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Revising essays checklist

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Libertarian paternalism is an oxymoron: an essay in defence of liberty. Sunstein and Thaler’s proposal for ‘libertarian paternalism’ in their paper titled “Libertarian Paternalism is not an Oxymoron” (LPNO from revising checklist here on) is based on the contention that paternalism is sometimes (1) inevitable and (2) non coercive, and (3) that individuals do not always make ‘rational’ decisions. The first two contentions are untrue, and the question of sample, whether individuals make ‘rational’ decisions as judged by revising essays checklist, the axiomatic definition of neo-classical economic theory is vestigial to writing proposal for master s thesis, the ideas and policy prescriptions of classical liberal and libertarian political economy. The paper, fraught with definitional confusions and methodological difficulties, is a superior example of how correct empirical observations and laudable advancements in identifying cognitive characteristics that may be relevant to economic analysis can lead to unsound theories due to methodological deficiencies. Policy prescriptions in the long run must take an institutional form; the greatest deception of the paper lies in its omission of any discussion on revising essays, such an resume cover institution, which, I believe by logical necessity would be a Platonist autocratic bureaucracy. A consistent application of revising essays checklist, libertarian paternalism is the ‘road to serfdom’.

What is wrong with the discipline that is nowadays taught in most universities under the misleading label of economics…is their [teachers and authors] ignorance of economics and with their inability to think logically. - Ludwig von Mises. The Ultimate Foundations of antithesis rar, Economic Science, 1962, p. 78. This paper is a critique of the paper titled “Libertarian Paternalism is not an Oxymoron” (LPNO) by revising essays checklist, Sunstein and Thaler. ! To that end, it compiles and develops libertarian arguments in defence of an anti-paternalistic position. There are five sections. Section I discusses the logical consequences of definitional deficiencies in LPNO, proving that paternalism can never be ‘non coercive’ or ‘inevitable’.

Section 2 analyses the core of the LPNO argument that people are not always ‘rational’ and essays, thus some paternalism is necessary. Adam Smith, Frederic Bastiat, Ludvig von Mises, and F. A. Hayek never assumed that individuals are always ‘rational’. In fact, the neoclassical axiomatic definition of rationality is both shallow and unrealistic; more importantly, no such assumption is necessary to defend a libertarian position. Section 3 highlights the inappropriateness of the empirical methodology of papering, LPNO, particularly when it comes to understanding the concept of liberty as intended by classical liberal and checklist, libertarian scholars. Section 4 discusses how the idea of libertarian paternalism led by a ‘utilitarian-rationalist approach’ would thwart spontaneous order, which is based on the ‘rule-following’ nature of man. Finally, Section 5 develops the institutions necessary for a complete, thorough and consistent implementation of libertarian paternalism. I believe that such an application of the idea propounded in LPNO necessitates a Platonist autocratic bureaucracy. 2 Libertarianism: the individual and voluntary association. The common force that protects this collective right cannot logically have any other purpose or any other mission than that for which it acts as a substitute. Thus, since an individual cannot lawfully use force against origin antithesis rar the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the common force – for the same reason – cannot lawfully be used to essays checklist, destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups (1998, p. 2). We are emphasizing, then, the possibilities that people’s preference, in antithesis certain domains and checklist, across a certain range, are influenced by the choices made by planners.

The point applies to both private and public actors (Sunstein and Thaler 2003 , p. 1164). They equate ‘private’ and essays for primary children, ‘public’ actors—both are called ‘planners’. However, the very idea of liberty rests on revising essays, the conceptual difference between ‘coercion’ and ‘voluntary association’, therefore between ‘government’ (except when its acts to protect lives and private property) and ‘private’ actors. 3. LPNO’s cafeteria example is illustrative. Rar! It is argued that the order in which a cafeteria owner arranges ‘healthy’ and ‘junk’ foods influences consumer choices, and revising essays, regardless of whether she places healthy food first or the other way round she acts ‘paternalistically’. “While some libertarians will happily accept this point for private institutions they will object to government efforts to influence choice in the name of papering research, welfare” (Sunstein and revising essays checklist, Thaler 2003 , p. 1164). Libertarians will object to the authors’ point regardless of _мЌО†»,", whether the cafeteria is private or public. When the cafeteria is private, the objection is not that the owner’s choice does not influence consumers but that such an influence is not ‘paternalistic’. Whereas when the cafeteria is public the objection is to in english for primary school children, its very existence. The authors seem to revising checklist, think that libertarianism entails individuals making choices for themselves and that other individuals do not influence these choices in any way.

Nothing can be further from the truth. Libertarian principles are necessary for individuals to cooperate and rar, hence influence each other through spontaneous order (discussed later). The matter in contention is the nature of influence: voluntary or coercive. But government, no less than cafeterias (which government frequently run), have to provide starting points of one or another kind; this is not avoidable. As we shall emphasize, they do so every day through the rules of revising essays checklist, contract and tort, in a way that inevitably affects some preferences and choices.

In this respect, the anti-paternalist position is unhelpful – a literal non starter ( 2003 , p. 1165). It is indeed true that government provision of s thesis, contract and torts laws affect individual choices. But the question is what kind of choices? Tort laws are meant to protect the lives and properties of individuals against damages typically caused by the negligent actions of other individuals. Contract laws are meant to protect the lives and checklist, properties of individuals against damages that may be caused by a breach of promise by other individuals. Thus both tort and contract laws are meant to influence individual choices such that the action of one individual does not ‘coercively’ damage the origin antithesis, life and property of others. It is not that government action should not influence individual choices; on essays, the contrary, the discussion on ‘nature of laws’ by liberal or libertarian philosophers like Smith, 4 Bastiat 5 and Hayek 6 is a reflection of their concern for the ‘nature of choices’ that the law should influence. Whether he is free or not does not depend on the range of choice but on whether he can expect to shape his course of action in accordance with his present intentions, or whether somebody else has the power so to manipulate the conditions as to make him act according to that person’s will rather than his own ( 1960 , p. 13). Often what may seem to be ‘non-coercive’ paternalism is merely our inability to identify the element of coercion. 7 Sunstein and Thaler’s example of organ donation is illustrative. In some countries like Denmark, individuals are assumed to have consented to donate their organs after death unless they explicitly state otherwise.

Whereas in other countries, like the USA, the default law is the opposite. The authors make two inferences. One, the greater number of donations in Denmark (as compared to the USA) is largely due to differences in the default rules, therefore Denmark’s default rule is superior. Two, this is an example of non-coercive paternalism as individuals can choose to opt out of the default rule. The first point is empirically true. However, the origin rar, second is erroneous. Revising Essays Checklist! The governments of Denmark and _мЌО†»,", Sweden, or for that matter any government, choose a default rule for organ donations because of a ban on the ‘market for organs’. If there were such a market it is quite plausible that individuals would voluntarily sell their organs in futures markets. It is the coercive action of government to make illegal voluntary cooperation that creates the essays checklist, need for government choice. Coercion comes first, the necessity for government action is only a consequence.

Sunstein and _мЌО†»,", Thaler begin their analysis from this consequence, ignoring the revising essays checklist, root cause of the problem. Almost all people, almost all of the time, make choices that are in their best interest or at the very least are better, by their own lights, than the choices that would be made by third parties. This claim is either tautological, and therefore uninteresting, or testable. We claim that it is testable and cover letter, false ( 2003 , p. 1163). The empirical claim that people’s behaviour systematically deviates from the ‘axiomatic’ 8 definition of revising, rationality is well documented. However, the axiomatic definition of rationality is itself entirely unimportant to the so called ‘anti-paternalist’ position. 9 On the essays checklist, contrary, the axiomatic definition of rationality makes it impossible to accommodate some of those features of in english school children, human beings which are essential to develop an explanatory theory of the production of wealth in society. Revising Essays Checklist! The axiomatic approach was adopted not because of its economic meaningfulness, but because it allows the construction of utility frontiers, making economics malleable to _мЌО†»,", mathematical methods. 10 In fact, the very idea of revising essays checklist, utility function is incorrect as there exists no one-to-one relation between ‘goods’ and ‘states of mind’ or ‘phenomenal order’ (a term used by Hayek ( 1952 ) in proposal s thesis Sensory Order ). In fact, Ludwig von Mises constructs the edifice of his economic theory with the self-proving axiom ‘men act’ and without any rationality assumptions. 11 He thought their ‘rational action’ to be redundant 12 and that anyone who says his fellowmen act ‘irrationally’ is merely making a value judgment.

Adam Smith, Frederic Bastiat, 13 Ludwig von Mises, and F A Hayek, 14 some of the most distinguished proponents of liberty, do not think of men as ‘perfect calculating pleasure machines’, such an assumption was entirely unnecessary (perhaps even problematic) for the logical construction of their philosophical ideas. The special feature of rights-based choices is that some value is being attributed to the procedures by which choices are made; what matters is not only (or perhaps even not at all) that the outcomes of choices are good, but that these choices should have been made in a good or just way (Sugden, 1985 , p. Essays! 181). In employing the empiricist-welfarist approach it may be necessary to all purpose resume, assume the non-existence of process value in order to focus solely on analysing ‘outcomes’. However, LPNO makes no mention of any such assumption and proceeds to prescribe policy sans caveats. One is reminded of Lakatos’s warning that “An ‘impressive’, ‘sweeping’, ‘far-reaching’ external explanation is usually the hallmark of a relatively weak methodological substructure…” ( 1970 , p. 119) Two, the empiricist approach is inherently flawed because it systematically underestimates the value of liberty since it cannot foresee the unintended consequences of paternalism. In a society with dispersed knowledge, entrepreneurial reactions to essays checklist, paternalistic interventions are unforeseeable. Milton Friedman ( 2006 ) in an interview with Russ Roberts (on explains how in the USA (V, since you’ve used this acronym earlier do not give full form here) a ban on cocaine resulted in the creation of papering research, crack, a far more lethal substance.

Entrepreneurs processed cocaine to revising essays checklist, produce the more potent crack as it was less bulky and hence could be transported more easily through police check points. This is merely an example. More fundamentally, the welfarist approach ignores the idea of spontaneous order discussed in the next section. 5 Knowledge and spontaneous order. Sunstein ( 2004 ), in his response to an insightful critique of LPNO by research, Klein ( 2004 ), claims that the revising essays, case for libertarian paternalism “is strengthened, not undermined, by the suggestion from for master s thesis Hayek … that people are not perfect calculating machines” (p. 273). This is a fundamental misunderstanding.

Hayek, like Marx, constructs an ideology—a consistent set of principles. 17 Each principle is deduced from certain basic definitions and is supported by insightful observations. To employ a few observations or principles out of context is methodologically incorrect; for each observation may be employed to revising checklist, develop a diametrically opposed principle, and papering research, each principle to develop a diametrically opposed ideology. The vital and novel contribution of Hayek does not consist in individual observations or individual principles, but in the way he logically combines these to build the edifice of ideology. In Hayek’s view behaviour lies between ‘instinct and checklist, reason’; man is a ‘rule-following’ animal not a ‘Cartesian-rationalist’. 18 And this rule-following nature is essential for the preservation, evolution and origin antithesis rar, development of checklist, spontaneous order. Papering! If Sunstein’s assertion regarding Hayek is to revising essays checklist, hold true then libertarian paternalism must be compatible with spontaneous order, because it is in the context of spontaneous order that Hayek emphasises the role of proposal for master, cognitive characteristics in decision making. Revising Essays Checklist! On the contrary, a consistent application of libertarian paternalism would thwart spontaneous order. The rule-following nature of man which lies ‘between instinct and reason’ is a necessary condition for the very existence of revising checklist, a society based on the exchange of specialised ‘pockets’ of knowledge.

The reason why I do not steal from a road-side vendor in _мЌО†»," a bustling market is not that I ‘rationally’ estimate that the cost of the checklist, action would exceed its benefits; on the contrary I make no such calculation. My decision not to steal lies between ‘instinct’ and ‘reason’, and is influenced by a variety of cultural elements, like thou shall not steal , that have evolved over essays in english, time. For the same reason my neighbor does not break into my house when I leave for college in revising the morning. In fact, the only individuals who do such a cost-benefit analysis are people we typically refer to , as ‘criminals’. Living as members of society and dependent for the satisfaction of most of our needs on various forms of co-operation with others, we depend for the effective pursuit of our aims clearly on correspondence of essays, expectations concerning the actions of other on which our plans are based with what they really do (Hayek, 1960 , p. 36). This does not mean, however, that all individual expectations are met. ! In fact some individual expectations may not be met in a spontaneous order. Clearly, the expectation of firms manufacturing typewriters were thwarted upon the invention of the personal computer. This is a subtle yet vital point. Individual expectations with respect to the specific content of the actions of other individuals may or may not be met in a spontaneous order.

However, individual expectations with respect to essays, the ‘nature’ of the actions of other individuals have to be met for the preservation of spontaneous order. And by nature of , actions I mean actions that abide by the laws of checklist, private property, torts and for primary, contract. But this freedom does not make us lawless. We are taught to respect the revising essays checklist, magistrates and the laws, and never to forget that we must protect the injured. And we are also taught to observe those unwritten laws whose sanction lies only in the universal feeling of papering research, what is right (italics added, Popper, 1945 , p. 163). If the , desire to make reasons as effective as possible is what is mean by school, rationalism, I am myself a rationalist. If, however, the term means that conscious reason ought to determine every particular action , I am not a rationalist, and such rationalist seems to me to be very unreasonable (Italics added, Hayek, 1973 , p. 29). If each singular decision were to be optimised in the cost-benefit sense then resulting order 21 would be chaotic, analogous to Brownian motion. In the same way that sole factors determining the revising essays checklist, outcome of a collision between two molecules in Brownian motion are their respective velocities and the angle of collision, the outcome of any interaction between two individuals would be determined by _мЌО†»,", factors specific to the inter-temporal, inter-spatial cost-benefit analysis.

It is paradoxical that Hayek’s description of unintended and essays checklist, unforeseeable consequences has appeared to some to be a description of a chaotic system. Spontaneous order is very different from chaos; and it is only the systematic application of Cartesian rationalism that can lead to chaos. Microsoft also discovered that individuals discount large samples of statistical information. At one point, Microsoft started surveying users to see how many of sample, them found it easy to use a particular feature. Software developers often refused to believe the statistics. “The usability group would tell the development group ‘Six out of ten couldn’t do this.’ And the developer’s reaction would be, ‘Where’d you find six dumb people?’ In order to repair this tendency to ignore base rate information, Microsoft made the information more vivid. It built a usability test lab” where developers can watch real users struggle with new products from behind a one-way mirror. Instead of presenting developers with pallid statistics, the test lab presents them with real people (albeit a much smaller sample). The lab manager says that when developers see a user, twenty ideas just immediately come to mind. Revising Essays! First of all, you immediately empathize with the person.

The usual nonsense answer ‘Well, they can just look in the manual if they don’t know how to use it,’ or ‘My idea is brilliant; you just found ten stupid people’…that kind of stuff just goes out the door” (Cusumano and Selby, 1995, p. 379 as quoted in Heath et al., 1998 , p. 18). In short, empirical findings about how certain cognitive characteristics of all purpose resume cover, human begins may lead to revising essays, inoptimal outcomes in all purpose resume controlled environments cannot be easily extended to real environments within which individuals act. This is because some cognitive characteristics that appear as weaknesses in experimental settings might be useful in real environments that are essentially spontaneous orders, and also because not all cognitive characteristics that influence decisions in experimental settings will influence decisions in real environments due to cognitive repairs within organisations. Collect information on all choices made by all individuals in society. Subject these choices to empirical evaluation on whatever ‘welfare’ criteria may be defined by the planner. Identify the decisions that are not optimal. Develop paternalistic interventions that would alter the nature of the decisions made by the concerned individual. Evidently the mechanisms necessary for the systematic and consistent application of the idea developed in LPNO would involve mapping of all choices made by essays, all individuals and subjecting them to evaluation by the planner. Such planning is theoretically impossible, as established by Mises and Hayek in the ‘rational economic calculation in a socialist economy debate’.

The successful combination of knowledge and aptitude is not selected by common deliberation, by people seeking a solution to their problem in a joint effort; it is a product of individuals imitating those who have been more successful and from their being guided by signs or symbols, such as process offered for their products or expressions of moral or aesthetic esteem for having their observed standards of conduct - in short, of writing a research proposal, their using the results of the experiences of other (Hayek, 1979 , p. 28). Learning in spontaneous order is a process of discovery. “Every discovery contains ‘an irrational element’, or ‘a creative intuition’” (Popper 1959 , p. 32). Spontaneous order allows for individuals to make different choices, some of which prove to be ‘good’ others ‘bad’. In fact, some decisions and actions considered ‘good’ may prove ‘bad’ over essays checklist, time and , vice versa. Revising Essays! Divergence in individual choices and actions are necessary for the discovery process, which would certainly involve some individuals making incorrect choices. “Every action is a speculation, i.e. guided by a definite opinion concerning the uncertain condition of the future” (von Mises 1978 , p. 51).

It is impossible to conceive of a method of preventing ‘bad’ decisions yet preserving the process of papering research, learning; certainly libertarian paternalism is not such a method as it thwarts spontaneous order. In evaluating all decisions and actions based on certain pre-defined welfare notions, Sunstein and Thaler assume a certain primacy of the planner to know what is ‘good’; the planner is omnipotent and does not need to ‘learn’. It is impossible to conceive of any learning if all individuals are optimising on all decisions at all times, unless of course knowledge is provided by some supernatural powers. Humiliating to human pride as it may be, we must recognize that the advance and even preservation of origin, civilization are dependent upon a maximum opportunity for accidents to happen (Hayek, 1960 , p. 29). ‘Planning’ would clinically destroy ‘learning’. If individuals are aware that they will be ‘driven towards welfare promoting’ directions, then any investment of revising essays, time, money and intellect in resume letter decision-making will be regarded as futile. And in revising essays checklist so far as the process of learning has economies of scale, the irrelevance of the process to certain decisions (State regulated) would make it inefficient to be employed for the remaining decisions (unregulated). The most fundamental of individual liberties will one by one be submitted to the ‘influence’ of the all purpose resume, planner, 23 who will decide where junk food should be placed in a cafeteria: towards the end, in a dark corner 100 meters away or 10 km away. The criteria for determining the degree of constraints on liberty will be ‘whatever is necessary to achieve optimal choice’.

Also, if individuals sometimes make inoptimal decisions for themselves in the ‘private sphere’ then they are even more likely to make inoptimal decisions in the ‘public sphere’, i.e., electing the government (planners). James M. Buchanan ( 1954 ) in a paper titled “Individual Choice in Voting and Market” discusses the sources of deficiencies in the ‘process of electing planners’ as compared to the ‘process of choice in a market with monetary prices’. It logically follows from LPNO that decisions even in the ‘public sphere’ should be driven in welfare promoting directions. Therefore planners would decide on the mechanisms that are needed to influence or drive voting choices even in revising essays electing planners themselves! The very idea of democracy would become meaningless. The implementation of the so called ‘libertarian paternalism’ in its complete form requires the wholesale replacement of democracy by an autocratic bureaucracy, a totalitarian system! However, LPNO is not Marxist in any sense. In fact the Marxian idea of a ‘superstructure’ of law, rules and morals that develop over the ‘material modes of papering research, production’ to sustain the existing class structure is quite opposed to that of LPNO. A Marxian would never trust the ruling class of essays checklist, a capitalist society to influence the decisions of research, others in welfare promoting directions. The totalitarian nature of the LPNO system, however, is not novel; in fact it is much older than the Marxian system. It is Platonist 24 in every sense of the word.

The enlightened economists of revising essays checklist, AD 2000 replace the wise philosophers of 2000 BC in the Pantheon of _мЌО†»,", Rulers. Essays Checklist! Plato, like Sunstein and Thaler, envisaged a society where the “wise shall command and lead, and that the essays, ignorant shall follow” (Popper 1945 , p. 65). In Plato’s system, as in that of Sunstein and Thaler’s, there exists the concept of wise benevolence and the necessity of one group of revising essays checklist, people to lead another. However, Plato develops a theory where the central idea is to arrest 25 change in society in order to prevent its degeneration. Plato is indeed right in his idea that a totalitarian system would arrest change. German! However, Sunstein and Thaler do not admit the conclusion that their system would thwart spontaneous order and that an autocratic bureaucracy would replace learning with planning. They escape the revising checklist, Platonist conclusion of their proposed ideas by not attempting to a research proposal s thesis, develop them into a system, i.e., not developing the institutions necessary for the implementation of their idea. However, any idea in the long run must take an institutional form. In short, a consistent application of ‘libertarian paternalism’ is no more than the ‘road to resume, serfdom’! It is apt here to quote Popper’s insightful warning: “…if we wish our civilization to survive we must break with the habit of deference to great men.

Great men may make great mistakes” ( 1945 , p. vii). ‘Libertarian Paternalism’ is indeed an oxymoron. Essays! LPNO fallacies originate from the omission of any definitional discussion, thereby maintaining a mist of school children, confusion over the paper. However, a logically consistent and systematic analysis of the checklist, idea leads to the unveiling of the monster lurking within: an autocratic bureaucracy, a totalitarian system. This highlights once again Hayek’s contention that liberty must be defended as a ‘principle’.

According to LPNO this is the first of the two misconceptions on which the anti-paternalistic position is based. According to , LPNO this is the essays checklist, second of the two misconceptions on antithesis, which the anti-paternalistic position is based. The arguments of LPNO are relevant only with respect to the role of State or government planners, not to private actors. The concept of ‘libertarian pateranlism’ for a private actor is meaningless. The criterion for decision making in private orgnaisations is profit. The only papering, way to implement any of the recommendations of LPNO is for the State to regulate individual decisions directly or indirectly by regulating profit-making organisations. Of course, private organisations make use of advancements in behavorial economics while structuring the remuneration packages of their employees, schemes for shareholders, etc. However, their ultimate concern is profit, whereas that of LPNO is ‘optimality’; where the s thesis, two coincide there is no disagreement, where the two part ways, LPNO would recommend State regulation. It is in this sense that the papering research, argument in favor of ‘libertarian paternalism’ becomes meaningful. Hence our discussion is entirely focused on the ‘libertarian paternalistic’ role of the State.

I quote from Adam Smith’s Lectures on Jurisprudence (from Smith’s lecture notes of 1760 s): “…the right to free commerce, and the right to freedom in marriage, etc. when infringed are all evidently encroachments on essays, right one has to free use of his person and in a word to do what he has a mind when it does not prove detrimental to any other person ” (italics added, Smith 1978 , p. 8). Bastiat’s essay titled “Purpose of Law in Society” is entirely devoted to this matter. In the trilogy Law, Legislation and Liberty, Hayek discusses the categorical distinction between ‘taxis’ (order which is a result of revising essays, human design) and ‘komos’ (order which emerges spontaneously). No part of the aim of normal science is to call forth new sorts of phenomena; indeed those that will not fit the box are often not seen at all . Nor do scientists normally aim to invent new theories and they are often intolerant of those invented by letter, others. Instead, normal science research is directed to the articulation of those phenomena and theories that the paradigm already supplies (italics added, Khun 1970 , p. 24).

In mainstream microeconomic theory a rational consumer is one whose preferences are: Complete: Either Apple is preferred to Orange or Orange is preferred to Apple or she is indifferent between Apple and Orange. Consistent: If Apple is preferred to Orange then it cannot be that Orange is preferred to Apple. Essays Checklist! Transitive: If Apple is preferred to Orange and Orange is preferred to Banana then Apple is preferred to Banana. If minimal consistency really is a necessary condition of rationality, a whole tradition of origin antithesis rar, liberal thought must be grounded on logical error…when rights are involved, it maybe wrong to impose conventional consistency requirements on social choices (Sugden 1985 , p. 181). Yet some people suppose that other people—who are rarely ever indentified—actually believe the idea that man always chooses in his best interest. The canard probably arises from the journal-article practice among Neoclassical economists of essays, treating the human being as a mathematical apparatus (Klein 2004 , p. 264). First, it must be emphasized that whatever role ‘rationality’ may play in Professor Machlup’s theory, it plays no role whatever for Professor Mises.

Hutchison charges that Mises claims ‘all economic action was (or must be) rational. German Resume! This is flatly incorrect. Mises assumes nothing whatever about the all purpose cover letter, rationality of human action (in fact, Mises does not use the concept at all). He assumes nothing about the wisdom of essays checklist, man’s ends or about the correctness of writing a research for master s thesis, his means. He ‘assumes’ only that men act, that is, that they have some ends, and use some means to try to attain them. Revising Checklist! This is Mises’s Fundamental Axiom, and it is this axiom that gives the all purpose resume cover letter, whole praxeological structure of economic theory build upon it its absolute and essays checklist, apodictic certainty (Rothbard 1957 , p. ! 318). The starting point of our reasoning is not behaviour, but action, or, as it is redundantly designated, rational action (Mises 1960 , p. 23).

We are endowed with the faculty of all purpose cover, comparing, of judging, of choosing, and of acting accordingly. This implies that we can arrive at checklist a good or a bad judgment, make a good or a bad choice—a fact that is never idle to remind men of when we speak to them of liberty (Bastiat 1998 , p. 28). Hayek on liberty transcends the rationalistic fallacies which disfigure Mill’s liberalism and german sample, gives us a defense of individual freedom without equal in modern thought (Gray 1998 , p. Revising Checklist! x). How should sensible planners choose among possible systems, given that some choice is necessary? We suggest two approaches to _мЌО†»,", this problem. If feasible, a comparison of possible rules should be done using a form of cost-benefit analysis, one that pays serious attention to welfare effects…The goal of cost-benefit study would be to measure the full ramifications of any design choice (Sunstein and Thaler 2003 , p. Revising Checklist! 1190). It is also, for instance, Kant’s central practical doctrine (‘always recognize that human individuals are ends, and do not use them as mere means to your ends’). There is no other thought which has been so powerful in the moral development of man (Popper 1945 , p. All Purpose Resume Letter! 89).

Hayek’s work is to be viewed and understood as a whole. Though his work has developed over six decades and has crossed many disciplinary boundaries, it has throughout exemplified a distinctive conception of the powers of the mind and of the revising essays, character of human knowledge (Gray 1998 , p. 116). What is distinctive in Hayek’s Kantian ethics is his insight that the demands of justice need not be competitive with the claims of general welfare: rather, a framework of justice is an indispensable condition of the successful achievement of general welfare. This insight of revising, Hayek’s was indeed nourished by his study of Hume, who always saw clearly that the utility of the rules of justice depended on their not being liable to abridgement for the sake of an apparent gain in welfare (Gray 1998 , p. For Primary Children! 60). In social theory, Hayek’s devastating critique of revising checklist, Cartesian rationalism entails that, whatever else it might be, social order cannot be the resume letter, product of a directing intelligence (Gray 1998 , p. Checklist! 25). The spontaneous order arises from each element balancing all the various factors operating on a research proposal for master s thesis, it and by adjusting all its various actions to each other, a balance which will be destroyed if some of the actions are determined by another agency on the basis of different knowledge and in revising essays checklist the service of different ends (Hayek 1973 , p. 51).

By order we shall throughout describe a state of research, affairs in which a multiplicity of elements of various kinds are so related to each other that we may learn from out acquaintance with some spatial or temporal part of the whole to essays checklist, form correct expectations concerning the german resume, rest, or at least expectations which have a good chance of revising essays, proving correct (Hayek 1973 , p. 36). Learning is intricately linked to spontaneous order through Hayek’s conception of ‘phenomenal order’ expounded in the book «Sensory Order: An Inquiry into the Foundation of Theoretical Psychology» . Antithesis! Following are some quotes from the book: There exist now, in fact, at least two different orders in revising checklist which we arrange or classify the objects of the world around us: one is the order of our sense experiences in which events are classified according to their sensory properties such as colors, sounds, odors, feeling of touch, etc.; the , other is an order which includes both these same and other events but which them as similar or different according as, in conjunction with other events, they produce similar or different other external events (p. Revising Essays Checklist! 3). What we call ‘mind’ is thus a particular order of a set of events taking place in some organism and in some manner related to but not identical with, the physical order of events in the environment.

The problem which the existence of mental phenomena raises is therefore how in a part of the physical order (namely an organism) a sub-system can be formed which in some sense maybe said to _мЌО†»,", reflect some features of the physical order as a whole, and revising checklist, which thereby enables the organism which contains such partial reproduction of the environmental order to behave appropriately towards its surrounding environment (p. 16). “It would appear that not only are the events of the world, if defined in terms of papering research, their sensory attributes, not subject to invariable laws, so that situations presenting the same appearance to our sense may produce different results; but also that the phenomenal world it itself not constant but variable, and that it will in some measure change its appearance as a result of that very process of reclassification which we must perform in order to explain it (p. 174). If freedom were not treated as the supreme principal, the fact that the promises which a free society has to offer can always be only chances and not certainties, only revising essays, opportunities and _мЌО†»,", not definite gifts to particular individuals, would inevitably prove a fatal weakness and lead to its slow erosion (Hayek, p. 68). What Plato demands therefore, is the rule of revising essays checklist, learnedness—sophocracy, if I may say so (Popper, 1945 , 127). He (Plato) believes that the model original of his perfect state can be found in the distant past, in the dawn of history; for if the world decays in time, then we must find increasing perfection the further we go back into the past.

The perfect state is something like the essays checklist, first ancestor, the for master s thesis, primogenitor, of the later states, which are, as it were, the degenerate offspring of this perfect, or best, or ‘ideal’ state; an idea state which is not a mere phantasm, nor a dream, but which is in essays checklist stability more real indeed than all those decaying societies which are in flux, and writing a research proposal for master s thesis, liable to revising essays, pass away at any moment (Popper 1945 , p. 19). I wish to extend my sincere gratitude to papering research, Ms. Varuna Mohite for the much needed language editing. Essays! Many thanks to german sample, Prof. Elisabeth Krecke and Mr. Lucas Leger for having read and commented on an early draft of _мЌО†»,", this paper in May 2008. Essays! I was then an Erasmus Master in Law Economics student at University of Aix-Marseilles III.

Many of the ideas expressed in this paper were first introduced to me by Mr. Sauvik Chakraverti, to letter, whom I shall forever be indebted. Vipin P. Veetil 1 Email author 1. International PhD Program in Comparative Analysis of Institutions, Economics and Law Collegio Carlo Alberto Turin Italy. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to revising checklist, excelling on _мЌО†»," the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isn’t the point of the essay that you’re supposed to checklist, be using information from the passage in your answer, which you don’t know about ahead of time? The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the resume types of examples you choose to discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the author’s argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of revising checklist time. In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples you’ll be able to find in nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you.

By assembling a collection of these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to resume cover, walk into every SAT essay confident in your abilities. If you haven’t already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. Revising. This will give you a good idea of what the SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common: They’re all passages that try to german sample resume, convince the reader of the essays checklist veracity of the author’s claim They’re all around the same length (650-750 words) They’re all meant to be analyzed and written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of time of what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to papering, be overly complex (like the first letter of essays checklist every word spelling out a secret code), because you just don’t have the time to analyze and write about complex techniques. And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples that’ll be likely to found across persuasive passages about many different issues —we've provided some ideas below.

We've chosen two examples of evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage – if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to a research proposal s thesis, support your thesis across a range of prompts. This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for essays, any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and Statistics. Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is essays for primary one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to build an argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in checklist the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data. . Here're a couple of examples of statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard:

Example : 8 of checklist 10 children born in origin rar the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the checklist United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an essays average of about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in revising essays checklist the form of _мЌО†»," non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from revising checklist Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of evidence that is often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. This type of evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader. An anecdote is a short story about a real person or event . When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Here's an example of (part of) an anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. Origin. President Jimmy Carter:

One of the most unforgettable and essays humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of caribou with their newborn calves. In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as “America’s Serengeti.” Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because it’s more relatable/interesting to the reader to read an german resume anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts. People tend to put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true).

In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of checklist wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about experiencing the wonder of nature to illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. Essays. By inviting the reader to experience vicariously the majesty of witnessing the migration of the german Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but it’s not always a major part of how the author builds her/his argument. It's not always enough just to throw out support for a claim – an author may choose to use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims.

One way in which an author might use reasoning to revising essays, persuade the reader to accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the author's own argument. When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and phrases show up in _мЌО†»," an essay prompt, the author is essays likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an example of an effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: “You could say some computer games develop creativity,” says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. “But I don’t see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and paint—a lot of german really practical and revising checklist creative endeavors.” But it’s not that simple. Papering Research. While there are dangers inherent in access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an revising essays checklist author build her argument?

It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument. However, as you can see in german sample the brief example above, giving some space to another point of view serves to make it seem as if the discussion’s going to be more “fair.” This is still true whether the author delves into the counterargument or if the author only briefly mentions an opposing point of view before moving on. But a true discussion of the counterargument , as is present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only presented a one-sided argument . Essays Checklist. And because it demonstrates that the author knows the topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the reader is more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite point of view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the revising opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence.

In some cases, the proposal clarity with which the author links her evidence and her claims is revising essays checklist integral to proposal for master, the author's argument. Revising Checklist. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together. It’s the “thinking” — the logic, the analysis — that develops the argument and ties the claim and evidence together. This is one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. German Sample Resume. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to support and explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is revising a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MIT’s Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students’ interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports.

Unfortunately, the explanation the _мЌО†»," Official SAT Study Guide gives for essays checklist, how to discuss an author's reasoning is a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is it persuasive to all purpose resume letter, clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and essays checklist understand the author’s argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the reader will agree with the author). In the Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out research data ( Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is revising checklist because of engagement with the game and thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on letter a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the TV). This clear pattern of data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points.

It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to improvements in history and having to revising essays checklist, take it on faith, the reader is forced to reenact the thinking processes that led to for master s thesis, the argument, engaging with the topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the top layer of argument building. Revising Essays. The foundation of a good argument is a research proposal evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the papering deal. Vivid language is truly the icing on the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic). Vivid language is pretty easy to essays, spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at all purpose resume, you that don’t seem to have purely functional purposes . Here are a couple of examples - the revising first is Paul Bogard again: …show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is relatively restrained, using the metaphor of a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence:

Vietnam continued to resume, draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in revising checklist the author’s shoes and draws them into the passage . If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is sample resume startling and provocative, meant to rouse the audience's indignation at the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the second part of the sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader.

The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and appeals to revising essays checklist, the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the essays for primary school passage is light on facts or logic. Direct addresses and appeals to revising essays checklist, the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to research, provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . This category covers many different elements, from appeals to essays, emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an school appeal to emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to essays, me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. And here's an example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? Appealing to the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the war was causing their sons and their brothers and their husbands to research, fight and die, King reminds the reader of the revising checklist terrible costs of war, playing upon their emotions to get them to _мЌО†»,", agree that the Vietnam War is essays a mistake, particularly for papering, the poor. Rhetorical questions , on the other hand, get the revising essays readers to step into the author's world.

By reading and origin antithesis thinking about the author's question, the reader engages with the topic on revising essays checklist a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks . In English For Primary School Children. In the case of the Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into thinking about revising essays checklist, his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the reader (presumably) only german sample resume, wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of checklist different article types for a wide range of resume letter topics . This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to checklist, wait until you see the prompt to develop an arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to _мЌО†»,", support your points. Essays. Instead, preparing beforehand how you’ll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of sample time and anxiety when the test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on the SAT essay. Revising Checklist. We've written a bunch of detailed guides to make sure you do. Took the old SAT and not sure how the new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about what’s changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the cover letter SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score?

Check out our guide on how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an extra 160 SAT points to revising, your score ? If it's a lot, check out our guide to how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from resume cover letter Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of revising essays checklist Music of Bard College. Origin. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in essays checklist high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. _мЌО†»,". You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of revising essays our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

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Custom Arrow of God Folklore Analysis Essay. Folklore has always played an checklist, increasingly important role in resume cover the historical development of the nations. Having analyzed the pieces of both artifacts and oral expressions of the traditional folklore of different nations, it becomes visible that folklore should be regarded as an encapsulation of the most important historical events. For instance, military marches of the checklist, American Indians reflect their everlasting struggle against the white invaders, the hostile tribes and hunting scenes. Indisputably, folklore has a complex composite structure. In particular, it consists of legends, fairy tales, cultural beliefs, jokes, stories and narrations, fables and other pieces of the oral art. Usually folklore is regarded as a separate section of literature, but very often the authors composing their works of the art consider them to belong to a literature section. The incorporation of the folklore elements into the pieces of literature pursues numerous goals. Revising Essays. First and foremost, folklore elements are often included to highlight the authenticity of the study and to stress that it is integrally connected with specific nation or other cultural compound.

Another goal which is _мЌО†»," sometimes pursued by the author includes the intent of the author to support his or her personal opinion or to justify specific actions committed by the main characters of the story. The study is focused on the folklore elements incorporated into one of the most outstanding stories ever written about colonialism and relationships between the colonial power and the indigenous population of the island. The aim of folklore accentuation in the book is caused by the willingness of the author to highlight the ardor of the African national movement against the white British invaders and the way they exploit the black population of the island. The Historical Background of the Story. First and foremost, it is necessary to highlight the fact that even the title of the story derives from the essays, traditional African faiths and beliefs. This phrase signifies the “godsend” or the “gift of the God”. That is writing a research for master a traditional folklore element and has nothing to do with the contemporary English literature.

The main event of the story is developing around the Igbo people, which were part of the revising essays checklist, British Nigeria in 1920. . The main protagonist of the story is Ezeulu, who is a chief priest of the ancient god Ulu. The skirmish with the revising essays checklist, adverse tribe is resume letter suddenly interrupted by the invasion of the Britain troops under the command of the Winterbottom. The Christian mission arrives to the villages belonging to the indigenous Umuary people and makes them recant from their beliefs and faith. With the development of the storyline, it becomes evident that the colonial administration does everything that is within their competence to achieve their political goals. In particular, the chief protagonist of the revising checklist, story is even invited to work with the local administration, and after his refusal he is research declared a criminal and sent to prison. Revising. Since he considers himself half a spirit and half a human being, he has nothing to fear of. Ultimately, when the harvest of the poor tribe rots, the god Ulu is thought to have abandoned the papering research, tribe.

This popular opinion is revising essays checklist intensified when the son of the chief priest dies at german, the important ritual ceremony. Checklist. The culmination of the story is the total conversion of the Christianity by the population of the in english for primary school, villages. The Associated Words and Other Pieces of revising Folklore and Their Significance. As it has already been stressed, the essays school, vocabulary of the book adaptation is one of the most impressive accomplishments of the entire contemporary writing industry. The passages from the book were literally taken and paraphrased, but the lexical “reconstruction” was done in the way, that it became possible to retain the initial message of the author while making it possible for the modern target audience to comprehend the peculiarities of the book and get immersed in its atmosphere completely. Essays Checklist. It is evident that the following phrases are the most illustrative in the book as they depict in essays for primary children detail the checklist, haughty and elevated atmosphere of the late 18 th century, the manners and rituals which governed and children controlled the cultural life of the society of those days. However, the words were selected in the way that it became possible for the target audience to comprehend their meanings and the gist of the sentences while sensing and feeling the atmosphere of the good old Victorian Africa. The following phrases pronounced by the main characters of the revising, book clearly reflect the astonishing achievement of the writer. Additionally, the phrase “lower rank” connected with the sample, African people is to be highlighted. Revising Essays. Nowadays this phrase sounds both discriminatory and uncivil. In those days, it sounded impolite and unacceptable that the _мЌО†»,", phrase was utilized to inform the person to whom it was addressed about the position he or she occupies in the social hierarchical structure of the community.

Mr. Essays. Ezeulu managed to say that phrase even when he was declaring to be in love with the person he indeed loved. However, even declaring his feelings and “tying” his life eternally (under the common law of those days, the divorces were not allowed in proposal for master the British Africa), the protagonist of the checklist, story was still remembering his social aristocratic status and involuntarily or even instinctively reminded the beloved one about her social “imperfection” and aristocratic “deficiency.” Nowadays it may sound acceptable, but the unanimous opinion of the historians and other scholars is that the proposition made in such an arrogant and uncivil manner would be undoubtedly rejected by the potential fiancée. However, Dr. . Winterbottom for some reason accepts the offer.

In the same way, Austen and her book successor Deborah Moggach state the fact that for Ezeulu and for his cherished Dr. Winterbottom the essays, feelings were paramount and even the values and in english for primary children the laws of the society could be sacrificed. This is the revising checklist, mechanism the author intended to accentuate - the importance of the all purpose resume cover letter, marital status for the ladies of those days that even the youngest ladies became particularly obsessed and preoccupied with this sensitive issue. They did not know the person at all, but they enjoyed hearing the information about them from their father and their friends. Essays. All that data together with the specific appearance of their new acquaintance was sufficient for them to consider him as an eligible marriage candidate for them or one of their sisters. Once the main protagonist of the story, the young African aristocrat Ezeulu declares to be in origin rar love with his future fiancée, he pronounces the phrase “Perhaps these offences might have been overlooked had not your pride been hurt by my personal honesty.” Undoubtedly, the sophistication of the phrase clearly depicts that this man is in fact a genuine African gentleman who belongs to the highest circles of the checklist, society, because such a phrase could be said by the man of a low origin and manners. “From the moment I met your arrogance and conceit” the phrase said by Dr.

Winterbottom Bennett and reflects indignation about the haughty and humiliating attitude of her future fiancé towards the , rest of the main characters of the story. In the modern world, naturally the expression will be considerably sharper and mean. This technique is utilized by the authors to accentuate the sense of self-control and self-restraint of Dr. Winterbottom and highlight the moral values of the genuine African lady. She never loses her temper, however can become irritated. The Folklore Background. Historically, the essays, story in writing a research proposal s thesis question develops in the late 18 th century, when Africa was ruled by the king Eduard, the power was given to Queen Victoria and Africa entered the epoch of Victorianism.

Specific rules, regulations, moral principles and postulated existed and governed the essays, live of the inhabitants of Africa and the dominions of the British Empire. Primarily, the fact that must be stressed is the complexity and all purpose letter sophistication of the relations which existed among the members of the highest circles of the African society. To be more exact, the scholarly and historian opinion is that the interrelations among the members of the old African community were over-regulated and the principles of the society of those days impeded the communal value development. The feelings and aspirations of the youth and old people as well were artificially influenced by the outer circumstances and nothing could be done to overcome the pressure of the outer environment on the social classes of those times. To be more exact, it was reasonable to expect that the ladies and gentlemen of those times would rather “stifle” their feelings and emotions than contravene the revising checklist, principles and the values of the society, staking their prestige, personal and social well-being and destroying the prospective financial and social security of their existing or future families.

The social hierarchy of those days was highly complicated. Each aspect of the human relations including the matrimonial connections between the two people who love each other were totally controlled by origin rar, the society and even the legal framework of those times pressed them significantly. People were forced to adhere as closely as possible to the set of the existing laws and existing regulations, which would ensure that their freedom and happiness is safeguarded. Checklist. The deviation from those principles was not permitted even for the sake of law or for , the sake of other sacred motives. Hereby, it can be concluded that the choice of the historical background is one of the strongest points of the story. It helps the target reader to fully realize and completely comprehend the meaning and the message of the story delivered by the book. In other words, when the protagonist of the story, the haughty and arrogant Mr. Ezeulu contravenes the values of the community and stakes his social reputation for the sake of love, he indeed deserves admiration and revising essays respect. The Adaptations of resume Folklore. The book was casted with the application of traditional techniques, and revising essays checklist nothing sophisticated was utilized to create the book. For Master S Thesis. However, the work of the video operators in the adaptation deserves a portion of admiration due to the marvelous sceneries of good old Victorian Africa and the scenes of revising essays main characters’ communication between each other are impressive.

The film adaptation of the book is of traditional Hollywood production, manufactured by the studio which is traditionally supplied with the best writing material. Overall, the conclusion that can be drawn from this section is that the sophisticated techniques were not applied by the team and the only factor which made the book so successful is the unique actor play of the _мЌО†»,", protagonists and checklist the background actors. Concerning ethical features, the book does seem to be completely consistent with the existing and the emerging ethical standards of the cover letter, community. It can be presumed that the image maker of the book was a true professional as he managed to produce a 100% masterpiece. Moreover, several aspects of his work must be additionally accentuated. First and foremost, the book is indeed thought-provoking for those, who are directly or indirectly ethically preoccupied. The image maker pushes the shy people or those who are not confident enough to commit heroic exploits and feel confined to the moral postulates of the community. The people are encouraged to violate the outdated and obsolete trends and regulations, whose relevance is more than disputed nowadays. The image maker of the book fully complies with the rights of the prospective audience. Readers of the book will have the opportunity to view it and to comprehend the fact that when the book was composed the author completely, it adhered to the rights of the essays, all social minority groups of the society. In fact, the book is aesthetically appealing to the society.

The author of the book calls for the modernization of the existing ethical standards and describes the standards that existed in the community many years ago elevating their beautifulness and _мЌО†»," contrasting them to the contemporary ones. He treats the subject of his work with sympathy, care and attention. The unanimous opinion of almost all critics is that the author in a close collaboration with the image maker of the book managed to produce a fantastic piece of the art elevating and essays checklist highlighting the beautifulness of the old Anglia social life and the need for reformation of that society. One of the major problems of the antithesis rar, Native Africans’ issue is the fact that the overwhelming majority of the American nation comprehends the term “folklore” differently. For instance, according to the recently conducted survey, folklore for the Native Africans refers primarily to the artificially created reservations. _мЌО†»,". However, while living in their natural environment, the American Natives have in their disposal everything considered to be necessary for their own and essays future generations (Boggs, 1929). Nowadays, the life in reservations is hardly comparable to the life of developing countries. The malnutrition, short life expectancy, poverty and drug abuse are the outcomes of forcible evictions to the reservations.

To illustrate this, Shannon County located in Nigeria is widely known as one of the most impoverished regions in revising essays the country. . Once the indigenous tribes have been forcibly removed to the reservation, the outcomes of this displacement were heinous. First and foremost, the number of indigenous Africans has declined dramatically. To illustrate the traditional fire and hunting rite, dances have been completely forgotten. Moreover, with the advent of civilization and its benefits, the traditions of many tribes have been forgotten. The statement I am advocating for is the fact that the cultural legacy of the Indian civilization together with housewares was destroyed by arbitrary acts of colonists and ill-conceived policy of coexistence (Mathuray, 2003). Papering Research. Thirdly, the folklore deprivation resulted into the change of revising essays checklist moral orientations of Native Africans. The great aim of Indian life was thought to be the union with gods, while nowadays it is replaced by the necessity to survive.

Finally, but not the least, the german resume, negative impact of folklore deprivation triggers the increase in criminal inclinations of Natives. Once Columbus reached the shores of Florida, he reported that Indians were engaged into wars with each other, but there was no single occasion for robbery, theft, or homicide in the Indian community. Nowadays, since the tribes have been confined to reservations, the Indians are more inclined to the drug and alcohol abuse, violence, or other types of essays checklist intentional crime. Concerning my personal opinion, I want to stress the fact that I am rather positive with my personal assessment of the book. I am firmly convinced that the papering research, images and other visual techniques which were utilized by essays checklist, the author fully reflect the needs of the contemporary community. I have a firm opinion that virtually nothing can be done to improve the book and the visually everything was perfected by essays for primary school children, the team which prepared the book. It can be said that the essays checklist, work done by Chinua Achebe will serve as an example for the rest of the book makers who aspire to adapt the classical pieces of the art. Having read the story, it has become evident that the entire story outlined by the author is fully based on her personal speculations and scholarly discoveries (Achebe, 1989). The story in question is fully focused on the sophisticated transformations which were caused by the decision to convert the village into Christianity.

And what is more important in this study is the fact that it highlights the resume, role which is revising played by folklore in the lives of the ordinary villagers. The author accentuates that the desire to get converted into Christianity was not impeded by the traditionally strong folklore elements of the village and ultimately the conventional European scientific approach dominated over the deeply uprooted elements of the genuine folklore culture. In other words the main message of the author is that however strong the feelings of the villagers may be, the desire to leave in safety can even urge them to betray their religion, faith and customs. Custom Arrow of God Folklore Analysis Essay. 95% of satisfied returning customers Customer support 24/7/365 The largest source database A wide range of services Privacy guaranteed Certified writers only Custom-written papers only Direct communication with a writer Free plagiarism report(on demand) Free revision upon request more details Your writers are masters at time management. I turned in an order for german sample resume, four very difficult papers, and revising essays they were all written perfectly, even with the writing a research proposal s thesis, short deadline notice. Thanks,! Your writing company delivers for me every time.

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