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Romeo And Juliet - Minor Characters Influences On Major…
Burmese Days Lesson Plans for Teachers. The Burmese Days lesson plan contains a variety of romeo essay teaching materials that cater to all learning styles. Inside you'll find 30 Daily Lessons, 20 Fun Activities, 180 Multiple Choice Questions, 60 Short Essay Questions, 20 Essay Questions, Quizzes/Homework Assignments, Tests, and more. The lessons and activities will help students gain an intimate understanding of the text, while the english thesis tests and romeo and juliet minor, quizzes will help you evaluate how well the students have grasped the material. View a free sample.
Target Grade: 7th-12th (Middle School and High School) Length of Lesson Plan: Approximately 139 pages. Essays And Counsels And Moral! Page count is estimated at and juliet minor essay 300 words per page. Length will vary depending on of marijuana outline format viewed. Browse The Burmese Days Lesson Plan: The Burmese Days lesson plan is downloadable in PDF and Word. The Word file is viewable with any PC or Mac and can be further adjusted if you want to mix questions around and/or add your own headers for characters essay things like Name, Period, and Date. The Word file offers unlimited customizing options so that you can teach in and counsels and moral, the most efficient manner possible. And Juliet Minor Characters! Once you download the file, it is yours to keep and print for your classroom. View a FREE sample. Essays! The Lesson Plan Calendars provide daily suggestions about what to teach. They include detailed descriptions of when to assign reading, homework, in-class work, fun activities, quizzes, tests and romeo and juliet, more. Use the entire Burmese Days calendar, or supplement it with your own curriculum ideas.
Calendars cover one, two, four, and eight week units. Determine how long your Burmese Days unit will be, then use one of the calendars provided to disasters plan out your entire lesson. Chapter abstracts are short descriptions of events that occur in each chapter of Burmese Days . Romeo And Juliet Characters! They highlight major plot events and detail the important relationships and characteristics of important characters. The Chapter Abstracts can be used to review what the legalization essay students have read, or to prepare the students for what they will read. And Juliet Essay! Hand the abstracts out in you teacher's essay, class as a study guide, or use them as a key for romeo characters essay a class discussion. They are relatively brief, but can serve to essays and counsels civil and moral be an excellent refresher of Burmese Days for either a student or teacher. Character and Object Descriptions. Character and Object Descriptions provide descriptions of the characters significant characters as well as objects and places in Burmese Days . These can be printed out and used as an you teacher's essay individual study guide for students, a key for leading a class discussion, a summary review prior to exams, or a refresher for and juliet minor an educator. Of Marijuana Essay Outline! The character and object descriptions are also used in some of the minor characters essay quizzes and tests in this lesson plan.
The longest descriptions run about ucla, 200 words. They become shorter as the importance of the character or object declines. This section of the lesson plan contains 30 Daily Lessons. Daily Lessons each have a specific objective and offer at least three (often more) ways to teach that objective. Lessons include classroom discussions, group and partner activities, in-class handouts, individual writing assignments, at least one homework assignment, class participation exercises and other ways to teach students about Burmese Days in and juliet minor characters, a classroom setting. English! You can combine daily lessons or use the ideas within them to create your own unique curriculum. They vary greatly from day to day and and juliet minor characters essay, offer an array of creative ideas that provide many options for an educator.
Fun Classroom Activities differ from papers Daily Lessons because they make fun a priority. The 20 enjoyable, interactive classroom activities that are included will help students understand Burmese Days in fun and entertaining ways. Fun Classroom Activities include group projects, games, critical thinking activities, brainstorming sessions, writing poems, drawing or sketching, and countless other creative exercises. Many of the activities encourage students to interact with each other, be creative and think outside of the box, and ultimately grasp key concepts from the minor characters text by doing rather than simply studying. Fun activities are a great way to keep students interested and engaged while still providing a deeper understanding of Burmese Days and you teacher's, its themes. Essay Questions/Writing Assignments. These 20 Essay Questions/Writing Assignments can be used as essay questions on a test, or as stand-alone essay topics for a take-home or in-class writing assignment on minor essay Burmese Days . Students should have a full understanding of the unit material in order to study essays answer these questions.
They often include multiple parts of the work and ask for a thorough analysis of the overall text. They nearly always require a substantial response. Essay responses are typically expected to minor essay be one (or more) page(s) and consist of multiple paragraphs, although it is possible to write answers more briefly. These essays are designed to challenge a student's understanding of the broad points in a work, interactions among the characters, and main points and themes of the text. But, they also cover many of the other issues specific to the work and to the world today. The 60 Short Essay Questions listed in this section require a one to research two sentence answer.
They ask students to demonstrate a deeper understanding of Burmese Days by describing what they've read, rather than just recalling it. The short essay questions evaluate not only whether students have read the material, but also how well they understand and can apply it. They require more thought than multiple choice questions, but are shorter than the essay questions. The 180 Multiple Choice Questions in this lesson plan will test a student's recall and understanding of Burmese Days . Use these questions for quizzes, homework assignments or tests. The questions are broken out into sections, so they focus on specific chapters within Burmese Days . This allows you to minor essay test and thank you teacher's essay, review the book as you proceed through the unit. Typically, there are 5-15 questions per and juliet characters, chapter, act or section. Use the Oral Reading Evaluation Form when students are reading aloud in class. Pass the forms out before you assign reading, so students will know what to research expect.
You can use the forms to provide general feedback on audibility, pronunciation, articulation, expression and rate of romeo and juliet minor essay speech. You can use this form to ucla essays grade students, or simply comment on their progress. Use the Writing Evaluation Form when you're grading student essays. Minor! This will help you establish uniform criteria for grading essays even though students may be writing about persuasive essay, different aspects of the material. By following this form you will be able to evaluate the thesis, organization, supporting arguments, paragraph transitions, grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc. of each student's essay.
The Quizzes/Homework Assignments are worksheets that can be used in a variety of romeo and juliet characters ways. They pull questions from the multiple choice and short essay sections, the character and object descriptions, and the chapter abstracts to create worksheets that can be used for pop quizzes, in-class assignments and homework. Periodic homework assignments and quizzes are a great way to encourage students to stay on papers top of their assigned reading. They can also help you determine which concepts and ideas your class grasps and which they need more guidance on. By pulling from the romeo minor characters different sections of the lesson plan, quizzes and homework assignments offer a comprehensive review of ucla Burmese Days in manageable increments that are less substantial than a full blown test. Minor! Use the Test Summary page to determine which pre-made test is most relevant to your students' learning styles. This lesson plan provides both full unit tests and english thesis, mid-unit tests.
You can choose from several tests that include differing combinations of multiple choice questions, short answer questions, short essay questions, full essay questions, character and and juliet essay, object matching, etc. Some of the tests are designed to be more difficult than others. Some have essay questions, while others are limited to short-response questions, like multiple choice, matching and research on natural disasters, short answer questions. If you don't find the combination of questions that best suits your class, you can also create your own test on Burmese Days . You have the option to Create Your Own Quiz or Test. If you want to minor characters essay integrate questions you've developed for your curriculum with the questions in this lesson plan, or you simply want to create a unique test or quiz from the questions this lesson plan offers, it's easy to do. Cut and thank essay, paste the information from the Create Your Own Quiz or Test page into and juliet a Word document to get started.
Scroll through the sections of the lesson plan that most interest you and cut and paste the exact questions you want to use into your new, personalized Burmese Days lesson plan.
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The Importance of Minor Characters in Romeo and Juliet
robert putnam essay As featured on National Public Radio, The New York Times, and in other major media, we offer this sold-out, much-discussed Journal of Democracy article by Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone. The Journal of Democracy is at present scheduled to go online in full text in essay, the third year of Project Muse (1997). Legalization Of Marijuana Persuasive Essay Outline. You can also find information at DemocracyNet about the Journal of Democracy and its sponsor, the minor characters essay, National Endowment for Democracy. Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital. Many students of the new democracies that have emerged over the past decade and a half have emphasized the importance of a strong and bar exam, active civil society to the consolidation of democracy. Romeo And Juliet Minor Essay. Especially with regard to the postcommunist countries, scholars and democratic activists alike have lamented the english thesis, absence or obliteration of traditions of independent civic engagement and a widespread tendency toward passive reliance on the state.
To those concerned with the weakness of civil societies in the developing or postcommunist world, the advanced Western democracies and above all the United States have typically been taken as models to romeo and juliet, be emulated. There is striking evidence, however, that the vibrancy of American civil society has notably declined over the past several decades. Ever since the english thesis vocabulary, publication of Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America , the United States has played a central role in systematic studies of the minor characters essay, links between democracy and civil society. Although this is in part because trends in American life are often regarded as harbingers of essays social modernization, it is also because America has traditionally been considered unusually civic (a reputation that, as we shall later see, has not been entirely unjustified). When Tocqueville visited the United States in the 1830s, it was the Americans' propensity for characters, civic association that most impressed him as the study essays, key to their unprecedented ability to make democracy work. Americans of all ages, all stations in life, and all types of disposition, [End Page 65] he observed, are forever forming associations. Romeo Minor Characters Essay. There are not only civil, commercial and industrial associations in which all take part, but others of a thousand different types--religious, moral, serious, futile, very general and very limited, immensely large and very minute. . Romeo Minor Essay. . . Nothing, in my view, deserves more attention than the intellectual and moral associations in America.
1. Recently, American social scientists of a neo-Tocquevillean bent have unearthed a wide range of empirical evidence that the quality of public life and the performance of social institutions (and not only in America) are indeed powerfully influenced by norms and networks of civic engagement. Researchers in such fields as education, urban poverty, unemployment, the control of essays civil and moral crime and drug abuse, and even health have discovered that successful outcomes are more likely in civically engaged communities. Romeo And Juliet Essay. Similarly, research on the varying economic attainments of different ethnic groups in the United States has demonstrated the importance of social bonds within each group. These results are consistent with research in a wide range of settings that demonstrates the vital importance of social networks for job placement and many other economic outcomes. Meanwhile, a seemingly unrelated body of research on the sociology of economic development has also focused attention on the role of study essays bar exam social networks.
Some of this work is situated in the developing countries, and some of it elucidates the peculiarly successful network capitalism of East Asia. And Juliet Characters. 2 Even in less exotic Western economies, however, researchers have discovered highly efficient, highly flexible industrial districts based on networks of thank collaboration among workers and small entrepreneurs. Far from being paleoindustrial anachronisms, these dense interpersonal and interorganizational networks undergird ultramodern industries, from the high tech of Silicon Valley to the high fashion of Benetton. The norms and networks of civic engagement also powerfully affect the performance of representative government. That, at least, was the central conclusion of my own 20-year, quasi-experimental study of subnational governments in different regions of Italy.
3 Although all these regional governments seemed identical on minor essay, paper, their levels of effectiveness varied dramatically. Systematic inquiry showed that the legalization of marijuana, quality of characters governance was determined by longstanding traditions of civic engagement (or its absence). Voter turnout, newspaper readership, membership in choral societies and football clubs--these were the hallmarks of a successful region. In fact, historical analysis suggested that these networks of organized reciprocity and civic solidarity, far from being an epiphenomenon of socioeconomic modernization, were a precondition for it. No doubt the mechanisms through which civic engagement and social connectedness produce such results--better schools, faster economic [End Page 66] development, lower crime, and study essays bar exam, more effective government--are multiple and complex. While these briefly recounted findings require further confirmation and perhaps qualification, the parallels across hundreds of empirical studies in a dozen disparate disciplines and subfields are striking. Social scientists in several fields have recently suggested a common framework for understanding these phenomena, a framework that rests on the concept of social capital . 4 By analogy with notions of physical capital and human capital--tools and training that enhance individual productivity--social capital refers to features of social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit.
For a variety of reasons, life is easier in a community blessed with a substantial stock of social capital. Minor Characters Essay. In the first place, networks of civic engagement foster sturdy norms of generalized reciprocity and encourage the emergence of social trust. Such networks facilitate coordination and communication, amplify reputations, and thus allow dilemmas of collective action to essays civil and moral, be resolved. When economic and political negotiation is embedded in dense networks of social interaction, incentives for opportunism are reduced. At the same time, networks of civic engagement embody past success at collaboration, which can serve as a cultural template for future collaboration. Finally, dense networks of interaction probably broaden the participants' sense of self, developing the I into the we, or (in the language of rational-choice theorists) enhancing the participants' taste for collective benefits. I do not intend here to romeo and juliet minor, survey (much less contribute to) the development of the theory of thank you teacher's essay social capital.
Instead, I use the central premise of that rapidly growing body of work--that social connections and civic engagement pervasively influence our public life, as well as our private prospects--as the starting point for an empirical survey of characters trends in social capital in contemporary America. I concentrate here entirely on the American case, although the developments I portray may in some measure characterize many contemporary societies. Whatever Happened to Civic Engagement? We begin with familiar evidence on changing patterns of political participation, not least because it is immediately relevant to you teacher's, issues of democracy in romeo characters essay, the narrow sense. Consider the well-known decline in turnout in thesis vocabulary, national elections over the last three decades. From a relative high point in the early 1960s, voter turnout had by 1990 declined by nearly a quarter; tens of romeo minor essay millions of Americans had forsaken their parents' habitual readiness to engage in the simplest act of citizenship.
Broadly similar trends also characterize participation in state and local elections. It is thank essay not just the voting booth that has been increasingly deserted by [End Page 67] Americans. Romeo Characters. A series of identical questions posed by the Roper Organization to national samples ten times each year over ucla admissions essays, the last two decades reveals that since 1973 the number of Americans who report that in the past year they have attended a public meeting on town or school affairs has fallen by more than a third (from 22 percent in 1973 to 13 percent in 1993). Romeo And Juliet Characters Essay. Similar (or even greater) relative declines are evident in and counsels and moral, responses to questions about attending a political rally or speech, serving on a committee of some local organization, and working for a political party. By almost every measure, Americans' direct engagement in politics and government has fallen steadily and minor characters, sharply over research, the last generation, despite the fact that average levels of education--the best individual-level predictor of political participation--have risen sharply throughout this period. Every year over the last decade or two, millions more have withdrawn from the affairs of their communities. Not coincidentally, Americans have also disengaged psychologically from politics and government over this era. The proportion of Americans who reply that they trust the government in Washington only some of the time or almost never has risen steadily from 30 percent in romeo minor characters essay, 1966 to 75 percent in 1992. These trends are well known, of course, and taken by themselves would seem amenable to a strictly political explanation. Perhaps the long litany of political tragedies and scandals since the and counsels civil and moral, 1960s (assassinations, Vietnam, Watergate, Irangate, and and juliet characters essay, so on) has triggered an understandable disgust for politics and government among Americans, and that in turn has motivated their withdrawal.
I do not doubt that this common interpretation has some merit, but its limitations become plain when we examine trends in civic engagement of a wider sort. Our survey of organizational membership among Americans can usefully begin with a glance at essays and counsels civil and moral, the aggregate results of the General Social Survey, a scientifically conducted, national-sample survey that has been repeated 14 times over the last two decades. Church-related groups constitute the most common type of organization joined by Americans; they are especially popular with women. Other types of organizations frequently joined by women include school-service groups (mostly parent-teacher associations), sports groups, professional societies, and literary societies. Among men, sports clubs, labor unions, professional societies, fraternal groups, veterans' groups, and service clubs are all relatively popular. Religious affiliation is by far the most common associational [End Page 68] membership among Americans. Indeed, by and juliet characters many measures America continues to be (even more than in vocabulary, Tocqueville's time) an astonishingly churched society. For example, the United States has more houses of romeo and juliet characters worship per capita than any other nation on Earth. Yet religious sentiment in America seems to be becoming somewhat less tied to institutions and more self-defined. How have these complex crosscurrents played out over the last three or four decades in terms of english thesis vocabulary Americans' engagement with organized religion? The general pattern is clear: The 1960s witnessed a significant drop in romeo characters, reported weekly churchgoing--from roughly 48 percent in the late 1950s to roughly 41 percent in essay, the early 1970s.
Since then, it has stagnated or (according to and juliet minor characters essay, some surveys) declined still further. Meanwhile, data from the General Social Survey show a modest decline in membership in all church-related groups over the last 20 years. Essay Outline. It would seem, then, that net participation by Americans, both in religious services and in church-related groups, has declined modestly (by perhaps a sixth) since the and juliet minor characters essay, 1960s. For many years, labor unions provided one of the most common organizational affiliations among American workers. Yet union membership has been falling for nearly four decades, with the steepest decline occurring between 1975 and 1985. Research Disasters. Since the mid-1950s, when union membership peaked, the unionized portion of the nonagricultural work force in America has dropped by more than half, falling from 32.5 percent in 1953 to 15.8 percent in 1992. By now, virtually all of the explosive growth in union membership that was associated with the New Deal has been erased. The solidarity of union halls is now mostly a fading memory of aging men. 5.
The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been an especially important form of civic engagement in twentieth-century America because parental involvement in the educational process represents a particularly productive form of romeo and juliet minor characters essay social capital. It is, therefore, dismaying to discover that participation in parent-teacher organizations has dropped drastically over disasters, the last generation, from romeo and juliet minor essay more than 12 million in 1964 to barely 5 million in persuasive essay outline, 1982 before recovering to approximately 7 million now. Next, we turn to romeo and juliet essay, evidence on membership in (and volunteering for) civic and fraternal organizations. These data show some striking patterns. First, membership in traditional women's groups has declined more or less steadily since the mid-1960s.
For example, membership in the national Federation of Women's Clubs is research down by more than half (59 percent) since 1964, while membership in the League of Women Voters (LWV) is off 42 percent since 1969. 6. Similar reductions are apparent in the numbers of volunteers for romeo and juliet characters, mainline civic organizations, such as the Boy Scouts (off by 26 percent since 1970) and of marijuana essay, the Red Cross (off by 61 percent since 1970). But what about the minor essay, possibility that volunteers have simply switched their loyalties [End Page 69] to other organizations? Evidence on regular (as opposed to occasional or drop-by) volunteering is available from the Labor Department's Current Population Surveys of 1974 and of marijuana persuasive, 1989. These estimates suggest that serious volunteering declined by roughly one-sixth over minor, these 15 years, from admissions essays 24 percent of adults in 1974 to 20 percent in romeo minor characters, 1989. The multitudes of Red Cross aides and Boy Scout troop leaders now missing in essay, action have apparently not been offset by equal numbers of new recruits elsewhere. Fraternal organizations have also witnessed a substantial drop in membership during the 1980s and 1990s.
Membership is romeo characters essay down significantly in such groups as the Lions (off 12 percent since 1983), the Elks (off 18 percent since 1979), the Shriners (off 27 percent since 1979), the Jaycees (off 44 percent since 1979), and the Masons (down 39 percent since 1959). Study Essays. In sum, after expanding steadily throughout most of this century, many major civic organizations have experienced a sudden, substantial, and nearly simultaneous decline in membership over the last decade or two. The most whimsical yet discomfiting bit of evidence of social disengagement in romeo, contemporary America that I have discovered is you teacher's essay this: more Americans are bowling today than ever before, but bowling in organized leagues has plummeted in the last decade or so. Between 1980 and 1993 the characters essay, total number of study essays bowlers in America increased by and juliet characters 10 percent, while league bowling decreased by 40 percent. (Lest this be thought a wholly trivial example, I should note that nearly 80 million Americans went bowling at least once during 1993, nearly a third more than voted in the 1994 congressional elections and roughly the legalization of marijuana persuasive essay, same number as claim to attend church regularly. Even after the 1980s' plunge in minor essay, league bowling, nearly 3 percent of American adults regularly bowl in leagues.) The rise of solo bowling threatens the livelihood of study essays bowling-lane proprietors because those who bowl as members of leagues consume three times as much beer and pizza as solo bowlers, and the money in and juliet minor characters, bowling is in the beer and pizza, not the balls and shoes. The broader social significance, however, lies in the social interaction and thank, even occasionally civic conversations over beer and pizza that solo bowlers forgo. Whether or not bowling beats balloting in the eyes of most Americans, bowling teams illustrate yet another vanishing form of minor essay social capital. At this point, however, we must confront a serious counterargument.
Perhaps the traditional forms of civic organization whose decay we have been tracing have been replaced by vibrant new organizations. For example, national environmental organizations (like the legalization of marijuana persuasive outline, Sierra Club) and feminist groups (like the National Organization for Women) grew rapidly [End Page 70] during the 1970s and 1980s and now count hundreds of thousands of and juliet characters dues-paying members. An even more dramatic example is the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), which grew exponentially from 400,000 card-carrying members in 1960 to 33 million in 1993, becoming (after the Catholic Church) the largest private organization in the world. Admissions Essays. The national administrators of these organizations are among the most feared lobbyists in Washington, in minor, large part because of their massive mailing lists of presumably loyal members. These new mass-membership organizations are plainly of and counsels civil and moral great political importance. From the point of view of social connectedness, however, they are sufficiently different from classic secondary associations that we need to invent a new label--perhaps tertiary associations. For the vast majority of romeo characters essay their members, the only act of thank you teacher's membership consists in writing a check for dues or perhaps occasionally reading a newsletter. Few ever attend any meetings of such organizations, and romeo minor, most are unlikely ever (knowingly) to encounter any other member. The bond between any two members of the Sierra Club is less like the study bar exam, bond between any two members of a gardening club and more like the bond between any two Red Sox fans (or perhaps any two devoted Honda owners): they root for the same team and they share some of the minor characters, same interests, but they are unaware of each other's existence.
Their ties, in short, are to thesis vocabulary, common symbols, common leaders, and perhaps common ideals, but not to one another. And Juliet Characters. The theory of social capital argues that associational membership should, for example, increase social trust, but this prediction is much less straightforward with regard to english, membership in tertiary associations. From the point of view of social connectedness, the Environmental Defense Fund and and juliet essay, a bowling league are just not in the same category. If the growth of tertiary organizations represents one potential (but probably not real) counterexample to my thesis, a second countertrend is represented by the growing prominence of nonprofit organizations, especially nonprofit service agencies. This so-called third sector includes everything from Oxfam and the Metropolitan Museum of Art to research on natural disasters, the Ford Foundation and characters, the Mayo Clinic. In other words, although most secondary associations are nonprofits, most nonprofit agencies are not secondary associations. To identify trends in the size of the nonprofit sector with trends in social connectedness would be another fundamental conceptual mistake.
7. A third potential countertrend is essays much more relevant to and juliet minor essay, an assessment of social capital and on natural disasters, civic engagement. Some able researchers have argued that the last few decades have witnessed a rapid expansion in support groups of romeo and juliet minor characters essay various sorts. Robert Wuthnow reports that fully 40 percent of all Americans claim to study, be currently involved in [a] small group that meets regularly and minor characters, provides support or caring for those who participate in it. 8 Many of disasters these groups are religiously affiliated, but [End Page 71] many others are not. For example, nearly 5 percent of romeo minor Wuthnow's national sample claim to participate regularly in a self-help group, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, and thesis vocabulary, nearly as many say they belong to book-discussion groups and hobby clubs. The groups described by Wuthnow's respondents unquestionably represent an important form of social capital, and they need to be accounted for in any serious reckoning of trends in social connectedness. On the other hand, they do not typically play the romeo, same role as traditional civic associations.
As Wuthnow emphasizes, Small groups may not be fostering community as effectively as many of their proponents would like. Some small groups merely provide occasions for individuals to focus on themselves in the presence of others. The social contract binding members together asserts only the weakest of obligations. Come if you have time. Civil And Moral. Talk if you feel like it. Respect everyone's opinion. Never criticize.
Leave quietly if you become dissatisfied. . . . Romeo Minor. We can imagine that [these small groups] really substitute for families, neighborhoods, and broader community attachments that may demand lifelong commitments, when, in fact, they do not. 9. All three of persuasive these potential countertrends--tertiary organizations, nonprofit organizations, and support groups--need somehow to be weighed against the erosion of and juliet essay conventional civic organizations. Essays And Counsels. One way of doing so is to consult the General Social Survey. Within all educational categories, total associational membership declined significantly between 1967 and 1993. Characters Essay. Among the college-educated, the average number of group memberships per person fell from 2.8 to essay, 2.0 (a 26-percent decline); among high-school graduates, the number fell from 1.8 to 1.2 (32 percent); and among those with fewer than 12 years of minor essay education, the number fell from 1.4 to 1.1 (25 percent).
In other words, at all educational (and hence social) levels of American society, and counting all sorts of on natural disasters group memberships, the average number of associational memberships has fallen by romeo about a fourth over the last quarter-century. Without controls for educational levels, the trend is not nearly so clear, but the central point is this: more Americans than ever before are in social circumstances that foster associational involvement (higher education, middle age, and so on), but nevertheless aggregate associational membership appears to be stagnant or declining . Broken down by type of essays civil group, the downward trend is most marked for church-related groups, for labor unions, for fraternal and veterans' organizations, and for school-service groups. Conversely, membership in romeo and juliet characters, professional associations has risen over these years, although less than might have been predicted, given sharply rising educational and ucla, occupational levels. Essentially the same trends are evident for both men and women in the sample. In short, the available survey evidence [End Page 72] confirms our earlier conclusion: American social capital in the form of civic associations has significantly eroded over the last generation.
Good Neighborliness and Social Trust. I noted earlier that most readily available quantitative evidence on trends in social connectedness involves formal settings, such as the characters, voting booth, the union hall, or the PTA. One glaring exception is so widely discussed as to require little comment here: the most fundamental form of social capital is the family, and the massive evidence of the loosening of civil and moral bonds within the romeo, family (both extended and nuclear) is well known. Essays And Moral. This trend, of course, is quite consistent with--and may help to essay, explain--our theme of essay social decapitalization. A second aspect of informal social capital on which we happen to have reasonably reliable time-series data involves neighborliness. In each General Social Survey since 1974 respondents have been asked, How often do you spend a social evening with a neighbor? The proportion of Americans who socialize with their neighbors more than once a year has slowly but steadily declined over the last two decades, from 72 percent in 1974 to 61 percent in 1993. (On the other hand, socializing with friends who do not live in your neighborhood appears to be on the increase, a trend that may reflect the growth of workplace-based social connections.) Americans are also less trusting. Romeo And Juliet Minor Essay. The proportion of Americans saying that most people can be trusted fell by more than a third between 1960, when 58 percent chose that alternative, and 1993, when only study bar exam, 37 percent did. The same trend is apparent in all educational groups; indeed, because social trust is romeo characters essay also correlated with education and because educational levels have risen sharply, the overall decrease in research papers on natural, social trust is even more apparent if we control for education. Our discussion of trends in social connectedness and romeo, civic engagement has tacitly assumed that all the forms of social capital that we have discussed are themselves coherently correlated across individuals.
This is in fact true. Members of associations are much more likely than nonmembers to admissions essays, participate in characters essay, politics, to spend time with neighbors, to express social trust, and so on. The close correlation between social trust and associational membership is true not only across time and across individuals, but also across countries. Evidence from the 1991 World Values Survey demonstrates the following: 10 Across the 35 countries in this survey, social trust and civic engagement are strongly correlated; the greater the density of associational membership in a society, the more trusting its citizens. Trust and engagement are two facets of the same underlying factor--social capital. [End Page 73] America still ranks relatively high by cross-national standards on of marijuana outline, both these dimensions of social capital. Even in the 1990s, after several decades' erosion, Americans are more trusting and and juliet characters essay, more engaged than people in most other countries of the world. Legalization Of Marijuana Persuasive Essay Outline. The trends of the past quarter-century, however, have apparently moved the United States significantly lower in the international rankings of social capital. The recent deterioration in American social capital has been sufficiently great that (if no other country changed its position in the meantime) another quarter-century of change at the same rate would bring the United States, roughly speaking, to the midpoint among all these countries, roughly equivalent to South Korea, Belgium, or Estonia today. Two generations' decline at the same rate would leave the United States at and juliet characters essay, the level of vocabulary today's Chile, Portugal, and Slovenia. As we have seen, something has happened in America in the last two or three decades to diminish civic engagement and social connectedness.
What could that something be? Here are several possible explanations, along with some initial evidence on each. The movement of women into the labor force . Over these same two or three decades, many millions of American women have moved out of the and juliet characters, home into paid employment. This is the primary, though not the sole, reason why the weekly working hours of the average American have increased significantly during these years. It seems highly plausible that this social revolution should have reduced the time and energy available for building social capital.
For certain organizations, such as the PTA, the League of Women Voters, the Federation of Women's Clubs, and the Red Cross, this is almost certainly an important part of the story. The sharpest decline in women's civic participation seems to have come in the 1970s; membership in such women's organizations as these has been virtually halved since the late 1960s. By contrast, most of the ucla admissions essays, decline in participation in men's organizations occurred about ten years later; the total decline to date has been approximately 25 percent for the typical organization. On the and juliet minor characters essay, other hand, the survey data imply that the aggregate declines for men are virtually as great as those for women. It is english vocabulary logically possible, of course, that the male declines might represent the knock-on effect of women's liberation, as dishwashing crowded out the lodge, but time-budget studies suggest that most husbands of working wives have assumed only a minor part of the housework. In short, something besides the women's revolution seems to lie behind the romeo and juliet minor, erosion of social capital. Mobility: The re-potting hypothesis . Numerous studies of organizational involvement have shown that residential stability and such related phenomena as homeownership are clearly associated with greater [End Page 74] civic engagement. Mobility, like frequent re-potting of plants, tends to ucla admissions essays, disrupt root systems, and characters essay, it takes time for civil and moral, an uprooted individual to put down new roots.
It seems plausible that the automobile, suburbanization, and the movement to the Sun Belt have reduced the social rootedness of the average American, but one fundamental difficulty with this hypothesis is apparent: the best evidence shows that residential stability and homeownership in America have risen modestly since 1965, and are surely higher now than during the 1950s, when civic engagement and social connectedness by our measures was definitely higher. Other demographic transformations . A range of minor characters additional changes have transformed the American family since the 1960s--fewer marriages, more divorces, fewer children, lower real wages, and thesis, so on. Romeo And Juliet Minor Essay. Each of thank these changes might account for some of the slackening of civic engagement, since married, middle-class parents are generally more socially involved than other people. Moreover, the changes in scale that have swept over the American economy in these years--illustrated by the replacement of the minor, corner grocery by the supermarket and now perhaps of the supermarket by electronic shopping at home, or the replacement of community-based enterprises by outposts of distant multinational firms--may perhaps have undermined the material and even physical basis for civic engagement. The technological transformation of leisure . There is reason to believe that deep-seated technological trends are radically privatizing or individualizing our use of research papers on natural disasters leisure time and thus disrupting many opportunities for social-capital formation. The most obvious and probably the most powerful instrument of this revolution is television. Time-budget studies in the 1960s showed that the growth in time spent watching television dwarfed all other changes in the way Americans passed their days and nights. Television has made our communities (or, rather, what we experience as our communities) wider and romeo minor, shallower.
In the papers disasters, language of economics, electronic technology enables individual tastes to be satisfied more fully, but at the cost of the positive social externalities associated with more primitive forms of entertainment. The same logic applies to and juliet characters essay, the replacement of vaudeville by the movies and now of legalization of marijuana movies by the VCR. The new virtual reality helmets that we will soon don to romeo minor, be entertained in total isolation are merely the latest extension of bar exam this trend. Minor Characters. Is technology thus driving a wedge between our individual interests and our collective interests? It is a question that seems worth exploring more systematically. The last refuge of a social-scientific scoundrel is to call for more research.
Nevertheless, I cannot forbear from suggesting some further lines of inquiry. [End Page 75] We must sort out the dimensions of social capital, which clearly is legalization outline not a unidimensional concept, despite language (even in this essay) that implies the and juliet minor essay, contrary. Persuasive Essay. What types of organizations and networks most effectively embody--or generate--social capital, in the sense of romeo mutual reciprocity, the resolution of dilemmas of collective action, and of marijuana essay, the broadening of social identities? In this essay I have emphasized the density of associational life. Romeo Characters. In earlier work I stressed the structure of ucla essays networks, arguing that horizontal ties represented more productive social capital than vertical ties.
11. Another set of and juliet characters essay important issues involves macrosociological crosscurrents that might intersect with the trends described here. What will be the impact, for ucla essays, example, of electronic networks on social capital? My hunch is and juliet minor characters that meeting in study, an electronic forum is not the equivalent of minor meeting in a bowling alley--or even in a saloon--but hard empirical research is needed. What about the development of social capital in the workplace?
Is it growing in counterpoint to the decline of civic engagement, reflecting some social analogue of the first law of study essays thermodynamics--social capital is neither created nor destroyed, merely redistributed? Or do the trends described in this essay represent a deadweight loss? A rounded assessment of changes in American social capital over the last quarter-century needs to essay, count the costs as well as the benefits of vocabulary community engagement. We must not romanticize small-town, middle-class civic life in the America of the romeo characters essay, 1950s. In addition to the deleterious trends emphasized in thank, this essay, recent decades have witnessed a substantial decline in intolerance and probably also in overt discrimination, and those beneficent trends may be related in complex ways to the erosion of traditional social capital.
Moreover, a balanced accounting of the social-capital books would need to reconcile the insights of this approach with the undoubted insights offered by Mancur Olson and others who stress that closely knit social, economic, and political organizations are prone to inefficient cartelization and to what political economists term rent seeking and ordinary men and women call corruption. 12. Finally, and perhaps most urgently, we need to explore creatively how public policy impinges on (or might impinge on) social-capital formation. In some well-known instances, public policy has destroyed highly effective social networks and norms. American slum-clearance policy of the romeo and juliet essay, 1950s and 1960s, for example, renovated physical capital, [End Page 76] but at ucla admissions essays, a very high cost to existing social capital. The consolidation of country post offices and small school districts has promised administrative and financial efficiencies, but full-cost accounting for the effects of minor characters these policies on social capital might produce a more negative verdict. Persuasive Essay. On the other hand, such past initiatives as the county agricultural-agent system, community colleges, and tax deductions for charitable contributions illustrate that government can encourage social-capital formation. Even a recent proposal in San Luis Obispo, California, to require that all new houses have front porches illustrates the power of government to influence where and how networks are formed. The concept of romeo and juliet essay civil society has played a central role in thank you teacher's, the recent global debate about the preconditions for democracy and democratization. In the newer democracies this phrase has properly focused attention on the need to characters, foster a vibrant civic life in research, soils traditionally inhospitable to self-government. In the established democracies, ironically, growing numbers of citizens are questioning the effectiveness of their public institutions at the very moment when liberal democracy has swept the romeo and juliet characters essay, battlefield, both ideologically and geopolitically.
In America, at study essays, least, there is reason to suspect that this democratic disarray may be linked to a broad and continuing erosion of civic engagement that began a quarter-century ago. High on our scholarly agenda should be the question of whether a comparable erosion of social capital may be under way in and juliet minor essay, other advanced democracies, perhaps in different institutional and behavioral guises. High on America's agenda should be the question of how to reverse these adverse trends in social connectedness, thus restoring civic engagement and civic trust. Robert D. Study. Putnam is Dillon Professor of International Affairs and director of the Center for International Affairs at Harvard University. His most recent books are Double-Edged Diplomacy: International Bargaining and Domestic Politics (1993) and Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (1993), which is reviewed elsewhere in this issue.
He is now completing a study of the revitalization of American democracy. Commentary and writings on romeo minor, related topics: Nicholas Lemann, Kicking in Groups, The Atlantic Monthly (April 1996). Mary Ann Zehr, Getting Involved in Civic Life, Foundation News and thesis, Commentary (May/June 1996). The Foundation News and Commentary is a publication of The Council on Foundations. 1. Romeo And Juliet Characters. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America , ed. J.P. Maier, trans. George Lawrence (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1969), 513-17.
2. On social networks and economic growth in thank you teacher's essay, the developing world, see Milton J. Esman and Norman Uphoff, Local Organizations: Intermediaries in Rural Development (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984), esp. Characters. 15-42 and 99-180; and Albert O. English Thesis. Hirschman, Getting Ahead Collectively: Grassroots Experiences in Latin America (Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Press, 1984), esp. And Juliet Characters. 42-77. On East Asia, see Gustav Papanek, The New Asian Capitalism: An Economic Portrait, in Peter L. Berger and legalization persuasive essay outline, Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao, eds., In Search of an East Asian Development Model (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1987), 27-80; Peter B. Evans, The State as Problem and Solution: Predation, Embedded Autonomy and Structural Change, in Stephan Haggard and Robert R. Kaufman, eds., The Politics of romeo and juliet minor characters Economic Adjustment (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 139-81; and Gary G. Bar Exam. Hamilton, William Zeile, and Wan-Jin Kim, Network Structure of East Asian Economies, in Stewart R. And Juliet Characters. Clegg and S. Thank You Teacher's. Gordon Redding, eds., Capitalism in Contrasting Cultures (Hawthorne, N.Y.: De Gruyter, 1990), 105-29. See also Gary G. Hamilton and Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Market, Culture, and Authority: A Comparative Analysis of Management and Organization in the Far East, American Journal of Sociology (Supplement) 94 (1988): S52-S94; and Susan Greenhalgh, Families and Networks in Taiwan's Economic Development, in Edwin Winckler and Susan Greenhalgh, eds., Contending Approaches to the Political Economy of Taiwan (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. And Juliet Minor. Sharpe, 1987), 224-45.
3. Robert D. Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993). 4. James S. Coleman deserves primary credit for developing the social capital theoretical framework. See his Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital, American Journal of Sociology (Supplement) 94 (1988): S95-S120, as well as his The Foundations of Social Theory (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990), 300-21. See also Mark Granovetter, Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness, American Journal of Sociology 91 (1985): 481-510; Glenn C. Loury, Why Should We Care About Group Inequality? Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1987): 249-71; and Robert D. Putnam, The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life, American Prospect 13 (1993): 35-42. English Thesis. To my knowledge, the first scholar to and juliet minor characters, use the term social capital in admissions, its current sense was Jane Jacobs, in The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 138. 5. Any simplistically political interpretation of the collapse of minor characters essay American unionism would need to confront the fact that the of marijuana persuasive, steepest decline began more than six years before the Reagan administration's attack on PATCO.
Data from the General Social Survey show a roughly 40-percent decline in reported union membership between 1975 and 1991. 6. Data for and juliet characters essay, the LWV are available over a longer time span and show an interesting pattern: a sharp slump during the Depression, a strong and sustained rise after World War II that more than tripled membership between 1945 and 1969, and then the disasters, post-1969 decline, which has already erased virtually all the postwar gains and continues still. This same historical pattern applies to those men's fraternal organizations for which comparable data are available--steady increases for the first seven decades of the century, interrupted only by the Great Depression, followed by a collapse in romeo and juliet, the 1970s and 1980s that has already wiped out most of the english, postwar expansion and romeo minor characters, continues apace. 7. Cf. Lester M. Salamon, The Rise of the Nonprofit Sector, Foreign Affairs 73 (July-August 1994): 109-22.
See also Salamon, Partners in and counsels and moral, Public Service: The Scope and Theory of Government-Nonprofit Relations, in Walter W. Powell, ed., The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), 99-117. Salamon's empirical evidence does not sustain his broad claims about a global associational revolution comparable in significance to the rise of the nation-state several centuries ago. 8. Robert Wuthnow, Sharing the romeo characters, Journey: Support Groups and America's New Quest for legalization persuasive essay, Community (New York: The Free Press, 1994), 45. 10. I am grateful to Ronald Inglehart, who directs this unique cross-national project, for sharing these highly useful data with me. See his The Impact of Culture on Economic Development: Theory, Hypotheses, and Some Empirical Tests (unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan, 1994). 11.
See my Making Democracy Work , esp. ch. Romeo Minor Characters. 6. 12. See Mancur Olson, The Rise and papers disasters, Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 2.
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Speech On Value Of Games And Sports Essays and Research Papers. Games and sports keep one physically and mentally fit. And Juliet Minor Characters Essay! They keep one away from diseases relating to and counsels civil, heart, obesity, mental stress . an sleeplessness. They instill in the player a spirit of self-confidence, self-reliance, discipline, justice, fair play and and juliet characters, patriotism. games provide us with recreation and enjoyment. Thank! Games are very essential for students but they are neglected in schools. Even parents do not have high opinion about games and and juliet minor characters, they want their children to devote more time to studies. India.
2008 Summer Olympics , Ancient Olympic Games , Jim Thorpe 1055 Words | 3 Pages. ?Essay: Importance of Games And Sports Games and sports have an important role in the life of a . Essay Outline! young man.They are those activities which we pursue for the sake of pleasure.They are different from romeo and juliet characters work or daily duties which we perform to earn money.There is a slight different between games and english thesis vocabulary, sports.Sports and Games have an importance in education. Games are played by groups of players or teams,such as football, cricket, hokey,etc On the other hand, sports are played by and juliet minor essay players in their individual. Health , Human , Human anatomy 1017 Words | 3 Pages. Playing Sport Is Better Than Video Games-Speech. Do you prefer to legalization outline, play sport than video games ? Not everyone agrees but recent and romeo characters essay, continuous research has shown that more than . half of Australians prefer to play it because of the physical and mental health benefits and thesis, an opportunity to socialise more with new friends. Playing video games however, hardly uplifts these standards. First of all, it’s obvious for a fact that the reason why playing sport is better than video games is because it helps us become physically stronger. Our health improves. Better , Game , Improve 817 Words | 3 Pages. ? Sports and games Sports can be generally divided into romeo characters essay indoor and outdoor sports . And Counsels Civil And Moral! Gymnastics is a . typical indoor sport which includes apparatus training on romeo and juliet characters uneven bars, horizontal bar, balance beam, mat, spring-board or rings.
Athletics, a typical outdoor sport , includes track amd field events (the Marathon race, long-distance run, cross-country run, relay-race) and sprinting events ( a hundred metre sprint, hurdle-race). Jumping (high jjump, long jump, triple jump, pole jump) and throwing (hammer. Ancient Olympic Games , Association football , Game 1731 Words | 5 Pages. testing the research papers disasters, experience of whether the romeo characters essay, referee there has seen whether the ball went in or not,” He, of course, is against video technology, but why would he . be against the improvement in sport , he has witnessed all the human errors made in many games played, and can he look and and counsels civil and moral, see how this advancement helps other sports like tennis, long jump and many other track events. Incorporating video technology into football will help a great deal by having more precise decisions and more angles to view the event. Association football , Better , Decision making 945 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Outline Matt King CMST 220 Video Game Speech 6-12-13 * Attention grabber/introduction - . Romeo And Juliet Minor Characters Essay! Slaying dragons, defending your planet from alien invasion, or bouncing on the heads of koopas and study essays bar exam, saving the same princess who gets caught every time? Sound Familiar? If you’re anything like me you have tried all of romeo essay these.
Of course not literally but I’m sure you have all played a video game that has let you do something crazy and exciting you couldn’t normally do. Essays Bar Exam! * Can I get. A Great Way to and juliet characters essay, Care , Game , Gameplay 724 Words | 3 Pages. Are games and sports important as studies? The importance of sports and games is research papers on natural being increasingly recognised in India, from romeo and juliet minor both the ucla admissions essays, educational and social points of romeo minor characters . view. Essays! More and more funds are being allocated for encouraging sports in minor characters essay schools, colleges and universities; in fact, sports have become an essential part of the thesis, curricula. Romeo! Time was when only a few students, who were fond of games like hockey, football, cricket or tennis, were allowed special facilities.
But now regular programmes are drawn up in all educational institutions. Cricket , Education , Game 1284 Words | 4 Pages. are electronic games a legitimate sport. administration. Today we are going to ask ourselves if electronic games are a legitimate sport . I’d like to ask you to keep . Ucla! any questions you may have for the end of the presentation First of all, what is a sport ? Sport : Definition Sport come from the middle aged word desport, which mean distraction, physical or mental pleasure According to sport accord, the umbrella organization for all Olympics and non-Olympics sports , a sport is defined as an activity that have an element of competition . Counter-Strike , Cyberathlete Professional League , Electronic game 709 Words | 3 Pages. Sports games Vs. Minor! Action Games Video games have become a major . Research On Natural! aspect of minor characters essay our society. Kids play it almost every day, even adults get into it. There are many different game types you can choose from thank such as action, adventure, sports , Disney, and many more. The two that I want to romeo and juliet minor essay, focus on though is sports and action games . Both of them have their own style; action deals with explosions and gunfire usually just a lot of things happening while sports deals with. Action game , First-person shooter , Game 842 Words | 3 Pages.
evident that some sports were favored more compared to admissions, the others. P.E class was that special time of the week for students to minor characters, relax and unwind . from the burden of academics. Basketball, Soccer, and ucla essays, Baseball were always the top picks that everyone looked forward to minor characters essay, playing. I must admit, I’m a fan of essay team sports that require not only plenty of skill but teamwork as well. I suppose that’s why these three would definitely be at romeo the top of my list. However; with every favorite sport , there would always. Ball games , Game , Olympic Games 1129 Words | 3 Pages. hunger games and society and essay outline, sports. ?After watching The Hunger Games , what sociological themes did you see? Even though we as a country/world do not have a contest in which . Romeo And Juliet Essay! selected individual’s battle to civil and moral, the death, how can you relate the principles and contexts of The Hunger Games to our society or other societies around the and juliet minor essay, world? How can you relate the bar exam, districts to society?
Do we (in the United States) have districts? If so, how do the romeo and juliet minor characters, districts relate to sports ? How can you relate the power of the Capital to the past. Bread and circuses , Famine , Malnutrition 1867 Words | 5 Pages. Ydiop Bdap and papers on natural disasters, Shemesh Lee 3/1/2012 KIN 330 Sociocultural Analyses of Sport and essay, Exercise Sports Observation Physical . activity is a form of exercise of movement that includes daily activities and many different sports . Does physical activity have to be a vigorous form of exercise or movement? No, it doesn’t have to be only vigorous exercise or movements. Physical activity can consist of planned actions, like walking the dog, jogging, speed walking, doing chores, loading and unloading trucks. Basketball , Game , Observation 1688 Words | 4 Pages. Focus: Sports amp; Fair Play Dilemma: Pragmatism versus idealism Understanding the english vocabulary, current reality 1. What are the and juliet essay, ideas of fair play . in sports ? a) What principles and/or value lie behind the ideals of fair play? 'Fair play' is usually understood to mean using only study essays bar exam, tactics that are in accord with the essay, spirit of the thank, sport . In ethics, the concept of fairness involves treating everyone equally and impartially. It is characters complex notion that comprises and embodies a number of values that are. 2008 Summer Olympics , Athens , Avery Brundage 760 Words | 3 Pages. February 14, 2012 How sports effect society I’m of two minds about Wilfred Sheed claim that sports play a positive role . in society.
On the one hand I agree that sports had many positive influences on society, on the other hand sports have negative effects as well. Bar Exam! Sports can build one’s character and promote the minor characters essay, virtues of honesty, respect, selfless teamwork, dedication and commitment to a greater cause. Over the past 150 years sports have tremendously changed. Sports play the fundamental role. Play , Student athlete 952 Words | 3 Pages. Sports : More Than Just a Game More than 7.6 million high school students played sports during the 2010-2011 . Bar Exam! school year, an increase of nearly 40,000 students compared to 2009-2010 according to usnews.com. Why is this number so high? The benefits of playing sports are not just physical. While many students get involved in high school athletics for romeo and juliet characters, sheer love of the study bar exam, game , there are significant benefits from these extracurricular activities as well. Being an athlete teaches life lessons like. Cardiovascular disease , Education , High school 1374 Words | 4 Pages.
Name: Janene A. Davison – sample outline . And Juliet Characters Essay! Pick Three Presentation Outline Topic Choice: My favorite sport : baseball Introduction Topic . Disasters! sentence previewing main ideas: Main Idea #1 My favorite sport is baseball. Though I’ve never played the essay, sport I still have an appreciation for bar exam, it because it brings my family together, there’s always a game to watch, and it’s a great form of entertainment. Romeo And Juliet! Support detail: It’s a family affair • • • Main Idea #2 Support detail: It’s played March-October. Chicago Cubs , Houston Astros , Major League Baseball 265 Words | 1 Pages. scussions of violence in sports , like discussions of deviance, are often connected with people’s ideas about the moral condition of society as . a whole. When athletes engage in quasi-criminal violence on the ? eld or criminal violence off the thank you teacher's essay, ? eld, many people see it as evidence that the moral foundation of society is eroding. They fear that young people who look up to athletes as role models are learning a warped sense of morality. Statements about minor essay, violence in sports are often confusing. Some people.
Aggression , Anomie , Crime 2477 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction Sports have existed in essays and counsels and moral our society for thousands of years; Ancient Greece introduced formal sports with the first . Romeo And Juliet Essay! Olympic Games in 776 BC. They have evolved over the years and will, without a doubt, always continue to be a part of society. The 204 nations who participated in the 2012 Olympics give a glance of how almost everyone in the world is exposed to study essays, sports . There is absolutely no doubt that the world’s society is affected by sports . However, the question at hand is not whether sports affect. Affect , American football , Ancient Olympic Games 1058 Words | 3 Pages. How many of and juliet you have a certain sport or certain team that you follow? Well that wouldn’t be possible without technology. Athletes wouldn’t be . able to travel to and counsels and moral, different states and countries without cars or planes.
You wouldn’t be able to watch every event and watch them again in slow-mo. You wouldn’t be able to Tweet instantly when something exciting happens. I believe that professional sports have benefited from today’s technology in that sports are much more connected throughout the world, and. 2008 Summer Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics , Ancient Olympic Games 835 Words | 3 Pages. as important as that of the mind. Games and sports keep the body fit.
They are good for characters, the body, as knowledge is food for the . mind, and english thesis, religion for romeo and juliet characters, the soul. If health is wealth, games and sports are the means to on natural disasters, get it. 2. Minor Essay! Games and sports are very useful for ucla, health. And Juliet! They refresh the mind and fill the body with fresh air. Thank Essay! They keep us free from diseases. They provide fresh oxygen and make us more active.
Their important is untellable. 3. Games and sports develop a sense of discipline among. 1968 Summer Olympics , Ancient Olympic Games , Multi-sport event 472 Words | 2 Pages. Paper Rough Draft 1 The Value in Video Games Linda Garcia Devry University Rough Draft 2 Value in . Video Games “Your mom hates this game !” was the slogan for a third-person shooter game called Dead Space 2 released January 25, 2011. The big question is ‘why would your mom hate this game ?’ Why do many people in general oppose playing video games ? Although they are packed with a bunch of violence, many people neglect the romeo and juliet essay, positive qualities in essays bar exam video games . Are there any positive aspects. Game , Game designer , Role-playing game 1880 Words | 6 Pages. Values and Conflicts in Speech Communities. different languages have emerged, thereby creating and characters, fostering numerous distinctive speech communities. A speech community is essays a . group of people who share a set of romeo and juliet essay norms such as a specific vocabulary and grammar or a particular speech style.
The existence of different speech communities allows us to understand diversity and to preserve its heritage. However, conflicts such as racial bias inevitably arise. The value that speech communities offer us is the understanding of on natural disasters diversity. In a pledge written in. African American , Black people , Language 912 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Tips and Topics How to write a persuasive speech © Naomi Rockler-Gladen Feb 1, 2007 1. Find an . appropriate and interesting persuasive speech topic. For many students, this is one of the most difficult parts of writing a persuasive speech . 2. Know your audience well. To be persuasive, you absolutely must identify with your audience and make your audience identify with you. This is so important, and yet many speakers don't try. Who are the members of romeo minor essay your audience?
What. Audience , Audience theory , Embryonic stem cell 1752 Words | 6 Pages. Glick Topic: Video games in America Specific Purpose: To inform my COM121 class on how video games are . Essays And Counsels And Moral! part of peoples lives. Central Idea: Focusing on how games are incorperated in peoples lives by viewing the time spent playing, relationships through video games , how video games are for all people, and the social aspect that is incorperated in the video games . Introduction Attention-getter: 59% of americans play video games , there are two gamers in each household in the. Family , Game , Gamer 907 Words | 4 Pages. Sports Teams Regulating Social Networking. arising between new media usage and romeo and juliet minor, sports teams/leagues. Many of these disagreements are because of new media outlets such as but not limited . to Facebook, Twitter, Blogs, and english thesis, youTube. The sports teams are trying to regulate the usage because they want to profit from the media.
Their profit comes from their own in-house media operation and, as in romeo minor characters the case of the NFL, operating their own cable channel. When non-regulated media is available to the public the sports teams risk losing a profit and having. Advertising , Concentration of media ownership , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 1855 Words | 6 Pages. Public Speaking 205 03/23/2012 Video game addiction Specific Purpose: As a result of my speech my audience will understand . that video games aren’t as bad a hobby as they may think. Central Idea: Playing a video game an excessive amount of time can ruin your social life. Ucla Essays! Cause you to lose friends and potentially a job.
Introduction: I. You and your friends decide to and juliet characters essay, go biking it’s a beautiful day, nice and essays civil and moral, sunny. Everyone arrives and and juliet minor characters essay, you are ready to go biking but then you look and notice. Addiction , Game , Games 958 Words | 3 Pages. Vicious And Dangerous Sports The Olympic Games. ?Vicious and dangerous sports should be banned by law When you think of the tremendous technological progress we have made, it's amazing how . Research On Natural! little we have developed in other respects. We may speak contemptuously of the poor old Romans because they relished the romeo and juliet minor characters essay, orgies of slaughter that went on in their arenas. We may despise them because they mistook these goings on for entertainment. We may forgive them because they lived 2000 years ago and obviously knew no better.
But are our feelings of superiority. Ancient Olympic Games , Boxing , International Olympic Committee 1287 Words | 2 Pages. January of 1970, his professional coaching record stood at disasters a remarkable 105-35-6, and the NFL named him their acclaimed 1960s Man of the romeo characters essay, Decade. Admissions Essays! His . statement that winning is the only thing that matters in sport , is one of the truths that is still inherent in today's world of sports . Athletes are willing to romeo and juliet characters essay, cheat to guarantee success, either through the use of research papers disasters performance-enhancing drugs, or through the act of injuring others. These days, drugs, blood doping, corruption, injuring others and. Blood , Gold , Gold medal 2731 Words | 7 Pages. ?Video game speech Murder, assault, theft and romeo and juliet minor, even rape.
This is the type of degenerate criminal influences shown to YOUR . Research Papers! children on a regular daily basis. Series of dangerous, virtual and physical violence our preserved society has tolerated for far too long, but I say NO MORE. NO MORE influenced violence being shown upon our youths. NO MORE increased crime rates in our society and most definitely NO MORE children being denied their protected safety rights because as parents and guardians we. Human anatomy , Pong , Ralph H. Baer 1114 Words | 3 Pages.
But I think as generation is and juliet minor passing by the importance of sports and games is diminishing.Todays youth is you teacher's more interested in . virtual games like playing Xbox ,PS,mobile games rather than real games which could be beneficial for them.Not only shifting of interest to virtual games ,some have reasons of romeo and juliet minor essay studies or work and they are not able to take out research on natural, time for sports and games or they don’t give much importance to it.But here my motive is to minor characters, make you aware of its benefits and what are the things you. Game , Health , Henry Luce 873 Words | 3 Pages. Sports serve as an excellent physical exercise. Those who play sports have a more positive body image than those who do not. . Sports often involve physical activities like running, jumping, stretching and moving about which turn out to thank essay, be a good body workout. Playing sports is and juliet characters essay energy put to good use. Admissions Essays! Engaging in sports since an early age strengthens your bones and muscles and tones your body. It helps you increase your stamina and endurance.
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Animal Collective , Exercise , Muscle 1811 Words | 6 Pages. A form of art that should be recognized as a sport A sport is romeo and juliet minor characters essay activities that consist of essay physical attempt, ability, . entertainment, and mental activity. Dance, gymnastics and skateboarding, are said to be a physical art, but why can’t they be considered as competitive sport . Dance isn’t just a form of art, it can also be competitive. Dance is something that takes strength, time, flexibility, and romeo and juliet minor characters, tons of practice. Dance team is always looked at as the entrainment or just performing, never seen. Cheerleading , Dance , Dance music 1078 Words | 3 Pages.
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I grew up playing sports my whole life. Romeo And Juliet Minor Essay! I played organized sports since I was in 6th grade all the way through my senior year of high school. I believe that sports bring young people together in competition which is also a value lesson in life. Research! The lesson. American football , Football , High school football 2207 Words | 6 Pages. For almost a century, video games have shaped not just our country, but the whole world. An entire industry was developed and it continues to . thrive, even in our rough economic times. Some people fall into the clutches of games ’ $60 (or more) price tags, while others wait for titles to drop into the bargain bin. But no matter how you purchase them, video games have become much more than just ways to pass the characters, time. They make us laugh. They make us cry.
They make us want to essay, scream in anger and punch. Mario , Nintendo , Nintendo 64 1112 Words | 3 Pages. History of minor Volleyball History and Philosophy of essay Sport and characters essay, Physical Education Lauren Swift March 26, 2010 Volleyball has grown over . the past couple of centuries starting in 1865 to legalization outline, the 20th century. There are millions of people playing the game of volleyball and growing more and romeo and juliet minor essay, more each day. Volleyball has gone worldwide and many people have accepted the on natural, game and has become the most popular sport than any of the romeo and juliet minor, other sports in you teacher's American and international countries. Volleyball became both. Basketball , Holyoke, Massachusetts , National Collegiate Athletic Association 2160 Words | 6 Pages. B.Z.
Smith AP Lang 1 Feb. 2013 Videogames and Violence In today’s society, the vast majority of adolescents spend their free time indoors. Many of . those hours are enjoyed playing video games , a habit which teenagers will never hear the romeo and juliet minor characters, end of from their parents. Ucla! “These games will ruin you”, they say, “It makes you angry and violent”, they say, but does it really? Media often portrays videogames as detrimental to mental health, and this topic is especially scrutinized today because of the. Aggression , Crime , Media violence research 884 Words | 3 Pages. The Purpose of Youth Sports Offered by Community Recreation Agencies Based on Competition, Everyone Wins, Character Development, Skill . Development, and minor characters, Fun. Kimberly Jones Lindenwood University Abstract Most recreational leagues are designed to teach the fundamentals. Focusing on the skills needed and the rules of the game , preparing both boys and english, girls for team play.
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Also help us to lose weight improve our metabolism. Sports and romeo and juliet minor characters, games are very important for vocabulary, us. Sports and games help us to build character. They give us energy and romeo, strength. Study Essays! They also make us active in our daily life. My favourite sport is Soccer. I love playing it. And Juliet Minor Essay! I have been playing it since i was 6 years old. I love.
Better , Learning , Life 817 Words | 5 Pages. “ Sport has a unique and irreplaceable capacity to unite people, going far beyond ethnic, religious or social differences. I am convinced that . sport can be at the long-term service of peace” HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco In Ancient Greece, a series of essays competitions were held every four years between representatives of several city-states and kingdoms of romeo minor essay Ancient Greece. The Olympics allowed the Greeks to set aside conflict and war, to research disasters, celebrate friendship and unity, to experience peace through. 2004 Summer Olympics , 2008 Summer Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics 808 Words | 3 Pages.
Sociology of Sport Rick Holland Sociology and Understanding Human Behavior: Groups Phase 5, Individual Project Professor Gaylynn . Moore-Collins Colorado Technical University August 13, 2012 According to essay, Ashley Crossman, “Sociology of study essays sports , also referred to as sports sociology, is the study of the relationship between sports and society. It examines how culture and values influence sports , how sports influences culture and values , and the relationship between sports and media, politics. Baseball , History of sport , Major League Baseball 1904 Words | 6 Pages. Brittany Blue P-333 9.12.2011 Major Factors Affecting the History of Sport The effect of sports on today’s world, . particularly in the United States, is and juliet minor characters essay indeed profound. The history of sport has the potential to thesis vocabulary, teach us a great deal about romeo and juliet essay, social changes and the nature of sport itself. Over the past twenty-five years or so, the admissions, field of history has expanded, embracing a broader view of historical topics and going far beyond political and military history in refiguring the historical paths of.
20th century , American Civil War , Civil war 1148 Words | 4 Pages.
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cixous essay By Verena Andermatt Conley* Hélène Cixous was born on June 5, 1937, in Oran, Algeria. Romeo And Juliet Minor Essay. In the colonial environment where she grew up, Cixous was in the minority. English. Her father, a doctor of French-colonial but Jewish origin, died when she was still a little girl. This event marked all of romeo and juliet minor her writing. Her mother, Eve, now living in Paris, was of Austro-German origin, and German, rather than French, is english vocabulary, Cixous's native tongue.
Cixous continues to insist that for romeo and juliet her, German is a richer, more guttural language than the more abstract idiom of French. Members of papers on natural her family were Sephardic Jews, and she lived through the persecutions of World War II. Subsequently, Cixous never lost her desire to fight the encroachment of power in all of its forms upon the human body and the human mind. She felt the need to break out of the world in which she was born and look for other worlds or realities less marked by the horrors of the political events of her childhood. Romeo And Juliet Minor Characters. She found these worlds in fiction. Sensitive to power at institutional levels--familial, academic, political--she has striven to find out where, historically, such repression occurs and how exclusions are articulated. In addition to reading myths and the German romantics, such as Heinrich von Kleist, Cixous began to study English literature, especially Shakespeare, whose passionate and diverse writings held much attraction.
Antony and Cleopatra and The Tempest , with their scenes of transformations between man and woman, father and daughter, marked her. Cixous went to study in essays France and began her career as an academic. In 1959, at minor essay, the age of twenty-two, she passed the prestigious agrégation in English. She married and had two children, a daughter and a son, born in 1959 and 1962. In 1962 she became assistante at the Université de Bordeaux. In 1965 she and her husband were divorced and and counsels civil Cixous moved from Bordeaux to Paris.
She was maître assistante at the Sorbonne from 1965 to 1967 and romeo and juliet minor characters was appointed maître de conférences at Nanterre in 1967. Also in 1967 she published her first text, Le Prénom de Dieu (God's First Name). In 1968 she became docteur ès lettres . She was appointed chargé de mission to found the experimental Université de Paris VIII-Vincennes, now at Saint Denis, in the aftermath of the study bar exam, student riots of May 1968. An alternative to the traditional and, in the view of romeo characters many, repressive French academic environment, Paris VIII was to of marijuana persuasive be a center of learning where power structures and hierarchies would be kept to a minimum. Romeo. The new university soon distinguished itself through the exceptionally high quality of its faculty. Since 1968 Cixous has been professor of English literature at Paris VIII. There, in 1974, she founded the Centre de Recherches en Etudes Féminines, which she is still chairing. In 1969, Cixous founded with Tzvetan Todorov and english Gérard Genette the and juliet, experimental review Poétique , which soon became a forum for new ways of reading texts on both sides of the Atlantic.
As a university professor, Cixous published her thesis, L'Exil de James Joyce ou 1' art du remplacement (1968; translated as The Exile of James Joyce , 1972). Also in and counsels 1969, Cixous published her novel Dedans (Inside, 1986), for which she was awarded the prestigious Prix Médicis. Romeo And Juliet Minor. Since then she has published close to fifty novels and plays and some more theoretical essays like La Jeune Née (1975; translated as The Newly Born Woman , 1986), the best known of Cixous's texts to date in the United States. Cixous continues to be the champion of freedom in her writings. Admissions. The causes she espouses vary. Romeo And Juliet Minor Characters. From a need for personal liberation through a reading of psychoanalysis, she moves on to more collective struggles, the essays civil and moral, woman's cause, an characters essay, interest in the Third World (expressed in her interest in Clarice Lispector and Nelson Mandela and in her plays on Cambodia or India), the German and Russian death camps (through Paul Celan, Ossip Mandelstam, Marina Tsvetayeva, Anna Akhmatova). Her involvement in these causes is paralleled by other textual and personal encounters: the philosophical texts of Jacques Derrida help her develop her own textual readings; her encounters with Antoinette Fouque, one of the most prominent figures in the women's movement in France, a psychoanalyst and founder of the French publishing house Des Femmes, who, for political reasons, never wrote a work of her own; Ariane Mnouchkine, the director of the experimental Théâtre du Soleil with whom Cixous has been collaborating for the past decade. Cixous conceives of civil her life as a constant search for new ways of romeo and juliet minor essay emancipating the self and others, along with an ongoing discovery of the mystery of life.
The themes of her work are therefore intricately linked to her meditations and cannot simply be abstracted. What sets Cixous apart from many of her contemporaries is her insistence on, and celebration of, life rather than death. Cixous's work does not deal with themes in any standard sense of the term. Theme, for papers disasters her always between quotation marks, deals with ways of inscribing life or death and with articulating the two. Her privileging of and juliet life is accompanied by a growing insistence on the fictional and thank you teacher's essay the poetic. The poetic for characters her, though distinct from the fictional or from theater is not limited to verse. It deals with deliverance from social stigmas through a freeing of language, through invention of new ways of speaking and writing, as well as other ways of seeing, hearing, touching, and thesis tasting. It is always her relationship with the other, with otherness, that allows for an opening. A transformation of the dynamics of self and other constitutes the political dimension underlying all of her writing. Minor. That transformation follows a general shift, in her words, from the scene of the unconscious to that of history, or from the autobiographical write yourself! to theater dealing with history. This shift in legalization of marijuana persuasive Cixous's work is similar to that taking place on the French intellectual scene over the last twenty years or so.
Cixous's trajectory, a combination of a fight for life and a meditation on writing, leads her through various causes: the romeo characters, freeing of the self under the impact of psychoanalysis, the freeing of women, legal injustice in France around the trial of the Jewish immigrant Pierre Goldman, the cause of the Third World, the essay, exposure of torture in the death camps. As a young professor of English, Hélène Cixous published articles on English literature in Tel Quel and wrote her thesis on James Joyce. Cixous never hid her ambivalence toward Joyce. And Juliet Minor Essay. On the one hand, she was interested in his techniques, his belief that transformations of linguistic structures would alter mental structures, and his awareness of thesis vocabulary ideological and political manipulations through language. On the other, she always marked her distance from a writing caught up in guilt and minor the anguish of paradox. Though Joyce influenced her work through his insistence on the necessity to create new languages, on musicalizing literature and joining body and spirit, she criticized him for his creative paradox: for Joyce, one must lose in order to have. In other words, one must kill in order to live, and the movement to life starts with a killing of the other, with death and with guilt. This concept differs significantly from Cixous's recognition that even though loss and death are inevitable and indeed necessary for life, the emphasis must be on life. Cixous's first fictional texts, Dedans (1969), and especially her trilogy, Le Troisième Corps , Les Commencements , and Neutre (The Third Body, Beginnings, and Neuter), published from 1970 to study essays bar exam 1972, mark a period of great hope.
In the aftermath of May 1968, everything seemed possible. Writing under the sign of Marx and Freud or of political and libidinal economies, Cixous questions power structures and advocates a freeing of self and -- or through -- writing. Written at a time when the euphoria of romeo and juliet new discoveries outweighed theoretical divergences, these texts combine many incompatible theories. The freeing of the subject and the undoing of repression go along with a reevaluation of what has been repressed: body, woman, writing. Dialogue among different voices, and, in the form of intertextual references, with other writings, replaces the monologue of bar exam authorial control to keep the text open.
In Le Troisième Corps , for example, the voice of the lover echoes that of other fictional lovers, especially those of Kleist's Jeronimo and and juliet minor characters essay the count F. from Das Erdbeben in Chili (The Earthquake in Chile) and papers disasters Die Marquise von O (The Marquise of O), respectively. Freud's rewriting of Wilhelm Jensen's Gradiva , a love story dealing with fetishism, entombment, entrapment, and and juliet characters essay life and death in the archeological setting of Pompeii, examining passion in research papers on natural disasters its relation to life and death, also haunts Cixous's text. Cixous's political and ideological commitments made her take a stand in the 1970s on a trial that polarized the French, that of Pierre Goldman, accused, without sufficient evidence, of and juliet characters murder. Cixous, like Foucault and others, wrote in his defense. Un K. Ucla Admissions. incompréhensible: Pierre Goldman (An Incomprehensible Kase: Pierre Goldman, 1975), the letter K playing on echoes from Kafka's Der Prozess (The Trial) and and juliet Vor dem Gesetz (Before the Law), is a violent outcry against prejudice in the French legal system. Her stance against repression and social injustice, which she sees as one with the research, death drive, led Cixous to espouse the romeo characters essay, cause of legalization persuasive women. In her theoretical Prénoms de personne (Nobody's Name, 1974), a collection of essays on Freud, Hoffmann, Kleist, Poe, and and juliet minor characters essay Joyce, she deals with the association of the unified (phallic) subject, narcissism and death. Ucla. She denounces in her readings of Poe and Joyce the attempt to put woman on the side of death. She shows how these writers' dialectical structures enclose women in a limited economy and an exchange dominated by a desire for death. To this, she opposes a general economy, a term that Georges Bataille, the contemporary French writer and philosopher, popularized via his works on anthropology and psychoanalysis. Cixous proposes an economy of the gift, related to spending and loss.
Because for romeo and juliet characters essay Cixous and persuasive other contemporary theoreticians the subject exists only in a differential relationship with other subjects, the insistence is on modes of exchange. Exchange, thought of in essay terms of giving and receiving, plays a crucial role in the woman question. How does one give, how does one receive? What, in such an research papers on natural, exchange, is the relationship to alterity and the other? How does exchange affect language and writing? Like many contemporary writers and thinkers, Cixous believes that there is no possible social change -- one with new ways of and juliet characters essay exchanging -- without linguistic change.
Emphasis on new ways of exchanging and an affirmation of life function as the most important concerns of La Jeune Née (1975), by research papers disasters, Cixous and Catherine Clément. The title La Jeune Née plays on Là-je-nais , there I am being born, and romeo minor La Genet , a reference to papers disasters the writer Jean Genet, whose poetic writings insist on the general equality of all human beings. In La Jeune Née , Cixous insists on the necessity of displacing the desire for recognition, always based on sexual war, which ends, symbolically, with the succumbing of one of the partners. To this, she opposes a desire for alterity, by which, through a journeying toward the other, through a process of identification without fusion, the self goes as far as possible toward the other, lets herself be altered by and juliet characters, the other, yet does not become the other. This desire keeps the other alive. To bring about essays civil and moral, change, Cixous urges women to break their silence, to write themselves. They must write their bodies, their desires, which heretofore have only been talked about by men. Freud's Dora is romeo characters essay, a central concern in La Jeune Née . Dora's no, which terminates prematurely and on her own volition her sessions with Freud, leaves the latter despondent and defensive. Dora's no stops momentarily the familial merry-go-round of english vocabulary lies and adultery. It also strips Freud of romeo minor characters his authority. Yet, and this is clear, Dora's no represents only a strategic moment in a historical configuration, a moment which must be exceeded.
Dora is a major preoccupation in Portrait du soleil (Portrait of the Sun, 1974) and in a play, Portrait de Dora , performed at the Théâtre d'Orsay in 1975, published in 1976, and translated in 1977. It puts Freud on stage to show the analyst's own projections in his treatment of Dora and his writings on her. Feminine pleasure, which has been denied to women and confiscated by men, is a preoccupation of such texts as La Missexualité, où jouis-je? (The Missexual, Where Am I Having Pleasure?), published in Poétique in 1976, and La Venue à l'écriture (Her Arrival in Writing, 1977; translated 1990), written in collaboration with Annie Leclerc and Madeleine Gagnon. In the latter, playing on la venue , she who has come, and l'avenue , the path, Cixous traces the origin of women's writing to the mother's voice and body. In Souffles (Breath, 1975) --the title evokes breath, inspiration, rhythm--Cixous proposes to analyze the of marijuana, origin of writing in terms of a mother/daughter relationship. Men have made women into hysterics; they have vitiated the romeo minor, relationships between women, especially between mother and daughter. Cixous insists on the origin of writing as song, as something that comes from the body. Souffles insists on the necessity of essays and counsels civil and moral rewriting mythology, the Bible, and literary history from a feminine point of view.
Cixous's personal difficulties contributed to the 1977 text Angst , which deals with the breakdown of a love relationship. Characters Essay. The pain and study bar exam anguish are not expressed in existential, representational terms, but in a metaphoric exchange of letters. The text, as always one of transformation, led Cixous to and juliet minor characters another phase in her consideration of women's issues. For the next few years Cixous espoused the cause of women in a more militant language, and her work appeared almost exclusively under the imprint of the publishing house Des Femmes, where Cixous enjoyed a close association with Antoinette Fouque, founder of a controversial but influential political group within the women's movement called Politique et Psychanalyse (Psych et po). Research. She explained her decision to espouse the woman's cause in more militant fashion in romeo and juliet minor essay an interview (published in Verena Andermatt Conley, Hélène Cixous: Writing the Feminine , 1984 and 1990) as reflecting her having attained an intellectual limit which, she felt, had to essays be surpassed. Consequently she developed a more marked interest in relationships among women, because, as she says, any liberation of women has to come from women, though men are never completely absent in her writing. Cixous's work from this period intersects with both Derrida's essay on Kant, Economimesis, in Mimesis désarticulation (1975) and Jean-François Lyotard's Economie libidinale (1974). The attributes masculine and feminine will eventually be replaced by other descriptive terms which make no reference to sexual difference, she believes. Romeo And Juliet Minor Essay. In this time of transition, Cixous clearly privileges women, capable, in thank you teacher's her terms, of giving. She redefines the maternal.
The daughter is minor characters essay, always in tune with the mother. The woman gives because she nourishes the child. Because she is able to contain the child, the mother is both container and contained; her relationship to otherness is different from that of men, to whom things happen from the outside. In her works from the late l970s and admissions essays early 1980s, influenced by her reading of Heidegger on poetry and language, Cixous asks and works through questions of knowledge, innocence, the law, life, and death in Préparatifs de noces au-dela de l'abîme (Wedding Preparations Beyond the Abyss, 1978), Anankè (1979), Illa (1980), With ou l'art de l'innocence (With or the romeo and juliet characters essay, Art of Innocence, 1981), and research on natural disasters Limonade tout était si infini (Lemonade All Was So Infinite, 1982). Her militancy has taken a different turn. Less concerned with flight, flow, and abundance, she now meditates on romeo and juliet characters, the sublime and develops the notion of the infinitely small. In the 1970s Cixous also discovered the Brazilian author Clarice Lispector. Meditating on the relationship between life and writing, Lispector put emphasis on the flowing quality of the ucla admissions essays, word and on the origin of--or, as Cixous says, the arrival in--language and writing. In a sense, she had already put into practice what Cixous had been seeking. Cixous's article in Poétique , L'Approche de Clarice Lispector, appeared in 1979, the same year as the bilingual text Vivre l'orange/To Live the and juliet essay, Orange , which insists on sweet nourishing juices and on the necessity of thank you teacher's essay keeping the other alive.
In this work, the orange is closely related to the child and birth, to life, as well as to that other paradisiacal fruit, the apple, read simultaneously in English and French as fruit and calling, as apple and minor characters appel . Orange, as noun and adjective, as fruit and color, functions as a locus of correspondences of essays and counsels civil sight, touch, smell, taste, affecting reading and writing. A break with Antoinette Fouque in the early 1980s prompted Cixous to leave Des Femmes temporarily. Her relationship with the publishing house had been increasingly strained. Cixous claims that she resented the romeo, limits a certain militancy imposed on her freedom. Another text, Le Livre de Promethea ( The Book of Promethea or Promethea's Book , 1983; translated 1990), written after her encounter with Ariane Mnouchkine, the director of the experimental Théâtre du Soleil, marks a turn. The book is a celebration of their encounter and a feminine rewriting of the Promethean myth, which, along with the myths of Orpheus and Ulysses, has figured prominently in legalization essay literature. Le Livre de Promethea marks the culmination of romeo a search for a positive passion, for thesis vocabulary a positive love and romeo and juliet minor a language that touches lightly, intermittently, without seizing or appropriating, but infusing with life. The Promethean myth, from its epic dimensions of freeing the world and mankind, is transposed to quotidian passion, to detail, to a market scene, to fruits and essays and counsels and moral flowers. Cixous's encounter with Mnouchkine proved decisive. Mnouchkine was known for romeo her innovative productions of Shakespeare, linking the Elizabethan stage with Far Eastern techniques.
The collaboration also marks in Cixous's production a shift toward what she calls the english thesis, scene of history. With Mnouchkine, Cixous traveled to Cambodia to study a group of people that had been disinherited by minor characters essay, their neighbors. Cixous's and Mnouchkine's play L'histoire terrible mais inachevée de Norodom Sihanouk roi du Cambodge (The Terrible but Unfinished Story of Norodom Sihanouk, King of Cambodia), performed in 1984, is the story of a people that had lived in study happiness and who paid for their innocence with their lives. And Juliet Minor Essay. Always haunted by research on natural disasters, the notion of paradise, Cixous found in Cambodia the remnants of a people who had lived according to these ethics. Such an overtly political play is a continuation of minor essay Cixous's fight against all forms of bodily and essays spiritual repression. The play is infused with a contemporary reading of the concept of and juliet minor characters essay freedom which, for Cixous, is linked to poetry and writing. L'Indiade ou l'lnde de leurs rêves (The Indiad or India of Their Dreams), a play produced in 1986, deals with problems of colonialism, the liberation of India, and nonviolence.
Today, Cixous's major impact may be said to be on the stage, and a new play, Akhmatova (1990), about the Russian poetess Anna Akhmatova, who was caught in the Revolution, develops further in the direction of theater. A script written for a televised film directed by Mnouchkine, La Nuit miraculeuse (The Miraculous Night, 1989), about the papers disasters, heritage of 1789, adds a new twist, that is, an romeo minor, opening to the world of cinema and television. Cixous's historical and research on natural political contributions, possibly under the influence of Ariane Mnouchkine, are now her most compelling. Yet, she herself is more at ease in, and derives more pleasure from, the romeo and juliet minor, writing of fiction. La Bataille d'Arcachon (The Battle of Arcachon, 1987) extends her experiments with new ways of writing about love, of research papers on natural disasters linking absence and presence, self and other. She also produced Entre l'écriture (Between Writing, or Enter Writing, 1986), a collection of new and previously published meditations on writing and painting. She has also focused on the relationship between writing and history in her lyrical account Manne (Manna, 1988), a tribute to Ossip Mandelstam, the Jewish Russian poet who died under the Stalinist regime, and the poet and fighter against apartheid, Nelson Mandela. A recently published work, Jours de l'an (Days of the Year, 1990), returns to a meditation on authorship, on the relation between author and writing, something dear to and juliet minor characters Cixous but that seems less pressing today than other more political issues raised in thesis her plays. SURVEY OF CRITICISM. In French, Claudine Fisher's La Cosmogonie d'Hélène Cixous is a painstaking and possibly the most complete explication to romeo and juliet minor essay date of on natural disasters many of Cixous's writings. Another volume entirely devoted to Cixous consists of the proceedings of a conference organized in her name at the Utrecht Summer School of Critical Theory, entitled Hélène Cixous, chemins d'une écriture . Articles have appeared in many reviews, such as Critique and Poétique . And Juliet Minor Essay. Among the best is persuasive essay outline, Lucette Finas's Le Pourpre du neutre, reprinted in romeo minor her Le Bruit d'Iris . Christiane Makward, in Structures du silence ou délire: Marguerite Duras, Hélène Cixous, performs a Lacanian reading in an analysis of the study, two women writers.
It appears that it is in Great Britain and in the United States that Cixous's work has attracted the most critical attention, especially around issues of feminism. In Great Britain, the chapter in romeo essay Toril Moi's Sexual/Textual Politics entitled Cixous: An Imaginary Utopia tries to take Cixous to task for being essentialist and for not tying her writing to a precise political and social context. A recent article by Morag Sihach, Their 'Symbolic' exists, it holds power--we, the essays, sowers of disorder, know it only too well, in Between Feminism and Psychoanalysis , rehabilitates Cixous. Though Sihach mainly concentrates on minor characters, La Jeune Née , she extends her article to Cixous's more recent plays. Writing Differences , edited by Susan Sellers, consists of articles by Cixous and her students. It illustrates how students can read in Cixous's way.
The proceedings of a British conference organized around Hélène Cixous in Liverpool in of marijuana persuasive essay outline 1989 have been published under the title The Body and the Text: Hélène Cixous Reading and Teaching (1990). Characters Essay. The volume includes many sympathetic articles on study, and around Cixous. In the United States, chapters have appeared in works such as Jane Gallop's The Daughter's Seduction ; Dina Sherzer's Postmodernist Feminist Fiction, in her Representation in Contemporary French Fiction ; and and juliet Domna C. Stanton's, Language and Revolution: The Franco-American Disconnection, in bar exam The Future of romeo and juliet minor characters Difference . My own study, Hélène Cixous: Writing the Feminine , presents Cixous to American readers. Admissions Essays. For a more critical overview that historicizes Cixous without being antagonistic, see my introductions to Cixous's Reading with Clarice Lispector and romeo and juliet minor characters essay Readings . * Excerpted from and moral Sartori, Eva, and Dorothy Zimmerman, Editors. French Women Writers: A Bio-Bibliographical Source Book . New York: Greenwood Press, 1991, 66-73.
The bibliography has not been included.