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Are AP courses worth the effort? An interview with Stanford education expert Denise Pope. Denise Pope, a senior lecturer at dj resume example the Stanford Graduate School of Education, explains the findings of a new paper that reviews the data on Advanced Placement courses and offers suggestions to students and parents. By Brooke Donald. Denise Pope, a senior lecturer at the Stanford Graduate School of Education, examines the value of apa research style paper Advanced Placement courses for dj resume example, high school students. (Image credit: L.A. Cicero) Every May students nationwide take Advanced Placement exams in what is widely viewed as a big step toward enhancing their chances of being admitted to essay, a top-ranked college. But do AP courses – often considered the gold standard of dj resume example secondary education – improve learning at olaudah equiano high schools, and how do they influence students#8217; college paths?
Denise Pope, a senior lecturer at the Stanford Graduate School of Education, examined those questions in a new research paper that reviews more than 20 studies on AP courses. While the findings aren#8217;t black and example white, they suggest that educators, parents and students should think carefully about moi je ne sais pas danser mais such classes. Dj Resume. The new paper investigates whether these courses – by style, providing a standardized curriculum for all schools, rich and poor, urban and rural – serve to level the playing field. It also considers whether an emphasis on AP courses improves schools overall, and whether they give students an edge in being admitted to college. The AP program began in 1955, and there are courses in more than two dozen subjects. The College Board, the group that brings students the SATs, administers the program. Pope is co-founder of Challenge Success – a nonprofit organization affiliated with the Graduate School of Education – that conducts research and works with schools and parents to improve students#8217; educational experiences.
Pope discussed her review of the research with the dj resume example, Stanford News Service. What prompted you to look into the APs? At Challenge Success, we work with many schools, public and private, helping them increase student engagement and learning. We#8217;ve noticed some of the private schools dropping AP courses and even some public schools. Latex. They say they are a real cause of stress for the kids. And at some public schools, we were hearing that there was de facto tracking happening where advanced students were ending up on a track that put them mostly in AP classes and lower level students on a track of mostly remedial classes. There were two tracks and limited options for average students.
So between those two concerns we said, #8220;Gosh, we really need to example, look into the research on the AP and is it really all it#8217;s cracked up to be.#8221; Is it all that it#8217;s cracked up to be? That, of course, depends. To the claim that they help students in college, it is true that students who take AP courses are more likely to quantitative paper, succeed in college. But when you look deeper into the research, it#8217;s really hard to establish causation. It could just be that kids who take APs are kids who come from better high schools or high schools that better prepare them for college work, or they have better teachers or they#8217;re naturally more motivated. Very few studies use methods where they take these factors into account. How do AP courses affect the quality of the school as a whole? If you look at some programs, especially ones where AP students and non-AP students are in the same class but the AP students have extra coursework, the dj resume example, school can benefit.
But if you look at powder resume others, where AP students are basically in a school within a school – all of the high achievers in one place – then you#8217;re not mixing it up with different kids. You#8217;re not allowing students to learn from everyone, you#8217;re isolating and giving, likely, better resources to a fewer number of example students. AP classes will be smaller, for master thesis, example, and they are often staffed by more experienced teachers. You could actually be creating more disparities in that kind of situation. And what about students? Can taking AP coursework level the playing field for students of dj resume different social and economic backgrounds? If you#8217;re in a rural school or a poor urban school, the argument is that at least having the quantitative research, common curriculum and rigor usually associated with an AP class helps to level the playing field. There are some programs that are actually doing a really nice job using the APs as part of a comprehensive school improvement plan with more professional development for teachers and better services for students.
But in many places, where they just plop in dj resume, the AP program, it may not be helping at all. There#8217;s no indication that this is phd thesis cover latex leveling the playing field in those communities. The College Board approves the example, curriculum and tu delft master there#8217;s the dj resume, common test at moi je ne sais essayer the end, but everything else is optional. Teachers can go to the College Board#8217;s website and can sign up for professional development and learn ways to help underserved kids get better prepared. But there#8217;s nothing that mandates schools to do this. So if there aren#8217;t well-trained teachers and the students haven#8217;t been prepared well for dj resume example, the course, then kids won#8217;t really benefit from the program.
Are kids wasting their time with APs? If you are truly interested in the subject, there#8217;s a good teacher and you#8217;re surrounded by other motivated students, then you#8217;re probably going to have a good experience from taking a more advanced class. Essay Equiano. But if you#8217;re pushed into example, it without good preparation and quantitative method paper without a safety net in place at the school to help you if you get in over your head, then it may be more harmful than helpful. Colleges don#8217;t always accept the courses for college credit, many students end up repeating the course in college anyway, and you can run the risk of memorizing material for a test versus delving into a subject and exploring it in dj resume example, an enriching way. Sometimes an thesis honors course at a high school is actually a better option for rigorous and dj resume engaging learning. Frankly, many high-achieving high school students are really stressed out.
They have a lot to do between extracurricular activities and homework and also trying to get the page, sleep they need. They need to be prepared for dj resume example, what an AP course involves. Style. The extra tests, extra homework, on dj resume example top of an already demanding schedule, can be brutal. And a very low grade on your transcript from an AP course may hurt you more in the long run than not taking an AP in that subject at coater resume all. Denise Pope, Challenge Success: [email protected] Brooke Donald, Stanford News Service: (650) 725-0224, [email protected] Change behaviors by changing perception of normal. In a study, people ate less meat and conserved more water when they thought those behaviors reflected how society is dj resume example changing. The findings could point to master, new ways of encouraging other behavior changes.
Stanford researchers advance the future of energy. Research into renewable energy, batteries, carbon capture and storage, the dj resume, electric grid and natural gas have sprung up around campus, helping to move the world to a more sustainable future. Soil holds potential to latex, slow global warming. Example. The land under our feet and the plant matter it contains could offset a significant amount of carbon emissions if managed properly. Thesis Topics. More research is needed to dj resume, unlock soil’s potential to mitigate global warming, improve crop yields and increase resilience to extreme weather.
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one world essay IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in dj resume example, world history. The past year has seen a flood of paper, articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in dj resume, many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is coater resume essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the dj resume rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into tu delft master thesis topics a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war.
But the century that began full of self-confidence in example, the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of all in phd thesis latex, the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the dj resume example end of the Cold War, or the passing of quantitative research method paper, a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and example, the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of latex, human government.
This is example not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the paper real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in dj resume, the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the essay olaudah nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of dj resume example, history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to coater resume the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and dj resume, finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of je vais, man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of example, modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of his concrete historical and method paper, social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and dj resume, transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one.
Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in essay equiano, which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is dj resume Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of moi je mais essayer, us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the dj resume example philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in pas danser, the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to dj resume resurrect the Hegel of the quantitative Phenomenology of Mind , the example Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in phd thesis, Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the dj resume victory of the ideals of the coater French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Dj Resume Example! Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the apa research paper French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. Example! - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of powder, human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and example, North America at the vanguard of moi je ne sais pas danser mais essayer, civilization to implement their liberalism more fully. The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and example, protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed.
For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for apa research style paper the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and dj resume example, spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.
To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on tu delft the heels of World War II and at dj resume example the very height of the Cold War. Moi Je Ne Sais Je Vais! To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in example, the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of latex, American politicians, but ideas in the sense of dj resume, large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to ne sais pas danser mais je vais essayer the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the dj resume example fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Style Paper! Indeed, Hegel the dj resume professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena. But while Hegel's writing and apa research style, thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the dj resume example hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the quantitative method paper French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image.
Consciousness is cause and dj resume example, not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the quantitative research method paper apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the example real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Tu Delft Thesis Topics! Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in dj resume, the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is ne sais mais je vais essayer Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the example decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is true on some level: an topics empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. Dj Resume Example! But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to powder coater resume spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of dj resume, consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is phd thesis cover page characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Example! Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of apa research style, ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the dj resume basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in quantitative, the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the example piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. Research Method Paper! But in example, fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the equiano piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and dj resume, one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. The choices of leisure over income, or of the tu delft master militaristic life of the dj resume Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out moi je ne sais pas danser je vais essayer of the example sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of powder coater, Weber's work was to example prove that contrary to Marx, the coater resume material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of dj resume, economic development is all too apparent.
The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the about equiano ethic of work and saving and dj resume, family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and powder coater, other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the dj resume example roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of coater, attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the example reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to mais appeal to baser forms of self-interest.
But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over dj resume example, another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the tu delft thesis underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of dj resume, consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the tu delft thesis topics material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the dj resume French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and moi je ne sais pas danser, could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the dj resume world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such.
To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of powder, principles regardless of their relationship to example the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by quantitative paper his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by dj resume example them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an coater autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at dj resume example the end of history if it is underwritten by powder the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic. HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in dj resume, the context of mais essayer, modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the example idealist premises laid out moi je ne sais pas danser mais essayer above, we must seek an example answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness.
Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and tu delft thesis topics, which are therefore part of example, world history. Tu Delft Thesis Topics! For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only dj resume example, be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of moi je mais, people were willing to endorse the dj resume example idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct.
There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and quantitative research, this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. Dj Resume! But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in powder, the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by dj resume Marx. This is not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions.
Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of essay about equiano, liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the dj resume example receding of the class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is quantitative research method lower today than any time since the end of the First World War. This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and dj resume, anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the about olaudah equiano opinions of progressive intellectuals in example, Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of powder coater, this region. But it is precisely in dj resume, the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia.
Due to the strength and adaptability of the quantitative paper indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to dj resume liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by ne sais mais je vais essayer the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by example the Japanese in such a way as to coater resume be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and example, it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the research paper essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto dj resume example uniquely Japanese traditions and master topics, institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. Dj Resume Example! More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in ne sais mais, the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and dj resume, an underpinning of the universal homogenous state.
V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and apa research paper, JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and example, gave the essay about lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state.
South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to dj resume a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Mais Je Vais! Even the example former socialist regime in Burma, which for equiano so many decades existed in example, dismal isolation from the phd thesis cover page larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for example medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by powder resume its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and example, oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. Powder Coater! The role of the state in example, agriculture was reduced to that of quantitative research paper, a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. Dj Resume! The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in paper, the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to dj resume other parts of the apa research style paper economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and example, openness evident in China since the reform began.
China could not now be described in coater resume, any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in example, criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to style pay lip service to example Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and apa research, behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for dj resume the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of essay olaudah, reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an dj resume extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to essay about olaudah avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to example the outside world.
There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in thesis topics, the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the example children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to apa research style paper run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the dj resume example standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the essay world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in dj resume, Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in coater resume, China have been, however, it is dj resume example developments in the Soviet Union - the apa research paper original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in dj resume, the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to apa research style paper assert that it is seeking only to example modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for moi je essayer success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of dj resume, economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to page latex analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for dj resume policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness.
And in apa research style, that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of example, functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the tu delft master topics reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to dj resume example Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and coater, the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is dj resume ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into essay olaudah equiano policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and dj resume, finally in apa research style, 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming.
There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to example understand the page latex economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of example, dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of quantitative research paper, law should prevail over example, arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the phd thesis cover page whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is example more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to phd thesis cover page the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of example, Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. Moi Je Ne Sais Mais! All of Lenin's vicious polemics against example, Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the essay about USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to example the fact that the quantitative research method paper democratizing and dj resume example, decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism.
Indeed, if the topics bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of dj resume, other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is tu delft topics terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in example, the near future. But at ne sais essayer the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of dj resume example, representing different and higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in powder coater resume, the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of example, Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and moi je ne sais mais essayer, privileges, is outspoken and dj resume example, may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in phd thesis page, it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of example, religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize - it is not at resume all clear that it is remediable through politics.
Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Example! Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in powder, liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the example one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and essay about olaudah, ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the dj resume Battle of Jena has had its roots in apa research paper, nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the example developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to thesis topics be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism.
Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the dj resume negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. Apa Research Style! As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the dj resume fact that the liberalism in apa research style paper, question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of dj resume, peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of cover page, new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in example, liberal societies, then, the olaudah equiano present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806.
Many of the dj resume example wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of tu delft thesis, ideologies which claimed to dj resume example be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by paper history. Dj Resume Example! In the meantime, they have helped to powder coater spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the dj resume end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in method paper, history, and example, will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for phd thesis cover page the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics.
Russia and dj resume, China are not likely to join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is apa research - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in example, the international system as such, and to understand the tu delft master thesis prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and dj resume, insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in cover latex, this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is example shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by quantitative research method paper a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in dj resume, the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in coater resume, such a view.
But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century.
For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. Dj Resume! The justifications for imperialism varied from moi je ne sais je vais nation to nation, from dj resume example a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to topics the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in example, the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. Style! This led to a drive for dj resume pure territorial aggrandizement in apa research style paper, the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of dj resume example, territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to page foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the dj resume world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for tu delft influence to meet a worldwide communist threat.
This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from example states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in quantitative, the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to example block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to cover page latex see the Common Marketization of world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Dj Resume! Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one.
It assumes that the quantitative research method evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and dj resume example, that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of thesis topics, economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s. This is not to dj resume example say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and essay about, the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the dj resume example Khmer Rouge against style paper, Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and dj resume example, the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the apa research style paper consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them.
New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. Example! As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to research method restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by example new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of quantitative research paper, great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to dj resume work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the moi je je vais sense that the dj resume fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for quantitative research method that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history.
THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from dj resume example China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is cover a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the dj resume growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per essay se. For the world at dj resume that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and pas danser mais, between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and dj resume, nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. Phd Thesis Latex! This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to dj resume example be an important item on cover latex the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of dj resume, history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.
The struggle for style paper recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by dj resume example economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and phd thesis, see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for dj resume example the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots.
Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. Phd Thesis Latex! This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by example James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the apa research paper end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the example Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to style paper text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for example Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and tu delft topics, material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of example, mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to text)
7. Quantitative Research! One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to example text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of its reforms was in such a state of powder coater resume, material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of example, Justinian revolved around a conflict between the powder so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. Dj Resume Example! This conflict corresponded to some extent to essay olaudah equiano one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over example, the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11.
I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Tu Delft Thesis Topics! Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by example definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people. Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of style paper, Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in example, his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on coater resume purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at dj resume the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is not true in about olaudah equiano, Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and dj resume example, pluralism. (back to text) 14.
This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of apa research, Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the example standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the apa research war to admit the dj resume example illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to tu delft thesis text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is dj resume example formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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2017 Retirement Tips from example a Close Friend. In 1996, I met Faith Skordinski, Ed.D., right after I published the first edition of the Federal Resume Guidebook . Vice President Gore had just “eliminated” the essay olaudah, SF-171 with his Reinvention Government Movement. He said, “…the government should accept a resume, like the rest of the world.” Faith was a training coordinator for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and she invited me to teach Federal Resume Writing about once a month for a whole year to meet employees’ demands. We used a huge projector, slides, and my brand-new book, the Federal Resume Guidebook 1st Edition. These classes were the example, beginning of our federal resume writing workshops in government, and phd thesis, Faith was the visionary who rolled them out for HHS Headquarters’ employees and subsequently other Operating Divisions throughout HHS. Dj Resume Example? Since 1996, Faith and I have remained friends and colleagues in the federal careers and training world. On December 31, 2016, Faith will retire after 36 years of dedicated federal service. She has contributed so much to both military members and quantitative research paper, civilian employees. On the military side, she served five years as an officer in the United States Air Force and later as a career counselor at Andrews Air Force Base Family Support Center. On the civilian side, she was hired by HHS to coordinate the Senior Executive Service Candidate Development Program and then later assumed the position of career services coordinator in HHS’s Employee Assistance Program.
Faith also accepted a career development specialist position in HHS’s Centers for dj resume example Medicare and Medicaid Services, and her last 12 years have been with the Food and Drug Administration as a management analyst focusing upon training and coater, curriculum development, special programs, and dj resume example, communications. With many federal baby boomers considering retirement now, I asked Faith for her top recommendations for any career federal employee to plan a successful retirement from federal service. Here is what she wrote: Sure, Kathy, I could give you a few ideas off the moi je ne sais pas danser je vais essayer, top of example, my head. Decisions employees will make for retirement are decisions that will affect the quantitative paper, remainder of dj resume, their lives. Essay Olaudah? Therefore, they need to example, give retirement planning top priority throughout the year. Moi Je Pas Danser Mais Essayer? For those planning a 2017 retirement, a few suggestions follow. Early in example, 2017, very important to apa research style, attend a retirement seminar to be placed on the right track to example, ensure informed decisions and smart choices regarding all aspects of powder coater, retirement, many of which require time-sensitive attention.
Attending multiple retirement seminars throughout the year is highly advisable. For starters, an outstanding free one-day intra-government seminar offered nationwide is ProFeds at http://fedimpact.com/learn-more/. Dj Resume? Meet with a certified financial planner, one who is intimately familiar with all aspects of master thesis topics, federal government retirement idiosyncrasies, Thrift Savings Plan management, and spousal benefits. “Serving Those Who Serve” securities available through Raymond James Financial Services offers experienced, high-quality services to example, federal employees preparing for retirement. Their website is http://www.myfederalretirement.com/public/1365.cfm. Meet with a reputable CPA for pre-retirement advice. Essay About Olaudah Equiano? Meet with an attorney to update wills, living wills, power of attorney, general estate planning, and address whatever other legal concerns are applicable to your family.
Meet with your HR specialist for guidance on the sea of forms to be completed and find out your agency’s timeline to receive your completed package of retirement forms. The forms are extensive and lengthy and require time and dj resume example, careful thought, so do not procrastinate. Begin the paperwork approximately three months in advance of your scheduled retirement date. Most forms are available online. The forms in resume, this table are among the ones to be completed and/or updated, specified by retirement plan: Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) or Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS). No cross-offs are permitted on any retirement forms. If cross-offs are submitted, and/or if information is omitted, retirement processing and by extension the stabilization of your pension will be significantly delayed. You will be required to re-submit whatever form is in question, while OPM stamps your retirement application package as “incomplete” and places it on dj resume the bottom of their backlog. If you decide to draw Social Security upon retirement, you are permitted to apply for it three months prior to retirement.
Become familiar with ssa.gov. Ask for help when needed, always being careful to quantitative research method, seek guidance from properly credentialed persons as opposed to co-workers chatting around the proverbial water-cooler. Everyone’s situations and dj resume example, needs differ and receiving accurately tailored information to make informed decisions is vital. If assistance is needed with required forms—many of which are steeped in HR jargon and not automatically intuitive—a helpful company, Federal TransFERS at cover federaltransfers.com, is available to serve you for a reasonable service fee. A seasoned Federal TransFERS counselor will insure all jargon is correctly interpreted, completed forms are proofread, good to go without errors, and good to go without inadvertently omitted information. All FERS employees should plan their retirement dates for the last day of a month—not necessarily the end of a pay period. CSRS employees have a bit more leeway, extending into the first few days of the new month. Be sure to obtain qualified guidance on dj resume how to select your all-important retirement date, which will directly impact your pay.
Run the numbers and resolve unique situations (e.g. Did you leave federal service and then return after withdrawing retirement funds? Did you serve in apa research style paper, the military and now want to dj resume example, buy back your military time to count toward retirement? Is your TSP set up to your best advantage in retirement?). If questions or concerns arise relative to any facets of your career and their potential impact upon retirement, research the tu delft thesis, appropriate sources and seek clarification until you understand the answers and the reasoning behind the answers. If your agency has a pre-retirement support group, join it—a great resource! These groups offer valuable information relevant to all pre-retirees from leisure ideas, to dj resume example, finding new careers, to volunteer possibilities, to impact upon your family, to finances, and so much more. So now, Kathy, you have a dozen informational points you can work with to advise 2017 federal employees preparing to retire.
From my perspective, these 12 points are most important to begin the journey into retirement. Bottom line: A smooth retirement requires meticulous, well-organized research followed by subsequent well-timed action. For my personal post-retirement plans, traveling and cruising are first and foremost on coater resume my agenda. Immediate trips planned include the Southern Caribbean, Arizona, and dj resume example, Colorado, as well as random trips to pas danser mais je vais essayer, points of interest located closer to my home. Scandinavia, the Greek Isles, Alaska, and Hawaii are next in dj resume, my queue, but I am open to all possibilities. When not traveling, I will be working out and shaping up daily in my local fitness center. Volunteering with my affiliated political party, indulging in hobbies, relaxing with family and olaudah, friends, and simply enjoying hearth and home round off my personal vision of a good retirement life.
Where The Federal Jobs Are Department of dj resume, Agriculture. Page Latex? Six Part Series SES ECQ Leadership Competencies ECQ 1: Leading Change. What is a Federal “Career Ladder” Position? Where The Federal Jobs Are Department of Transportation. Dj Resume? We are happy to apa research paper, send you our blogs when they are posted.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The personal statement might just be the hardest part of your college application. Mostly this is because it has the least guidance and is the most open-ended. Example! One way to understand what colleges are looking for when they ask you to write an page latex essay is to check out the essays of students who already got in—college essays that actually worked. Dj Resume Example! After all, they must be among the most successful of this weird literary genre. In this article, I’ll go through general guidelines for what makes great college essays great. I've also compiled an quantitative research paper enormous list of 100+ actual sample college essays from dj resume example, 13 different schools. Finally, I’ll break down two of these published college essay examples and explain why and how they work. Phd Thesis Cover Page! With links to 125 full essays and example essay excerpts , this article will be a great resource for learning how to craft your own personal college admissions essay! What Excellent College Essays Have in Common. Even though in many ways these sample college essays are very different from one other, they do share some traits you should try to olaudah, emulate as you write your own essay.
Building out from a narrow, concrete focus. You’ll see a similar structure in many of the essays. The author starts with a very detailed story of an event or description of dj resume, a person or place. Phd Thesis Cover! After this sense-heavy imagery, the dj resume, essay expands out to make a broader point about the master, author, and dj resume example connects this very memorable experience to the author’s present situation, state of about olaudah, mind, newfound understanding, or maturity level. Knowing how to tell a story. Some of the experiences in these essays are one-of-a-kind. But most deal with the stuff of everyday life.
What sets them apart is the way the dj resume example, author approaches the topic: analyzing it for drama and essay equiano humor, for its moving qualities, for what it says about the author’s world, and for how it connects to example, the author’s emotional life. A killer first sentence. You’ve heard it before, and you’ll hear it again: you have to suck the reader in, and the best place to do that is the first sentence. Great first sentences are punchy. They are like cliffhangers, setting up an exciting scene or an phd thesis page unusual situation with an unclear conclusion, in order to make the reader want to know more. Don’t take my word for it—check out these 22 first sentences from Stanford applicants and tell me you don’t want to read the rest of those essays to find out what happens!
A lively, individual voice. Dj Resume! Writing is for readers. In this case, your reader is an quantitative research method admissions officer who has read thousands of dj resume, essays before yours, and page latex will read thousands after. Your goal? Don’t bore your reader. Use interesting description, stay away from cliches, include your own offbeat observations—anything that makes this essay sounds like you and not like anyone else. Enchanted Prince Stan decided to stay away from any frog-kissing princesses to dj resume, retain his unique perspective on ruling as an amphibian. Technical correctness.
No spelling mistakes, no grammar weirdness, no syntax issues, no punctuation snafus—each of these sample college essays has been formatted and proofread perfectly. If this kind of style, exactness is not your strong suit, you’re in dj resume example, luck! All colleges advise applicants to apa research paper, have their essays looked over example, several times by parents, teachers, mentors, and anyone else who can spot a comma splice. Your essay must be your own work, but there is absolutely nothing wrong with getting help polishing it. Links to Full College Essay Examples. Some colleges publish a selection of their favorite accepted college essays that worked, and I've put together a selection of over 100 of these (plus some essay excerpts!). Please note that some of phd thesis latex, these college essay examples may be responding to prompts that are no longer in use. The current Common App prompts are as follows: 1. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is dj resume example, so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story.
7. Share an essay on any topic of your choice. It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of your own design. These essays are answers to past prompts from either the powder coater resume, Common Application or the Universal Application, both of dj resume, which Johns Hopkins accepts. Essay Examples Published by Other Websites. 7 Common Application essays from applicants admitted to Stanford, Duke, Connecticut College, NYU, Carleton College, Washington University, and the University of Pennsylvania 2 Common Application essays (1st essay, 2nd essay) from moi je pas danser mais je vais, applicants admitted to dj resume, Columbia. Here is a smaller collection of essays that are college-specific, plus 22 essay excerpts that will add fuel to your essay-writing fire. The University of Chicago is well known for its off-the-wall, often wacky supplementary essay prompts. Moi Je Ne Sais Pas Danser Je Vais! These seven sample essays respond to a variety of thought-provoking questions. Sometimes it's helpful to see how others managed to get over the difficult first-line hump. We're guessing all these monkeys would write different first sentences. Analyzing Great Common App Essays that Worked.
I've picked out two essays from the dj resume example, examples collected above to examine in quantitative method, more depth so that you can know exactly what makes a successful college essay work. Full credit for these essays goes to the original authors and the schools that published them. Example #1: Breaking Into Cars, by Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 636 words long) I had never broken into a car before. We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. Example! The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van.
Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into quantitative research method paper, the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the dj resume example, inside of the moi je ne sais, frame. Dj Resume Example! Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. Essay! One was the dj resume, lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised.
My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. Method Paper! When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the dj resume, surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. “The water’s on fire! Clear a hole!” he shouted, tossing me in the lake without warning. Moi Je Pas Danser! While I’m still unconvinced about that particular lesson’s practicality, my Dad’s overarching message is unequivocally true: much of example, life is unexpected, and you have to deal with the thesis topics, twists and turns. Living in dj resume, my family, days rarely unfolded as planned.
A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and paper give the improbable a try. I don’t sweat the small stuff, and I definitely don’t expect perfect fairness. So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for seven people? Someone learns the importance of punctuality every night. But more than punctuality and a special affinity for musical chairs, my family life has taught me to dj resume example, thrive in essay about olaudah, situations over which I have no power.
Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to dj resume, thwart their attempts to control me. I forged alliances, and realigned them as necessary. Sometimes, I was the poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the omniscient elder. Different things to different people, as the situation demanded. I learned to adapt.
Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to ensure my survival. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the page latex, year: “How can I participate in dj resume example, a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the quantitative research, answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos.
You participate by letting go of the dj resume, small stuff, not expecting order and cover latex perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and dj resume preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. It's very helpful to take writing apart in order to thesis, see just how it accomplishes its objectives. Dj Resume Example! Stephen's essay is very effective. Let's find out why! An Opening Line That Draws You In. I had never broken into a car before. In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is standing next to a car about to tu delft master, break in), the idea of crossing a boundary (he is maybe about to do an dj resume example illegal thing for the first time), and a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is phd thesis, he going to get caught? Is he headed for a life of crime?
Is he about to be scared straight?). We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to dj resume, enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the master topics, college kids to clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out dj resume of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought.
More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and style paper spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. It’s the details that really make this small experience come alive. Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in place of a more generic one. The volunteers aren’t going to dj resume, get food or dinner; they’re going for “Texas BBQ.” The coat hanger comes from phd thesis cover latex, “a dumpster.” Stephen doesn’t just move the coat hanger—he “jiggles” it. Details also help us visualize the emotions of the people in the scene. The person who hands Stephen the coat hanger isn’t just uncomfortable or nervous; he “takes a few steps back”—a description of dj resume example, movement that conveys feelings. Finally, the detail of actual speech makes the scene pop. Instead of writing that the other guy asked him to unlock the van, Stephen has the guy actually say his own words in a way that sounds like a teenager talking. Coat hangers: not just for crows' nests any more! (Gotz/Wikimedia) Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight.
Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. Phd Thesis Cover! One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in dj resume example, springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. In fact, I’d been born into this type of situation. Not only does Stephen make the locked car experience a meaningful illustration of how he has learned to be resourceful and ready for anything, but he also makes this turn from the cover page latex, specific to example, the broad through an style paper elegant play on the two meanings of the word “click.” Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally.
“Unpredictability and chaos” are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts. Not only that, but they could mean any number of things—violence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability. By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like “family of seven” and “siblings arguing, the dj resume example, dog barking, the phone ringing,” Stephen grounds the abstraction in something that is easy to picture: a large, noisy family. Using Small Bits of Humor and Casual Word Choice. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. At the age of research method, nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of example, water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.
Obviously, knowing how to clean burning oil is about olaudah equiano, not high on the list of things every 9-year-old needs to know. Dj Resume! To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by bringing up a situation that is clearly over-the-top: “in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.” The humor also feels relaxed. Part of quantitative, this is example, because he introduces it with the colloquial phrase “you know,” so it sounds like he is quantitative research, talking to us in dj resume, person. Style Paper! This approach also diffuses the potential discomfort of the reader with his father’s strictness—since he is making jokes about it, clearly he is example, OK. Notice, though, that this doesn’t occur very much in research method paper, the essay. This helps keep the tone meaningful and dj resume serious rather than flippant.
Mr. President? There's been an research method paper oil spill! Then I want our best elementary school students on dj resume it, STAT. An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the pas danser essayer, Future. But one day this fall, Dr.
Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo. Example! Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in essay about olaudah equiano, the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos.
You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and dj resume preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. The ending of the quantitative paper, essay reveals that Stephen’s life has been one long preparation for the future. He has emerged from dj resume example, chaos and about equiano his dad’s approach to parenting as a person who can thrive in a world that he can’t control. This connection of past experience to dj resume, current maturity and self-knowledge is a key element in all successful personal essays. Research Method! Colleges are very much looking for mature, self-aware applicants. These are the example, qualities of successful college students, who will be able to navigate the master topics, independence college classes require and the responsibility and quasi-adulthood of college life. What Could This Essay Do Even Better?
Even the dj resume example, best essays aren't perfect, and even the essay olaudah equiano, world's greatest writers will tell you that writing is never finished—just due. So what would we tweak in this essay if we could? Replace some of the cliched language. Stephen uses handy phrases like twists and dj resume turns and don’t sweat the small stuff as a kind of shorthand for explaining his relationship to chaos and phd thesis cover unpredictability. But using too many of these ready-made expressions runs the risk of clouding out your own voice and replacing it with something expected and boring.
Use another example from recent life. Stephen's first example (breaking into the van in Laredo) is a great illustration of being resourceful in an unexpected situation. But his essay also emphasizes that he learned to adapt by being different things to different people. Example! It would be great to see how this plays out phd thesis cover page outside his family, either in dj resume example, the situation in Laredo or another context. Example #2: By Bridget Collins, Tufts Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long) I have always loved riding in cars. After a long day in first grade, I used to fall asleep to the engine purring in my mother's Honda Odyssey, even though it was only quantitative paper, a 5-minute drive home. As I grew, and example graduated into the shotgun seat, it became natural and enjoyable to look out the apa research paper, window. Seeing my world passing by through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it. In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World.
While I sat in the car and dj resume watched the miles pass by, I developed the tu delft master thesis topics, plan for my empire. Example! I reasoned that, for the world to run smoothly, it would have to look presentable. Paper! I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. Dj Resume Example! That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in apa research style, no time. Dj Resume Example! The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the olaudah equiano, school would get it back. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to dj resume, school would be filled-in. Paper! It made perfect sense!
All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Seven years down the example, road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in essay about equiano, an orange T-Shirt.
Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for dj resume Yankee Candles. Quantitative! Maybe it could be me. Bridget the example, Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and fetches Frisbees. Essay About Olaudah! I was lucky enough to example, discover what I am passionate about when I was a freshman in high school. A self-admitted Phys. Ed. addict, I volunteered to help out with the Adapted PE class. Powder! On my first day, I learned that it was for dj resume example developmentally-disabled students. Apa Research Style Paper! To be honest, I was really nervous. Example! I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them.
Long story short, I got hooked. Three years have passed helping out in APE and eventually becoming a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. I love working with the students and watching them progress. When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and my counselor asked me what I wanted to do for a career, I didn't say Emperor of the World. Instead, I told him I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Tu Delft Topics! Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. He laughed and told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to do. I smiled, thanked him, and left. But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in dj resume example, life was still to become a Fixer-Upper.
So, maybe I'll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the Invisible Woman. I'll do one thing during the research method paper, day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Instead of flying like Sue, though, I'll opt for a nice performance automobile. My childhood self would appreciate that. Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is just as detailed and engaging. Dj Resume Example! Let's go through some of the strengths of her essay. A Structure That’s Easy to Follow and Understand.
The essay is arranged chronologically. Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of where we are in time: Paragraph 1: “after a long day in first grade” Paragraph 2: “in elementary school” Paragraph 3: “seven years down the road” Paragraph 4: “when I was a freshman in high school” Paragraph 5: “when senior year arrived” This keeps the reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to apa research style, fix everything that needed fixing.
That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the school would get it back. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at example the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the coater, driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in dj resume, an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles.
Maybe it could be me. I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and phd thesis cover page latex other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. …But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. What makes this essay fun to read is that Bridget takes a child’s idea of a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and turns it into a metaphor for the author’s future aspirations. It helps that the metaphor is example, a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the world better one abstract fix at a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the world better one concrete physical fix at a time. Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever.
Ask your parents to explain the back row to you. (JD Hancock/Flickr) This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and make the reader feel like we already know her. Technique #1: humor. Notice Bridget's gentle and powder resume relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger self’s grand ambitions (this is different from the dj resume, more sarcastic kind of humor used by Stephen in the first essay—you could never mistake one writer for master topics the other). In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Technique #2: invented terminology. The second technique is the example, way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the whole essay.
It would be easy enough to simply describe the people she imagined in apa research style, childhood as helpers or assistants, and to simply say that as a child she wanted to rule the world. Instead, she invents the capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles “Fixer-Upper” and “Emperor of the World,” making these childish conceits at once charming and iconic. What's also key is that the titles feed into the central metaphor of the essay, which keeps them from sounding like strange quirks that don’t go anywhere. Technique #3: playing with syntax. The third technique is to use sentences of varying length, syntax, and structure. Most of the essay's written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences. However, at key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the reader needs to example, sit up and pay attention by thesis topics switching to short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and sometimes fragmented sentences.
The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to school would be filled-in. Dj Resume Example! It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. When she is about olaudah equiano, narrating her childhood thought process, the sudden short sentence “It made perfect sense!” (especially its exclamation point) is basically the dj resume, essay version of drawing a light bulb turning on over someone’s head. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in resume, my car ride imaginings. Or do they?
Similarly, when the dj resume, essay turns from her childhood imagination to her present-day aspirations, the quantitative method, turn is marked with “Or do they?”—a tiny and arresting half-sentence question. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. The first time when the comparison between magical fixer-upper’s and the future disability specialist is made is when Bridget turns her metaphor onto example herself. The essay emphasizes the importance of the moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the word “maybe”) and the use of a very short sentence: “Maybe it could be me.” To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Phd Thesis Cover Page! Long story short, I got hooked. The last key moment that gets the dj resume, small-sentence treatment is the emotional crux of the essay.
As we watch Bridget go from nervously trying to help disabled students to falling in love with this specialty field, she undercuts the potential sappiness of the moment by relying on changed-up sentence length and slang: “Long story short, I got hooked.” The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Bridget's essay is tu delft thesis topics, very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved. Explain the car connection better. The essay begins and ends with Bridget's enjoying a car ride, but this doesn't seem to be related either to the Fixer-Upper idea or to her passion for working with special-needs students. It would be great to either connect this into the essay more, or to take it out altogether and create more space for something else.
Give more details about example, being a teacher in equiano, the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn't want to put her students on example display. Phd Thesis Page! It would take the focus off of her and possibly read as offensive or condescending. Dj Resume! But, rather than saying long story short, maybe she could elaborate on her own feelings here a bit more. What is about equiano, it about dj resume, this kind of teaching that she loves? What is she hoping to bring to the lives of her future clients? 3 Essential Tips for Writing Your Own Essay.
How can you use this discussion to better your own college essay? Here are some suggestions for ways to use this resource effectively. #1: Take Apart the Other Essays in the Links. As you go through the about olaudah, essays we've compiled for example you above, ask yourself the following questions: Can you explain to yourself (or someone else!) why the essay, opening sentence works well? Look for the essay's detailed personal anecdote. What senses is the author describing? Can you easily picture the scene in dj resume example, your mind's eye? Find the quantitative, place where this anecdote bridges into a larger insight about the author. Dj Resume Example! How does the essay connect the two? How does the anecdote work as an example of the author's characteristic, trait, or skill?
Check out the essay's tone. If it's funny, can you find the places where the humor comes from? If it's sad and moving, can you find the imagery and description of feelings that make you moved? If it's serious, can you see how word choice adds to this tone? When you figure out how all the cogs fit together, you'll be able to build your own . um . About Olaudah! whatever this is.
All of dj resume example, these essays rely on connecting with the reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the author's life. It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at Scrabble?). Either way, it should be personal and revealing about quantitative method paper, you, your personality, and the way you are now that you are entering the dj resume, adult world. Let me level with you: the best writing isn't writing at all. It's rewriting. And in order to have time to resume, rewrite, you have to start way before the dj resume example, application deadline.
My advice is to write your first draft at least two months before your applications are due. Let it sit for a few days untouched. Then come back to it with fresh eyes and moi je pas danser think critically about what you've written. What's extra? What's missing? What is in the wrong place?
What doesn't make sense? Don't be afraid to take it apart and rearrange sections. Example! Do this several times over, and your essay will be much better for apa research it! Want to improve your SAT score by dj resume example 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for powder coater each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for dj resume free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep?
Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at equiano Princeton and to dj resume, get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. Powder Coater Resume! She is passionate about dj resume, improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about moi je ne sais pas danser mais, this article or other topics? Ask below and example we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section:
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Essay on “Mergers and Acquisitions: Factors Determining Success and Failure” This report looks at mergers and acquisitions globally and considers why so many fail. Despite this scenario, management decision-makers still continue to look for dj resume opportunities. Essay Equiano. This study researches both successful and unsuccessful mergers and acquisitions in order to determine the reasons for both successes and failures. Dj Resume Example. Perhaps, historically mergers have occurred between companies that are similar in size and also have similar interests , yet acquisitions tend to facilitate larger organizations and companies acquiring smaller businesses.
It is now common for mergers and acquisitions to quantitative research method paper, be enacted across borders, often providing solutions for corporates to extend their influence from national into example international markets. However, despite the financial expertize available to ascertain the viability of pas danser mais essayer such business transactions, many of these business ventures fail, or at best do not perform according to expectation; reflected in adversely affected share prices. This report seeks to example, understand the about, motivating factors behind the continuing drive by many boards of directors to dj resume example, pursue this type of business transaction, and how this trend of failures can be reversed. In recent times, global competition and apa research style paper, the drive to leverage advantage, has resulted in both small and larger companies combining resources. Consolidations of markets are one of the main reasons for M#038;A’s.
Corporates possessing similar products and dj resume example, services are looking to both consolidate and expand; thereby utilizing joint interests to equiano, further their goals. Despite extensive ‘due diligence’ and research, there have been and still are many risks to venture into dj resume example such business transactions. Although mergers and acquisitions are motivated by different requirements, the phd thesis page latex, end result is to increase their size and capacity for growth . Due to dj resume example, the increasing development of business systems and ‘know how’ coupled with advances in communication technology, speed of growth and efficiency of operational function have become essential to ensuring survival and continued sustainability. Today’s investors often look for quicker returns on investment due to global economic volatility; thereby driving the search for ways to research method, extract optimal profitability. In theory, mergers and acquisitions can assist businesses to increase efficiency by the lowering of overall costs per unit , known as economies of scale. A combination of joint corporate interests should enable greater revenue, with a lower ‘cost of sale’. However, factors such as differences in management styles and continually changing market conditions can negatively impact projected profitability and growth trends; thereby negating the perceived benefits of mergers and acquisitions. This report now turns to the methodology that is utilized in example order to conduct the research needed, following which the causation of about olaudah successes and failures in example these business transactions can be determined. The information and data was sourced online looking at auditing company reports, independent articles and dissertations, management consulting firms and paper, media organizations such as ‘Business Week’.
Attention was specifically given to motivating factors driving mergers and acquisitions at the beginning of the century to more recent corporate transactions. In addition, a perspective was sought from sources regarding the varying reasons for such transactions being subject to example, successes and failures. Notwithstanding a significant failure rate, this research looked at the reasons why shareholders and company directors continued to drive the enactment of such business transactions. Motivating Factors Behind Mergers and Acquisitions. In researching the motivation behind the above mentioned mergers and acquisitions an apa research style paper article published in dj resume example 2003, ‘Why do firms carry out mergers and acquisitions, and how can the difficulties involved be overcome?’, stated that even in 1998 the “total worldwide value” of “mergers and acquisitions was $2.4 trillion” (Gray 2003, p.1). It was also noted that in 61% of acquisitions “buyers destroyed their own shareholders’ wealth”. Despite this high failure rate back in 1998, consideration is given to why shareholders and corporate management still persist in directing their attention to business transactions of this nature. Assuming that profit and powder, growth are primary considerations when planning such moves, it would seem that the lessons of history have not been learned.
According to Gray, a perception by some business analysts is the belief that “One of the. most common arguments for mergers and dj resume example, acquisitions are the belief that “synergies” may exist between different companies; thereby enabling more efficiency than if they operated independently. Method. These synergies can materialize in the form of removing the duplication of operational functions, and additionally sharing management expertise. Added to this is dj resume a stronger and larger financial base from which to access more capital resources. However, this scenario is valid providing the different management structures can integrate not only their day to powder resume, day operational functions, but also by dj resume example, merging different human resources invariably endowed with different company cultures and practices. In an style paper article sourced from Business Week titled, ‘Mergers: Why Most Big Deals Don’t Pay Off’, it was suggested that a driving force behind mergers and acquisitions was ‘an affliction known by many financial economists as the “winners’ curse” (Henry 2002, p. 2). This suggests a mindset that incorporates a ‘safety in example numbers’ thinking or possibly the fear of ‘losing out’. Resulting from this perhaps irrational pursuit of thinking is the ignoring of basic business considerations that are normal in any such transactions; proactive actions such as due diligence and factoring in differences of corporate cultures and pas danser mais je vais essayer, ideologies. Another motive behind mergers and dj resume, acquisitions is regarding increased market share and penetration into new markets. According to a study ‘Motives and Effects of cover page Mergers and Acquisitions’ it was noted that “market power can help companies compete more effectively and revenue growth can be achieved by lowering the dj resume example, prices of products which are highly price sensitive” (Wang 2007, p.21). The study goes on further to provide other motives such the combining of resources thereby enabling the creation of new product lines, technologies and opening up additional markets.
Increased market share combined with the creation of innovative products and services can enable two companies to exploit opportunities within the marketplace . Factors Behind the essayer, Failures of Mergers and Acquisitions. There are many factors that may be viewed as causation for mergers and acquisitions failures, however simply put, (Henry 2002, p. 2) suggest that it is often because “primarily because the bidders paid too much”. Notwithstanding, if this was the dj resume, only primary reason, then financial expertize would have determined systems or methodology in order to prevent the re-occurrence of apa research such failures. However, the merging or takeover of companies is both complex and fraught with risks, both tangible and perhaps less able to predict or evaluate. One these less tangible risks is an unexpected traumatic event as experienced in 9/11, 2001, or a natural disaster such as the recent tsunami in Japan; seriously affecting and disrupting their economy. Of course, current global political and economic uncertainty adds the possibility of further risk to any financial transaction; however history has shown that mergers and acquisitions have failed in dj resume large numbers even during times of apa research style paper prosperity and global economic growth. In addition to the above noted global political and dj resume example, economic uncertainties, a study conducted in 2008, suggested that three primary causes are responsible for merger and take-over failures. It first listed a cause in that “too many executives do not understand the importance of achieving appropriate levels of commonality in their processes and systems” (Duncan 2008, p. 1). This further confirms the above previously discussed theory regarding the relevance of merging or blending two existing cultures and essay olaudah equiano, ideologies together, and the inherent risks pertaining to cultural and ideological diversity.
Duncan also suggests that another primary causation of these transactional failures relates to a scenario in which “many company leaders do not know how to go about achieving commonality in their processes and systems” (p. Example. 3). Essay Olaudah Equiano. Here an organization’s internal functions including the utilization of technical and example, administrative systems are deemed to include the ability to communicate and translate into “divisional goals and quantitative research paper, objectives”. He notes that this process of achieving commonality starts at the top of the management structure and flows down throughout the entire corporate infrastructure. Dj Resume Example. To achieve this objective, a common and shared implemented. According to Duncan, a third primary reason for ne sais je vais failure is that many mergers and acquisitions do not achieve expected performance levels due to “executives are frequently unable to follow through on the difficult decisions related to post-acquisition and post-merger consolidation” (p. 3). Perhaps in the euphoria and excitement of such corporate transactions, attention is diverted from streamlining the combined infrastructures and resources, and in addition ignoring the dj resume, necessity of effecting efficiency and the integration of both systems and human resources.
In another sourced article commissioned by a daily newspaper, The Telegraph (U.K.) it was clearly stated that, “Poor governance Lack of clarity as to moi je pas danser essayer, who decides what, and no clear issue resolution process” (Siegenthaler 2010, p. 1). This statement further justifies and example, confirms Duncan’s third referenced theory regarding the ability of key management personnel to enact decisions in order to resolve issues pertaining to moi je essayer, a merger or take-over. He goes on to specify communication issues specifically relating to the receiver of information and data. This is due to most of the communication by key management strategists being focused and example, targeted at decision-makers on essay olaudah equiano, an equal or similar management level rather than allocating attention to those personnel further down the chain of command. Furthermore, failure to communicate the rationale behind the example, merger or acquisition, leads a breakdown in the free flow of valuable information throughout the corporate structure.
He maintains that all personnel want to know why the business transaction took place and in addition, what improvements are planned, how the company will be more viable after the transaction. Included was the ability for phd thesis cover page the key management personnel to convey or communicate how the new business structure would “feel”, and how the merger or acquisition would change the nature of their work environment; thereby necessitating the need for support during a period of integration and perhaps, a breakdown of example operational and administrative functions. Finally, in a study conducted in 2007, ‘Mergers and essay, Acquisitions – A Case of example System Failure’, it was pointed out that when considering an acquisition, it is important to focus on “how it will create value for shareholders and not on how it will increase the size of the company” (Virani 2007, p. 5). Moi Je Pas Danser Mais Je Vais Essayer. Perhaps by key management decision-makers directing their attention more on growth and infrastructural capacity, key investment requirements including enabling a viable return on investment are ignored; thereby leading to the increased risk of the unsustainability of such an acquisition. Factors Behind the Successes of Mergers and Acquisitions. This study has already found that factors attributing to merger and dj resume example, acquisition losses are not by chance or luck, but rather by failing to allocate close attention to the many necessities needed within all aspects of combining and integrating two business structures.
It has also been interesting to note that little reference was given in any of the previously sourced information laying blame on adverse external influences such as political and economic uncertainty. Likewise, it is about olaudah found that factors attributed to the success of mergers and acquisitions are enabled due to sound business strategies; to which this report now turns. A study conducted titled ‘Why Mergers Fail and How to dj resume, Prevent It’, pointed out that mergers and acquisition outcomes are “linked closely to the extent to which management is able to integrate members of organizations and their cultures” (Cartwright 2012, p. 2). This observation is closely parallel to sourced information previously discussed regarding the quantitative paper, integration of personnel and cultures by dj resume, different organizations. However, she also points out the relevance of sensitively addressing ‘individual’ concerns, minimizing the impact on all employees when integrating two different corporate entities into a single cohesive infrastructure. Coater Resume. Logic suggests that the ‘human factor’ plays a significant role in the enablement of a successful ‘marriage’ of two companies. Regarding another factor that can contribute to the successful outcome of a merger or acquisition, a study titled ‘Why Do Mergers Fail? What Can Be Done to Improve their Chances of Success?’ suggest that “one way of ensuring that post-merger integration will run smoothly is to set up a postmerger integration team in dj resume example all the critical areas of the coater, organization” (Salame 2006, p. Dj Resume Example. 18). Following this suggestion, it would be prudent to not only to enable pre-merger investigation such as due diligence, but also by equiano, planning prior to the merger, a task force dedicated to integrating all operational functions within both business entities; including administrative functions, marketing systems and plans, financial systems and human resources. Moreover, attention has been drawn above to the ‘human factor’, so when considering the example, employees, further attention should be allocated by this postmerger integration team to look at cultural diversity and issues pertaining to local communities.
Such issues can include perceived inequalities of minority and style paper, disadvantaged population groups . Acceptance of cultural diversity and example, minorities can enable a smoother integration of two companies. Method Paper. This is especially applicable in the event that such integration takes place across international borders. Additionally, according to ‘Excellence in Financial Management’, it is suggested that many entrepreneurs do not acquire and plan long-term growth; thereby building companies “for the short-term, hoping to sell the company for huge profits” (Evan 2000, p. 1). Perhaps this may be perceived by some to be ‘short-sighted’; however, the result can often be the streamlining the companies into an efficient cohesive operation; thereby enabling profitability and perhaps growth so as to add perceived value. A question is raised whether such a short term viewpoint is arguably conducive to long term sustainability. However, by enabling quick solutions to integration challenges, savings and financial viability may be found. In a report published in 2008, ‘Mergers and acquisitions: opportunities for global growth’, it was noted that more companies are now “recognizing the example, growing importance of emerging markets” (Grant Thornton 2008, p. 4).
This allows a company previously restricted by tu delft master thesis topics, local or national competition, to dj resume, combine resources with companies in areas where the return on investment may be higher. Furthermore, growth in many emerging markets such China, India and Brazil has been relatively strong when compared to the stagnant economies of more established major powers. Furthermore, Grant Thornton’s IBR survey has shown that shareholders and moi je ne sais mais, corporate decision-makers in example the fast growing BRIC economies are now enthusiastically embracing M#038;A” (p. 6). This paper suggests that perhaps accessing emerging markets via mergers and acquisitions may be a key strategy for future sustainable growth. Recognizing the energy and vitality of moi je ne sais mais je vais emerging markets can stimulate more established companies and organizations based in ‘Western’ economies that have been subjected to defensive and perhaps negative outlook based on poor economic outlook. In considering all these factors inherent to the implementation of successful mergers and acquisitions, a report ‘Mergers #038; Acquisitions: A Global Research Report’ clearly stated that “As ever, it is the dj resume, delicate balance between financial drivers and people aspects which underpins success. Neither is sufficient in itself to deliver the benefits” (Kelly, Cook #038; Spitzer 1999, p. 2). Underscoring the quantitative research method, importance of example both financial expertise and the ability to recognize the validity of the ‘human factor, perhaps encapsulates what this investigation has sourced and evaluated. Perhaps the measure of why shareholders and directors of companies are still pursuing mergers and style, acquisitions despite a global trend of a significant failure rate, can be attributed to the motivation for businesses to combine forces and resources so as to ensure sustainability.
Notwithstanding the many failures, the economic downturn has perhaps highlighted the need to diversify resources into foreign and emerging markets; thereby potentially enabling higher levels of growth. Henry reasoned that a measurement of successful mergers can be enacted by dj resume, evaluating stock market returns, one year after a merger (Henry 2002). Perhaps investors and shareholders should be able to influence such future business transactions so that an paper investment viewpoint incorporating ‘return on investment’ should be equally, or more weighted when evaluating such strategies.