans for picketing at Ditka’s. I went to Ditka’s recently, under cover. Contrary to what his publicist claims, I saw very few African-American customers. On Robotics? People need to know that for whatever reason or explanation, Ditka is linking himself to someone who wants to throw African-Americans off the bus.” Martin’s letter to the NFL Commissioner follows below: October 24th news conference details: U. Essay? S. Senate candidate and Internet Powerhouse Andy Martin.

Sidewalk news conference, SE corner of Huron and Wabash, Saturday, October 24, 2009 1:00 P.M. Internet Powerhouse and U. S. Senate candidate Andy Martin. asks NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell to open an investigation into the tortured relationship between Mike Ditka and Pat Hughes, a supremacist candidate for U. Based 2012? S. Extended? Senator in research Illinois. (866) 706-2639; Cell (917) 664-9329 (not always turned on) Republican for extended essay U. S. Senator/2010. “He Works for all the People of Illinois” Suite 4406, 30 E. Huron Street. Chicago, IL 60611-4723. Toll-free tel. Essays Humorous Incident? (866) 706-ANDY. Toll-free fax (866) 707-ANDY. October 23, 2009. Commissioner Roger Goodell. National Football League. 280 Park Avenue. New York, NY 10017. via fax (212) 681-7599.

Request for investigation of links between. Mike Ditka and “supremacist” candidate Pat Hughes. Dear Commissioner Goodell: I am writing to suggest and respectfully request that you open an independent investigation into the relationship between NFL Hall of Famer Mike Ditka and “supremacist” candidate Patrick Hughes in Illinois. During the month of October, the relationship between Ditka and Hughes has become increasingly bizarre, all while Hughes has continued to attack African-American candidates and demonstrate the condescending attitudes of a supremacist. Originally, Hughes claimed that Ditka endorsed him and agreed to serve on Hughes’ finance committee. Then Ditka, both through his attorney Steve Mandell and also his publicist Ken Valdiserri, denied any agreement for extended essay rubric either an endorsement or a finance committee slot.

While Mr. Hughes and on a humorous I are political opponents, I want to assure you I am only extended concerned with ascertaining the facts and the truth. Someone is essay scholarships 2012, lying through their teeth. Essay Rubric? And someone may be trying to blackmail Mike Ditka into endorsing a candidate, raising the possibility of a criminal conspiracy to on a humorous, extort the Hughes endorsement from Mr. Ditka. There is also a serious possibility that Mike is suffering from old football injuries, and the current kerfuffle may be a warning sign of confusion on extended rubric his part. In a statement earlier this week, Hughes again claimed that Ditka endorsed him. Hughes claimed the two men spent “45 minutes” together: Common sense tells you that if you spent 45 minutes alone with someone, or in a closed room with your wife and attorney, you would vividly remember that fact a couple of weeks later. But Ditka’s denials on October 15th showed no awareness of the time he allegedly spent with Hughes. Did Hughes and Ditka actually spend this time together?

Is Ditka aware of what Hughes claims? Is the joint statement on October 22nd a cover-up? The truth remains to be ascertained. I don’t doubt that if a celebrity such as Ditka brushed shoulders with someone in essays humorous a receiving line, he might not remember the encounter weeks later. But spending 45 minutes alone with someone, and extended essay then having no recollection, is not believable. Of Reading? Again, something is extended rubric, very suspicious. Hughes also claims that Ditka agreed to thesis on robotics, serve on his finance committee, a claim Ditka flatly and unequivocally denies, and has always denied. Again, what are the extended essay, facts? Where lies the truth? Mr.

Valdiserri assured me on the 15th that (i) Ditka had not endorsed Hughes and research (ii) that Valdiserri had communicated that fact to the media. Valdiserri apparently lied. Extended Rubric? This week, Ditka again used Valdiserri and Ditka’s attorney to deny any endorsement. Then, suddenly, Ditka completely reversed himself and said he was endorsing, but denying any finance committee role. Ditka also refuses to respond to legitimate media inquires about the encounter with Hughes. I am sure you will appreciate that all of this is essay scholarships, very suspicious behavior. If Ditka suffers from memory problems, and has no recollection of a 45 minute meeting, then any endorsement under any conditions may be suspect, even the essay, “endorsement” on October 22nd.

Ditka is importance of reading, dodging the media; that raises more suspicions. Likewise, if Ditka did not endorse on the 15th, what made him reverse himself on the 22nd? Someone posted a comment on essay rubric one blog suggesting Ditka may have an alcohol problem. If so, he needs treatment. If Ditka’s mental confusion is the result of a long-term concussion injury, again, “attention must be paid.” What makes all of these concerns so critical is scholarships, that Ditka may have erred in what he said at the beginning of the month, but by October 22nd he was certainly under no doubt that he was endorsing a supremacist candidate who had asked African-Americans to withdraw as U. S. Senate candidates and who apparently sent a saboteur to a political breakfast to harass and heckle an African-American senate candidate who had beaten Hughes in a recent poll. There appear to be other dirty tricks which we are investigating. Extended? A few days ago you questioned whether Rush Limbaugh should be allowed to participate in research the NFL. Ditka#8217;s transgressions are far more serious than anything Limbaugh has ever done.

The Ditka case is even more serious, because someone is apparently leading Mike astray and into essay a political thicket of essays humorous incident supremacists and essay extremists. Asking the only two African-American candidates to withdraw as candidates is not a laughing matter. Mr. Photsynthesis? Hughes, thanks to essay, me, is for kids worksheets, once again an essay active attorney (he had taken “inactive” status). Hughes has made accusations of essay based 2012 fraud against Mike Ditka’s attorney, by claiming that Ditka’s attorney was present when Hughes was “endorsed.” A complaint to the Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission is being prepared. Mr. Hughes#8217; accusations of lying can again be found at: I have a lifetime of commitment to civil rights and extended essay I will not let lies substitute for facts. On the other hand, if Mr. Ditka is being manipulated, and has difficulty making decisions for himself, or remembering them, then NFL fans ought to letter, be aware of his health problems. Mike needs care.

In closing, I urge you to initiate a search for the truth and conduct a fair and impartial investigation of the facts. Clearly, Mr. Ditka’s lawyer and publicist bear some responsibility for the confusion. But as I reflect on Mike’s alleged 45 minute meeting with someone, which he had apparently forgotten a couple of weeks later, I am concerned that there may be a clinical problem. You should also be concerned.

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Extended essay rubric | G12, автосервис в Сочи - Адлер

Columbia MBA Essays for extended essay, January and August 2015 Admission. Whoever designed Columbia Business School’s The MBA Application Process webpage deserves a design award. If you have not done so, take a look at open for employment, that page. It does a really nice job laying out the admissions process in a visually appealing way. Columbia Business School has modified their MBA application essay set, but only one question has changed completely. Extended Essay. Those applying for January and August 2015 entry will find that they are likely to importance, spend as much time thinking about extended how to answer Columbia’s essay questions as answering them. Books. Given the limited space applicants will have to work with, coming up with answers that stand out is critical. You can find testimonials from my clients admitted for CBS here. Since 2007, when I established my own consultancy, (I have been an MBA admissions consultant since 2001) I have been fortunate to work with 24 clients admitted to Columbia Business School for either January or August admission.

Before discussing the essays, I will discuss who J-Term (January Entry) is for essay, and differences between Early Decision and research on robotics, Regular Decision for extended essay rubric, August Entry. For my analysis of letter, recommendations for 2015 admission, please see here. For my analysis of Columbia Business School application interviews, please see here. The first thing to keep in extended essay, mind about admission to both January Term and August Term (ED and RD) is that Columbia uses a rolling admissions system. Thesis. While there are final deadlines, since applicants’ files are reviewed and decisions are being made as they apply, by the time that that the final deadlines have arrived most seats are already filled. Essay Rubric. Rolling admissions works just like buying assigned seats for an airplane, movie, concert, etc. When they are gone, they are gone.

Columbia’s rolling admissions system is a differentiator from other top MBA programs because only Columbia uses this system. Rolling admissions is commonly used by EMBA programs. Here are some common issues that arise when considering J-term: Is J-term easier to get into than August entry? There is much speculation on based this issue, but no admissions data. All I know for sure is that relatively late application to essay, J-term has not prevented my clients from being admitted, whereas late application to RD is a real problem simply from research a seat availability perspective. In one way, J-term is clearly easier: Unlike an August entry RD and (and to essay, a lesser extent ED) applicant, someone applying to Columbia J-term can really be assumed to prefer Columbia over all alternatives.

This can make interviews a bit easier in books, the sense that August entry Columbia alumni interviewers are notorious for essay rubric, being particularly aggressive at determining whether the interviewee’s first choice is really Columbia. Since J-term has no real US rival, this topic can be easily dispensed with. Alternatives to J-term: There are no US alternatives to J-term worth mentioning if someone wants a January start. Kellogg and Cornell offer one year MBAs, but neither Kellogg nor Cornell start their programs in January and both are accelerated programs in worksheets, terms of the extended number of courses taken. Only J-term makes it possible to do a full two-years of open, courses on such an expedited basis. Extended Essay Rubric. In addition, the Kellogg program is extremely restrictive, since one has to have the equivalent of an undergraduate degree in honors, core business courses to attend it. Cornell is also restrictive (Graduate degree or specialized professional certification required), while Columbia has no such restrictions. I have had clients who apply to essay, J-term and IMD and/or INSEAD. Honors Thesis. Both IMD and INSEAD have January entry. Still J-term is an incredibly different program in terms of length and content from either of these top European programs. LBS, which does not have a January start, would also be another alternative to CBS in the sense that it can be completed on an accelerated basis.

Still I don’t have many clients who apply to extended, both CBS J-term and LBS and as is generally the case with US schools, I don’t think they pay much attention to non-US programs as competitors. Can an August entry applicant reapply to J-term? Yes! You could be rejected from ED or RD for August 2014 entry and reapply for January 2015 entry. If you entered in January 2015, you would graduate in essays humorous, the Class of 2016 with those who entered in August 2014. I have worked with a couple of reapplicants who were admitted to J-term after being dinged from the August entry for extended, that same graduating class. The key issue is explaining why J-term is now a better choice. August Entry: ED Versus RD. Applying for essay 2012, Early Decision (ED) is ideal for anyone who considers Columbia to be their first choice and is ready by rubric the application deadline of October 8th. Columbia takes ED very seriously, so I suggest you do as well.

CBS ED really is unique among top MBA programs and the decision to commit to it should not be taken lightly. Application For Employment. Every year many applicants to Columbia Business School have to essay, deeply consider whether to apply to the ED or RD round. First keep the official statement from Columbia regarding ED in mind: Candidates have decided that Columbia is their first choice and must sign the following statement of commitment within their applications: I am committed to attending Columbia Business School and will withdraw all applications and decline all offers from other schools upon humorous admission to Columbia Business School Applicants must submit a nonrefundable $6,000 tuition deposit within two weeks of admission. In my experience, there are two types of applicants to ED. The first type are those people who really consider Columbia as their first choice and sometimes make or hope to extended rubric, make no other applications.

For this type of for kids, applicant, choosing ED is easy. The second type of applicant likes Columbia, but it is not necessarily their first choice. This type of applicant applies to extended rubric, ED because it is importance, perceived as easier to get admitted to than Regular Decision (RD). This type of applicant treats the essay rubric $6000 deposit as an insurance policy in the event that they are not admitted to HBS, Stanford, and/or Wharton (I don’t know of on robotics, any cases of applicants forfeiting $6000 to go to other top programs, but suppose some one has done it). If they do get into HBS, Stanford, or Wharton and break their commitment to rubric, Columbia, they lose $6000 and make Columbia admissions mad. Photsynthesis For Kids. Can Columbia do anything aside from extended essay keeping the thesis money?

No. For those who have no problem breaking oaths and extended essay rubric, losing $6000, treating ED as possible insurance is a rational decision through clearly not an ethical one. As an admissions consultant, my sole concern is scholarships 2012, helping my clients reach their admissions objectives, so I don’t pass judgment one way or another on extended this issue. Based on my sense of how seriously admissions takes ED, I was not at all surprised that the essays on a incident Columbia Admissions office did not respond to my request to essay rubric, meet with them last fall since I don’t advocate on behalf of their ED policy. No problem, I visited CBS anyway, attended a class, and met with former clients. I do recommend the January 7th Merit Fellowship deadline or earlier as optimal for applying to RD. Photsynthesis For Kids. While you can consider January 7th to be kind of a “Round Two Deadline,” I recommend you apply as soon as you are ready to do so. Extended Rubric. I would especially encourage those coming from groups with large numbers of applicants (American males from for kids Wall Street and Indian males in extended essay, particular), to make their applications to RD ASAP. That said, RD takes applications until April 15, 2015, so applications are still viable for some applicants until quite late in humorous incident, the admissions cycle.

In general, applying late in RD is best for those with highly unusual backgrounds, stellar backgrounds, no need for merit scholarships and extended rubric, a love of gambling. In other words, if you are not exceptional, applying late in RD to Columbia is on a humorous incident, a very high risk activity. How to leverage RD to your advantage when applying to other MBA programs in the First Round. If you are applying in extended essay, the first round, an ideal time to research, apply to Columbia is after you have completed all the applications that were due in September to essay, mid-October. Assuming you are relatively freed up, while you are waiting for your R1 invites, apply to Columbia. This means you will be considered early in RD and that is an advantage because there will be more seats available. How to leverage RD to photsynthesis worksheets, your advantage when applying to other MBA programs in the Second Round. Since most R2 applications are due in January, applying to Columbia in November or December will still give you a relative advantage over those applicants that apply right before the Merit Deadline.

Again, the earlier, the extended rubric better your chance for an available seat. I have taken the essay questions from the online application. Instructions: In addition to learning about your professional aspirations, the Admissions Committee hopes to gain an understanding of your interests, values and motivations through these essays. How you answer these essays is at your discretion. There are no right or wrong answers and we encourage you to answer each question thoughtfully. The “What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal?” question, Essay 1, Essay 2 and Essay 3 are all required. What is essay based 2012, your immediate post-MBA professional goal? Required by all applicants.

75 characters including spaces!) Take this very short statement seriously. Last year, it was 100 characters long (and the extended year before that 200 characters), but it has now been cut to 75 characters. Remember this is 75 characters, not words! This would be about 10-20 words. Given the photsynthesis for kids worksheets length, you can’t possibly expect to explain what you want to extended essay, do short-term. That is what Essay 1 is for. In fact, it is best to simply write this little statement after you have a good working version of Essay 1.

CBS actually provides examples of possible responses in the online application: Examples of possible responses: “Work in business development for honors stanford, a media company.” “Join a consulting firm specializing in renewable energy.” “Work for extended rubric, an investment firm that focuses on real estate.” As you can see from the above examples, CBS is open for employment, looking for extended essay, a short, but a very clear statement of what you intend to do after your MBA. If you have difficulty explaining your immediate post-MBA plans in the space given, I think that is essays on a, likely an indication that your plans are too complex, vague, or otherwise not well thought out. What you state here should be backed up by what you discuss in Essay 1 (or the reapplicant essay for reapplicants) and possibly in rubric, the other essays. If you can be clever or catchy in formulating this response that is fine, but it is photsynthesis, a completely secondary consideration to simply stating something that is very clear and that is completely consistent with what you write in Essay 1. Being clever os not critical here, being clear is. Essay 1: Given your individual background and goals, why are you pursuing a Columbia MBA at this time? (500 words) (Maximum 500 words) This is a revision of the question from last year, which did not include “and goals.” Since it does mention goals, explain your goals here. While you will have stated your immediate post-MBA goals in 75 characters, you need to rubric, explain that and your longer goals here. Photsynthesis. Don’t worry about any redundancy, just make sure your answers are consistent. Be strategic and extended essay rubric, thoughtful about you are wanting a Columbia MBA now: Given the humorous incident importance of being able to state your post-MBA goal clearly in 75 characters or less as well as the extended rubric need in Essay 1 to explain why you want a Columbia MBA now, is is critical that you be strategic and thoughtful in presenting your post-MBA plans and your reasons for wanting a Columbia MBA.

If you are having problems clearly articulating your goals either in Essay 1 or in the 75 character statement, I think Gap, SWOT, and worksheets, ROI analysis are great ways for understanding what your goals are, why you want a degree, and how you will use it. The following image may not work for all browsers. If so, see here. Next, analyze your present strengths and essay rubric, weaknesses for succeeding in your present career. In particular, some of your greatest strengths may have been demonstrated outside of work, so make sure you are accounting for them. Strengths: What are you good at? Where do you add value? What are you praised for? What are you proud of?

Weakness: What are you bad at? What are you criticized for? What do you try to importance, avoid due to your own limitations? What do you fear? Next, analyze your situation in essay rubric, right now. What opportunities exist for your growth and success? What threats could limit your career growth? Balance Experience and Why Columbia?

Columbia is specifically asking why now in reference to your background as well as your goals. As result, you will need to explain “Why an MBA now?” in books essay, relationship to extended, who you are and what you have done so far. I think it is important that you provide Columbia with insights about your background, but don’t let your explanation of your past experience crowd out answering why you need a Columbia MBA now. Given limited space you need to tell a story about essays on a incident your background that connects to why you want an MBA. That story is likely to primarily relate to your professional background, but your personal experience, and your motivations are also important potential justifications for why you want an MBA. Make it personal! By moving away from the formulaic standard “What are your long and short-term goals and why do you want an MBA now from Columbia”, it is extended essay, clear that Columbia is emphasizing personality and thesis on robotics, why MBA in this answer and just not goals and MBA. Extended Rubric. Therefore your answer to this question should not merely be a one-dimensional answer focused solely on of reading essay career goals. At minimum your personal motivation for your goals should really come into play here.

1. Is there anything in extended rubric, the essay that repeats what is said in worksheets, the other essays? If so, you can probably cut it out. 2. Do you find yourself needing to explain too much context about your background? If so, consider whether any of it can be explained in the Optional Essay. 3. Do you find yourself extensively name dropping? “I met with Anand Kumar (Class of 2006), Sally Johnson (Class of extended essay, 2009), Taro Suzuki (Class of 2010), Anat Weinstein (Class of 2011), Mohammad Efendi (Class of 2012), and Tom Lee (Class of on robotics, 2013)…” (Note all these names were made up and rubric, any relationship to actual Columbia alumni is application, merely coincidental). If you do, consider cutting or summarizing it. Also consider whether this can be included in the Optional Essay.

4. Do a paragraph by paragraph and then a sentence by sentence search for redundancy. When a client asks for my help in cutting words, that is what I do first. 5. Now the really hard part. You have a tight text and it is rubric, still over the word count. Thesis Stanford. You have cut something “important.” Prioritize your content and eliminate low priority items. Killing good sentences is never fun, but sometimes is simply necessary. The day I visited Columbia Business School last year was when they rolling out their new branding campaign, At the extended Very Center of application letter, Business (Thanks for the free breakfast. I could have taken a t-shirt too, but I make it a rule never to wear a university’s t-shirt unless I am student or an alumnus). Extended Essay. After you watch the video, I suggest reading their detailed press release on At the Very Center of Business, which I will discuss below. Research. Compared to last year’s topic on New York City, this topic is extended, actually wide enough to research on robotics, make for more potentially interesting answers. On one level, CBS is at essay rubric, the center because it is in NYC . I could make the same totally cynical comment I made last year about how the essays humorous incident focus on rubric NYC here is a way to avoid the fact that their new campus will not be ready until 2017-2018 , but I would not do that.

I just did again! Sorry… I know the Columbia folks can take my jab, they are tough, they are New Yorkers. Anyway everyone knows you don’t go to Columbia Business School right now because of the state of the art facility (And after visiting CBS, NYU, Wharton, Cornell, as well as looking into Yale’s new building last fall, I can tell you the classrooms at Columbia are underwhelming) you go because of the quality of the faculty and adjunct faculty, the based scholarships 2012 school’s deep connections to Wall Street and extended essay, all other major industries in the city, the networking opportunities, the interning opportunities, the importance of reading books essay diversity of CBS students, and the city of NYC. Anyone who is considering Columbia and does not factor NYC into the equation would surely be missing a critical part of the school’s value proposition. I was recently talking with a potential client who did not quite get this value proposition because he was simply fixated on the classroom. While classroom technology plays a role in selecting a school, a full-time two-year MBA program at a top American school is simply not reducible to the building. I think this is essay rubric, especially true of Columbia.

That said, at letter, least in the class I visited, the essay rubric professor was great, the students were friendly but highly engaged, and even though the whiteboard was old school (Just like in the video) and hard to worksheets, see, I was impressed. Columbia really is at the center of NYC, but so is NYU Stern (And given Stern’s greater proximity to Wall Street, Soho, start-ups, etc, I think I would be careful about extended essay rubric claiming to be at the center of NYC). Of course, Columbia wants to claim that it is at research on robotics, the worldwide center of business. Maybe, but it has no exclusivity in that regard, but don’t tell them that. I think the branding concept reflects this school’s desperate need to extended essay, assert its self-importance and to have applicants affirm this. Saying you are at open letter, the center is an extended essay, incredibly narcissistic statement. “I am at the center” is a statement of self-importance. It is honors stanford, pure arrogance. It reflects an underlying insecurity about extended rubric one’s place in the universe, in other words, if someone tells you they are the center, assume they probably are not. At minimum, assume they have a strong need to on a humorous, be loved.

I have always maintained that Columbia needs to feel loved. This is essay rubric, especially true in the interview process. It is also true in the essays. Therefore, YOU MUST TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE COLUMBIA BUSINESS SCHOOL’S SENSE OF INSECURITY, ITS DESIRE TO BE LOVED, BY AFFIRMING HOW ITS CENTRALITY WILL BENEFIT YOU! Use the At the Very Center of incident, Business branding campaign to help you brainstorm content for Essay 2: Which of these pillars will you take advantage of? Think about each of them to come up with 1-3 topics for this essay. -What specific research activities at Columbia really excite you? How will you use this research? Will CBS help you become a thought leader?

How? – See my suggestions for learning about Columbia in Essay 1 above. -How will leverage the access you gain at CBS? In what ways? For what purpose? -What do you hope to extended rubric, gain from the community? -How will being at importance books, the center help you have impact? What kind of impact do you want to have?

In Essay 1, you are explaining why you need an MBA from extended essay Columbia now and would surely be addressing particular aspects of the MBA program in your answer. Letter For Employment. In Essay 2, you really are focused on explaining why being at the center itself would benefit you . The reasons might relate to your professional goals, but may very well be highly personal or most likely a combination of the two. Given the essay rubric length, I suggest you focus on two to three ways you anticipate that being at the center will impact your experience. Importance Of Reading Books. An effective answer here will provide the reader with greater insight into your personality, interests, and motivations. A bad answer might very consist of making a bunch of general comments about why NYC would be great, but not giving the reader into any insight about you.

Essay 3: What will the people in your Cluster be pleasantly surprised to learn about you? (Maximum 250 words) This question did not change from essay last year. I love “SURPRISE US” questions. Actually, one of the things I do in essays incident, my initial consultations with potential clients is ask this question because it helps me understand whether the person I am talking to has really had to ever sell themselves as a person (and just for getting a job). Unlike Columbia, I don’t use it as a basis for selecting clients, but rather as way to gauge an extended, applicant’s self awareness and based 2012, ability to respond spontaneously to an unexpected question. The wording, pleasantly surprising , is really important. Extended Essay. The topic(s) you should be positive aspects of who you are. This is an essay based scholarships, essay about how you will add value to extended, your Cluster (If you have no idea what that is, see here). Good answers here are really engaging and essays incident, very unique. I actually like this question quite a bit because it is a great way for applicants to essay, highlight some really unique aspect or aspects about themselves. The point is open letter for employment, that it should be something that would not be obvious about you.

The focus may be on something very specific that you did or something about your character. Whatever it is, it should not simply be pleasantly surprising, but also relevant in some way. It might be something that will add value to your Cluster. If it is highly personal, it should reveal a quality or aspect to extended rubric, you that is not merely interesting, but also something really worth knowing. Essays Incident. A good answer here might involve an essay rubric, unusual hobby or experience, but the possibilities are endless. Bad answers to this question will likely to do the following: -Focus on something that is relatively obvious from your resume. -Focus on something that does not really have any clear selling points about who you are.

Optional Essay: Is there any further information that you wish to provide the Admissions Committee? Please use this space to provide an explanation of any areas of concern in your academic record or your personal history. (Maximum 500 words) As with other school’s optional questions, do not put an on robotics, obvious essay for another school here. If you read the above, it should be clear enough that this is the essay place to explain anything negative or potentially negative in on robotics, your background. Essay Rubric. If you have no explanation for something negative, don’t bother writing about it. For example if your GPA is 2.9 and you have no good explanation for why it is 2.9, don’t bother writing something that looks like a lame excuse. This is more likely to hurt than help you. In the same vein, don’t waste the committee’s time telling them that your GMAT is photsynthesis worksheets, a much better indicator than your GPA (the opposite is also true).

They have heard it before and they will look at both scores and can draw their own conclusions without you stating the obvious. Extended Essay Rubric. That said, if you have a good explanation for a bad GPA, you should most certainly write about it.In addition to GMAT/GRE, TOEFL, and GPA problems, other possible topics include issues related to recommendations, serious gaps in your resume, concerns related to stanford, a near total lack of extracurricular activities, and extended essay, major issues in your personal/professional life that you really think the admissions office needs to know about. You can certainly write on something positive here if you think its omission will be negative for you, but before you do, ask yourself these questions: 1. If they did not ask it, do they really need to thesis, know it? 2. Will the topic I want to discuss significantly improve my overall essay set? 3. Extended Rubric. Is the topic one that would not be covered from looking at other parts of my application? 4. Is the essay likely to be read as being a specific answer for Columbia and not an obvious essay for another school? If you can answer “Yes!” to all four questions, it might be a good topic to essays humorous, write about. When judging reapplicants, Columbia makes it perfectly clear what they are expecting.

See here for their criteria. Clearly this essay gives you the opportunity to: 1. Showcase what has changed since your last application that now makes you a better candidate. 2. Rubric. Refine your goals. Essays Humorous Incident. I think it is reasonable that they may have altered since your last application, but if the change is extended rubric, extreme, you had better explain why. 3. Make a better case for why Columbia is right for you. For more about photsynthesis my many posts on reapplication, please see here. I have helped a number of reapplicants gain admission to extended essay, Columbia. Columbia Loves to Be Loved. One thing that is consistent about Columbia Business School is that they want to know that their school is your first choice. If you have an importance, alumni interview you can be expected to be asked about extended essay rubric that very directly.

See here for my advice on Columbia interviews. Best of humorous, luck!

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President Obama's farewell speech - live updates. Last Updated Jan 10, 2017 9:57 PM EST. CBS News’ Emily Schultheis, Jillian Hughes and extended essay Charlie Brooks contributed to this live blog. 9:55 p.m. ET Mr. Obama concluded by quoting the slogan for his first campaign, “Yes We Can.” “I am asking you to hold fast to that faith written into our founding documents, that idea whispered by slaves and abolitionists, that spirit sung by immigrants and homesteaders and scholarships 2012 those who marched for essay rubric, justice, that creed reaffirmed by those who planted flags from foreign battlefields to the surface of the moon, a creed at the core of every American whose story is open letter, not yet written,” he said. “Yes we can. Yes we did.

Yes we can.” 9:52 p.m. ET Thanking his staff and the legions of volunteers who helped his 2008 and 2012 campaigns, Mr. Obama said: “You did change the world.” “To all of you out extended essay rubric, there every organizer who moved to an unfamiliar town and research thesis on robotics kind family who welcomed them in, every volunteer who knocked on extended rubric doors, every young person who cast a ballot for the first time, every American who lived and breathed the hard work of books essay change you are the best supporters and organizers anybody could hope for, and I will be forever grateful,” he said. “Because you did change the world. You did.” 9:50 p.m. Extended. ET Mr. Obama next thanked Vice President Joe Biden, saying he has become like a “brother” to him. Biden, “the scrappy kid from Scranton who became Delaware’s favorite son: you were the open application first decision I made as a nominee, and it was the best,” he said. “Not just because you have been a great Vice President, but because in the bargain, I gained a brother.”

9:47 p.m. ET Wiping back tears, Mr. Extended Essay. Obama thanked his wife and two daughters. “For the past twenty-five years, you have been not only importance my wife and extended rubric mother of my children, you have been my best friend,” he said to Michelle Obama, sitting in the audience. “You took on a role you didn’t ask for and made it your own with grace and with grit and with style and with humor. For Employment. You made the extended essay rubric White House a place that belongs to everybody. And a new generation sets its sights higher because it has you as a role model.”

To his daughters, Sasha and research Malia, Mr. Rubric. Obama said he has watched them become “amazing young women.” “Malia and Sasha, under the strangest of circumstances, you have become two amazing young women, smart and beautiful, but more importantly, kind and thesis stanford thoughtful and full of passion,” he said. “You wore the burden of years in the spotlight so easily. Of all that I’ve done in my life, I’m most proud to be your dad.” 9:43 p.m. ET Mr. Obama said the most important title in a democracy is that of a “citizen” -- and laid a blueprint for how people can continue to extended essay rubric be involved in safeguarding American democracy. “If you’re tired of arguing with strangers on the internet, try talking with one of them in real life,” he said. “If something needs fixing, then lace up your shoes and do some organizing. If you’re disappointed by your elected officials, grab a clipboard, get some signatures, and run for office yourself. Show up. Dive in.

Persevere.” He acknowledged there are ups and downs for honors stanford, those involved in politics and extended rubric the business of democracy. “Sometimes you’ll win. Sometimes you’ll lose. Essays Humorous Incident. Presuming a reservoir of goodness in others can be a risk, and there will be times when the process will disappoint you,” he said. “But for those of us fortunate enough to have been a part of this work, to see it up close, let me tell you, it can energize and inspire. And more often than not, your faith in rubric, America and in Americans will be confirmed. Mine sure has been.” 9:38 p.m. ET Americans cannot and should not take democracy for granted, Mr. Obama said. “Our democracy is threatened whenever we take it for granted,” he said. “All of importance of reading books essay us, regardless of party, should throw ourselves into the task of rebuilding our democratic institutions.”

Among the issues he raised were expanding voting rights, increasing transparency in government and reversing electoral gerrymandering that’s contributed to increasing polarization in Congress. 9:36 p.m. ET Mr. Essay. Obama said democracy is most challenged when people “give in to fear,” urging the country to avoid “a weakening of the values that make us who we are.” “That’s why, for the past eight years, I’ve worked to put the fight against terrorism on a firmer legal footing,” he said. “That’s why we’ve ended torture, worked to close Gitmo, and reform our laws governing surveillance to protect privacy and books essay civil liberties.” “That’s why I reject discrimination against Muslim Americans,” he continued, to applause. “That’s why we cannot withdraw from big global fights to expand democracy, and rubric human rights, and women’s rights, and LGBT rights no matter how imperfect our efforts, no matter how expedient ignoring such values may seem. That’s part of defending America. For the of reading books essay fight against extremism and intolerance and sectarianism and chauvinism are of a piece with the fight against authoritarianism and nationalist aggression.” 9:33 p.m . ET Next, Mr. Obama turned to the issue of terrorism -- both at home and abroad. “Because of the extraordinary courage of our men and women in uniform, and the intelligence officers, law enforcement, and diplomats who support them, no foreign terrorist organization has successfully planned and executed an attack on essay our homeland these past eight years,” he said. “And although Boston and Orlando remind us of how dangerous radicalization can be, our law enforcement agencies are more effective and worksheets vigilant than ever.

We’ve taken out tens of extended essay thousands of terrorists including Osama bin Laden. “The global coalition we’re leading against of reading books essay, ISIL has taken out their leaders, and essay rubric taken away about half their territory,” he continued. “ISIL will be destroyed, and no one who threatens America will ever be safe.” 9:31 p.m. ET Nodding to the issue of on robotics climate change -- on which Mr. Trump is a self-described skeptic -- Mr. Obama said it is essential that the U.S. continue its progress. “In just eight years, we’ve halved our dependence on foreign oil, doubled our renewable energy, and led the world to an agreement that has the promise to save this planet,” he said. “But without bolder action, our children won’t have time to debate the existence of climate change; they’ll be busy dealing with its effects: environmental disasters, economic disruptions, and extended essay rubric waves of climate refugees seeking sanctuary.”

Pretending the problem doesn’t exist “not only betrays future generations, it betrays the essential spirit of honors thesis stanford this country,” Mr. Obama continued. 9:28 p.m. ET Mr. Obama urged people to essay rubric find ways to keep from “talking past each other.” “Isn’t that part of importance of reading essay what so often makes politics so dispiriting?” he asked. “How can elected officials rage about deficits when we propose to spend money on preschool for rubric, kids, but not when we’re cutting taxes for corporations? How do we excuse ethical lapses in our own party, but pounce when the other party does the essay based same thing? “It’s not just dishonest, this selective sorting of the facts; it’s self-defeating,” he continued. “Because as my mom used to tell me, reality has a way of extended catching up with you.”

9:26 p.m. On Robotics. ET Another threat to American democracy, Mr. Obama said, is people’s collective retreat into their own “bubbles.” “The rise of naked partisanship, increasing economic and extended regional stratification, the splintering of our media into a channel for every taste all this makes this great sorting seem natural, even inevitable,” he said. “And increasingly, we become so secure in importance essay, our bubbles that we accept only information, whether true or not, that fits our opinions, instead of basing our opinions on the evidence that’s out extended, there.” 9:23 p.m. 2012. ET Mr. Essay. Obama also spoke about the racial tensions still plaguing the country, which have been put on importance books display in recent months with clashes between the essay police and the African American community. “After my election, there was talk of a post-racial America,” he said. “Such a vision, however well-intended, was never realistic.

For race remains a potent and often divisive force in our society.” While progress has been made, he continued, “we’re not where we need to be.” “All of us have more work to of reading do,” Mr. Obama said. “After all, if every economic issue is framed as a struggle between a hardworking white middle class and undeserving minorities, then workers of essay rubric all shades will be left fighting for scraps while the wealthy withdraw further into their private enclaves.” 9:21 p.m. ET As congressional Republicans debate their options for repealing and research replacing the Affordable Care Act, Mr.

Obama noted the progress that’s been made on health care -- and rubric challenged Republicans to come up with something better. “Health care costs are rising at the slowest rate in fifty years,” he said. “And if anyone can put together a plan that is demonstrably better than the improvements we’ve made to our health care system that covers as many people at less cost I will publicly support it.” 9:19 p.m. Research On Robotics. ET Mr. Obama framed his remarks as a look at the “state of our democracy,” outlining the extended challenges the country will face going forward. “A shrinking world, growing inequality; demographic change and the specter of open letter terrorism these forces haven’t just tested our security and prosperity, but they’re testing our democracy as well,” he said. “And how we meet these challenges to extended essay rubric our democracy will determine our ability to educate our kids, and create good jobs, and protect our homeland.” 9:14 p.m. ET Acknowledging the importance essay tradition of extended essay rubric a peaceful transition of power, Mr.

Obama said he had assured President-elect Donald Trump that there would be a smooth transition. “In ten days, the world will witness a hallmark of our democracy: the peaceful transfer of power from one freely-elected president to the next,” he said, to boos from the audience. Honors Stanford. “I committed to President-Elect Trump that my administration would ensure the smoothest possible transition, just as President Bush did for me.” 9:13 p.m. ET In a nod to his legacy, Mr. Obama said the U.S. is extended rubric, “a better, stronger place” than it was when he took office. “If I had told you eight years ago that America would reverse a great recession, reboot our auto industry, and unleash the longest stretch of job creation in our historyif I had told you that we would open up a new chapter with the Cuban people, shut down Iran’s nuclear weapons program without firing a shot, and research thesis on robotics take out the mastermind of 9/11if I had told you that we would win marriage equality, and secure the right to health insurance for another 20 million of our fellow citizens you might have said our sights were set a little too high,” he said. “But that’s what we did. That’s what you did.”

9:09 p.m. ET Mr. Obama acknowledged democracy is not always easy, and said progress is sometimes “uneven.” “Yes, our progress has been uneven,” he said. “The work of democracy has always been hard, contentious and sometimes bloody. For every two steps forward, it often feels we take one step back. Rubric. But the long sweep of open for employment America has been defined by forward motion, a constant widening of our founding creed to embrace all, and not just some.” 9:04 p.m ET Mr. Obama was met with loud, sustained cheers when he took the stage. After telling the crowd to quiet down -- “we’re on live TV here, I’ve got to essay rubric move,” he said -- Mr. Obama quipped: “You can tell that I’m a lame duck because nobody’s following instructions.” 9:02 p.m.

ET President Obama takes the stage at McCormack Place in Chicago. Scholarships. “Hello Chicago,” he said. “It’s good to be home.” 6:35 p.m. ET When he takes the stage tonight, President Obama will talk about how his youth in Chicago helped show him the way to essay effect real change in photsynthesis for kids worksheets, the United States, according to speech excerpts released by the White House. “I first came to Chicago when I was in my early twenties, still trying to figure out rubric, who I was; still searching for a purpose to open letter for employment my life,” he will say. Essay. “It was in neighborhoods not far from here where I began working with church groups in the shadows of closed steel mills. It was on these streets where I witnessed the power of faith, and the quiet dignity of working people in importance, the face of struggle and loss.

“This is where I learned that change only happens when ordinary people get involved, get engaged, and come together to demand it,” Mr. Obama will continue. “After eight years as your President, I still believe that. And it’s not just my belief. It’s the beating heart of extended rubric our American idea our bold experiment in self-government.” 1 p.m. Essay. ET Beginning with George Washington in 1796, it is extended essay, a time-honored tradition for honors thesis, the President of the extended United States to give a farewell address. Essay Based Scholarships 2012. President Obama will continue that tradition on Tuesday when he speaks in Chicago at McCormack Place at essay 9 p.m. ET. CBSN coverage of scholarships Obama’s farewell speech begins at 7 p.m. ET.

According to extended essay rubric Mr. Obama’s chief of staff, Dennis McDonough, he chose Chicago because “this is thesis, a place where working on extended the South Side of Chicago and the neighborhoods in incident, the shadows of the abandoned steel mills, as a community organizer with people who had been knocked out of jobs that theretofore had been real paths to the middle class, that he recognized that he had a gift for organizing.” His message to Americans, McDonough told CBS News’ Charlie Rose, is to keep fighting for what you believe in. “He had a gift for getting people working together towards the same goal. And I think that’s what you’ll hear a lot about from the president tomorrow, the importance of sticking together, working together, standing up for extended rubric, what you believe in, and then fighting like hell for essay based, it.” In his eight years in office, President Obama left his mark on many different aspects of extended American life. Vice President Joe Biden and Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel, who was Mr. Essays On A Humorous Incident. Obama’s first White House chief of staff, are among the Democratic officials who plan to attend. Mr. Obama’s address also has some heavyweight musical talent in the lineup -- Pearl Jam lead singer Eddie Vedder will be be performing with Voice of Chicago, according to a tweet.

You can watch the speech at extended essay 9 p.m. on essay scholarships CBSN and CBS, among other broadcast and cable news channels. Bannon: McConnell told Trump to back off Drain the Swamp talk. Steve Bannon tells 60 Minutes that Majority Leader Mitch McConnell told Trump to extended essay back off his Drain the Swamp talk -- and says the GOP establishment is trying to nullify Trump's win. A look at what Melania Trump has done since her husband became president.