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best books on resume I am a recent graduate and working, but thinking of relocating. I want to update my cover letter and of contents for research paper resume. I want to buy the best cover letter and resume writing book to help me do that. Which one should I buy? The most important principle of resume writing is outline, strategic flow: the document has to table of contents for research paper apa, tell the reader (1)the role (not job title) you see yourself in essay (2) the qualifications you bring to that role (education, paid or unpaid experience, specific skills), and (3) proof of what you claim, by providing examples of the applications of your skills and education. Of Contents For Research? When your resume does this successfully, a prospective employer can #8220;see you#8221; in the job you are applying for. Public International Law Essay Competition? So look for resume books that show you how to develop PARS (Problem/Action/Result statements) or STARS (Situation/Task/Action/Result statements-same animal, different acronym). Here are three I recommend for for research apa recent graduates even though that is youth, not the only audience two of them address: First Job: A New Graduate#8217;s Guide to Launching Your Business Career by Richard Fein (1992 but still the best at helping new graduates see how to for research, develop your resume), The Overnight Resume, 2nd edition, by Donald Asher (1999), and 101 Grade A Resumes for Teachers, 2nd edition, by Rebecca Anthony and Gerald Roe (1998; most of the books tailored for specific professions are pretty awful, but this one is excellent).
The most important principle of cover letter writing is employer focus, so you don#8217;t need to international law essay competition, update #8220;your#8221; cover letter, you need to know how to write a unique one for of contents paper apa each job you apply for. A generic, one-size-fits-all cover letter telegraphs that you are mailing resumes without giving much thought to how you can contribute to any particular employer. Writing a targeted letter, on the other hand, lets the employer know you#8217;ve put in the effort to analyze your fit for this particular job with this particular organization, and made it easy for leroys homework the reader to see that fit. You start your letter with a #8220;hook#8221; sentence, i.e. #8220;As a recent graduate in economics with a year#8217;s experience in forecasting buying trends for consumer durables, I am qualified for the position you recently advertised for a sales analyst#8221; (at Maytag). Table Of Contents For Research Apa? Then you either use #8220;T#8221; format, which has two columns labeled #8220;Your Requirements#8221; and #8220;My Qualifications,#8221; or write #8220;My qualifications meet your requirements as follows:#8221; skip a line, and international competition bold face the first requirement in the ad you are answering. Table Of Contents For Research Paper Apa? On the next line, use a bullet for each degree, experience, or PAR that shows how you meet the requirement. Repeat this formula for each requirement in public the ad (years experience, software skills, track record in sales, writing ability, etc.) This structure prompts you to table of contents apa, think of more examples of your fit for a job and, even if you choose to essay, adapt it to a paragraph style, is much more effective than the 3 paragraph #8220;here#8217;s the story of my life, hire me#8221; letter that most job seekers use. Recommended book, for its examples of table of contents paper apa letters and the ads they respond to: 175 High Impact Cover Letters, by thesis healthful, Richard Beatty (1996). One last word of advice: if you know where you are relocating to, and have a local address you can use (your great aunt, your ex-college roommate#8217;s floor), put both your current address and your local address on table your resume. That doesn#8217;t mean you don#8217;t hope to negotiate relocation expenses as part of your job offer, but it does suggest your desire to live in shakespeare research outline the new location is well thought out and not a whim. #8212; Carol Anderson, Career Development and Placement Office, Robert J. Milano Graduate School of Management and Urban Policy at New School University in New York City.
The resume book that I most often hear the most glowing reviews of is Resume Magic by Susan Britton Whitcomb, and I agree that it#8217;s excellent. It#8217;s huge and certainly covers all the bases. For new graduates, I#8217;m also very fond of Donald Asher#8217;s From College to for research paper apa, Career: Entry-Level Resumes for Any Major from Accounting to Zoology. For a very inexpensive book, but one that#8217;s great for getting you started, I love the late Yana Parker#8217;s Resume Workbook for College Students and Recent Grads. As for cover letters, I guess I#8217;d be kind of an on hitler, idiot if I didn#8217;t shamelessly recommend my own book, Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates. #8212; Katharine Hansen, former speechwriter and table of contents paper apa college instructor who provides content for the Web site, Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and prepares job-search correspondence as chief writer for Quintessential Resumes and Cover Letters. Before writing your response, I checked a major on-line bookseller to see how may resume/cover letter writing books they have available. Leroys Homework? After narrowing my search to for research paper, #8220;best-sellers#8221;, 247 selections are available.
No small number and I expect the shakespeare research outline cover notes will all proclaim its respective book to table of contents, be #8220;best,#8221; #8220;unique,#8221; #8220;powerful,#8221; #8220;guaranteed results,#8221; or some other such pronouncement as to its ability to statement healthful, help the reader/user write the definitive resume/cover letter. Table? This particular site had reviews written by book purchasers that may be helpful in making your selection. It is my belief that if you have written a resume/cover letter that has proven successful in getting you interviews than a book will probably not prove all that more helpful. Presumably, you have done the self-evaluation that I feel is critical to writing a resume. You must know who you are, where you want to go and good thesis statement eating what you have to offer to get what you desire before you start a job search. Table Of Contents Paper Apa? Company research is the next critical step in paper writing your journey to a new position. You need to learn as much background information as you can about the company(s) in which you are interested. With in-depth knowledge of company products, problems, philosophies, marketing objectives, and of contents for research goals, you can formulate your paperwork to demonstrate how your skills and abilities mesh with those of the respective company.
You can pattern your accomplishments and successes to reinforce how you will be the best candidate for leroys homework the position. Cover letter writing follows similar ideas of table of contents for research development. Review my answer to last weeks CollegeRecruiter.com #8220;expert#8221; question. I describe in some length the concepts that must be communicated in a cover letter Finally, write your own job search paperwork. Public Law Essay? I believe you know yourself better than any other person, except, perhaps your Mom. Your use of language must be consistent between resume/cover letter and table apa that used in your interview.
A skilled interviewer can easily sense a difference and this will raise questions within their mind as to your creditability. Additionally, personal preparation of research writing your paperwork will allow you to apa, reinforce your knowledge of yourself, your successes and accomplishments. This reinforcement will prove valuable in answering interview questions and shakespeare research boost your self-confidence in interview situations. You are successful in of contents paper your current career and in the way, you obtained it; this success experience will support you in the next step in essay on hitler your career. While there are many, many good resume books on the market, the real question is not which is the best book, but rather are you able to take the information from the book and turn that knowledge into an effective resume and cover letter. While I am a seasoned and skilled resume writer, I don#8217;t think I can purchase the best book available on apa flying and then go pilot a 747.
If you have an excellent grasp and understanding of the written word, then I say go to your local library and peruse through the meditations plethora of resume books available to table of contents for research, fully understand the resume formatting and layout options you have. Competition? This way you will not be hedging your career on one writer or book. If you are not confident in table for research apa your writing abilities, then I suggest you find a professional resume writer who can do the job for you. Kevin Donlin wrote a great cover letter and public international competition resume writing book specifically for users of CollegeRecruiter.com. It is of contents apa, immediately delivered electronically to your computer and you can print it out. More information is public international law essay, at. No related posts. Table Of Contents For Research Paper? Looking for entry-level jobs or internships? At College Recruiter, we believe that every student and recent grad deserves a great career.
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pilot case study yin Critics of the case study method believe that the study of a small number of cases can offer no grounds for establishing reliability or generality of findings. Table Apa! Others feel that the intense exposure to thesis statement eating study of the case biases the findings. Some dismiss case study research as useful only as an exploratory tool. Yet researchers continue to of contents paper use the case study research method with success in carefully planned and crafted studies of good thesis eating, real-life situations, issues, and problems. Reports on table of contents paper apa case studies from meditations essay many disciplines are widely available in the literature. This paper explains how to use the table paper, case study method and then applies the method to an example case study project designed to examine how one set of users, non-profit organizations, make use of an electronic community network. The study examines the issue of whether or not the electronic community network is beneficial in some way to non-profit organizations and what those benefits might be. Many well-known case study researchers such as Robert E. Stake, Helen Simons, and essay Robert K. Yin have written about case study research and table of contents for research apa suggested techniques for organizing and meditations conducting the research successfully. This introduction to case study research draws upon their work and proposes six steps that should be used: Determine and define the research questions Select the cases and determine data gathering and analysis techniques Prepare to collect the data Collect data in the field Evaluate and analyze the data Prepare the report Step 1. Of Contents For Research Paper! Determine and Define the healthful, Research Questions.
The first step in case study research is to establish a firm research focus to which the researcher can refer over the course of study of a complex phenomenon or object. The researcher establishes the focus of the table of contents for research paper apa, study by forming questions about the situation or problem to be studied and determining a purpose for the study. The research object in international law essay competition a case study is often a program, an of contents paper apa entity, a person, or a group of people. Each object is likely to be intricately connected to political, social, historical, and personal issues, providing wide ranging possibilities for questions and adding complexity to the case study. The researcher investigates the object of the case study in depth using a variety of data gathering methods to produce evidence that leads to understanding of the case and answers the research questions. Case study research generally answers one or more questions which begin with how or why.
The questions are targeted to a limited number of events or conditions and their inter-relationships. To assist in targeting and formulating the questions, researchers conduct a literature review. This review establishes what research has been previously conducted and leads to refined, insightful questions about the problem. Careful definition of the questions at the start pinpoints where to look for evidence and helps determine the public law essay, methods of analysis to be used in table for research paper apa the study. The literature review, definition of the leroys homework, purpose of the case study, and early determination of the potential audience for the final report guide how the study will be designed, conducted, and publicly reported. Step 2. Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques. During the design phase of case study research, the table paper apa, researcher determines what approaches to use in selecting single or multiple real-life cases to examine in depth and which instruments and data gathering approaches to use. When using multiple cases, each case is treated as a single case. Each case?s conclusions can then be used as information contributing to law essay competition the whole study, but each case remains a single case. Exemplary case studies carefully select cases and carefully examine the choices available from among many research tools available in order to increase the table paper apa, validity of the study.
Careful discrimination at the point of selection also helps erect boundaries around the case. The researcher must determine whether to thesis study cases which are unique in some way or cases which are considered typical and may also select cases to represent a variety of geographic regions, a variety of size parameters, or other parameters. A useful step in the selection process is to of contents for research repeatedly refer back to the purpose of the steps research, study in order to focus attention on where to look for cases and evidence that will satisfy the purpose of the study and answer the research questions posed. Selecting multiple or single cases is a key element, but a case study can include more than one unit of embedded analysis. For example, a case study may involve study of a single industry and a firm participating in that industry. This type of case study involves two levels of analysis and increases the complexity and amount of data to be gathered and analyzed. A key strength of the case study method involves using multiple sources and techniques in the data gathering process. The researcher determines in advance what evidence to gather and what analysis techniques to for research paper use with the data to answer the research outline, research questions. Data gathered is normally largely qualitative, but it may also be quantitative.
Tools to collect data can include surveys, interviews, documentation review, observation, and even the of contents, collection of physical artifacts. The researcher must use the designated data gathering tools systematically and properly in collecting the evidence. Throughout the design phase, researchers must ensure that the study is well constructed to ensure construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and reliability. Construct validity requires the researcher to use the correct measures for the concepts being studied. Internal validity (especially important with explanatory or causal studies) demonstrates that certain conditions lead to other conditions and requires the use of multiple pieces of evidence from multiple sources to uncover convergent lines of paper writing, inquiry. The researcher strives to establish a chain of evidence forward and backward. Table For Research Paper! External validity reflects whether or not findings are generalizable beyond the immediate case or cases; the more variations in places, people, and procedures a case study can withstand and still yield the same findings, the more external validity.
Techniques such as cross-case examination and within-case examination along with literature review helps ensure external validity. Essay! Reliability refers to the stability, accuracy, and precision of measurement. Exemplary case study design ensures that the procedures used are well documented and can be repeated with the same results over and over again. Step 3. Prepare to Collect the Data. Because case study research generates a large amount of data from multiple sources, systematic organization of the data is important to prevent the researcher from becoming overwhelmed by the amount of data and to prevent the table of contents for research paper apa, researcher from losing sight of the leroys homework, original research purpose and questions. Advance preparation assists in handling large amounts of data in a documented and systematic fashion. Researchers prepare databases to assist with categorizing, sorting, storing, and retrieving data for analysis. Exemplary case studies prepare good training programs for investigators, establish clear protocols and procedures in advance of investigator field work, and conduct a pilot study in advance of moving into the field in order to remove obvious barriers and problems. The investigator training program covers the basic concepts of the study, terminology, processes, and methods, and teaches investigators how to properly apply the techniques being used in the study. The program also trains investigators to understand how the gathering of data using multiple techniques strengthens the of contents for research apa, study by providing opportunities for triangulation during the analysis phase of the study. The program covers protocols for case study research, including time deadlines, formats for narrative reporting and field notes, guidelines for collection of documents, and guidelines for field procedures to be used.
Investigators need to be good listeners who can hear exactly the essay, words being used by those interviewed. Qualifications for investigators also include being able to ask good questions and interpret answers. Table Of Contents For Research! Good investigators review documents looking for facts, but also read between the lines and pursue collaborative evidence elsewhere when that seems appropriate. Investigators need to be flexible in real-life situations and not feel threatened by unexpected change, missed appointments, or lack of office space. Investigators need to understand the purpose of the study and grasp the statement, issues and must be open to contrary findings. Table Of Contents For Research! Investigators must also be aware that they are going into the world of real human beings who may be threatened or unsure of what the case study will bring. After investigators are trained, the final advance preparation step is to select a pilot site and conduct a pilot test using each data gathering method so that problematic areas can be uncovered and corrected. Researchers need to anticipate key problems and events, identify key people, prepare letters of introduction, establish rules for confidentiality, and actively seek opportunities to revisit and revise the research design in order to address and add to steps research writing the original set of research questions. 4. Collect Data in the Field. The researcher must collect and store multiple sources of evidence comprehensively and systematically, in formats that can be referenced and sorted so that converging lines of inquiry and patterns can be uncovered.
Researchers carefully observe the object of the case study and identify causal factors associated with the observed phenomenon. Renegotiation of arrangements with the table of contents paper, objects of the study or addition of questions to interviews may be necessary as the study progresses. Case study research is flexible, but when changes are made, they are documented systematically. Exemplary case studies use field notes and databases to categorize and reference data so that it is readily available for subsequent reinterpretation. Paper! Field notes record feelings and of contents paper apa intuitive hunches, pose questions, and document the work in progress. They record testimonies, stories, and illustrations which can be used in later reports. They may warn of impending bias because of the detailed exposure of the international law essay, client to special attention, or give an early signal that a pattern is emerging. They assist in determining whether or not the inquiry needs to be reformulated or redefined based on what is being observed. Field notes should be kept separate from the data being collected and stored for analysis. Maintaining the relationship between the table of contents for research, issue and the evidence is mandatory.
The researcher may enter some data into a database and physically store other data, but the researcher documents, classifies, and cross-references all evidence so that it can be efficiently recalled for sorting and examination over research paper, the course of the study. Step 5. Evaluate and Analyze the Data. The researcher examines raw data using many interpretations in order to find linkages between the research object and the outcomes with reference to the original research questions. Throughout the evaluation and analysis process, the researcher remains open to new opportunities and insights. The case study method, with its use of multiple data collection methods and analysis techniques, provides researchers with opportunities to table for research triangulate data in order to strengthen the research findings and conclusions. The tactics used in analysis force researchers to move beyond initial impressions to improve the likelihood of accurate and paper outline reliable findings. Table Of Contents! Exemplary case studies will deliberately sort the data in many different ways to expose or create new insights and will deliberately look for conflicting data to leroys homework disconfirm the table for research apa, analysis.
Researchers categorize, tabulate, and recombine data to address the initial propositions or purpose of the study, and conduct cross-checks of good thesis, facts and discrepancies in table for research paper accounts. Focused, short, repeat interviews may be necessary to essay on hitler gather additional data to verify key observations or check a fact. Specific techniques include placing information into arrays, creating matrices of categories, creating flow charts or other displays, and tabulating frequency of events. Researchers use the quantitative data that has been collected to corroborate and support the qualitative data which is most useful for understanding the table, rationale or theory underlying relationships. Another technique is to use multiple investigators to gain the advantage provided when a variety of perspectives and insights examine the data and leroys homework the patterns. Table! When the multiple observations converge, confidence in leroys homework the findings increases. Conflicting perceptions, on the other hand, cause the researchers to pry more deeply.
Another technique, the cross-case search for patterns, keeps investigators from reaching premature conclusions by requiring that investigators look at the data in table for research apa many different ways. Cross-case analysis divides the data by type across all cases investigated. One researcher then examines the data of that type thoroughly. When a pattern from one data type is corroborated by the evidence from another, the finding is stronger. When evidence conflicts, deeper probing of the differences is necessary to identify the cause or source of conflict. In all cases, the researcher treats the evidence fairly to produce analytic conclusions answering the original how and leroys homework why research questions. Step 6. Prepare the report. Exemplary case studies report the data in a way that transforms a complex issue into one that can be understood, allowing the reader to question and table for research examine the study and reach an understanding independent of the researcher. The goal of the written report is to portray a complex problem in a way that conveys a vicarious experience to the reader. Case studies present data in very publicly accessible ways and may lead the reader to good statement eating apply the experience in his or her own real-life situation.
Researchers pay particular attention to displaying sufficient evidence to gain the table of contents for research apa, reader?s confidence that all avenues have been explored, clearly communicating the good thesis statement healthful, boundaries of the case, and giving special attention to conflicting propositions. Techniques for composing the report can include handling each case as a separate chapter or treating the case as a chronological recounting. Some researchers report the case study as a story. During the report preparation process, researchers critically examine the document looking for ways the report is incomplete. The researcher uses representative audience groups to review and comment on the draft document. Based on the comments, the researcher rewrites and makes revisions. Some case study researchers suggest that the document review audience include a journalist and some suggest that the documents should be reviewed by the participants in the study. Applying the Case Study Method to table for research paper apa an Electronic Community Network.
Step 1. Determine and Define the research paper outline, Research Questions. In general, electronic community networks have three distinct types of paper, users, each one a good candidate for case study research. The three groups of competition, users include people around the world who use the electronic community network, the non-profit organizations using the electronic community network to provide information to potential users of their services, and the community that forms as the result of interacting with other participants on the electronic community network. In this case, the researcher is primarily interested in determining whether or not the table of contents for research apa, electronic community network is beneficial in some way to non-profit organization participants. The researcher begins with a review of the literature to determine what prior studies have determined about this issue and uses the meditations, literature to define the following questions for for research paper the study of the non-profit organizations providing information to the electronic community network: Why do non-profit organization participants use the law essay competition, network? How do non-profit organization participants determine what to table paper place on paper the electronic community network? Do the non-profit organization participants believe the community network serves a useful purpose in furthering their mission? How? Step 2. Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques.
Many communities have constructed electronic community networks on the World Wide Web. At the outset of the design phase, the researcher determines that only one of these networks will be studied and further sets the study boundaries to include only some of the non-profit organizations represented on that one network. Of Contents Apa! The researcher contacts the Board of Directors of the community network, who are open to the idea of the case study. The researcher also gathers computer generated log data from the shakespeare outline, network and, using this data, determines that an apa in-depth study of representative organizations from steps research paper four categories -- health care, environmental, education, and religious -- is feasible. Table Of Contents For Research Apa! The investigator applies additional selection criteria so that an urban-based and a rural-based non-profit are represented in the study in order to statement healthful examine whether urban non-profits perceive more benefits from community networks than rural organizations. The researcher considers multiple sources of data for this study and selects document examination, the gathering and study of organizational documents such as administrative reports, agendas, letters, minutes, and news clippings for each of the organizations.
In this case, the investigator decides to also conduct open-ended interviews with key members of each organization using a check-list to guide interviewers during the interview process so that uniformity and consistency can be assured in the data, which could include facts, opinions, and table of contents paper unexpected insights. In this case study, the researcher cannot employ direct observation as a tool because some of the organizations involved have no office and meet infrequently to steps writing conduct business directly related to the electronic community network. The researcher instead decides to survey all Board members of the selected organizations using a questionnaire as a third data gathering tool. Within-case and of contents paper apa cross-case analysis of data are selected as analysis techniques. Step 3. Prepare to Collect the good statement healthful eating, Data. The researcher prepares to collect data by first contacting each organization to be studied to gain their cooperation, explain the purpose of the table for research paper apa, study, and assemble key contact information. Since data to public international competition be collected and table of contents paper apa examined includes organizational documents, the researcher states his intent to request copies of these documents, and plans for storage, classification, and retrieval of these items, as well as the interview and survey data. The researcher develops a formal investigator training program to include seminar topics on non-profit organizations and their structures in each of the four categories selected for this study.
The training program also includes practice sessions in conducting open-ended interviews and documenting sources, suggested field notes formats, and a detailed explanation of the purpose of the case study. The researcher selects a fifth case as a pilot case, and the investigators apply the data gathering tools to the pilot case to public competition determine whether the planned timeline is feasible and whether or not the interview and survey questions are appropriate and effective. Of Contents Paper Apa! Based on the results of the pilot, the researcher makes adjustments and healthful assigns investigators particular cases which become their area of expertise in the evaluation and analysis of the data. Step 4. Collect Data in the Field. Investigators first arrange to visit with the Board of Directors of each non-profit organization as a group and ask for copies of the organization?s mission, news clippings, brochures, and any other written material describing the organization and its purpose. The investigator reviews the purpose of the study with the table of contents paper, entire Board, schedules individual interview times with as many Board members as can cooperate, confirms key contact data, and requests that all Board members respond to the written survey which will be mailed later. Investigators take written notes during the meditations, interview and table of contents for research paper apa record field notes after the paper outline, interview is table for research paper apa completed. The interviews, although open-ended, are structured around the research questions defined at the start of the case study. Research Question: Why do non-profit organization participants use the network?
Interview Questions: How did the organization make the decision to on hitler place data on apa the World Wide Web community network? What need was the organization hoping to fulfill? Research Question: How do non-profit organization participants determine what to place on the electronic community network? Interview Questions: What process was used to select the information that would be used on the network? How is the information kept up to public competition date? Research Question: Do the non-profit organization participants believe the community network serves a useful purpose in furthering their mission? How? Interview Questions: How does the organization know if the electronic community network is beneficial to the organization? How does the electronic community network further the mission of the organization? What systematic tracking mechanisms exist to determine how many or what types of users are accessing the table of contents paper apa, organization information?
The investigator?s field notes record impressions and questions that might assist with the interpretation of the interview data. The investigator makes note of stories told during open-ended interviews and flags them for potential use in leroys homework the final report. Data is entered into the database. The researcher mails written surveys to all Board members with a requested return date and a stamped return envelope. Once the surveys are returned, the researcher codes and enters the data into the database so that it can be used independently as well as integrated when the case study progresses to the point of cross-case examination of data for all four cases. Step 5. Evaluate and Analyze the Data. Within-case analysis is the first analysis technique used with each non-profit organization under study. The assigned investigator studies each organization?s written documentation and survey response data as a separate case to identify unique patterns within the data for that single organization.
Individual investigators prepare detailed case study write-ups for each organization, categorizing interview questions and table of contents for research answers and examining the data for outline within-group similarities and differences. Cross-case analysis follows. Investigators examine pairs of cases, categorizing the similarities and table of contents for research paper differences in each pair. Investigators then examine similar pairs for differences, and dissimilar pairs for research paper writing similarities. As patterns begin to emerge, certain evidence may stand out as being in conflict with the patterns. In those cases, the investigator conducts follow-up focused interviews to confirm or correct the table apa, initial data in order to tie the evidence to the findings and to state relationships in answer to the research questions. Step 6 Prepare the Report. The outline of the report includes thanking all of the participants, stating the problem, listing the research questions, describing the methods used to conduct the research and any potential flaws in the method used, explaining the data gathering and analysis techniques used, and concluding with the answers to the questions and good thesis statement suggestions for further research. Key features of the report include a retelling of specific stories related to the successes or disappointments experienced by the organizations that were conveyed during data collection, and answers or comments illuminating issues directly related to the research questions. The researcher develops each issue using quotations or other details from the data collected, and points out the of contents for research paper apa, triangulation of data where applicable.
The report also includes confirming and conflicting findings from literature reviews. The report conclusion makes assertions and suggestions for essay further research activity, so that another researcher may apply these techniques to another electronic community network and its participants to determine whether similar findings are identifiable in other communities. Final report distribution includes all participants. Applicability to Library and Information Science. Busha, C. Table! H., Harter, S. P. (1980). Research methods in librarianship, techniques and interpretation. New York: Academic Press. Chang, H. C. (1974). Good Statement Eating! Library goals as responses to structural milieu requirements: A comparative case study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
DuMont, R. R. (1975). The large urban public library as an agency of social reform, 1890-1915. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Eisenhardt, K. M. Of Contents For Research Paper! (1989). Building theories from case study research.
Academy of Management Review, 14 (4), 352-550. Emory, C. W., Cooper, D. R. (1991). Business research methods. (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Irvin. Goldhor, H. (1972). An introduction to good thesis statement healthful scientific research in librarianship.
Urbana, IL: University of Illinois. Hamel, J. (with Dufour, S., Fortin, D.). (1993). For Research Paper Apa! Case study methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Harris, S., Sutton, R. Essay! (1986).
Functions of table of contents paper apa, parting ceremonies in dying organizations. On Hitler Youth! Academy of Management Journal, 19, 5-30. Lawson, V. (1971). Reference service in university libraries, two case studies. Of Contents Apa! Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York. McAdams, D. Public Law Essay! C. (1979). Powerful actors in public land use decision making processes: A case study in Austin, Texas.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. McClure, C. R., Hernon, P. Table For Research Paper! (Eds.). (1991). Library and information science research: perspectives and strategies for research paper writing improvement. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Miller, F. (1986). For Research Apa! Use, appraisal, and research: A case study of social history . The American Archivist: 49 (4), 371-392.
Paris, M. (1988). Library school closings: Four case studies. Steps Research! Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. Patton, M. Q. Table For Research! (1980). Qualitative evaluation methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Powell, R. R. (1985). Basic research methods for on hitler youth librarians.
Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Schindler, D. (1996). Table Of Contents Apa! Urban youth and research paper the frail elderly: Reciprocal giving and receiving. New York: Garland. Simons, H. (1980). Table Of Contents For Research! Towards a science of the singular: Essays about case study in educational research and evaluation. Norwich, UK: University of East Anglia, Centre for Applied Research in Education. Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Swisher, R., McClure, C. R. (1984). Research for decision making, methods for librarians. Chicago: American Library Association. Taylor, R. S. (1967). Question-negotiation and essay information-seeking in libraries. Bethlehem, PA: Center for the Information Sciences. U.S. Department of Education. (1988). Rethinking the library in the information age: Issues in library research: proposals for the 1990s. Volume II.
Washington, DC. Weiss, C.H., Bucuvala, M. J. (1980). Social science research and for research paper apa decision-making. Thesis Statement Healthful! New York: Columbia University Press. Wholey, J. S., Hatry, H. Table Of Contents For Research! P., Newcomer, K. E. (Eds.). (1994). Handbook of practical program evaluation. Youth! San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Yin, R. K. Table Paper Apa! (1984). Case study research: Design and methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. This page is created and maintained by Sue Soy [email protected]
Last Updated 02/12/2006. Copyright 1996 Susan K. Soy. Please feel free to copy and distribute freely for academic purposes with attribution. Cite as: Soy, Susan K. (1997). The case study as a research method . Unpublished paper, University of Texas at Austin.
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analogy essay man Pope wrote his Essay on Man in rhyming verse. Certainly today, we think anybody that writes poetry is one who is a bit odd, to of contents apa, say the least. Back in the eighteenth century, it was not so strange. Pope stated that he had two reasons for good, writing his essay in table for research paper such a manner. First, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards. The second reason that Pope gave is that he thought that he could express himself more shortly this way than in leroys homework prose itself. I here make comments about the expressions and thoughts of Pope in paper his essay. I have quoted at length from his essay. Certainly there is youth, much I have left out, because, likely, certain verses referred to events, persons and things of the early eighteenth century which, quite frankly, I am unfamiliar with. Spattered throughout Pope's work are references to God and His great domain. Such references in the writings out table of contents for research apa of the eighteenth century are not strange.
The livelihood of writers, by good thesis healthful eating and large -- as was with the case of of contents, all artists back then -- depended almost entirely on the generosity of meditations essay, church and state, so it was necessary in those days that writers give due regard to religious authority. Believing that if Pope were looking over of contents for research paper, my shoulder he would have no objection, I have left out good statement healthful eating religious epaulets. Table Of Contents Paper Apa. Within the first few lines, we see Pope wondering about the fruitlessness of life. We have no choice: we come to meditations essay, it, look out and then die. What we see as we look out on the scene of man is a mighty maze! But Pope does not think this complex of existence is without a plan. Man might sort through the maze because he has a marvelous mental faculty, that of paper, reason; man can determine the nature of the world in which he lives; he can see that all things have bearings, ties and strong connections and meditations, nice dependencies. He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the whole? Is the great chain that draws all to agree, - And, drawn, supports - upheld by God or thee?
In his next stanza, Pope makes reference to presumptuous man! Why should one be disturbed because he cannot immediately figure out all of the table for research paper apa mysteries with which he is presented? It cannot be expected that one part of existence (man) should understand all the other parts, he then continues: As of thy mother Earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade. And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in meditations essay the sale of reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man. When the dull ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and now Egypt's god, - Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in table of contents for research fault, - Say rather Man's as perfect as he ought: His knowledge measur'd to his state and place, His time a moment, and a point his space. Pope continues with this theme into his third stanza, in steps research saying Heav'n from of contents paper all creatures hides the book of fate, and continues: The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy reason, would he skip and essay on hitler, play? Pleas'd to the last he crops the flow'ry food, And licks the hand just rais'd to shed his blood. Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into table of contents for research, ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world.
Then giving way to his religious bent, makes reference to the great teacher Death and continues with his most famous lines: Hope springs eternal in the human breast; Man never is, but always to be blest: The soul uneasy and confin'd from public competition home, Rest and expatiates in a life to come. Next, Pope deals with native people of the uncivilized territories of the world, and how they do not get hung up on such large questions as are expressed in Pope's essay: Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to table for research paper, stray. Far as the meditations solar walk or milky way; Yet simple Nature to his hope has giv'n, Behind the cloud-topp'd hill, a humbler heav'n; Some safer world in depth of table for research, woods embrac'd, Some happier island in the wat'ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for leroys homework, gold! To be, contents his natural desire; He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire: But things, admitted to table for research apa, that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. Next, we see Pope start to develop the theme that runs throughout his essay; man is part of a larger setting, a part of nature. Man depends on nature for his very substance, and yet, treats her roughly. Leroys Homework. Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust,
Yet cry, if Man's unhappy, God's unjust; Ask for what end the heav'nly bodies shine, Earth for whose use, Pride answers, 'Tis for mine! For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb and spreads out apa ev'ry flow'r; Pope asserts that man is ruled from within, by his reason and by his passion. Better for on hitler youth, us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there are harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind. But all subsists by for research apa elemental strife; And passions are the elements of essay, life. The gen'ral Order since the whole began. Is kept in Nature, and for research apa, is kept in essay Man. Passion may be equated to instinct; and instinct is the sole guide of animals. Instinct is all that animals need as evolution has fitted each animal to table of contents for research, his home environment, unlike man who is in want of the strength of bulls, the fur of bears. Paper. Here with degrees of swiftness, there of force: All in exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and of contents for research paper apa, nothing to abate.
Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav'n unkind to Man, and Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? Again, Pope emphasizes how nature all good and wise. and what it gives, and what denies has perfected itself and many of essay on hitler, its creations: The spider's tough how exquisitely fine! Feels at each thread, and lives along the line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the table for research healing dew? In nature, we find life in a complete variety, - vast chain of being everything beast, bird, fish, insect. Or in the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale's destroy'd: From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. The point, I think, is that there is good statement healthful, a fearful balance of nature in all its variety, and we dare not destroy one aspect of nature for fear of destroying the table of contents whole. All this dread order break - for whom? for thee?
Vile worm! - oh madness! pride! impiety! In the good thesis statement healthful eating last line of Pope's first epistle, he bangs home the table of contents paper importance of the ruling mind of outline, nature, that while some parts might seem to us to be absurd, it is part of the general frame that all of nature, including ourselves, are but parts of paper, one stupendous whole. This whole body of nature is through all life and extends throughout all of the universe and international law essay, operates unspent. Pope concludes his first epistle: Safe in the hand of one disposing Pow'r, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. All Nature is but Art, unknown to table of contents, thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see. All discord, harmony not understood, All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite, One truth is clear, whatever is, is essay, right. Pope opens his second Epistle much the table of contents for research paper apa same as he opened his first. What is the function of man, positioned as he is somewhere between a god and international law essay, a beast. Man, during that brief interlude between birth and death, experiences a chaos of of contents paper, thought and passion, all confus'd. He finds on earth the Great lord of all things, yet a prey to all.
Man's function, Pope concludes, is to make a proper study of mankind ; man is to meditations essay, know himself. What man will come to know is that he is ruled by passion; passion is the table of contents paper apa ruler and reason it's counsellor. Alas what wonder! Man's superior part. Uncheck'd may rise and law essay, climb from art to table of contents, art; But when his own great work is but begun, What Reason weaves, by Passion is essay, undone.
It is in table of contents paper the nature of man to first serve himself; but, on account of reason, to public international law essay competition, do so with the long range in view. Two Principles in human nature reign; Self-love, to urge, and of contents for research, Reason, to restrain; Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh; Reason's at distance, and in prospect lie: A person is law essay, driven by passion, driven by his desire for pleasure; temptation is strong and of contents apa, passion is thicker than arguments. However, a person soon learns through bitter experience that one cannot let his or her passions run wild. Attention, habit and experience gains; Each strengthens Reason, and Self-love restrains. Self-love and Reason to steps, one end aspire, Pain their aversion, Pleasure their desire, Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, Our greatest evil, or our greatest good. Passions, tho' selfish, if their means be fair, List under reason, and deserve her care. On life's vast ocean diversely we sail, Reason the table of contents card, but passion is the good thesis healthful gale;2. Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train, Hate, Fear, and Grief, the table of contents paper family of Pain, These mix'd with art, and to due bounds confin'd,
Make and steps, maintain the balance of the mind: Pope's theme is table paper, again repeated: the two driving forces of man are his reason and his passion. However, passion is the king and reason but a weak queen. What can she more than tell us we are fools? Teach us to mourn our nature, not to steps research writing, mend. A sharp accuser but a helpless friend! Reason (th' Eternal Art, educing good from table for research ill) is not a guide but a guard.
Passion is the research paper outline mightier pow'r. Envy, Pope points out as an of contents for research paper apa aside, is something that can be possessed only by those who are learn'd or brave. Ambition: can destroy or save, and makes a patriot as it makes a knave. With Pope's thoughts, it soon becomes clear one should not necessarily consider that envy and thesis eating, ambition are in table paper themselves wrong. They are moving forces in on hitler a person and if properly guided, can serve a person well.
As, in some well-wrought picture, light and shade. And oft so mix, the diff'rence is too nice, Where ends the virtue, or begins the for research paper apa vice. Public Competition. And virtuous and vicious ev'ry man must be, Few in table paper apa the extreme, but all in the degree; Each person is driven by self-love, but on the same occasion each on the other to depend, a master, or a servant, or a friend, bids each on other for assistance call. Each person seeks his own happiness, seeks his own contentment; each is proud in what he or she has achieved, no matter what another person might think of those achievements. Whate'er the passions, knowledge, fame, or pelf, Not one will change is neighbour with himself. The learn'd is happy nature to youth, explore, The fool is happy that he knows no more; The rich is for research apa, happy in good thesis statement the plenty given, The poor contents him with the for research apa care of Heaven, See the leroys homework blind beggar dance, the cripple sing. The sot a hero, lunatic a king; The starving chemist in his golden views. Supremely bless'd, the poet in of contents for research paper his Muse.
None of research, us should be critical of another person's choice in life, who is to know it is right. Behold the of contents apa child, by nature's kindly law, Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw: Some livelier plaything give his youth delight, A little louder, but as empty quite: Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, And beads and prayer-books are the toys of age: Pleased with this bauble still, as that before, Till tired he sleeps, and meditations, life's poor play is table for research apa, o'er. Pope returns, in his third Epistle, to his ever present theme, all is natural in nature and man is a part of nature. He first observes how plastic nature is, how everything is dependant on one and shakespeare research, the other, is attracted to one and the other, down even to table of contents for research paper apa, single atoms. Essay Youth. Everything it's neighbour to table of contents, embrace. (While Pope did not do so, he might just as easily have observed that things in nature repel one another, equally so. All things, in the final analysis, are held in essay on hitler the balance, suspended, so it seems, between the two great forces of attraction and paper, repulsion.) All forms that perish other forms supply, (By turns we catch the vital breath, and die) Like bubbles on the sea a matter borne, They rise, they break, and to research paper writing, that sea return.
Nothing is foreign; parts relate to whole: Then, Pope picks up once again his theme of the ruling principles, reason and passion. For Research Paper. Here in his third Epistle, he refers to instinct as the unerring guide that reason often fails us, though sometimes serves when press'd. But honest instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to hit, While still to wide or short is human wit; Sure by quick nature happiness to gain, Which heavier reason labour at in vain. Instinct can be seen at work throughout nature, for example, Who make the spider parallels design . without rule or line? Not just the spider does things by instinct, man does. The obvious example is his artistic work, but our instincts serve us on a much broader range. Think! And you will wonder about many of the good thesis daily things that are done, automatically it seems. Of Contents For Research Paper Apa. What, exactly, is it that prompts us to do things. Who calls the council, states the certain day, Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way?
Pope then comes to a rather critical passage in his essay, when he deals with family units in essay youth the animal kingdom versus human beings. The fact of the matter is, family units do not count for much in the animal kingdom, at any rate, not for table of contents for research, long. However, family connections for shakespeare research outline, human beings extend over a long period, indeed, over a lifetime. For Research. I would observe that it is an evolutionary development, needed because of the long time required before a child passes into on hitler youth, adulthood. These family feelings are important for the development and table for research, cohesion of the family, but not necessarily good when extended to the larger group, society as a whole (this is a theme that I have developed elsewhere (EconEcon.doc) and which someday I hope to put up on the 'net.).
Thus beast and bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and public law essay competition, the sires defend: The young dismiss'd to wander earth or air, There stops the instinct, and there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, Another love succeeds, another race. A longer care man's helpless kind demands; That longer care contracts more lasting bands: Reflection, reason, still the for research paper ties improve, At one extend the interest, and thesis statement healthful, the love; With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Each virtue in each passion takes its turn; And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise. That graft benevolence on charities. Still as one brood, and as another rose, These natural love maintain'd, habitual those: The last, scarce ripen'd into perfect man, Saw helpless from him whom their life began: Memory and forecast just returns engage; That pointed back to youth, this on to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope, combined, Still spread the interest, and preserved the kind.
Pope then, continuing with his third Epistle, returns to his principle and the power of nature. Nature is table of contents paper apa, a driving gale, a fact which can be observed in the voice of nature and which we can learn from the birds and the beasts. It was the power of nature that built the ant's republic and the realm of bees. Pope observes anarchy without confusion. Their separate cells and properties maintain. Public Law Essay Competition. Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state;- Laws wise as nature, and as fix'd as fate. In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw; Entangle justice in her net of law; And right, too rigid, harden into table for research apa, wrong, Still for the strong too weak, the thesis healthful weak too strong.
Yet go! and thus o'er all the table paper creatures sway; Thus let the wiser make the rest obey; And for those arts mere instinct could afford, Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods adored. It is the same voice of nature by steps writing which men evolved and cities were built, societies were made. That while men in table of contents the gradual and slow build-up ravished one another with war, it was commerce that brought about shakespeare, civilization. Of Contents For Research. Men came to new countries with war-like intentions, but soon became friends when they realized there was much more profit in trade. When love was liberty, and nature law: Thus states were form'd; the name of king unknown, Till common interest placed the sway in youth one. 'Twas Virtue only, or in arts or arms, So, it was trade that built civilizations, and Pope observes, that it was tradition that preserves them. Of Contents For Research Paper Apa. Convey'd unbroken faith from sire to son; The worker from the work distinct was known, Then, continuing in this historical vein, Pope deals with the development of government and of laws.
So drives self-love, through just and through unjust. To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: The same self-love, in international all, becomes the cause. Of what restrains him, government and of contents for research apa, laws: For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel? How shall we keep, what, sleeping or awake, A weaker may surprise, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain: All join to meditations, guard what each desires to gain. Forced into virtue thus by self-defence, Ev'n kings learn'd justice and paper apa, benevolence: Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, And found the private in the public good. 'Twas then, the studious head or generous mind, Follower of God or friend of human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to restore. Steps Paper Writing. The faith and moral Nature gave before; Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new; If not God's image, yet his shadow drew;
Taught power's due use to people and to of contents for research paper, kings; Taught not to slack nor strain its tender strings; The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the on hitler other too; Till jarring int'rests of themselves create. Th' according music of a well-mix'd state. Such is the world's great harmony, that springs. From order, union, full consent of things: Where small and great, where weak and mighty made. To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More pow'rful each as needful to table of contents paper apa, the rest, And in proportion as it blesses, blest; Draw to essay on hitler youth, one point, and to one centre bring. Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king. Pope makes a side observation that while government is necessary, its form is of less importance, what is important, is a good administration: For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is best: Pope then concludes in table of contents for research paper apa his third Epistle, emphasizing that regard for writing, oneself and his family has to be different than regard for the whole of society, that nature link'd the gen'ral frame and bade self-love and social be the of contents paper same. In his last Epistle on the Essay of Man, Pope deals with the shakespeare research paper subject of happiness. It may be any one of a number of things, it depends on the person: good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name. For Research. That happiness as a plant of celestial seed will grow, and if it doesn't, one should not blame the soil, but rather the way one tends the soil.
Though man may well seek happiness in many quarters, it will only research paper be found in nature. Man should avoid extremes. For Research Apa. He should not go about in youth life trusting everything, but on the same occasion neither should he be a total skeptic. Take Nature's path, and made Opinion's leave; All states can reach it and of contents for research, all heads conceive; Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell; There needs but thinking right, and meaning well; And mourn our various portions as we please, Equal is common sense, and common ease. To Pope, pleasure does not last, it sicken, and leroys homework, all glories sink. To each person comes his or her share and who would more obtain, Shall find the pleasure pays not half the pain.
To be rich, to be wise: these are both laudable goals and of contents paper, a person looking about meditations, will always be able to find others who have riches and wisdom in varying degrees, but it cannot be concluded to any degree that they are happy. Happiness comes when one has health, peace, and competence. It is table for research paper apa, not clear to me from essay Pope's lines how one might secure peace and table paper apa, competence; health, he says, consists with temperance alone. It is in the nature of man to attempt to change things; he is meditations essay, never happy with things as he finds them; never happy with his fellow man; never happy with the world about him. We forever strive to make things perfect, a state that can hardly be define in human terms. Those that reflect on man's condition will soon have Utopian dreams. But still this world, so fitted for the knave, Contents us not. A better shall we have? A kingdom of the table just then let it be: But first consider how those just agree.
The good must merit God's peculiar care; But who but God can tell us who they are? It all too often appears to us that virtue starves, while vice is fed. One might wish for man to be a God and for earth to on hitler youth, be a heaven, both God and for research paper apa, heaven coming from the imaginations of man. Research. But, Pope concludes: 'Whatever is, is right.' -- This world, 'tis true.
Of fame, Pope says, it is but a fancied life in others' breath . All that we feel of it begins and ends in the small circle of our foes and friends . It will get you nothing but a crowd of stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Of wisdom, Pope attempts a definition and points out how often the wise are bound to trudge alone with neither help nor understanding from his fellow man. In parts superior what advantage lies! Tell, for you can, what is of contents for research, it to be wise? 'Tis but to know how little can be known ; To see all others' faults, and feel our own: Condem'd in business or in arts to drudge, Without a second, or without a judge: Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land? All fear, none aid you, and leroys homework, few understand. And so we arrive at table of contents for research paper apa the last of Pope's lines. Show'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; That true Self-love and Social are the same . 1 The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope which includes Dr. Johnson's 65 page biography on international law essay competition Pope, Essay on Man (31 pp.); Essay on Criticism (17 pp.), Rape of the Lock (19 pp.), The Dunciad (31 pp.). My vintage copy has within it two frontispiece Steel Engravings (Philadelphia: Hazard, 1857).
2 Here, again, we see Pope refer to the analogy of the sailing ship on the sea finding its way only with compass (card) for direction and the wind in the sails to drive the vessel along.
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essay on vulgarity On Vulgarity and Affectation 1. Few subjects are more nearly allied than these two -- vulgarity and affectation. It may be said of them truly that 'thin partitions do their bounds divide.' There cannot be a surer proof of a low origin or of an innate meanness of disposition than to be always talking and thinking of being genteel. One must feel a strong tendency to of contents paper that which one is always trying to avoid: whenever we pretend, on all occasions, a mighty contempt for meditations essay, anything, it is a pretty clear sign that we feel ourselves very nearly on a level with it. Of the two classes of people, I hardly know which is to be regarded with most distaste, the vulgar aping the genteel, or the genteel constantly sneering at and endeavouring to distinguish themselves from the vulgar. These two sets of persons are always thinking of apa one another; the lower of the higher with envy, the more fortunate of their less happy neighbours with contempt. They are habitually placed in opposition to each other; jostle in their pretensions at every turn; and the same objects and train of essay thought (only reversed by the relative situation of either party) occupy their whole time and attention. The one are straining every nerve, and outraging common sense, to be thought genteel; the others have no other object or idea in their heads than not to table of contents for research be thought vulgar.
This is but poor spite; a very pitiful style of ambition. To be merely not that which one heartily despises is a very humble claim to superiority: to despise what one really is, is still worse. Most of the characters in Miss Burney's novels2 -- the Branghtons, the Smiths, the Dubsters, the Cecilias, the Delvilles, etc. -- are well met in this respect, and international law essay competition, much of a piece: the one half are trying not to be taken for themselves, and the other half not to be taken for the first. They neither of them have any pretensions of their own, or real standard of worth. 'A feather will turn the scale of their avoirdupois'; though the fair authoress was not aware of the metaphysical identity of her principal and subordinate characters. Affectation is the table for research, master-key to both. Gentility is only a more select and artificial kind of vulgarity. It cannot exist but by a sort of borrowed distinction. It plumes itself up and revels in the homely pretensions of the mass of mankind. It judges of the worth of everything by meditations name, fashion, and opinion; and hence, from the conscious absence of real qualities or sincere satisfaction in table for research itself, it builds its supercilious and leroys homework, fantastic conceit on the wretchedness and wants of others. Violent antipathies are always suspicious, and betray a secret affinity.
The difference between the 'Great Vulgar and the Small' is mostly in outward circumstances. The coxcomb criticises the dress of the clown, as the pedant cavils at the bad grammar of the table of contents for research paper, illiterate, or the prude is shocked at the backslidings of her frail acquaintance. Those who have the fewest resources in themselves naturally seek the food of their self-love elsewhere. The most ignorant people find most to laugh at in strangers: scandal and research paper, satire prevail most in country-places; and a propensity to ridicule every [even] the slightest or most palpable deviation from what we happen to approve, ceases with the progress of common sense and decency.3 True worth does not exult in the faults and deficiencies of others; as true refinement turns away from grossness and deformity, instead of being tempted to indulge in an unmanly triumph over it. Table Of Contents Apa. Raphael would not faint away at the daubing of a signpost, nor Homer hold his head the higher for being in the company of a Grub Street bard. Real power, real excellence, does not seek for a foil in inferiority; nor fear contamination from coming in contact with that which is leroys homework, coarse and homely. It reposes on itself, and is equally free from spleen and affectation. But the spirit of table paper gentility is the mere essence of spleen and affectation; of affected delight in its own would-be qualifications, and of ineffable disdain poured out upon the involuntary blunders or accidental disadvantages of those whom it chooses to treat as its inferiors. Thus a fashionable Miss titters till she is steps paper, ready to burst her sides at the uncouth shape of for research paper apa a bonnet or the abrupt drop of a curtsey (such as Jeanie Deans would make) in a country-girl who comes to be hired by her Mamma as a servant; yet to show how little foundation there is for this hysterical expression of her extreme good opinion of herself and contempt for the untutored rustic, she would herself the next day be delighted with the very same shaped bonnet if brought her by a French milliner and told it was all the fashion, and in a week's time will become quite familiar with the maid, and chatter with her (upon equal terms) about caps and ribbons and lace by the hour together.
There is no difference between them but that of situation in good eating the kitchen or in paper apa the parlour: let circumstances bring them together, and they fit like hand and thesis statement healthful, glove. It is like mistress, like maid. For Research. Their talk, their thoughts, their dreams, their likings and dislikes are the same. Meditations Essay. The mistress's head runs continually on dress and finery, so does the maid's: the young lady longs to ride in of contents apa a coach and public international competition, six, so does the maid, if she could; Miss forms a beau-ideal of a lover with black eyes and table for research paper apa, rosy cheeks, which does not differ from that of her attendant; both like a smart man, the good thesis, one the footman and for research paper, the other his master, for the same reason; both like handsome furniture and fine houses; both apply the terms shocking and disagreeable to the same things and persons; both have a great notion of balls, plays, treats, song-books, and love-tales; both like a wedding or a christening, and both would give their little fingers to see a coronation -- with this difference, that the one has a chance of getting a seat at it, and the other is dying with envy that she has not. Indeed, this last is a ceremony that delights equally the greatest monarch and the meanest of his subjects -- the vilest of the on hitler, rabble. Yet this which is the height of paper gentility and consummation of external distinction and splendour, is, I should say, a vulgar ceremony. For what degree of refinement, of capacity, of virtue is required in the individual who is on hitler youth, so distinguished, or is necessary to his enjoying this idle and imposing parade of his person? Is he delighted with the stage-coach and gilded panels? So is the table of contents for research apa, poorest wretch that gazes at meditations it. Is he struck with the spirit, the beauty, and symmetry of the eight cream-coloured horses? There is not one of the immense multitude who flock to see the sight from town or country, St.
Giles's or Whitechapel, young or old, rich or poor, gentle or simple, who does not agree to table of contents paper admire the same object. Is he delighted with the yeomen of the guard, the military escort, the groups of ladies, the badges of sovereign power, the kingly crown, the research outline, marshal's truncheon and table of contents for research paper apa, the judge's robe, the array that precedes and follows him, the crowded streets, the windows hung with eager looks? So are the mob, for they 'have eyes and see them!' There is no one faculty of mind or body, natural or acquired, essential to the principal figure in this procession more than is common to the meanest and most despised attendant on it. A waxwork figure would answer the good healthful, same purpose: a Lord Mayor of London has as much tinsel to be proud of. I would rather have a king do something that no one else has the power or magnanimity to do, or say something that no one else has the wisdom to say, or look more handsome, more thoughtful, or benign than any one else in his dominions. But I see nothing to raise one's idea of of contents him in his being made a show of: if the leroys homework, pageant would do as well without the man, the man would do as well without the pageant!
Kings have been declared to be 'lovers of low company'; and this maxim, besides the reason sometimes assigned for it, viz. that they meet with less opposition to their wills from paper apa such persons, will I suspect be found to turn at last on the consideration I am here stating, that they also meet with more sympathy in their tastes. The most ignorant and thoughtless have the greatest admiration of the baubles, the outward symbols of pomp and power, the sound and show, which are the habitual delight and mighty prerogative of kings. The stupidest slave worships the gaudiest tyrant. The same gross motives appeal to the same gross capacities, flatter the pride of the leroys homework, superior and excite the servility of the dependant; whereas a higher reach of moral and intellectual refinement might seek in of contents for research apa vain for higher proofs of internal worth and inherent majesty in the object of its idolatry, and not finding the divinity lodged within, the unreasonable expectation raised would probably end in mortification on both sides! -- There is little to distinguish a king from his subjects but the rabble's shout -- if he loses that and is reduced to the forlorn hope of gaining the suffrages of the public international competition, wise and good, he is of all men the most miserable. -- But enough of this. 'I like it,' says Miss Branghton4 in Evelina (meaning the opera), 'because it is not vulgar.' That is, she likes it, not because there is anything to like in it, but because other people are prevented from liking or knowing anything about it. Janus Weathercock, Esq., laugheth to scorn and spitefully entreateth and hugely condemneth my dramatic criticisms in the London, for of contents apa, a like exquisite reason. I must therefore make an meditations essay example of him in paper terrorem to shakespeare paper all such hypercritics. Table. He finds fault with me and calls my taste vulgar, because I go to Sadler's Wells ('a place he has heard of' -- 0 Lord, sir!) -- because I notice the Miss Dennetts, 'great favourites with the Whitechapel orders' -- praise Miss Valancy, 'a bouncing Columbine at Ashley's and them there places, as his barber informs him' (has he no way of establishing himself in his own good opinion but by triumphing over his barber's bad English?) -- and finally, because I recognised the existence of the Coburg and the Surrey theatres, at the names of which he cries 'Faugh' with great significance, as if he had some personal disgust at them, and thesis statement healthful eating, yet he would be supposed never to have entered them.
It is not his cue as a well-bred critic. C'est beau ca. Now this appears to me a very crude, unmeaning, indiscriminate, wholesale, and vulgar way of thinking. It is prejudicing things in the lump, by names and places and classes, instead of judging of them by what they are in themselves, by their real qualities and of contents for research apa, shades of distinction. There is research outline, no selection, truth, or delicacy in such a mode of proceeding. It is affecting ignorance, and making it a title to table of contents paper apa wisdom. It is law essay, a vapid assumption of of contents for research apa superiority. It is exceeding impertinence. It is rank coxcombry.
It is nothing in the world else. To condemn because the multitude admire is as essentially vulgar as to admire because they admire. There is no exercise of taste or judgment in either case: both are equally repugnant to essay good sense, and of the table of contents for research paper, two I should prefer the good-natured side. I would as soon agree with my barber as differ from him; and why should I make a point of reversing the sentence of the Whitechapel orders? Or how can it affect my opinion of the merits of an actor at the Coburg or the Surrey theatres, that these theatres are in or out of the Bills of Mortality? This is an good thesis healthful easy, short-hand way of paper judging, as gross as it is mechanical. It is not a difficult matter to settle questions of taste by consulting the map of London, or to prove your liberality by geographical distinctions. Janus jumbles things together strangely. If he had seen Mr. Leroys Homework. Kean in a provincial theatre, at Exeter or Taunton, he would have thought it vulgar to admire him; but when he had been stamped in London, Janus would no doubt show his discernment and the subtlety of his tact for of contents apa, the display of character and passion by shakespeare research paper outline not being behind the fashion.
The Miss Dennetts are 'little unformed girls,' for no other reason than because they danced at of contents paper apa one of the minor theatres: let them but come out on the opera boards, and let the essay, beauty and fashion of the season greet them with a fairy shower of delighted applause, and they would outshine Milanie 'with the of contents, foot of fire.' His gorge rises at the mention of a certain quarter of the town: whatever passes current in another, he 'swallows total grist unsifted, husks and all.' This is not taste, but folly. At this rate, the hackney-coachman who drives him, or his horse Contributor whom he has introduced as a select personage to the vulgar reader, knows as much of the matter as he does. -- In a word, the answer to all this in the first instance is to say what vulgarity is. Now its essence, I imagine, consists in taking manners, actions, words, opinions on trust from others, without examining one's own feelings or weighing the merits of the case. It is coarseness or shallowness of taste arising from want of steps research writing individual refinement, together with the confidence and presumption inspired by example and numbers. It may be defined to be a prostitution of the mind or body to ape the more or less obvious defects of others, because by so doing we shall secure the suffrages of those we associate with. To affect a gesture, an opinion, a phrase, because it is the rage with a large number of persons, or to of contents for research paper hold it in good eating abhorrence because another set of persons very little, if at all, better informed cry it down to distinguish themselves from the former, is in either case equal vulgarity and absurdity. A thing is of contents for research paper, not vulgar merely because it is common. 'Tis common to breathe, to see, to feel, to live. Nothing is vulgar that is natural, spontaneous, unavoidable. Grossness is not vulgarity, ignorance is not vulgarity, awkwardness is not vulgarity; but all these become vulgar when they are affected and shown off on the authority of others, or to fall in with the fashion or the company we keep. Caliban is coarse enough, but surely he is not vulgar. We might as well spurn the clod under our feet and call it vulgar.
Cobbett is coarse enough, but he is not vulgar. He does not belong to the herd. Nothing real, nothing original, can be vulgar; but I should think an imitator of Cobbett a vulgar man. Emery's Yorkshireman is vulgar, because he is a Yorkshireman. It is the cant and gibberish, the cunning and low life of a particular district; it has 'a stamp exclusive and steps research paper writing, provincial.' He might 'gabble most brutishly' and yet not fall under the letter of the definition; but 'his speech bewrayeth him,' his dialect (like the jargon of a Bond Street lounger) is the damning circumstance. If he were a mere blockhead, it would not signify; but he thinks himself a knowing hand, according to the notions and practices of table paper those with whom he was brought up, and which he thinks the go everywhere.
In a word, this character is not the good thesis, offspring of untutored nature but of table bad habits; it is made up of ignorance and conceit. It has a mixture of leroys homework slang in it. All slang phrases are for the same reason vulgar; but there is nothing vulgar in the common English idiom. Simplicity is not vulgarity; but the looking to affectation of any sort for distinction is. A cockney is a vulgar character, whose imagination cannot wander beyond the suburbs of the table of contents paper, metropolis; so is a fellow who is always thinking of the good thesis statement eating, High Street, Edinburgh. We want a name for this last character. An opinion is vulgar that is stewed in the rank breath of the rabble; nor is it a bit purer or more refined for having passed through the well-cleansed teeth of a whole court. Table Paper. The inherent vulgarity is in having no other feeling on any subject than the crude, blind, headling, gregarious notion acquired by sympathy with the mixed multitude or with a fastidious minority, who are just as insensible to the real truth, and as indifferent to everything but their own frivolous and vexatious pretensions. Paper. The upper are not wiser than the lower orders because they resolve to differ from them. The fashionable have the advantage of the unfashionable in nothing but the paper, fashion.
The true vulgar are the servum pecus imitatorum -- the public international law essay competition, herd of pretenders to what they do not feel and to what is not natural to them, whether in high or low life. To belong to any class, to move in any rank or sphere of table for research life, is not a very exclusive distinction or test of refinement. Refinement will in all classes be the exception, not the rule; and steps research, the exception may fall out in one class as well as another. A king is but an hereditary title. Apa. A nobleman is only one of the House of Peers. To be a knight or alderman is confessedly a vulgar thing. The king the other day made Sir Walter Scott a baronet, but not all the power of the Three Estates could make another Author of leroys homework Waverley . Princes, heroes, are often commonplace people: Hamlet was not a vulgar character, neither was Don Quixote.
To be an author, to be a painter, is nothing. Table. It is a trick, it is public international, a trade. An author! 'tis a venerable name: How few deserve it, yet what numbers claim! Nay, to be a Member of the Royal Academy or a Fellow of the Royal Society is but a vulgar distinction; but to be a Virgil, a Milton, a Raphael, a Claude, is what fell to the lot of humanity but once! I do not think they were vulgar people; though, for anything I know to the contrary, the first Lord of the Bedchamber may be a very vulgar man; for anything I know to the contrary, he may not be so. -- Such are pretty much my notions of gentility and vulgarity. There is a well-dressed and an ill-dressed mob, both which I hate. For Research. Odi profanum vulgus, et arceo. The vapid affectation of the one to me is meditations, even more intolerable than the gross insolence and brutality of the other. If a set of low-lived fellows are noisy, rude, and table of contents for research paper, boisterous to show their disregard of the company, a set of fashionable coxcombs are, to a nauseous degree, finical and effeminate to show their thorough breeding.
The one are governed by their feelings, however coarse and misguided, which is something; the leroys homework, others consult only appearances, which are nothing, either as a test of happiness or virtue. Hogarth in his prints has trimmed the balance of pretension between the table of contents paper apa, downright blackguard and the soi-disant fine gentleman unanswerably. It does not appear in his moral demonstrations (whatever it may do in paper writing the genteel letter-writing of Lord Chesterfield or the chivalrous rhapsodies of Burke) that vice by table of contents apa losing all its grossness loses half its evil. It becomes more contemptible, not less disgusting. What is public, there in common, for instance, between his beaux and belles, his rakes and his coquettes, and the men and women, the of contents apa, true heroic and essay, ideal characters in Raphael? But his people of fashion and quality are just upon a par with the low, the selfish, the unideal characters in the contrasted view of table paper human life, and are often the very same characters, only changing places. If the leroys homework, lower ranks are actuated by envy and uncharitableness towards the table of contents for research apa, upper, the latter have scarcely any feelings but of pride, contempt, and outline, aversion to the lower. If the poor would pull down the rich to get at their good things, the rich would tread down the poor as in a wine-press, and for research, squeeze the last shilling out of their pockets and the last drop of blood out of their veins. If the headstrong self-will and unruly turbulence of a common alehouse are shocking, what shall we say to the studied insincerity, the insipid want of common sense, the leroys homework, callous insensibility of the of contents for research paper apa, drawing-room and boudoir? I would rather see the feelings of shakespeare outline our common nature (for they are the same at bottom) expressed in the most naked and unqualified way, than see every feeling of our nature suppressed, stifled, hermetically sealed under the smooth, cold, glittering varnish of pretended refinement and conventional politeness.
The one may be corrected by being better informed; the other is incorrigible, wilful, heartless depravity. I cannot describe the for research apa, contempt and disgust I have felt at the tone of what would be thought good company, when I have witnessed the sleek, smiling, glossy, gratuitous assumption of good eating superiority to every feeling of humanity, honesty, or principle, as a part of the etiquette, the mental and moral costume of the table, and every profession of toleration or favour for the lower orders, that is, for the great mass of our fellow-creatures, treated as an indecorum and breach of the harmony of well-regulated society. In short, I prefer a bear-garden to the adder's den; or, to put this case in its extremest point of view, I have more patience with men in a rude state of nature outraging the human form than I have with apes 'making mops and mows' at the extravagances they have first provoked. I can endure the brutality (as it is termed) of mobs better than the inhumanity of courts. The violence of the one rages like a fire; the insidious policy of the other strikes like a pestilence, and is more fatal and inevitable. The slow poison of despotism is worse than the convulsive struggles of anarchy. 'Of all evils,' says Hume, 'anarchy is the shortest lived.' The one may 'break out like a wild overthrow'; but the other from its secret, sacred stand, operates unseen, and undermines the table of contents for research apa, happiness of kingdoms for ages, lurks in the hollow cheek, and good statement healthful, stares you in the face in the ghastly eye of want and agony and woe.
It is dreadful to hear the noise and uproar of an table of contents for research infuriated multitude stung by the sense of leroys homework wrong and table for research paper, maddened by sympathy; it is essay, more appalling to of contents paper apa think of the smile answered by other gracious smiles, of the on hitler, whisper echoed by other assenting whispers, which doom them first to despair and then to destruction. Of Contents Apa. Popular fury finds its counterpart in courtly servility. Meditations. If every outrage is to be apprehended from the one, every iniquity is deliberately sanctioned by table paper the other, without regard to justice or decency. Shakespeare Paper Outline. The word of a king, 'Go thou and table of contents for research apa, do likewise,' makes the stoutest heart dumb: truth and honesty shrink before it.5 If there are watchwords for the rabble, have not the polite and leroys homework, fashionable their hackneyed phrases, their fulsome, unmeaning jargon as well? Both are to me anathema! To return to table of contents paper apa the first question, as it regards individual and private manners. There is a fine illustration of the effects of preposterous and affected gentility in essay the character of Gertrude, in the old comedy of Eastward Hoe, written by Ben Jonson, Marston, and Chapman in conjunction.
This play is table of contents for research, supposed to have given rise to Hogarth's series of prints of the Idle and Industrious Apprentice; and there is something exceedingly Hogarthian in the view both of vulgar and of genteel life here displayed. The character of Gertrude, in particular, the heroine of the piece, is inimitably drawn. The mixture of vanity and meanness, the internal worthlessness and external pretence, the rustic ignorance and good thesis eating, fine lady-like airs, the intoxication of novelty and infatuation of pride, appear like a dream or romance, rather than anything in real life. Cinderella and her glass slipper are common-place to it. She is not, like Millamant (a century afterwards), the table for research, accomplished fine lady, but a pretender to all the foppery and finery of the character. It is the honeymoon with her ladyship, and her folly is at the full.
To be a wife, and the wife of a knight, are to her pleasures 'worn in their newest gloss,' and nothing can exceed her raptures in international law essay competition the contemplation of both parts of the dilemma. It is not familiarity, but novelty, that weds her to the court. She rises into the air of gentility from the ground of a city life, and table of contents for research, flutters about there with all the fantastic delight of a butterfly that has just changed its caterpillar state. The sound of My Lady intoxicates her with delight, makes her giddy, and almost turns her brain. On Hitler. On the bare strength of it she is ready to turn her father and mother out of doors, and table of contents paper apa, treats her brother and sister with infinite disdain and judicial hardness of heart.
With some speculators the modern philosophy has deadened and distorted all the steps research, natural affections; and table of contents for research paper apa, before abstract ideas and the mischievous refinements of literature were introduced, nothing was to be met with in the primeval state of youth society but simplicity and table of contents for research paper, pastoral innocence of essay manners -- And all was conscience and of contents, tender heart. This historical play gives the lie to the above theory pretty broadly, yet delicately. Our heroine is as vain as she is ignorant, and paper, as unprincipled as she is both, and without an idea or wish of any kind but that of adorning her person in the glass, and being called and table of contents for research, thought a lady, something superior to a citizen's wife.6 She is so bent on finery that she believes in miracles to obtain it, and research paper outline, expects the fairies to bring it her. She is quite above thinking of a settlement, jointure, or pin-money. Table Paper. She takes the will for the deed all through the piece, and is so besotted with this ignorant, vulgar notion of meditations rank and title as a real thing that cannot be counterfeited that she is the dupe of her own fine stratagems, and marries a gull, a dolt, a broken adventurer for an accomplished and brave gentleman. Her meanness is equal to her folly and her pride (and nothing can be greater), yet she holds out on the strength of her original pretensions for a long time, and plays the upstart with decency and imposing consistency. Indeed, her infatuation and caprices are akin to table paper the flighty perversity of a disordered imagination; and another turn of the wheel of research good or evil fortune would have sent her to keep company with Hogarth's Merveilleuses in Bedlam, or with Decker's group of coquettes in the same place. -- The other parts of the play are a dreary lee-shore, like Cuckold's Point on the coast of Essex, where the preconcerted shipwreck takes place that winds up the catastrophe of the piece.
But this is of contents for research paper, also characteristic of the age, and serves as a contrast to meditations essay the airy and factitious character which is the table of contents paper, principal figure in the plot. Meditations. We had made but little progress from that point till Hogarth's time, if Hogarth is to table for research be believed in his description of city manners. How wonderfully we have distanced it since! Without going into this at length, there is one circumstance I would mention in which I think there has been a striking improvement in the family economy of modern times -- and that is in the relation of mistresses and servants. After visits and finery, a married woman of the old school had nothing to do but to attend to her housewifery. She had no other resource, no other sense of research paper writing power, but to harangue and lord it over her domestics. Modern book-education supplies the of contents apa, place of the old-fashioned system of kitchen persecution and eloquence. A well-bred woman now seldom goes into the kitchen to look after the servants: -- formerly what was called a good manager, an exemplary mistress of a family, did nothing but hunt them from morning to research night, from one year's end to another, without leaving them a moment's rest, peace, or comfort. Now a servant is left to do her work without this suspicious and tormenting interference and fault-finding at every step, and table for research paper, she does it all the better. The proverbs about the mistress's eye, etc., are no longer held for meditations, current.
A woman from this habit, which at last became an uncontrollable passion, would scold her maids for fifty years together, and of contents for research paper apa, nothing could stop her: now the temptation to leroys homework read the last new poem or novel, and the necessity of talking of it in the next company she goes into, prevent her -- and the benefit to all parties is incalculable. 1 Hazlitt's On Vulgarity and Affectation is to be found in of contents paper apa Table Talk, Essays on Men and Manners (1822). 2 Frances (Fanny) Burney (1752-1840): Miss. Burney (she eventually married a French emigre by the name of D'Arblay) was an English novelist, one of the first females to essay be published. She was a portrayer of the domestic scene and table of contents for research paper, is said to have been a forerunner of Jane Austen. ( Chambers. ) Her first and best novel was Evelina (1778) which describes the entry of a country girl into the gaieties of London life. 3 [Original note.] If a European, when he has cut off his beard and put false hair on his head, or bound up his own natural hair in shakespeare research outline regular hard knots, as unlike nature as he could possibly make it; and after having rendered them immovable by the help of the table of contents for research apa, fat of hogs, has covered the whole with flour, laid on by a machine with the essay, utmost regularity; if when thus attired he issues forth, and meets with a Cherokee Indian, who has bestowed as much time at his toilet, and laid on with equal care and attention his yellow and red oker on particular parts of table apa his forehead or cheeks, as he judges most becoming; whoever of good thesis statement these two despises the other for this attention to the fashion of his country, whichever first feels himself provoked to paper apa laugh, is the barbarian. -- Sir Joshua Reynolds's Discourses, vol. i. pp. 231, 232. 4 [Original note.] This name was originally spelt Braughton in meditations the manuscript, and was altered to of contents for research paper apa Branghton by a mistake of the printer.
Branghton, however, was thought a good name for leroys homework, the occasion and was suffered to stand. For Research. 'Dip it in the ocean,' as Sterne's barber says of the buckle, 'and it will stand!' 5 [Original note.] A lady of quality, in allusion to the gallantries of a reigning prince, being told, 'I suppose it will be your turn next?' said, 'No, I hope not; for you know it is impossible to refuse!'