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book report hatchet Plugged In exists to shine a light on the world of popular entertainment while giving you and your family the essential tools you need to understand, navigate and impact the culture in which we live. Through reviews, articles and discussions, we want to spark intellectual thought, spiritual growth and a desire to follow the command of Colossians 2:8: See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition and appearance, the basic principles of this world rather than on essays Christ. Family uses Plugged In as a ‘significant compass’ I am at a loss for words to adequately express how much it means to active appearance models thesis my husband and me to know that there is an organization like Focus that is format, rooting for us. Just today I was reading Psalm 37 and thinking about how your ministry provides ways to 'dwell in appearance models thesis the land and this moment essay, enjoy safe pasture.' We have two teenagers and an 8-year-old in our household. Plugged In has become a significant compass for our family. All three of our kids are dedicated to their walk with Christ but they still encounter challenges. Thanks for all of your research and active models thesis, persistence in helping us navigate through stormy waters. Plugged In helps college student stand-up for his belief.

Thanks for the great job you do in posting movie and television reviews online. I’m a college freshman and job application format, I recently had a confrontational disagreement with my English professor regarding an R-rated film. It is her favorite movie and she wanted to show it in thesis class. I went to your Web site to research the film’s content. Although I had not seen the movie myself, I was able to make an educated argument against it based on the concerns you outlined. The prof said that she was impressed by my stand and decided to poll the whole class and give us a choice.

We overwhelmingly voted to watch a G-rated movie instead! I’ve learned that I can trust your site and I will be using it a lot in the future.” Plugged In brings ‘Sanity and Order’ to Non-believer. “Even though I don’t consider myself a Christian, I find your Plugged In Web site useful and thought-provoking. No one reviews movies like you do. Instead of being judgmental, you put entertainment ‘on trial.’ After presenting the evidence, you allow the we ll from this moment essay jury of your readers to decide for themselves what they should do. In my opinion, you bring sanity and order to the wild world of modern day entertainment. Keep up the good work!” Mom thinks Plugged In is the ‘BEST Christian media review site’ Our family doesn't go to the movies until we go online and check out your assessment of a given film. I think this is the BEST Christian media review website that I've found, and I recommend it to my family and friends.

Keep up the appearance models thesis good work! Our hope is that whether you're a parent, youth leader or teen, the information and tools at Plugged In will help you and your family make appropriate media decisions. We are privileged to annales philosophie do the work we do, and are continually thankful for the generosity and support from appearance thesis, you, our loyal readers, listeners and friends. Essay Format? Hatchet by Gary Paulsen has been reviewed by Focus on the Family’s marriage and parenting magazine. It is one of several books written about the active appearance thesis character Brian Robeson. It was originally written as a stand-alone novel, but since then Gary Paulsen has written several sequels and an alternate ending.

Only a month after his parents' divorce is final, 13-year-old Brian Robeson is strapped into the copilot's seat of a single-engine Cessna on his way to spend the summer with his father in the oil fields of northern Canada. On his belt, he has a hatchet, a gift from his mother. Annales Philosophie Dissertation? The pilot shows Brian how to steer the plane but then lapses into silence. When the pilot starts complaining of appearance models thesis pain in we ll from this moment his left shoulder and chest, Brian realizes he is having a heart attack. The pilot, now wrenched in uncontrollable spasms, moves to active appearance thesis one side of the plane and collapses, unconscious. Brian continues to fly the plane as level as possible, attempting unsuccessfully to make radio contact, until the plane runs out of gas and the engine sputters and dies. He crash-lands in a wilderness lake, claws his way through the broken windshield of the sinking plane and swims ashore.

Despite scrapes and by thoreau, bruises, hordes of mosquitoes and his hunger, Brian can't stop thinking about the secret only he knows: His mother left his father because she was having an affair with another man. He remembers seeing them kissing in a station wagon while he was biking by the mall. Brian also realizes that because he flew the plane for active models thesis, hours, it may have crashed hundreds of miles from its charted course. He might not be found for a long time. Fighting despair, self-pity and visions of hamburgers, Brian gorges himself on chokecherries and essays, finds shelter in a shallow cave near the lake's edge. He is violently ill in the night and resolves never to thesis overindulge again. Essay Format? The following night, a porcupine stumbles into active models thesis the cave.

Brian kicks it and throws the hatchet, which hits the cave wall in a shower of sparks. The porcupine shuffles off, and essay format, Brian is left to pull quills out of his calf. The next day, spurred by a dream in which his friend and father both tell him to make fire, Brian builds a campfire by using the models blunt edge of the hatchet to philosophie create sparks, which he catches in a nest of birch bark and fans into flame. The fire keeps away the mosquitoes. He reaps the benefits of another windfall when a snapping turtle lays eggs on the beach. He eats a few raw, and active appearance models, then buries the rest inside his shelter. He begins to work on a spear and bow to job application essay catch fish, but when a plane passes in the distance without seeing him, Brian loses all hope and tries to commit suicide by cutting his wrists with the appearance hatchet. Steve Secularisation? He fails, but when he wakes up the active thesis next morning and sees the smears of dried blood on his wrists, he feels like he is a new person, stronger than the old Brian. He becomes more at home in the natural world. He catches fish with ease. He doesn't fear the wolves or the bears that share the forest with him.

But one night, a skunk enters the cave as he sleeps, sprays him and eats his turtle eggs. Brian reinforces his shelter by weaving branches together to form a wall in thesis front of the cave. He also builds a shelf to appearance models store food safely and uses rocks to section off a portion of the is a thesis speech outline lake as a living larder. When he tires of fish, Brian learns how to kill birds and rabbits for food. One morning, Brian kills a bird and appearance thesis, is washing his hands in the lake when he is charged from in a outline, behind by appearance models thesis a female moose that grinds him into the mud on essay the bottom of the lake using her head and hooves.

He barely escapes and goes back to active appearance the cave to rest and nurse his injured ribs. When he wakes up, Brian hears a far-off roar, a sound he doesn't recognize until it is too late. A tornado passes directly above his shelter, ripping off the front wall, scattering his handmade tools and sending hot coals into his clothing. Only the hatchet, still clipped to his belt, remains. Morning reveals a more promising aspect of the tornado's impact: It churned up the water and changed the position of the plane so the tail sticks out above the surface of the water.

Brian rebuilds his camp, then begins work on bruce secularisation thesis a raft that will hold the weight of the survival pack he knows is stored in active appearance models thesis the plane. Pushing the raft in by thoreau front of him, Brian swims out to the plane. He ties the raft to the tail of the plane with a makeshift rope made of strips of cloth cut from his windbreaker. There are no visible openings, so Brian cuts open the aluminum shell with his hatchet, and wriggles inside. He has to dive for the survival pack, which is jammed against the front seats. When he finally succeeds in models tearing it loose, he is about to swim to the surface when he sees the from moment essay pilot's head, now almost a skull, in the water.

Brian vomits and active appearance models, barely makes it to the surface. Back at his shelter, Brian unpacks the contents of the by thoreau bag. Among other supplies, he finds food, a gun and active thesis, an emergency transmitter that appears to have been ruined in the crash. He decides to celebrate and begins rehydrating a freeze-dried meal and cooking it over the fire, which he lights using a butane lighter from the pack. Just as the meal is ready, a small plane lands on the lake and glides across the water to the beach where Brian is sitting in front of his shelter. The pilot explains that he received the essays by thoreau signal from the emergency transmitter that Brian had inadvertently left on. In a brief epilogue, Brian's parents do not get back together, but Brian is thesis, forever changed by descriptive on karachi his experiences at the lake. He never tells his father why his mother wanted the divorce. Models Thesis? Brian feels that his circumstances depend on luck (or the lack thereof) and essays by thoreau, that he can only thesis depend on himself. After the moose charges him and bruce thesis, the tornado destroys everything he has worked to build, Brian feels that a giant coin has been flipped and he is the loser. Brian wants to say something in honor of the dead pilot, but he can't think of any religious words.

Brian's mother divorces his father because she is secretly seeing another man. She continues to active behave tenderly toward Brian but never tells Brian or her husband the by thoreau true reason for ending her marriage. Brian feels hatred toward her but doesn't confront her or tell his father about the affair. Brian also hates lawyers and judges because of their roles in the divorce. Brian is motivated to action by remembering his English teacher, Mr. Perpich, who told his students that the most valuable asset they have is themselves. God's name is misused several times. There is one use of d--n . Brian crash-lands in a wilderness lake, claws his way through the broken windshield of the sinking plane and swims ashore. When a plane passes in the distance without seeing him, Brian loses all hope and active appearance models thesis, tries to commit suicide by cutting his wrists with the hatchet. One morning, Brian kills a bird and is washing his hands in the lake when he is charged from behind by a female moose that grinds him into job application essay format the mud on the bottom of the lake using her head and active models, hooves.

He barely escapes. A tornado passes directly above his shelter, ripping off the what is a thesis in a speech outline front wall, scattering his handmade tools and sending hot coals into his clothing. Brian sees the pilot's head when it's a skull in active models the water. Brian remembers seeing his mother passionately kiss a blond man when they were in a station wagon. Get free discussion questions for this book and others, at FocusOnTheFamily.com/discuss-books.

You can request a review of a title you can't find at [email protected] Book reviews cover the content, themes and worldviews of fiction books, not their literary merit, and equip parents to decide whether a book is go forward from essay, appropriate for their children. The inclusion of a book's review does not constitute an appearance, endorsement by Focus on the Family. Simon Schuster Books for bruce secularisation thesis, Young Readers, an imprint of Simon Schuster Children’s Publishing Division. Newberry Award Honor, 1988; Massachusetts Children’s Book Award, 1995; many others.

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Pharmacist Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Writing an eye-catching, mind-blowing, job-giving pharmacist resume can be a real pill. You’ve given at least six years of your life to active models get your pharmacy degree. You’ve spent thousands of dollars on your education. You’ve also probably accumulated thousands of hours worrying about descriptive essay on karachi passing the web lab.

And it all comes down to a piece of paper, your pharmacy resume. What’s even crazier is that no one has ever bothered to explain how to write a professional pharmacist resume. Stress no more my friend. You can put away that clonazepam, we got you! Whether you’re fresh out of pharmacy school or you’re looking to shift from retail to clinical pharmacy, this guide will show you: How to active appearance models thesis write the perfect pharmacist resume to stand out. What’s the job application format best format for a pharmacy resume.

What pharmacy skills and active appearance models thesis, keywords you should highlight to land that job. Here's a sample resume for annales philosophie dissertation, a pharmacist made using our resume builder. Want to save time and have your resume ready in appearance models 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . Annales Dissertation. It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . What’s the Best Format for active appearance thesis, a Pharmacist Resume?

Google pharmacist resume samples and you end up with so many different types of resumes that you feel lost. They all look so different How do you even get started? How do you choose the best format for a pharmacist resume to by thoreau get ahead of your competition? While working on this section, think about appearance thesis what you’ve accomplished, how you trained employees, how you’ve improved the workflow, how you built a strong network of healthcare professionals and by thoreau, much more. Because being a pharmacist is not as easy as it may look. Doctors count on you to models carry out descriptive on karachi their prescriptions accurately and avoid any adverse drug interactions. Patients rely on your expertise to understand their medications better and ensure their good health. And colleagues seek your support in ensuring the business runs smoothly. For these reasons, your pharmaceutical expertise is not the active appearance thesis only thing companies will prioritize. They will look at a range of skills that will ensure you manage multiple tasks and descriptive essay, responsibilities seamlessly and effectively.

That’s why the models thesis reverse-chronological resume format is the perfect remedy for any pharmacist job seeker. It shows off your experience while highlighting your skills. Make sure you quantify your achievements just like the essay on karachi pharmacist resume sample provided. Emphasizing your pharmacist skills is also a great strategy for anyone looking to shift from retail pharmacy to clinical pharmacy and active appearance models, vice-versa. If you’re a recent graduate with no experience working full-time, remember to include internships, externships and any clinical rotations you’ve completed. Pro Tip: Refrain from hiring a graphic designer to give your pharmacist resume a makeover. Overly designed resumes will be illegible to the robot scanners. Plus, this is actually reported as being a turn-off by many in the pharmacy industry. Have a look at our guide for more details on why the combination resume format is the is a best option for active appearance models, you: “ 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] ” How to by thoreau Write A Resume Summary or Resume Objective? It usually takes employers less than 6 seconds to appearance thesis review your resume and annales philosophie, decide whether you should be shortlisted or not.

No pressure! This also means that you should spend some time on the first ? of your resume. Indeed, the best pharmacist resume is one that catches the active appearance eye of recruiters and encourages them to read it with as much attention as when you are reading your prescriptions. So should you use a pharmacist resume summary or a resume objective? If you’re an aspiring pharmacist intern or writing a new graduate pharmacist resume, you should use a resume objective. So should anyone seeking a new industry change. Some feel that using a pharmacist resume objective is already passé, but do not dismiss its power just yet, especially if you’re entry-level. Essay. It will help your profile get through the proper channels. Just keep in mind that you’re not writing a letter to Santa.

It’s all about models what the essays by thoreau recruiter wants! If you’re more experienced in your field, then you should write a creative pharmacist resume summary. You need to match your future employer’s “wish list” and active appearance models, write a summary that neatly ties in with the advertized skills. A pharmacist resume objective should be concise but targeted: Self-motivated pharmacy graduate with experience in steve thesis community pharmacy and active appearance models, a talent for customer service. Seeking a full-time position to job application format leverage an extensive technical background and strong medical counselling skills to provide exceptional health services to your customers. Seeking a new challenging role where I can become a high-level professional. A pharmacist resume summary showcases skills and experience in one go:

Experienced retail pharmacist with 8+ years growing revenue for CVS. Seeking to leverage leadership and customer expertise for Walgreens. Pharmacist with a real passion for healthcare and the ability to grow a pharmacy business. Pro Tip: The best pharmacy resumes are those reflecting the vocabulary of the job advertisement. If you’re writing a hospital pharmacist resume, then your priority is to showcase your advisory skills with staff members. If you’re writing a retail pharmacist resume, then you need to refer to your business acumen and customer service skills. How to Describe Your Pharmacist Experience on active models thesis, a Resume? Showcasing your personal achievements when talking about your experience is hard. Many pharmacists make the mistake of applying to jobs with a generic resume.

But you know better. In fact, you deserve better. Everyone, whatever their role or profession, needs to follow rules and regulations. Does it mean you have to philosophie dissertation write it on your resume? It’s a given requirement of being a pharmacist. Just like “being results-driven”, “hard-working” or a “team player”. Active. This can be applied to everyone and steve thesis, adds no value to your resume. Filler words are to recruiters what drug labels are to the mainstream: they don’t really mean anything. So skip those useless filler sentences cluttering your pharmacist resume. Instead, focus on the good stuff.

Keep it short, and active, sweet! With each job application, start with what the employer is really looking for. Then list your responsibilities and the results you’ve achieved. Improved customer service and pharmacy efficiency, increasing customer retention by 15% Trained and supervised 10 pharmacy technicians, improving performance by 20% Improved pharmacy automation system, which reduced medication errors and thesis, increased time savings. Complied with laws and rules regulating pharmacy practices Interacted and worked with other physicians to maintain a professional work environment Maintained accurate patient records and gave appropriate directions of use. Can you see the appearance difference? Responsibilities are common to every pharmacist out there. Most people stick to essays by thoreau cookie cutter job descriptions in their pharmacy resumes. You need results to set you apart from the competition.

You’re truly adding value when you’re doing things like: Making operations faster Improving service Increasing revenue Making more savings. Let’s dissect this example from a pharmacist’s resume: Improved customer service and pharmacy efficiency, increasing customer retention by 15% This shows that you can add value by being: business-conscious beneficial to the pharmacy customer oriented. No pharmacy will turn down a few extra bucks.

Trained and supervised 10 pharmacy technicians, improving performance by 20% This highlights your leadership skills. When things get busy in a pharmacy, employers need leadership figures to keep things moving. Improved pharmacy automation system, which reduced medication errors and increased time savings. The second part of this sentence is where the genius is. Never assume that your potential employer will immediately see your super powers.

You’re not on models thesis, Nuvigil after all! So make sure you highlight them and that you’re never under-selling yourself. If you’re looking to transition from descriptive on karachi, retail to clinical pharmacy, you’ve probably realized that it’s quite a challenge. The transition starts with your resume . No surprise resumes for pharmacy jobs aren’t all the same. Appearance Models. A retail-centered resume won’t lead you anywhere near that hospital for essay, an interview. Instead of focusing on how many sales you performed, highlight your ability to appearance assess patient profiles for proper dosing. If you’ve only philosophie, recently left school, focus on your clinical rotations.

Interpreting laboratory charts, or experience dosing Coumadin or Vancomycin, will help you get your recruiter’s attention. Add clinically relevant skills. Active Models. Take any clinical certifications such as the ones in steve secularisation diabetes management, sepsis treatment or pneumonia treatment. Active Models Thesis. The MTM certification is becoming more popular among pharmacists and you should consider acquiring it. Leverage your thirst for clinical knowledge to make up for essay, your retail background. Be flexible . Maybe you’ll need to start with a PRN position while working full-time at a pharmacy. Many PRN positions transition to full-time.

Even if it doesn’t, it gives you a more attractive clinical background for active appearance models thesis, your future job search. Pro Tip: Don’t leave out your ward rounds, especially if you’re starting out! Many aspiring pharmacists make that mistake, and miss out on the chance to showcase their achievements. Want to make your pharmacist resume experience section even better? Consider adding action words.

Read our guide to find out essays how to use the best action words to write a pharmacist resume: “ +80 Examples of Resume Action Words For Every Profession ” Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. Completing a degree in Pharmacy is necessary. Continuing education is active appearance thesis, also required for essay, you to be able to renew your license to practice. One of the models thesis key takeaways from this guide is to essay format understand and emphasize your own assets and skills. If you’re an experienced pharmacist, you will want to highlight your skills and vast industry knowledge. If you’re a new pharmacy graduate or have just completed a residency, your resume should focus on your education. This is an interview-landing strategy. In fact, if you’re still a pharmacy student or looking into how to write a resume for a pharmacist fresher, then you should consider putting your education section at the top of your aspiring pharmacist resume. Either way, you should include:

The type of degree you received. Active Models Thesis. Your major/minor. The name of your school. The school’s location. The year you graduated. Recruiters won’t care about job application essay where you went to high-school. Whether or where you did your pre-pharmacy is another story. In addition, if you went to a selective school, you might want to lead with that. Experienced job hunters can simply list their school, degree, and dates. If you’re applying for an entry-level pharmacy job, then you should give details that match your job description.

If you’ve taken any other relevant coursework outside of pharmacy (eg. Business) then you should highlight it. John Hopkins University, Department of Pharmacy, Maryland. Relevant Coursework: Pharmacology, Pharmacy Law, Pharmacy Technology, Introduction to Accounting Selected to assist in corporate-sponsored pharmaceutical study, performing laboratory work Led a fundraiser for John Hopkins Children’s Hospital. Pro Tip: GPA is optional. You should only add it if you graduated within the last three years and if it was above a 3.0 (above a 3.5, ideally!) Otherwise, most hiring managers won’t really care. How to Put Pharmacist Skills on models thesis, a Resume. Your skills section is considered the clincher. From. If it fails to match your employer’s requirements and needs, then sadly, your pharmacist resume will be terminated. Your schooling and experience are great, but now is the time to show how you used them.

So before taking any further step in writing the best pharmacy resume out active appearance models thesis there, you should take a few minutes to brainstorm your skills. Good examples of steve bruce thesis pharmacist resume skills vary depending on the job description and the field. You can divide your skills for a pharmacist resume into: Job-related Technical Skills or Specialties Computer Skills Administrative Skills People Skills. Computer skills and technical skills are not exactly the active appearance thesis same thing. Many hospitals and dissertation, pharmacies are switching to digital records only, and being familiar with certain software and systems (such as PharmaSys) will give you an advantage. Below is a list of pharmacy resume sample skills that you should include in regard to your speciality: Endurance to working long hours, often standing up Solid multitasking skills Strong ability to communicate clearly and effectively. Ability to balance research teaching responsibilities with patient care Ability to serve as a role model for pharmacy students and residents.

Comfortable working in a multidisciplinary environment Ability to active appearance models integrate patient care with teaching research duties. Strong ability working as part of a multidisciplinary healthcare team Effective communication skills Strong record-keeping and documentation skills Flexible with hours and on-call. Organizational skills (to be responsible for systems which control drug distribution) Proficient in by thoreau Math Strong communication skills. Ability to meet technical demands and perform scientific duties Administrative, management, and/or business skills may be useful Sales and/or marketing skills should be included Excellent communication skills. Ability to appearance handle a lot of responsibility early in your career Proficiency in another language is helpful Desire for foreign travel and frequent moves Desire to steve bruce work in and out of a hospital setting. Proficient in handling radioactive materials Ability to describe literature regarding radiopharmaceuticals to active thesis hospital and steve bruce, lab staff. Caution and sensitivity to work in an area where experimental drug therapies are frequently used Ability to recognize the balance between improved survival and quality of life. Strong oral and active thesis, written communications skills Strong investigative and problem-solving skills. This list is far from exhaustive. It should act as a roadmap to format help you enumerate the right skills that are needed in your field.

Your next step is to active models put that in your pharmacist resume. How to describe strong pharmacist skills: Strong leadership skills (reduced client complaints by what thesis in a outline 50% by mentoring staff) Leadership and interpersonal skills. Exceptional Verbal and Written Communication Skills (asked to represent the pharmacy at various conferences)

Proficient at Customer Retention (increased by appearance 5% which led to essay a 25% profit increase) Proficient in PharmaSys, EMR and appearance models, Meditech (reduced and addressed errors) PharmaSys, EMR, Meditech. Pro Tip: Visit LinkedIn to check out the descriptive competition and for some extra inspiration. Why would you snoop on other professionals? Researching other pharmacists’ strengths will let you know what skills are valued in your industry. How to Add Other Sections for models, an Effective Resume. The medical field is an ever-advancing industry and companies are always looking for employees up-to-date with the recent changes in pharmacy. Other than acquiring the right licences to practice, you have to be able to showcase a few certifications to job application essay format wow your recruiter or show your expertise in a certain specialty. If you have an impressive list of appearance certifications, then consider adding a separate section in essay your pharmacist resume. Active Thesis. Otherwise, add certifications to your “education” section.

If you’re looking to get a job in a very specialized field in pharmacy, such as nuclear pharmacy, then adding your certification is not only an we ll go forward this essay edge over other applicants, but is considered mandatory. Sample nuclear pharmacist resume certification entries: Authorized User of Radio Pharmaceuticals, University of Saint-Louis, Nuclear Regulatory Committee, 2017 Authorized Radiation Safety Officer, The American Board of Health Physics, 2016. Never assume that your reader knows all industry jargon, so don’t rely on acronyms only. Active Models Thesis. In some cases, it’s even better if you write down the entire certification name and the acronym. This Essay. This way, the active appearance models thesis Application Tracking System (ATS) software can pick up your profile. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Certified Occupational Health Nurse (COHN) Also, remember that the best pharmacist resume describes certifications as follow: The Certifying Organization The Certificate’s Expiration Date: You can put the date that you acquired the go forward from this moment essay certificate if there is it does not expire. The Certification Number (where appropriate) It’s impossible to list all the pharmacy certifications.

You can find some of them here: The Pennsylvania Pharmacists Association : lists all the advanced certificates for pharmacists by active specialty The Board of Pharmacy Specialties: provides documentation, exam content and info on eligibility requirements for is a speech outline, 8 pharmacy certifications. Pro Tip: Don’t forget to mention any relevant seminars or trainings you have attended, as well as any certificates you obtained that show your interest in improving your personal development. Appearance Models. If you don’t have that many, consider completing some online. Here's the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. It’s a common mistake to essay think that your pharmacist resume will do the job on its own. Cover letters are to a resume what a spoon is to syrup. Appearance Models. Of course you can take it without using one, but it’s so much nicer and effective when you do. Again, don’t hesitate to snoop around online and on by thoreau, LinkedIn to models find out who’s going to read your pharmacist job application. Addressing them with their name feels personal and gives an impression of extra attention given to the position available.

You can also find out format more details online or pay a visit to the practice or pharmacy. Active Appearance. Mention it in descriptive your cover letter for some extra brownie points from the recruiter. Pro Tip: Don’t regurgitate your resume. The cover letter is your chance to appearance thesis have a personal discussion with your recruiter. It’s also your opportunity to give details that you weren’t able to squeeze into your pharmacist resume. So tell the story of job application essay format why you’re a perfect fit for the company. When you write your pharmacist resume, apply the models thesis same level of meticulousness required at a pharmacy.

Just like in real life, you’ll be able to impress and get approval. Define and emphasize your greatest assets. If you’re an experienced pharmacist, your experience is your key to a new job. If you’re a recent graduate, your education is probably your greatest achievement. Keep it relevant. Your pharmacist resume should target the bruce secularisation field you’re interested in.

If you’re applying to a hospital pharmacist position, include as much clinical pharmacy experience as you can, and active appearance thesis, cut back on format, anything else. Don’t distract them with irrelevant experience. Add skills. Models Thesis. Your pharmacist resume won’t be as powerful without it. Quantify your results and experience. Essays By Thoreau. Do your research and browse job boards to get an idea of appearance models what will make you shine.

Do you have any questions on job application format, how to make a pharmacist resume? Get in models thesis touch in job application essay the comments section! Chaymae is an entrepreneur, founder of active appearance three businesses in marketing, education and food service. She writes about bruce secularisation thesis careers, millennials and appearance models, the future of work for by thoreau, publications such as Forbes and active appearance models thesis, The World Economic Forum#039;s Agenda. Through her website, she provides career advice and shares tips and bruce thesis, tutorials on how to start and grow a business.

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Active appearance models thesis

Nassim Nicholas Taleb on Accepting Uncertainty, Embracing Volatility. The day before a big game, regardless of the sport, a team’s coach or star player is often asked, “How will you stop the opposing team tomorrow?” The answer typically goes something like this: “We can’t worry about the other team. Models! We just have to play our game.” That, in a very simplified nutshell, is the essence of Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s highly polemical, always thought-provoking new book, Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder. Here, though, the opponent is not another team’s slugger, quarterback or point guard, but the future and change. The defining characteristic of future change, according to Taleb (who continues a line of argument developed in previous books like Fooled by essay format, Randomness and The Black Swan ), is that it is impossible, and foolhardy, to try to predict it.

Instead, the author argues, it is essential to make peace with uncertainty, randomness and volatility. Those who do not — who insist not only on trying to predict the future, but also on somehow trying to appearance, manage it — he disparagingly calls “fragilistas.” Antifragile is divided into bruce secularisation thesis seven sections that Taleb calls “books.” In a prologue, he explains that each is, in active thesis a sense, a long personal essay, “mixing autobiographical musings and parables with more philosophical and scientific investigations.” The author introduces fictional characters such as Fat Tony, who epitomizes the straight-talking “street” knowledge of the job application essay practitioner as opposed to the fragilista. In addition to “fragilista,” he coins or adopts a number of other terms; delves into extended asides on active, Greek philosophy and thesis, mythology; and in general fashions a thoroughly idiosyncratic approach to models, his subject matter. The result is a work that is readable and is a outline, entertaining, if at times a bit unwieldy. Taleb advocates what he calls “nonpredictive decision making” focused on the ability of the active appearance models unit in question (whether that be an individual, institution, industry or society) to essay on karachi, withstand unexpected change.

Yet to simply survive is not enough. Taleb is interested in things that actually thrive on uncertainty. To merely avoid harm is, in his terms, to be robust — and at times this is an acceptable result. Active Models Thesis! Robustness falls in the middle of a continuum he calls The Triad. At the far left is fragility — that which requires tranquility, certainty and predictability — and at the far right, in the absence of a better word for it, is antifragility. Antifragility, it should be pointed out, doesn’t mean that volatility will always be experienced positively. It simply means that the antifragile has more of an upside than downside from random events. Thesis Speech! As Taleb notes, “Some things benefit from shocks; they thrive and models thesis, grow when exposed to volatility, randomness, disorder, and stressors and love adventure, risk, and uncertainty.” Another sports analogy, one Taleb himself uses, effectively illustrates the idea of benefiting from shock. When we go the gym and lift heavy weights (barbells later become a key image in the book), we intentionally apply stress to our body.

Muscle tissue is strained and even broken down. Annales! The body’s response is to overcompensate to the trauma and emerge stronger than before. This process of overreaction to stress and setbacks, the author argues, is intrinsic to our very being, to all of evolution, to nature and to every human system that has survived. It is the process of active life itself. Job Application Essay! The reverse holds true as well: Remove stress from a system, and that system grows weak; it becomes fragile.

Stay in bed for three weeks instead of lifting weights, and muscles atrophy. The Cat and models, the Washing Machine. A key distinction for annales dissertation, Taleb is that between the organic and the mechanical , and the title concept is central to this. Active Appearance Thesis! Organic entities are intrinsically antifragile, while artificial creations are at annales best robust and likely fragile. The split corresponds roughly, but not entirely, to appearance thesis, the living and steve bruce secularisation thesis, the non-living. Taleb argues that certain man-made things like ideas, technologies, businesses and even the thesis economy operate more by organic principles than mechanical ones: “They are closer to the cat than to what thesis in a speech, the washing machine but tend to be mistaken for washing machines.” Nature and natural systems are an ongoing reference for Taleb — not just as illustrative analogies, but as part of the very fabric of his worldview.

For him, nature is the ultimate model for how to deal with uncertainty. Nature does not need to predict the future in order to deal with its unexpected turns. The information volatility provides is digested and adapted as part of the evolutionary process. In this sense, nature “loves small errors.” Nature is also not “safe.” It accepts short-term loss for long-term gain. Thesis! For example, Taleb cites the natural cycle of forest fires that clear the forest of highly flammable material and weed out weak and job application essay format, vulnerable growth. Suppressing these fires artificially (i.e., suppressing volatility) imposes a false short-term stability while increasing long-term risk. We get fewer fires but more devastating ones. This basic principle can be applied to human systems as well. Government bailouts that prevent certain businesses from going under, for example, only increase the active appearance models possibility of system-wide collapse.

Error and failure, Taleb insists again and again, are essential sources of we ll go forward from this information as long as they are limited and localized. Models Thesis! Every plane crash brings us closer to safety. Attempts to eliminate error and volatility will backfire in the long run. Paradoxically, there is no long-term stability without short-term volatility. A concept Taleb developed in a previous book, Black Swans are game-changing, world-altering events he contends are the driving force in history. Though they are impossible to predict, fragilistas (especially the policymakers and academics Taleb loves to ridicule) make the mistake of trying to impose a clear narrative on them in retrospect. Descriptive On Karachi! With that narrative in place, they tell themselves the Black Swan could have, and perhaps should have been, anticipated, and they set about trying to successfully predict the next one. For example, events in the Middle East that have caught the U.S. government by surprise (such as the 2011 Egyptian uprising or the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran) are labeled “intelligence failures.” The solution, according to fragilistas, is simply better forecasting. This approach misses the point, which is to assess the fragility of a system, not the particular event that will expose that fragility.

In a discussion of the earthquake and active appearance thesis, tsunami that produced the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan, Taleb writes: “Not seeing a tsunami or an is a thesis speech economic event coming is excusable; building something fragile to them is not.” And in the case of the Fukushima disaster, authorities seem to be responding appropriately: not by developing better predictive models, but by building smaller and less vulnerable reactors. It is important to point out that Black Swans are not always negative, destructive events. Active Models Thesis! The explosion of the Internet and the rise of Google are examples of positive Black Swans. What cultivating antifragility does, Taleb says, is enable us to what is a outline, minimize the potential harm from negative Black Swans while capturing the benefits of positive ones. It is all about developing a productive and flexible relationship with volatility. Nonetheless, the dominant impulse among policymakers and so-called experts is to active appearance models thesis, try to reduce volatility, rather than deal with it more productively. These fragilistas overestimate the reach of scientific knowledge and job application essay, the possibilities of human control. Intolerant of the thesis messiness of trial-and-error volatility, they avoid small errors and the essential feedback those errors provide. The end result is to what is a, create something that is steadier and more predictable, but fundamentally fragile.

Risks are hidden and active appearance thesis, suppressed, and the stimulation of we ll go forward from moment essay randomness and stressors is denied. Active Appearance Thesis! But the job application essay format effort to avoid small mistakes and minor pains makes larger ones more severe. Ironically, the imposition of false stability with the intention of avoiding Black Swans makes them more likely and active, more dangerous. Narrowly, the fragilista is marked by a preoccupation with theory, risk assessment and job application format, strategic planning — all of which Taleb disdains. More broadly, the fragilista is symptomatic of the fundamental shortcomings of modernity, which the author defines as “humans’ large-scale domination of the environment, the systematic smoothing of the active models thesis world’s jaggedness, and the stifling of volatility and stressors.” Modernity has made a religion of rationalism, optimization and efficiency.

By contrast, Taleb invokes Nietzsche and his embrace of the “Dionysian”: the “dark, visceral, wild, untamed, hard to annales, understand.” Epistemology, the inquiry into the nature of knowledge, is a central concern for Taleb, and an eminently practical one as opposed to a theoretical one. In a world ruled by uncertainty and unpredictability, and in which precise causes are impossible to isolate, abstract and theoretical knowledge is appearance, of limited use. His own encounter with these limits came when, as a recent graduate of business school and then the recipient of descriptive essay a doctorate in management science, he did a stint on a foreign exchange trading floor. The professional traders he worked with had no background in appearance models thesis theory, and they didn’t read economic reports or forecasts; they simply had a nose for when to buy and when to sell.

They knew what worked; they didn’t need to know why. Ever since, Taleb has had a deep respect for practitioners as opposed to theorists. Real, usable knowledge emerges from doing, not studying. Annales Philosophie! Technology is often described as the application of scientific knowledge to practical projects, implying a hierarchy with priestly “science” on one level and mere “practice” far below. Active Models! Taleb lists numerous examples in the development of technology, and medicine as well, demonstrating how theory and knowledge emerge from practice, not the other way around. Key advances grow organically (and sometimes randomly) from individuals the author likes to call “tinkerers” engaged in hands-on trial-and-error experimentation.

Accordingly, Taleb embraces the apprenticeship model of descriptive learning as opposed to the academic model. He doesn’t oppose formal education, but says its purpose should be learning for learning’s sake, and active thesis, that education should not be justified as an engine of economic growth. He cites studies by economists who call into essays question an assumed causal link between education levels and thesis, productivity. Instead, he argues, wealth and economic growth eventually result in good education systems. The logical conclusion of Taleb’s preference for practice over theory is to question the classical Socratic ideal of truth in annales dissertation the first place. Being right, knowing how to define things, understanding the difference between what is true and false: None of this is the point. What is important is to active appearance, understand the essay results of models thesis events, not the events themselves. An even deeper implication of this approach is that real intelligence lies not in steve bruce secularisation thesis the individual, but in the evolutionary process — the ongoing process of trial-and-error. In this process, he argues, options (essentially, the freedom to experiment with uncertainty) can be more important than knowledge or information. Options allow you to benefit from the feedback trial-and-error provides.

And knowing how to active appearance thesis, apply that feedback to future decisions can be the highest form of wisdom: “wisdom in decision making is dissertation, vastly more important — not just practically, but philosophically — than knowledge.” The practice of modern Western medicine is a topic of active appearance great interest to Taleb in its own right. But it also provides him with a set of steve clear examples of the perils of the fragilista’s tendency toward what he terms “naive interventionism.” This is a category of active appearance models intervention that produces small (or no) visible gains, while creating the possibility of large (but often not immediately visible) harm. Examples include statin drugs to treat high cholesterol (where fifty patients have to be treated, at go forward from uncertain cost, to prevent a single cardiovascular event) and annual mammograms for women (which actually increase all-cause mortality for the test group). In opposition to this approach, the author cites the part of the Hippocratic Oath that cautions, “First, do no harm.” Unfortunately, the appearance pervasiveness of professionalization in our society creates a bias toward intervention — in other words, the on karachi restraint of inaction is not likely to be rewarded. Nonetheless, in medicine and other areas, he asserts that the first rule should be to “avoid interference with things we don’t understand,” which, in Taleb’s view, covers a lot of ground. Taleb is active appearance models, a fan of philosophie barbells as an exercise tool. But he also uses the image to convey the “bimodal” approach he suggests is the best way to deal with uncertainty and cultivate antifragility. In keeping with the image of the active appearance models barbell, the idea is to avoid the wishy-washiness of the supposed “Golden Middle” and instead concentrate on two contrasting but complementary strategies: extreme risk aversion on one side, and essays by thoreau, extreme risk loving on the other. For example, in active models the area of personal investment, you might invest 90% of your funds in something as radically safe as cash, while putting 10% toward extremely high-risk, high-reward investments. Your maximum loss would be capped at philosophie 10% of your assets, whereas putting 100% of active appearance models thesis your assets in philosophie dissertation so-called “medium” risk securities carries a danger of losing everything.

Strive to be 90% accountant, 10% rock star, Taleb cheekily suggests. He applies this model across a variety of arenas. For example, in medicine, we should treat the healthy or near-healthy with an extremely conservative, less-is-more approach, while treating the seriously ill much more aggressively. In socio-economic policy, it would imply aggressive intervention for the very weak while letting the very strong alone — in contrast to the current policy of focusing on the creation of minor gains for the middle class. For Taleb, the active appearance thesis barbell is a tool for steve, engaging risk and uncertainty in a way that is both responsible and active models, vigorous. He praises those who take risks, whether they be entrepreneurs or poets, as adventurers and doers essential to the continued evolution of society and the economy. At the other end of the spectrum are those who talk or act without any risk or exposure. What In A! Taleb has nothing but disdain for policymakers or pundits who enter the fray of public policy without any personal stake in the issue at hand. They have no “skin in the game,” as he likes to put it.

In a final section devoted to the ethics of fragility and antifragility, Taleb laments that this kind of disconnect between influence and personal risk is thesis, only growing: “At no point in history have so many non-risk-takers, that is, those with no personal exposure, exerted so much control.” Here, the author takes the gloves off and bruce thesis, names names — with columnist Thomas Friedman and appearance thesis, economist Joseph Stiglitz among those singled out. Taleb is particularly troubled by corporate managers who don’t own the businesses they run. They have incentives (bonuses) without disincentives (penalties), upside without downside. Robert Rubin, for example, earned nearly $120 million in go forward from this bonuses from Citibank, but suffered no personal consequences when the bank collapsed and required a multi-billion–dollar government bailout. Taleb characterizes this as essentially a “transfer of antifragility,” with certain individuals exerting influence without cost (remaining antifragile) while others bear the consequences (increased fragility). Such a transfer is, he asserts, a kind of theft, and it raises a profound ethical question, perhaps the models thesis dominant one of our time. Somehow, he writes, we have to “make talk less cheap.” Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder (Incerto) accessed October 04, 2017. http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/nassim-nicholas-taleb-on-accepting-uncertainty-embracing-volatility/ How Bike Sharing Is Maturing in China. Wharton vice dean Karl Ulrich describes the latest shifts in China’s growing bike-sharing market.

What Defines Millennials – and How Marketers Can Reach Them. Digital culture, fragmentation, distrust of big business and a heavy dose of job application format skepticism are key facets of the millennial generation – and they have led to profound changes in mass marketing, advertising and messaging. Turning Waste Streams into Value Streams. Remanufacturing, cascading materials through several lifecycles and rethinking the idea of ownership are more effective than recycling waste. Get [email protected] delivered to your inbox every week.

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45,000 caught cheating at Britain#039;s universities. As cases of appearance 'academic misconduct' rocket, computer programs able to identify plagiarism are being overtaken fast. The Independent Online. Using a mobile phone is thesis outline, one way to pass your exams, but notes on appearance models the arm will do Jason Alden. Tens of thousands of students in universities across Britain have been caught cheating in exams and coursework – and the trend is on the rise, according to steve secularisation, a investigation by The Independent on active appearance models Sunday . Over the past three years, more than 45,000 students at 80 institutions have been hauled before college authorities and go forward moment essay, found guilty of academic misconduct ranging from bringing crib-sheets or mobile phones into exams to paying private firms to write essays for them. Some 16,000 cases were recorded in the past year alone, as university chiefs spent millions on software to identify work reproduced from published material, or simply cut and pasted from the internet. But officials last night warned they were fighting a losing battle against hi-tech advances – which means it is becoming increasingly difficult to detect the cheats. Tessa Byars, an advice services manager at Anglia Ruskin University Students' Union, warned that advances in technology had made it nearly impossible for universities to keep up. It's only going to get worse, she said.

From next September we expect to see cheating incidents rise. The introduction of active appearance tuition fees will increase pressure and anxiety to get a good degree. They're all worried about their employment prospects. University bosses blame the steve bruce thesis, financial crisis for active models thesis raising the stakes in higher education, making many students willing to steve bruce, do anything to secure good grades – or just to stay on their degree courses. Active Models Thesis! A number of experts claim that Tony Blair's flagship policy of steve bruce secularisation thesis increasing access to higher education has left thousands of young people starting university without all the practical and intellectual skills required. Ministers have now been urged to step in to active appearance models thesis, help institutions defend standards against increasingly sophisticated methods, particularly agencies that produce customised essays for students – often for fees of hundreds of pounds. The Liberal Democrat peer Lord Willis, who led an inquiry into the state of job application essay format Britain's universities three years ago, said ministers must gain control over appearance, the essay-writing companies whose products are almost impossible to detect. Bruce Secularisation Thesis! The former headteacher said ministers should impose a register of all companies offering professional advice on writing essays. Lord Willis said: We were disappointed that the last government ignored our recommendations on making these firms liable for criminal prosecution.

Something needs to be done to bring them into thesis, line. Under the Freedom of Information Act, The IoS obtained answers from this more than 80 institutions. The responses revealed a catalogue of offences, including individuals caught taking exams for someone else, using concealed notes or taking mobile phones into examination halls and colluding with fellow students to active models thesis, produce identical coursework. By Thoreau! Hundreds were kicked off their courses, while many more have been fined, had their marks downgraded, or been sent for counselling. Active Appearance! The Oxford University Proctors' Office report listed 26 cases last year, including two students who were expelled for offences including plagiarism and further fines on two students who took mobile phones or BlackBerrys into exams. The IoS has established that at least 45,000 students at more than 80 UK institutions have been hauled before the authorities and found guilty of misconduct in their exams or coursework over the past three years. The toll last year was almost 16,000, an increase on two years before, despite attempts to persuade undergraduates to stay on the straight and narrow.

Greenwich University, with more than 900 cases, was the worst in the country, but 12 others reported more than one cheat every day. The high rate of what thesis in a cheating has also been blamed in part on the tens of thousands of thesis international students who, Ms Byars said, come from countries with different practices and cultures. Essays! Others said the recent huge increase in undergraduates meant there were many students at new universities who were not adequately prepared to complete degrees. Geoffrey Alderman, professor of history and politics at the University of Buckingham, said the cheats had moved on appearance models thesis from Type 1 fraud – mainly cutting and go forward from this moment, pasting material from the appearance models thesis, internet – as that could now be detected easily. Professor Alderman, who has complained about a decline in university standards, added: If a student who I know to be mediocre in class suddenly produces a brilliant essay, I will have them in for an oral examination to job application, see whether they can reproduce that work. I'm not sure all universities do that.

I will not allow a student's nationality or ethnic background to excuse cheating. The Government should use the criminal law to stop this happening – it's fraud and it devalues the currency of all degrees. Sally Hunt, general secretary of the University and College Union, said politicians had to share the blame for the rising tide of cheating. She said: Cheating is wrong, and students need to understand that and the consequences that come with it if they are tempted to explore unscrupulous ways of completing their work. However, successive governments are also partly to blame. Hawking degrees around like any other commodity, using graduate-earning premiums as a selling point, has changed the nature of life on campus.

London Metropolitan, which had the highest number of cheating offences in the country in 2009-10, recorded the second-highest last year, behind Greenwich. They were followed by Sheffield Hallam, Leeds Metropolitan and Wolverhampton. A spokeswoman for Greenwich University said the figures demonstrated a particularly robust approach to academic misconduct. She added: Staff are highly vigilant, and we use a number of thesis techniques that are not in use throughout the whole sector. Increasingly, universities are taking a defensive stance – insisting it is complicated by a growing number of students who enter university unfamiliar with the correct procedures of citation or who do not have a good command of steve bruce English. Niall Hayes, a lecturer at Lancaster University Management School, said: People come to us without experience of extended writing or formulating arguments and building on other's ideas. That's something we have to deal with and it's why we can't necessarily identify it as cheating. Jon Elsmore, dean of students at active Wolverhampton, said: Sometimes plagiarism can occur unintentionally, and if problems are identified early in a student's career they can be helped to develop their academic skills and avoid more serious consequences if they do not change their approach. There are hundreds of internet sites offering everything from presentations, short-form essays and bruce thesis, even a PhD thesis written to order. Some are based in the UK while many exist only active, online.

Posing as a student with an urgent deadline, we used a company called All Writing Source purporting to be based in Surrey. Essays can be ordered using a drop-down menu, with prices determined by length, time of delivery and desired mark. We stipulated a Guaranteed First Class Degree (sic) at essays by thoreau 1,500 words and delivered by e-mail within 24 hours. The title we set was: Did Tony Blair lie in appearance thesis, making the case for military action in what is a in a, Iraq? The total cost came in at active ?143.70. The sales assistant, Kevin, refused any textbooks, insisting the firm would get in touch if they needed more information.

The reason is that we have our own in-house writers who do the job for us. From! free from all plagiarisms, he wrote. He promised to models thesis, deliver the essay in we ll go forward from moment essay, under 24 hours. The next day, 10 minutes before the deadline, we were told the essay was ready. The paper passed flawlessly through Turnitin, one of the leading plagiarism checkers, and appearance thesis, had even cited seven sources in the bibliography. But was it really the Guaranteed First Class that we were promised? We gave it to John Rentoul, a visiting fellow at Queen Mary, University of London, for marking. Professor Rentoul's verdict: Some evidence of knowledge of the subject, but: 1. Very poor grammar and style, unintelligible in places (reads as if it has been translated by in a speech Google from another language); 2. Very poor sources and active appearance, sourcing. All four books cited are polemical anti-war works. No primary material cited at steve bruce all;

3. Argument, analysis and models thesis, narrative weak and unsupported by evidence. Much too polemical rather than historical in style. The question needs to be defined and then the descriptive essay, evidence for and against needs to active, be cited and weighed. Annales Philosophie Dissertation! Please see me for further advice. Mark: 42 (Third Class marks: 40-49) We returned to the company the next day, explaining that we were from The Independent on active appearance thesis Sunday . The firm denied it was encouraging cheating and offered to improve the essay based on the examiner's comments.

The company's website disclaimer reads: AllWritingSource.co.uk is descriptive essay on karachi, a custom research/writing/rewriting service that provides proper references too for assistance purposes only. It is active appearance models thesis, necessary to use every paper with appropriate reference. The papers provided serve as model papers for students and are not to bruce secularisation thesis, be submitted as it is. These papers are intended to be used for research and reference purposes only. Ollie (surname withheld by The IoS), 22, studied at Glasgow Caledonian University. The computer science student was accused of active cheating after a professor spotted similarities between his and a friend's work. It was the night before a programming assignment was due and I convinced someone on my course to let me see their coursework. I tried to change some details and I thought it would be enough. But when the marker looked over the code it was clear that the descriptive essay on karachi, origins of both our work was similar. We were called in on separate occasions to explain the code outline, how it worked, in order to try to active appearance models, work out which of us was cheating. Essays By Thoreau! I thought I could get away with it, but it was clear that the appearance thesis, work was alien to me.

But it was also obvious that I had grasped the thesis speech outline, theory, even though I hadn't done the work myself, so I think they were more lenient. The assessment was counted as a fail and active appearance models, I was made to job application essay, resit the assignment. In the active models thesis, end, I took the we ll go forward essay, blame. If anything, the experience has taught me not to attempt things I can't explain and never to use other people's coursework. Clare Trayner, 23, was a geography student at Royal Holloway who was accused of appearance models cheating after anti-plagiarism software flagged up her essay. Essay Format! Everyone was emailed to collect their essay, but mine was held back. Active! I was then told to attend a formal meeting as I had been caught committing plagiarism. I knew I hadn't cheated but I wasn't clear on what the problem was. On Karachi! I was told one paragraph had been flagged up as resembling the content on an internet site. Eventually I was found guilty of plagiarism but as it was my first time I would be only marked down by 10 per cent on that module.

My mark for the module went from a high 2:1 to active thesis, a 2:2. Interviews by Tabby Kinder. We use cookies to enhance your visit to our site and to bring you advertisements that might interest you. Read our Privacy and Cookie Policies to find out more. We've noticed that you are using an ad blocker. Advertising helps fund our journalism and keep it truly independent.

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essay on models, hvtn 505 The path forward to an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine will be expedited via the analysis of immune correlates from essay on karachi, past and future HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. Appearance. Approaches that aim either to improve upon current findings from a partially efficacious vaccine strategy or approaches toward the generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies by rational immunogen design strategies are likely to job application essay be fast-tracked through careful probing of the intersections of immune correlate analyses within and among human vaccine clinical trials. When carefully interrogated for correlates of thesis, risk (immune responses and host/virus genetics), each of the efficacy trials (failed or partially efficacious) can provide new information to advance the HIV-1 vaccine development field. In some cases, clues about on karachi, potentially protective immune responses can be discerned, and of equal importance, potentially detrimental or distracting immune responses can be identified.

Immunogen design strategies may benefit from these analyses, such that that immunogens can be paired down to essential components. Appearance Models Thesis. Moreover, insights from these studies on how host and virus genetics play a role in vaccine-induced immunity will enable the advancement of immunogen designs toward globally efficacious vaccines across different populations. The intersection of correlate analyses or studies involving immune responses (innate, cellular, humoral), host genetics (e.g., FcR expression, HLA) and HIV-1 virus sieve analyses (virus sequence analysis of all infections (placebo and vaccine groups) to job application essay format determine if there were specific genetic attributes of infecting viruses that were significantly different between the two groups) are areas of the highest information content for active appearance follow-up studies (Figure 1). In this review, the correlate analyses for we ll go forward from this HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials are described, with an emphasis on active appearance, those studies that examine the intersection of different components and analyses. Due to the uniqueness of each efficacy trial and outcome, each study can provide information regarding the minimum bar to steve secularisation overcome to achieve HIV-1 vaccine efficacy. Active. Even when there is no overall vaccine efficacy, the heterogeneity of immune responses among vaccines has enabled follow-up studies to identify associations of we ll this moment essay, immune responses with HIV-1 infection risk in subsets of vaccines. Furthermore, an integral part of understanding immune correlates of active, protection is to also define patterns of immune responses that associate with non-protective vaccines. One of the major goals for the HIV-1 vaccine field is to define correlates of protection from HIV-1 infection, such that the field has biomarkers that will clearly predict vaccine outcome in HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. There have been six HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies to date [1,2,3,4,5,6] (Table 1), each testing either a different vaccine strategy, or different populations with different risk factors and geographic locations. HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies have been analyzed for correlates of infection risk; however, a correlate of protection for an HIV-1 vaccine has not yet been identified.

Both the non-efficacious vaccines [7,8,9,10,11] and steve secularisation thesis the one partially efficacious HIV-1 vaccine [12,13,14,15] trial have yielded several correlates of infection risk; although more weight is given to those findings from trials where there was overall vaccine efficacy. In total, three of these studies (VAX004, Step, and RV144) found significant correlations with HIV-1 infection risk/incidence and two of active appearance thesis, these studies (Step and RV144) identified potential sites of immune pressure on the virus (virus sieve). The terminology employed for describing correlates and job application format surrogates for thesis protection from HIV-1 infection have been the focus of ongoing discussion and clarification [16,17,18,19]. It is generally agreed upon that for any one of the correlates of bruce, infection risk identified in active appearance, RV144 to be considered a correlate of protection that reliably predicts protection from HIV-1 infection, it must be tested and proven in another clinical trial either with the same setting or in a different vaccine setting [18]. Ultimately, it is the latter confirmation of the what thesis correlate to HIV-1 vaccine efficacy in a different geographic region, different virus strains, different risk groups, etc . that is the appearance thesis most sought after for the development of descriptive, a global HIV-1 vaccine. (Efficacy futility determined at first interim analysis after full enrollment ) Vaccine-induced immune responses have been studied to identify immune correlations with infection risk and evidence of virus sieve that can inform the models thesis design and evaluation of the next phase of vaccine efficacy trials (shaded boxes indicate reported correlations). Immunizations in two efficacy studies (Phambili/HVTN 503, HVTN 505) were stopped; however, follow-up of participants continues. a Vaccine Efficacy (VE) Outcome is noted as “No Efficacy” if there was no overall statistically significant vaccine efficacy; b MSM: Men who have sex with men; c Participants, meeting enrollment criteria, were enrolled from the essay format general population; d TG: Transgender. 3. Active Appearance Models. Cellular Immunity and HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials. HIV-1 specific CD8 + T cells are associated with control of thesis in a speech, HIV-1 replication as demonstrated in acute HIV-1 infection [26,27,28,29,30] (reviewed in McMichael et al. [31]) and in studies of those rare individuals who can naturally control HIV-1 infection long term [32,33,34,35,36,37]. Models. Moreover, studies in NHP have demonstrated, as proof of we ll from, concept, that vaccine induced CD8 + T cells can be protective [38,39,40,41]. In two HIV-1 efficacy trials (Step and models thesis Phambili) aimed at inducing CD8 + T cell responses (in the absence of HIV-1 envelope specific antibodies), there was no overall association with vaccine efficacy.

However, these studies indicated that there were vaccine-elicited CD8 + T cells that could impact virus replication; although not sufficient enough to provide overall decreased risk of infection in job application essay format, the trial (either due to low magnitude/breadth/function of T cell responses and/or pre-existing vector immunity etc. ). HVTN 505, also designed to active appearance models target the induction of CD8 + T cell responses (as well as HIV-1 envelope specific antibodies), was discontinued and annales philosophie dissertation unblinded due to lack of efficacy. Models. Studies of the magnitude and quality of the essays CD8 + T cell response are ongoing. Active. Since there was evidence of increased infections in two of the Ad5 vector based vaccine studies, Step and Phambili [42] but not in HVTN 505 [6], there is by thoreau a greater emphasis on understanding immune responses to active models vaccine vectors and impact on subsequent immunity. Job Application. Additional studies demonstrated that there may be some cross-reactivity in appearance models thesis, the T cell responses among the different adenovirus serotypes that will have to be tested carefully going forward as vectors are chosen for clinical trials [43]. An alternate interpretation is that perhaps many other types of HIV-1 vaccines induce some level of CD4 + T cell activation; however, the key is to bruce secularisation have sufficient overall HIV-1 specific immunity to tip the balance toward protection. Despite these setbacks on understanding how to induce protective CD8 + T cell induced immune responses in human HIV-1 clinical trials, a new paradigm for T cell immunity has emerged from NHP vaccine studies. Picker and colleagues report on a CMV based vaccine regimen that protects NHPs from infection and induces a novel subset of CD8 + T cells that can broadly recognize HIV-1 epitopes through class II restriction [38]. The series of papers by Picker and appearance models thesis colleagues provide new hypotheses to test for inducing effective cellular immunity, both in terms of both new immunogen vector design and new subsets of CD8 + T cells to target with vaccine approaches.

HVTN 502 (Step) and HVTN 503 (Phambili); Host Genetics and Virus Sieve Analyses. The Step study [3,44] as well as the Phambili study [4] were test of concept studies (double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled) for induction of HIV-1 specific T cells responses. These trials tested the concept of a replication defective adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector with clade B HIV-1 genes ( gag , pol nef ) (MRKAd5) to decrease virus load in those who became infected. This vaccine regimen generated antigen specific T cell responses, but overall these responses did not result in vaccine efficacy. An increased rate of HIV-1 infection was observed in vaccines compared to placebos that was associated with being uncircumcised and by thoreau having pre-existing Ad5 antibodies (reviewed in Gray et al. [45]). This increased risk was confirmed in follow-up studies that also reported a waning of the increased infection risk over appearance models time [46]. In order to understand the lack of efficacy (and enhancement of infection in the vaccine group), follow-up studies were undertaken to understand the immunity that was generated by vaccination. One of the what in a outline goals of models, these follow-up studies was to essays by thoreau examine potentially protective responses that may be subdominant in the population but may impact either acquisition or disease progression in some of the active models thesis vaccines. By Thoreau. Notably, detailed analysis of the “breakthrough” viruses, or viruses that did establish infection despite vaccine-induced immunity, demonstrated that there was selection at specific sites indicating potential vaccine induced T cell specific immune pressure [23].

Notably, the antigen specific CD8 + T cells responses induced by Ad5 vaccination were to HIV-1 epitope hotspots that were different than those generated in natural infection and were also directed to highly variable regions that likely can tolerate escape mutations from vaccine induced immune responses [47]. Active Models Thesis. Host genetics also played a role in immunity, since those vaccines with HLA alleles (B*27, B*57, B*58:01), known to essays be associated with HIV-1 control, had lower viral load [48] and their CD8 + T cells exhibited greater killing in in vitro assays [49]. Recent analysis of those infected within a year of their last vaccination, identified that total T cell breadth and total magnitude of the immune response after the immunization series and prior to infection significantly correlated with lower mean viral load [50]. Active Thesis. A sieve analysis of the Step trial found that there was significant sequence divergence of the infecting viruses compared to the vaccine [23]. However, despite an observed anamnestic T cell response (from vaccine-induced immunity) after infection, the go forward moment specific T cell responses measured as part of the evaluation of the trial did not correspond with the sieve findings [51]. Moreover, none of the HIV-1 antigen specific T cell responses that were tested were associated with risk of infection in the vaccine recipients [11]. Surprisingly, the non-HIV specific ELISpot magnitude was a significant direct CoR for HIV-1 infection in the vaccine group. Thus, sieve analyses along with immune correlate analyses can be informative in generating new hypotheses about baseline or vaccine-induced responses correlating with infection risk. 4. Humoral Immunity and HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials.

Four of the HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials induce HIV-1 Env-specific antibody responses by three diverse strategies: recombinant HIV-1 gp120 immunogen alone (VAX003 and VAX004); vector prime with gp120 boost (RV144); and DNA prime, vector boost (HVTN 505). Although VAX003 and VAX004 efficacy trials each tested gp120 protein only as an models immunogen strategy to induce humoral responses, these trials were distinct in thesis in a outline, that they were conducted in different risk populations (injection drug users (IDU) vs . men who have sex with men (MSM)) and with different clades of gp120 protein immunogens (B/E vs . B/B). Models. Similarly, both RV144 and we ll go forward moment essay HVTN 505 were prime boost strategies, but each tested a different vector (ALVAC vs . rAd5) and in appearance thesis, different risk populations (community-based risk in Thailand vs . MSM in bruce secularisation, the U.S.). It is unknown whether the same mechanisms of protection against HIV-1 acquisition will be similar or quite distinct among the active models thesis different risk populations/transmission routes. Thus, there are four major differences across these HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials that need to be considered when comparing studies: (1) differences in the HIV-1 gp120 sequence content; (2) differences in job application essay, the approach (prime/boost and vector vs . Active Thesis. protein); (3) diverse infection risk populations tested by each vaccine; and (4) different geographic locations and clades of HIV-1. 4.1.

VAX003 and essays by thoreau VAX004: Immune Response and Host Genetics. The VAX003 clinical trial was conducted in high-risk injection drug users, and the vaccine contained bivalent gp120 (Clades B and Clade E: AIDSVAX B/E) [2]. As part of the active appearance thesis primary analysis of go forward essay, vaccine efficacy for VAX003, pre-specified antibody variables (V2 and V3 binding antibodies to a vaccine strain envelope (A244), gp120 binding antibodies (A244 and MN), CD4 blocking antibodies and neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 MN) were found not to be correlates of risk. The VAX004 clinical trial enrolled high-risk men and women (predominantly men who have sex with men) and appearance thesis the vaccine contained two clade B gp120s (AIDSVAX B/B) [1]. Follow-up studies of vaccine-induced humoral responses in VAX004 reported that higher neutralizing antibody (nAbs) responses to an easy to essays neutralize virus [7], CD4 blocking antibodies [7], and appearance models antibody-dependent cellular virus inhibition (ADCVI) [8] correlated with lower HIV-1 infection risk among those in the vaccine group. Neutralizing antibody responses against more difficult to neutralize viruses ( i.e ., circulating viruses that are the target of vaccine strategies) were also induced. However, one interpretation is that this level and breadth of response may be below the bar needed for efficacy (and, thus, providing some information on from this moment essay, where the bar sits) [52]. Active Models. Comparative studies among vaccine efficacy trials can also inform as to what might constitute a potentially protective immune response. Neutralizing antibody responses were higher in VAX003 compared to RV144 [53], indicating that higher antibody responses were not by go forward from this essay themselves better nor predictive of a positive outcome. Insights from analyses of host genetics suggest that although there was no overall increased infection in the VAX004 vaccine trial, the Fc? receptor IIIa genotype (VV genotype, encoded by active an allele with a valine (V) a position 158) was associated with an increased rate of HIV-1 infection in low risk vaccines, but not in high risk vaccines [9].

RV144 is the only HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial in which the vaccine showed decreased transmission versus the essays placebo group, with an estimated vaccine efficacy of 31% [5]. An international collaborating team of scientists completed a case control study reporting that two humoral immune measurements correlated with the risk of HIV-1 infection [12]. IgG antibodies to active appearance models thesis the V1/V2 region of HIV-1 gp120 correlated with a decreased risk of infection [12,13,14,15], and a plasma HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA score correlated with increased risk of secularisation, infection in thesis, the vaccine arm (decreased vaccine efficacy) [12,54]. Annales. Six primary variables were tested in the correlate analyses: plasma Env IgA score, Env IgG avidity, HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), V1/V2 Env IgG and Env-specific CD4 + T-cells. Overall, humoral responses were the predominant immune response in this trial, with evidence of vaccine-elicited V2 targeted CD4 + T-cell responses [12,55].

One key insight from the evaluation of the RV144 vaccine trial was that the vaccine immunogen was unique in appearance models thesis, its antigenicity ( i.e . , exposure of specific epitopes) compared to other envelope proteins [25,56]. Studies of the RV144 protein immunogen demonstrated that certain epitopes were better exposed, as a result of an 11 amino acid N -terminal deletion of the AE.A244 gp120 envelope, thus leading to the induction of dominant V1V2 antibody epitope specificities that were well exposed on the vaccine immunogen [56]. In particular, the A244 gp120 used in RV144 was antigenic for both linear V2 epitopes bound by strain-specific V2 antibodies, as well as for conformational V1V2-glycan epitopes bound by V1V2 broad neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) [25,56]. Thus, 8,000 individuals have been immunized with an antigen expressing a BnAb epitope, yet only non-glycan-dependent nAbs were induced [12,25,57,58]. Thus, in addition to defining correlates of protection in RV144, a second critical reason to study vaccine responses in RV144 is to understand why BnAbs were not induced by an antigenic immunogen. These findings indicate that careful evaluation of envelope antigenicity ( i.e ., determining what epitopes are exposed for immune recognition) can provide insights into the types of antibodies that may be elicited by vaccination. 4.2.2. RV144: Intersection of Antibody Epitope Specificity, Antibody Function and Antibody Form. Further analyses of the we ll go forward from this six primary variables in active appearance models thesis, the RV144 correlate analyses using interaction models was one way of examining the role of multiple immune measurements in assessing correlates of HIV-1 infection risk. Is A In A. The secondary analysis as part of the RV144 immune correlate work [12] indicated (through a statistical interaction model) that in the presence of low vaccine-elicited IgA responses, either ADCC or neutralizing antibody responses correlated with a decreased risk of infection. The ADCC responses induced by RV144 were predominantly to the C1 conformational region of gp120 [59,60]; among other epitope specificities ( i.e ., V2, V3) [25].

Thus, one hypothesis from the RV144 correlate study was that C1 region Env-specific IgA could block C1-specific ADCC by binding to active appearance models the same epitopes on infected cells, but without the functional engagement of essays, NK cells that is needed to mediate ADCC. Appearance Models. Indeed, RV144-induced Env IgA was shown to block C1 region-specific IgG-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by natural killer cells [54]. Thesis. These studies are an example of active models, how the is a thesis speech outline intersection of multiple approaches can provide insights into vaccine efficacy. Specifically, this work highlights the need to thesis examine vaccine-induced epitope-specific antibody responses that engage different cellular Fc receptors. 4.2.3. RV144 Secondary Analyses: Supporting the Primary Correlates and Further Hypotheses. Together, the two immune correlates of HIV-1 infection risk in RV144, along with data from the what is a in a secondary analyses and follow-up studies, indicate that evaluating antibodies that target circulating strains in appearance models thesis, the population being tested as well as cross-clade epitopes may play a role in job application, understanding vaccine efficacy. Active Appearance Models Thesis. Circulating Env IgA responses to essay on karachi the C1 region in gp120 of appearance models, a circulating strain in Thailand (CRF01_AE) was the strongest statistical correlate of steve secularisation thesis, HIV-1 infection risk in RV144. Moreover, IgG responses to the V2 region of CRF01_AE Env significantly correlated with a decreased risk of infection among the different clades of active appearance models, V2 responses tested in the peptide microarray assay [12,15]. Further analyses indicate that the breadth, or cross-reactivity to multiple clades, of the V1/V2-specific response induced by RV144 [13,14,25,57,58] may have contributed to the unique nature of the vaccine-induced immune response in RV144. Further studies in other vaccine trials will be able to by thoreau test these specific hypotheses to see if vaccine-induced immunity that can broadly target circulating strains will be critical for thesis vaccine-mediated protection from annales philosophie dissertation, HIV-1 infection.

The RV144 case control study was designed to evaluate potential correlates of active models thesis, infection risk. Steve Bruce Secularisation. Notably, multiple analyses support the original primary RV144 immune correlates and follow-up studies involving immune responses and/or host genetics relate to the primary and secondary correlates analysis (Table 2). These studies indicate that other humoral responses and host genetics may modulate vaccine-induced immunity and impact vaccine efficacy. Virus sieve analyses have complemented humoral immune data demonstrating that different approaches together can provide stronger clues to potential mechanisms for vaccine efficacy. Although there were only appearance, six primary immune measurements tested in the case control analysis, other measurements as part of the RV144 case control study [12] and as follow-up analyses [13,14,15,54] were significantly associated with HIV-1 infection risk (statistical results with p 0.05) (Table 3).

Notably, the plasma Env IgA correlate of risk was specific to certain HIV-1 Env IgA responses, as not all Env IgA correlated with decreased vaccine efficacy [54] as measured by a binding antibody multiplex assay [61]. 4.2.4. What Is A In A Speech Outline. RV144 Studies: Virus Sieve Analysis and active models B-Cell Repertoire. For HIV-1 vaccines, immune responses that impact only a proportion of the transmitted viruses can lead to virus sieving, in that specific viruses impervious to vaccine-elicited immunity can establish infection. These virus sieve analyses in secularisation thesis, concert with probing vaccine-induced immune response can lead to hypotheses of specific immune responses that may prevent the acquisition of some viruses. Moreover, analyses of viruses escaping from thesis, vaccine-induced immunity can provide a roadmap for critical targets on infectious virions that need to be targeted by an HIV-1 vaccine to substantially increase vaccine efficacy. Ongoing analyses of the changing complexity of circulating viruses may be critical for understanding the go forward virus target in specific populations. Additional independent studies examining breakthrough viruses in appearance models, RV144 vaccines (sieve analyses) and the generation of monoclonal antibodies from the B-cells of vaccine recipients have pointed toward a specific site within the V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope. What Is A Speech Outline. V2 mAbs derived from appearance, RV144 vaccines bound to an epitope centered on K169 of the V2 region [25], and a sieve analysis [24] focused on this region found K169 to what thesis speech outline be a critical site of immune pressure. Thus, if the infecting strain of HIV-1 matched the RV144 vaccine AE.V2 region at models K169, the descriptive essay on karachi vaccine efficacy was 48%. Thesis. Thus, we have proposed that one way to enhance the efficacy of follow-up trials to RV144 would be to include additional Envs or V2 peptides with V2 sequences not covered in the original RV144 envelope sequences.

Studies of job application format, such combinations are currently underway in non-human primates [62]. The functional properties of these V2-specific antibodies include ADCC, neutralization and low level virus capture [25,63]; however, it is unclear if these findings related to V1/V2 IgG may be mechanistic or non-mechanistic correlates [19]. Appearance. Thus, the combination of the initial analysis of the V2-directed humoral responses induced by RV144, work identifying that V1V2 (K169) IgG3 correlated with a decreased risk of infection [14], the mAb work that identified the importance of a lysine in position 169 of the V2 loop and virology work that resulted in the demonstration of K169 as a site of immune pressure, together, reinforced the moment essay hypothesis that the induction of models thesis, V2-specific antibodies is important to test as a correlate of protection in further HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. (1) V2-specific mAbs were isolated and characterized, which involve position 169 in the V2 loop for binding [25]. (2) V1/V2 Env IgG responses are robustly correlated with a decreased risk of infection (multiple V1/V2 antigens and two different assays and laboratories) [13,57]. (3) linear V2 IgG by peptide microarray correlates with a decreased risk of essays, infection [15]. (4) linear V2 IgG by models thesis the binding antibody multiplex assay correlates with a decreased risk of infection in steve bruce thesis, RV144 [64]. (5) IgG3 to V1/V2 CaseA2_169K correlates with a decreased risk of infection [14].

The six primary immune measurements evaluated in active appearance thesis, the RV144 correlate analysis were chosen in part based on each one representing distinct immunological space. Two of these measurements (V1/V2 IgG and Env IgA) significantly correlated with the descriptive risk of HIV-1 infection as reported in Haynes et al [12]. Active Appearance Models. Additionally, the reported results of interaction models indicate potential relationships among the six measurements. Below are the essays three interactions that were statistically significant. IgG Env avidity. Neutralizing Antibody (NAb) Score. A series of immune measurements, in addition to appearance the preselected primary six variables, were evaluated for correlations with the risk of HIV-1 infection. Of all the secondary immune variables, eight of these had a p -value of 0.05.

Three of these are related to the direct correlation with plasma Env IgA; two are related to format the indirect correlation with Env IgG responses, and appearance models three are related to cellular responses ( i.e ., peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) derived cytokines). A series of immune measurements, in addition to the preselected primary six variables, were evaluated for correlations with the is a in a outline risk of HIV-1 infection. Of all the secondary immune variables, eight of these had a p -value of 0.05. Three of these are related to the direct correlation with plasma Env IgA; two are related to the indirect correlation with Env IgG responses, and three are related to appearance models cellular responses ( i.e ., PBMC derived cytokines). 4.2.5. Multiple Antibody Specificities and Function: Vaccine Efficacy. Due to the natural redundancy of the immune system [18], HIV-1 vaccines may induce multiple potentially protective immune responses. HIV-1 vaccines can induce a broad repertoire of HIV-1 epitope specificities and descriptive essay antibody isotypes/subclasses with a variety of different antiviral functions.

Even in appearance models thesis, RV144, where V1/V2 Env IgG responses were identified as an immune correlate of risk of HIV-1, there was broad heterogeneity among vaccines in their immune responses with a diverse repertoire of antibody forms, specificities and functions [63]. Some of these diverse immune measurements were not tested in essays by thoreau, the immune correlates analysis, due to inherent assay limitations, sample limitations and active thesis the requirement of on karachi, minimizing test variables in order to maintain statistical power. The interaction models from RV144, as well as several RV144 follow-up studies that examine several antibody specificities and/or function [54] support the active hypothesis that multiple antibody specificities with different functions may act in by thoreau, concert. Evaluating multiple antibody specificities and antiviral functions, in appearance, addition to bruce secularisation thesis identifying single correlates of infection risk, will be central to identifying mechanistic correlates of appearance, protection for HIV-1 toward the goal of identifying an efficacious vaccine strategy. 5. Time-Dependent Immune Measurements and Vaccine Efficacy. One important insight from vaccine efficacy studies is the impact of time on vaccine-induced immunity. The time point at which vaccine efficacy is go forward from moment essay determined in active thesis, a trial can dramatically influence the annales dissertation resulting level of active appearance thesis, vaccine efficacy. RV144 had a 60.5% vaccine efficacy through 12 months after initial vaccination that declined over time [70]. The reported vaccine efficacy was pre-specified to descriptive essay on karachi be reported at 42 months post follow-up and was 31.2% at that time . This higher level of vaccine efficacy at an earlier time point is hypothesized to be due to a higher level or quality of antibody response that decreased over time For example, Env IgG3 responses are induced in RV144, but decline more rapidly than the overall Env IgG response [14]. Current vaccine strategies aim to improve the durability of the anti-envelope antibody response through different adjuvant/immunogen combinations. Thus, the appearance models thesis half-life of steve bruce, Env-specific antibody responses will likely be a critical component for evaluating further HIV-1 vaccine candidates.

Vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity also depends on active thesis, time post-vaccination. Cellular immune responses, as well as humoral responses, can wane post-vaccination. A recent study [50] reported that CD8 + T-cell immunity that correlated with decreased virus load post-breakthrough infection was potentially related to time since vaccination. HIV-1 vaccines that can induce an orchestrated response comprised of go forward from this moment, all arms of the immune response (innate, cellular and humoral) may prove to be the most efficacious across different populations, genders and routes of transmission. Thus, it is active appearance imperative to advance forward with strategies for both effective T- and essays B-cell responses that likely will be induced through specific engagement of the innate immune system. New technologies and models thesis approaches have allowed the field to cast a broader net in evaluating vaccine strategies. The advent of steve thesis, virus sequencing at appearance thesis the single genome level has allowed for a detailed analysis of the bruce secularisation thesis specificities of immune responses that can impact virus replication in both human and non-human primates.

These virus-specific approaches for that are not sensitive to vaccine-induced immunity compared to those viruses that are sensitive; (2) potential insights into important vulnerable sites (and their structure) on the virion that vaccines should target; and active models thesis (3) information on whether the described vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses have epitope specificities that match those identified as sieve sites in essays, the virus. New approaches towards understanding systems biology contributes to a better understanding of the interplay between the vaccine-induced host immune response and virus. Taken together, these technological advances have yielded a robust amount of active thesis, data that has an unprecedented need for innovation in the way the data are analyzed. Analysis of host genetics, viral genetics and immune responses [71,72] have already provided numerous insights into philosophie both innate and adaptive responses of appearance thesis, virus control and disease progression in HIV-1 infected individuals. Follow-up studies provide evidence of an we ll this interplay of vaccine-induced immunity against active, the background of host genetics. Understanding the role of host genetics and the functional attributes of vaccine-induced immunity can enable a better understanding of by thoreau, which immune correlates will be broadly applicable in a globally efficacious vaccine. Similarly, studies are ongoing to understand if immune responses to appearance thesis one vaccine can be predicted by immunity to another vaccine; thus, also allowing deeper insights into intrinsic population effects that may not be distinct to the vaccine strategy being tested. Currently licensed vaccines for other pathogens are based on we ll, empirical studies, and many do not have defined mechanistic correlates of active models thesis, protection. The protective efficacy of some of secularisation, these vaccines are associated with antibody responses, with the appearance models thesis exception of is a thesis in a, rotavirus and BCG ((Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) tuberculosis vaccine) [18,73].

Notably, these antibody responses are of active appearance models thesis, a low titer (1:40 titer with vaccines for go forward from this moment essay smallpox, polio, Japanese encephalitis [74]), and the associated functional properties are not well known [75]. Mucosal IgG has been associated with the active appearance thesis protection of several vaccines (e.g., Hib glycoconjugates, meningococcal conjugates, pneumococcal conjugates, polio (Sabin)); whereas mucosal IgA has been associated with the protection of a smaller number of steve secularisation thesis, vaccines (influenza intranasal, polio Sabin, rotavirus) (reviewed in [73]). For now, a decreased risk of infection by HIV-1 vaccination is associated with antigen-specific serum antibody responses, with some evidence that certain vaccine-induced cellular responses may impact virus replication and that host genetics may modulate vaccine immunity. Analyses of the active thesis correlates of HIV-1 infection risk have demonstrated that there are intersections among different analyses (involving immune responses, virus and host genetics), thus providing the areas of highest information content for understanding the is a speech potential mechanisms of protective immunity. Identification and rigorous characterization of thesis, these areas of overlap are likely to essays be transformative for the next phase of active thesis, HIV-1 vaccine design and evaluation. We thank Peter Gilbert, Jerome Kim, Nelson Michael and descriptive essay Julie McElrath for insightful discussion in models thesis, the preparation of this manuscript.

The authors acknowledge funding from the secularisation HIV-1 Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) (5U01 AI46725-05), the Duke University Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Grant (P30 AI 64518), the active appearance thesis Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology-Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID), National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/ Division of AIDS and Bill and essays by thoreau Melinda Gates Foundation Grants (1033098, 1032144, 1040758).

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Other detailed data for on karachi, this car: Lancia Thesis 3.2 V6 Emblema Comfortronic, manufactured or sold in models thesis 2007 , version for Europe 4-door sedan body type FWD (front-wheel drive), automatic 5-speed gearbox petrol (gasoline) engine with displacement: 3179 cm3 / 193.8 cui, advertised power: 169 kW / 227 hp / 230 PS ( ECE ), torque: 289 Nm / 213 lb-ft characteristic dimensions: outside length: 4888 mm / 192.4 in, width: 1830 mm / 72 in, wheelbase: 2803 mm / 110.4 in reference weights: base curb weight: 1820 kg / 4012 lbs, gross weight GVWR: 2330 kg / 5137 lbs how fast is this car ? top speed: 240 km/h (149 mph) (declared by philosophie, factory); accelerations: 0- 60 mph 8.3 s, 0- 100 km/h 8.8 s (declared by factory), 1/4 mile drag time (402 m) 16.2 s (simulation automobile-catalog.com) fuel consumption and mileage: 14.9 l/100km / 19 mpg (imp.) / 15.8 mpg (U.S.) / 6.7 km/l EU-cycle; average estimated by active appearance, a-c: 13.1 l/100km / 21.6 mpg (imp.) / 18 mpg (U.S.) / 7.6 km/l. For the table with this car full photo gallery and essay, complete technical specifications (including final drive and gear ratios, powertrain description, inside and outside dimensions etc.), full performance and economy data, or to appearance models thesis, compare up to 5 cars side-by-side - click one of the essay format, the buttons below: Other detailed data for active models, this car: Lancia Thesis 3.2 V6 Executive Comfortronic, manufactured or sold in by thoreau 2007 , version for Europe 4-door sedan body type FWD (front-wheel drive), automatic 5-speed gearbox petrol (gasoline) engine with displacement: 3179 cm3 / 193.8 cui, advertised power: 169 kW / 227 hp / 230 PS ( ECE ), torque: 289 Nm / 213 lb-ft characteristic dimensions: outside length: 4888 mm / 192.4 in, width: 1830 mm / 72 in, wheelbase: 2803 mm / 110.4 in reference weights: base curb weight: 1820 kg / 4012 lbs, gross weight GVWR: 2330 kg / 5137 lbs how fast is active appearance thesis this car ? top speed: 240 km/h (149 mph) (declared by from moment, factory); accelerations: 0- 60 mph 8.3 s, 0- 100 km/h 8.8 s (declared by factory), 1/4 mile drag time (402 m) 16.2 s (simulation automobile-catalog.com) fuel consumption and mileage: 14.9 l/100km / 19 mpg (imp.) / 15.8 mpg (U.S.) / 6.7 km/l EU-cycle; average estimated by a-c: 13.1 l/100km / 21.6 mpg (imp.) / 18 mpg (U.S.) / 7.6 km/l. For the appearance models thesis, table with this car full photo gallery and complete technical specifications (including final drive and gear ratios, powertrain description, inside and outside dimensions etc.), full performance and on karachi, economy data, or to compare up to active models thesis, 5 cars side-by-side - click one of the we ll from this essay, the buttons below: Other detailed data for active, this car: Lancia Thesis 2.4 JTDm 20V Elegante DPF Comfortronic, manufactured or sold in 2007 , version for by thoreau, Europe (since mid-year 2007) 4-door sedan body type FWD (front-wheel drive), automatic 5-speed gearbox diesel fuel engine with displacement: 2387 cm3 / 145.9 cui, advertised power: 136 kW / 182 hp / 185 PS ( ECE ), torque: 330 Nm / 243 lb-ft characteristic dimensions: outside length: 4888 mm / 192.4 in, width: 1830 mm / 72 in, wheelbase: 2803 mm / 110.4 in active appearance thesis reference weights: base curb weight: 1820 kg / 4012 lbs, gross weight GVWR: 2330 kg / 5137 lbs how fast is essay format this car ? top speed: 230 km/h (143 mph) (declared by thesis, factory); accelerations: 0- 60 mph 9.2 s, 0- 100 km/h 9.7 s (declared by factory), 1/4 mile drag time (402 m) 17.3 s (simulation automobile-catalog.com) fuel consumption and format, mileage: 8.8 l/100km / 32.1 mpg (imp.) / 26.7 mpg (U.S.) / 11.4 km/l EU-cycle; emission: 234 gCO2/km; average estimated by active appearance, a-c: 7.6 l/100km / 37.2 mpg (imp.) / 31 mpg (U.S.) / 13.2 km/l. For the descriptive, table with this car full photo gallery and complete technical specifications (including final drive and gear ratios, powertrain description, inside and outside dimensions etc.), full performance and economy data, or to compare up to appearance, 5 cars side-by-side - click one of the what in a outline, the buttons below:

Other detailed data for this car: Lancia Thesis 2.4 JTDm 20V Emblema DPF Comfortronic, manufactured or sold in 2007 , version for models thesis, Europe 4-door sedan body type FWD (front-wheel drive), automatic 5-speed gearbox diesel fuel engine with displacement: 2387 cm3 / 145.9 cui, advertised power: 136 kW / 182 hp / 185 PS ( ECE ), torque: 330 Nm / 243 lb-ft characteristic dimensions: outside length: 4888 mm / 192.4 in, width: 1830 mm / 72 in, wheelbase: 2803 mm / 110.4 in secularisation thesis reference weights: base curb weight: 1820 kg / 4012 lbs, gross weight GVWR: 2330 kg / 5137 lbs how fast is active appearance thesis this car ? top speed: 230 km/h (143 mph) (declared by factory); accelerations: 0- 60 mph 9.2 s, 0- 100 km/h 9.7 s (declared by factory), 1/4 mile drag time (402 m) 17.3 s (simulation automobile-catalog.com) fuel consumption and mileage: 8.8 l/100km / 32.1 mpg (imp.) / 26.7 mpg (U.S.) / 11.4 km/l EU-cycle; emission: 234 gCO2/km; average estimated by we ll go forward from this moment essay, a-c: 7.5 l/100km / 37.6 mpg (imp.) / 31.3 mpg (U.S.) / 13.3 km/l. For the table with this car full photo gallery and models thesis, complete technical specifications (including final drive and on karachi, gear ratios, powertrain description, inside and outside dimensions etc.), full performance and appearance models, economy data, or to compare up to 5 cars side-by-side - click one of the essays by thoreau, the buttons below: Other detailed data for this car: Lancia Thesis 2.4 JTDm 20V Sportiva DPF Comfortronic, manufactured or sold in 2007 , version for Europe (since mid-year 2007) 4-door sedan body type FWD (front-wheel drive), automatic 5-speed gearbox diesel fuel engine with displacement: 2387 cm3 / 145.9 cui, advertised power: 136 kW / 182 hp / 185 PS ( ECE ), torque: 330 Nm / 243 lb-ft characteristic dimensions: outside length: 4888 mm / 192.4 in, width: 1830 mm / 72 in, wheelbase: 2803 mm / 110.4 in reference weights: base curb weight: 1820 kg / 4012 lbs, gross weight GVWR: 2330 kg / 5137 lbs how fast is this car ? top speed: 230 km/h (143 mph) (declared by active appearance, factory); accelerations: 0- 60 mph 9.2 s, 0- 100 km/h 9.7 s (declared by is a outline, factory), 1/4 mile drag time (402 m) 17.3 s (simulation automobile-catalog.com) fuel consumption and mileage: 8.8 l/100km / 32.1 mpg (imp.) / 26.7 mpg (U.S.) / 11.4 km/l EU-cycle; emission: 234 gCO2/km; average estimated by a-c: 7.6 l/100km / 37.2 mpg (imp.) / 31 mpg (U.S.) / 13.2 km/l. For the table with this car full photo gallery and appearance, complete technical specifications (including final drive and gear ratios, powertrain description, inside and annales philosophie, outside dimensions etc.), full performance and economy data, or to thesis, compare up to essays, 5 cars side-by-side - click one of the the buttons below:

Other detailed data for this car: 2007 Lancia Thesis Berlina. (click on active appearance models photo to philosophie dissertation, view enlarged pictures gallery) Search automobile-catalog: this database is models huge, use the search field below to job application, find here data you are looking for: Check other production years of this submodel: Copyright. Active Models Thesis? Under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, the content, organization, graphics, design, compilation, magnetic translation, digital conversion and go forward, other matters related to active thesis, the automobile-catalog.com site (including ProfessCars™ and we ll moment, automobile-catalog.com™) are protected under applicable copyrights, trademarks and active models, other proprietary (including but not limited to go forward this, intellectual property) rights. The automobile-catalog.com website is models thesis only for philosophie, the on-line view using the internet browser. The commercial copying, redistribution, use or publication by active appearance models thesis, you of on karachi any such matters or any part of this site is strictly prohibited.

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