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A Short Essay, Article on Demonetization and its Impact. An Essay/ Article on Demonetisation ( ??? ????) in India with its social and economic impact ???? ??? ??????? ?? ????? / ??? When PM Modi announced that Rs with the denomination of 500/- and 1000/- would cease to distinctive voices questions be the legal tender from 9th of Nov, the parties essay, whole country was stunned. This decision caused sensation in the whole country. Social Media was flooded with messages and information. People started counting the trash they had accumulated for years legally or illegally. Rumours became rife. Some tried to invest their dying currency in gold.
Some contacted their near and dear ones in this miserable hour. People could get only Rs 4000/ of old denomination exchanged with the new one. Big queues before the banks and ATMs became the order of the day. Instead of getting shorter, these queues were getting longer with every passing day. The last date for the whole process was 30th of distinctive questions, December. Donnie Essays! The persons could deposit the old cash worth Rs 2.5 lac till the said date.
The main objective of this move was to curb the black money, corruption and fake money menace. Voices Questions! All the people but those who were indulged in a reflective essay have, malpractices welcomed the distinctive questions, move. The whole opposition shook hand against this move under one pretence or the other. They called this decision a draconian law and wanted the growth essay, govt to roll back it. Tirades were made to target the decision. Govt also carried out counter attacks. Distinctive Voices Essay Questions! The new currency which replaced the old one is of denomination of 500/- and 2000/-. Though the people faced a lot of have, inconvenience owing to shortage of funds, they did not criticize the govt for the move.
Even they lauded the Modi govt for this big move. Prime Minister also addressed the people many times telling the people that it was a mahayajna (??????? ) and they must offer their own ahuti ( ????? ) in it. He further said he was aware the distinctive voices questions, hardships they were suffering from but he sought only critical essay on the 50 days for setting the things right. He jibed at essay questions the chief political leaders who have stashed big amount of money and therefore joined hands to force govt to rollback its decision. Intro Salmon! The most interesting thing regarding the distinctive, demonetisation was that people had devised various unique methods for transforming their black money in to should have white one. Some of these methods were as follows Depositing money in the accounts of their poor relatives and friends. Enticing the people with some percentage of money for exchange. Asking their employees to stand in voices essay questions, the long queues in front of essay on the, Banks and ATMs for getting money exchanged.
Hiring labors for some Rupees ranging from Rs 500/- to 700/- for becoming the part of long queues in front of banks/ ATMs. Converting black money in to gold. Paying a few months salaries in advance. Paying back loans forcibly. Using their influence / links with bank employees and voices essay questions so on. Impact of Demonetization on Indian Society/ Economy We shall see a great impact of this move of the Central Govt on Indian Society and Economy. The first impact shall be that people will have lower expenditure power. With that they will not be able to purchase luxurious things.
There shall be no ostentatious expenditures on marriages and other ceremonies. The United Enter! So the society will grow lesser materialistic and people more prudent. With the fake money destroyed, Indian economy will see a big boom and the so-far-booming-real-estate-sector shall fall on the ground. Distinctive Questions! The things may be cheaper. Indian Currency may get respect at the international market. There may be a great check on the terror-related funding and therefore on terrorist activities.
Corruption shall be down to a great extent as people will stop the tendency of accumulating money using wrong means. This big move will certainly abridge the gap between the haves and the have-nots. However, there may be some difficulties for a couple of donnie belonging essays, months. But this inconvenience shall be temporary and for short-term. #8220;The new currency which replaced the old one is of denomination of 500/- and 2000/-. Though the people faced a lot of money because of shortage of funds, they did criticize the govt for the move. Even they lauded the Modi govt for this big move. Prime Minister also addressed the people many times telling the people that it was a mahayajna (??????? ) and voices questions they must offer their own ahuti ( ????? ) in it#8221; This is what u have written but how could face lot of money. sir can we take a demonetization #8230;as a research topic. it have any importance role in why did the united enter, the future. sir suggest me a toppic on the cooperative banks. Yes you can take mam. yes you can take geeta its a great idea. Yes you can take Geeta it is amazing and great idea.
I mean how could someone face lot of money. It should be problems. Yep it would be problem fr few months. Distinctive Essay Questions! Bt with a great impact positively. How cum black money is being found only with normal people businessmen etc and not politicians cz da entire world know they r da one to have huge amount of black money. #8230;#8230;. Thanks for critical on the help. its for all .i like it.
It is very helpful to all.thanks for questions giving good information. Thanks for visiting us. Its marballous I loved it. I liked your article too much. thanks for the info .But till today i could not come to know that how black money is going to be eradicted.
Excellent essay or article whatever we say#8230;I think Modi sir has done the correct and the right thing#8230; Nice essay i love the way u expressed the intro, goods and bad related to it still if the law would have been known to voices questions all at the same time then probably a large amount of black money would have been found.india mainly functions with the essay swimmer, small scale industries and distinctive essay questions this decision lead to parties a huge problem for them as well as the poor.the rich tried to harm them a lot. Questions! I wish corruption may reduce atleast for atleast some time and ur ideas as well as points were also good. Why Did States! How we sure dat there will be no black money after demonetization.? Aftr demonetization there r many cases come through media. Distinctive Voices Questions! The political parties r doing this even some branches of banks r doing black money to white. May be, this demonetization is one the filters. If some dirt is still left after the first filter, there will certainly be some more filters. The important thing is that somebody is doing it with good intention. I lyk it vry much. ) Very good decision. States Ww1 Essays! Excellent article I like it very much wonderful. Superb and awesome modi sir is a very intelligent person he had done a very good job.
December 19,2016 at voices essay questions 9 o#8217; clock. Informative one..keep publishing#8230; we have to wait for good times . this is the time of sir MODHI#8217; nice article,as very informative,i like it. This result will soon turn positive. Excellent and thanks but there r such corrupt people who r trying to change their black money into white. The United States Ww1 Essays! Its probably a gud decision..cuz,it might b a problem fr nw BT surely it iz a gud decision nd thr also wuld b a gud result #8230;.pepl may wantdly tell DAT dhe decision tken by p.m (N M) iz wrng as cuz they waiting fr longer hours in d quaque #8230;..fr dem i can gve one suggestion dho im nt against at peple but d thng iz while prchsng a movie ticket stndng in quaque doesn#8217;t feel thm its wrong#8230;BT cmez to #@tm it feelz #so let us not do diz nd supprt it. best step to end black money.
This was a nice decision by our honorable pm midi. Distinctive Voices Essay Questions! i don`t think so . The step taken by Mr. Narendra modi is the states enter, biggest step for questions Indian financial power.. People are getting problem to widow their money i accept this.. But think how much prime minister would be facing problem to change the a reflective essay references, country.. Pls be supporter of essay, P M. Very nice and informative. yess ..thia is gud way to ..end corruption but ..corupted person also caught with new currency. Really helpful and now this yr 100? chances to come in upcoming cbse board 12 examination.
Thanks for donnie providing me such a good information about Demonetization. Plz sir provide me a good article on surgical strike. If possible then sent me on : Nice essay#8230;! But demonitaization has side effect also in the booming economy it has created some where unemployment also and else it has many disappointment for voices the middle class people mainly they are affect by this#8230;. thanks for help. Thanks for providing the article.Nice Article#8230;! It was a good decision towards corruption and lansa resume black money. wy dont to care any problem.
What a amazing site! How amazingly someone has collected information of distinctive voices essay questions, both the faces of demonetization of intro and critical salmon, currency. I am just Flabbergasted. thanxx. it helped me a lot#8230; thank you it was a good aticle. Voices Questions! Its great step for the country.To develop our country it is necessary and helpful to stop corruption#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230; i like that idea and hope you also like it #8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;. Its an growth parties amazing essay.
I totally agree with this. I m with the decision of p.m. Distinctive Voices Essay! modi of demonetization. Which country have first experienced demonetization. To Logic And Critical Salmon! May be it is Ghana that had tried demonetization in 1982. Superb I really like it. The is isa very ryt step towards the economic development of India and I support it. PM modi sir,you have done a great job, I am very proud to say that I am living under the PM modi sir control and I would like to congratulate that you have taken a very good decision. Voices Essay Questions! It can change our India as better India.I hail from farmers family.
There are 10 members in my family out of whom only I am educated. Please consider more and more on why did the united enter ww1 essays development of agricultural sector. Distinctive Voices Essay! My address is V.veluchamy, 4/447, thriveni nager, Nagamalai,madurai-625019, Tamilnadu-India. And Critical! nice article,i like it,it is very helpful. Very nice article this article became very helpful to me . Voices Essay Questions! Thanks for sharing it with us. Thanks for reading it.
Yes it would be right and have a great impact on country as the while economy could be changed through demonetisation.we should move forward for cashless economy. As it is simpler easier way to donnie belonging reduce corruption and make the transiction easier and comfortable for the mankind. I don#8217;t understand #8216;why some peoples are#8217;nt supporting this? Don#8217;t hou think they are supporting corruption.yes,the reason is questions self greed. Darko Essays! if we want to see the India get forwarded and raising up like other countries then we should support the system. pay the tax regularly and distinctive make the India a corruption free india. Can#8217;t help but notice that you definitely are a Modi Bhakt. Should A Reflective Have References! Could you please explain how exactly are the essay questions, recovered black money help India#8217;s image on belonging essays the international face.. how is the question..Also pls explain how did Reddy manage to conduct his daughter#8217;s wedding days after , demonetisation was announced. Individual cases will have to be investigated.
I#8217;m no Modi bhakt. But, I would support the idea of essay questions, Demonetisation with effective implementation of the same and its Imp to mention that the proactive measures like Jan dhan Yojana and tax declaration schemes were not sufficient and much mire could have been done. Intro To Logic! This gives a lot of information to me and it help me te increase my gk. Thanx to whom he/she wrote this article. Excellent Article It is voices essay questions helpful for me to lansa resume do work of school. v.good and best article thank you. Distinctive Questions! very nice and lansa resume good decision for every honest citizen of india ..i love PM modi decision #8230;mera bhart mahan . Gud but u should give more details. Nice and helpful. Good move of central government. .go ahead we r with u#8230;jai hind jai bharat. Please also rite it in hindi. Thanks for help. Distinctive Voices Essay Questions! It was good to a lot of black money.
And thanks for pm . Because by this decision India were developed. Yet it be the lansa resume, problem for few months but its a very positive impact on this country. Distinctive! kuchh pane ke liye kuchh khona padata hai. yes its a big problem for poor people but its a positive effort. thanks for giving such a good info. Thanks for giving such a good information. Thanks for essay helping in my school project it was really helpful for me. Superb! What a nice article.
You should publish more about this topic. It would be interesting. Essay Questions! Yes it very good essay. States Enter! Very nice article sir. Very helpful to me all. Thank you. Voices Essay Questions! very nice thanks it is very useful. Good better best . its really very helpful. Really good one#8230;.
Very much helpful#8230;.. Almost included all the important information#8230;#8230;.. this is totally amazing. please tell what this line means#8221; Big lines became the order of the day.#8221; It means big queues before the banks and ATMs became very common. It was a right move but at a wrong time#8230;#8230; this is a wonderfull site and these information is more helpfull for my study.thanks for donnie all of those give me this type of information. Its an good idea .and I likes it to much#8230;. its really nice article. Your article is distinctive voices osm i like it. The United Enter! It was useful, thanks. It is very helpful. A very interesting essay on demonetzition #8230;.
Super , article thanks to whom who written this article. Dude demonetisation spelling is wrong yar. Dude both spellings are correct. One is distinctive voices questions American and should a reflective have other is distinctive British. Thanks it was really helpful thank you very much. Superb article We are with you.
I like this article very much. I m very helped by growth political parties essay, this article. Thanks for putting it on questions internet. It#8217;s good movement of government. Political Essay! It#8217;s so bad for illegal persons who earned or took black money . It was really helpful#8230;thnkx. more useful if it is to long.
it is not good for voices questions poor family. It#8217;s really nice article. Intro To Logic Salmon! I like the idea of demonetization and i am also in the favour of demonetization. It is an excellent idea but the execution is really slow. Distinctive Questions! Thanx for help to me and this was a so good article and it help me to learn essay and it also teachs me that how to. Make an essay and I am in 5th now thanx for helping me. It help to learn an essay and references it is very nice essay and thanx for helping me I know now that how the essay is been written first I didn#8217;t know how write an essay but I know now. Good. Article very useful. I like this article very muchI m very helped by this article. Thanks for putting it on internet.
Its helped me a lot thnx. Very nice article on voices Demonetisation it had long term impact on our country only when it is implemented in a prepared way but although it is good article. Essay! really very helpful fr my tmrw#8217;s ASL. No inconvenience is been claimed by distinctive voices, common people yet. They are saying it is critical essay on the swimmer a good and progressive step.And the economists too has welcomed the distinctive voices essay questions, step. It is the donnie darko belonging essays, opposition only critising it.As PM has destroyed their illegal money which they created for last 70 years. it is really nice and helpful.
It#8217;s good for the Poor#8217;s but a threat for distinctive voices essay the black sheep#8217;s. It#8217;sa good eassy it helps in writing eassy thanks. It#8217;s a nice article that i read. Nice article keep weighting. What an amazing and darko awesome essay of note bandi this essay help other black currency holder.
Good and perfect one #8230; Nice essay ..really helping. Distinctive! My sugestion is the united states enter ww1 essays that it#8217;s more help til when it can be made avilable in distinctive voices essay questions, other languages also. .. Many countries have tried this way to eradicate black money but it is best executed by our hon#8217;able prime minister. really good as an a reflective article .(liable to be appreciated) , its the voices questions, talk of the town . factually , i would like to a reflective essay have say that there has been no substantial gain till now. If i am not very correct , please cite certain examples.. Thank you. It helped me a lot in my boards.
Good idea for government. Hmmm#8230;Nice article I like it. It helped me a lot to prepare myself for the board exams. Questions! demonitization is a great value curreny of India but after demonitization get the value Indian currency in international marker#8217;s #8230;#8230;and poor people is lansa resume lossed this demonitization #8230;.. Good it helped me to get whole plot behind demonization. Distinctive Essay Questions! It helped me a lot for my speech competetion and it was an arcticle. to be appreciated.All the topics in why did, it were vastly explained and it was to the point. After demonitization our country#8217;s economic develop and I am totally agree with PM Modi.
Written by voices essay questions, Lovlesh. I like the the way of ruling of this government. It helped me a lot #8230; A big slot of information in just few lines#8230; As this is the current happening/news in have, the society and distinctive voices I#8217;m appearing for HSC examination so therefore I need to be updated so that even if we get a question of speech on the topic demonization, I will be able to right the same plot. Thank you and it is intro and critical thinking very helpful for me. The eassy is like media report. And I like it very much. Voices Essay Questions! Thanks for your article. It is very intrested in banking exam and donnie belonging others ,it will help to write an essay in sbi po exam 2017..i like it. Good to read ! But the only way to curb this demon of corruption is the awareness among common people . Until and distinctive voices questions unless they come to know of their doings to get some of their work done without bribery, it is intro and critical thinking only a far dream waiting to come true. Distinctive Voices Questions! NiceeeOone liked by me.
Thank you so much for your Article. -It is growth parties essay a best article. -It covered all imp.points. -Thanks for help. Bole to voices essay good hai. Growth Political Essay! Nicely writen coooooooll essay. This article will help me much in my board exams of distinctive voices essay, English language on 10th March if this topic would come to write. Good attempt. The United Enter Ww1 Essays! Very helpful info on this topic. Disgusting this method. It is a very good sassay for me. it is very useful. Thanks to examweb.in for the essay. Voices Essay! I got the darko belonging, proper thing that I need#8230; nice article#8230;..luv it. Essay Questions! it was really awesome. Donnie Belonging Essays! i welcomed htese things from my heart#8230;#8230; article was amazing.
This article was a great help. Super article I liked it very much and distinctive voices essay questions it is useful. This Article is very helpful for me. I have my board class. I have exam in 10th March I would like to do my composition in this only#8230; I think this is a right step taken by the government to curb corruption. It will help me in writing essays on this type of topics in boards of 2017. Thanks for this help. Growth Parties Essay! Vry nice decision. It is a very good essay students can get better help for their examinations nd can also increase their general knowledge. Thanks for distinctive questions wizards article on demonetisation.
This article will surely help if it comes in my board xams on 10th march. Ya this was very very very very very very useful for my Icse board exams on 10th March 2017 . Good essay.Useful to study for board exams. Critical On The Swimmer! It was good and would help me in voices essay questions, my boards. Thanks! Nice article i like it. Loved both the move and the essay. A good essay,it will really help me for boards. Nice article if come in my board exam. The essay is very interesing and pleasing for the fact that it has only the advantages of demonetisation but think urself have we achieved any of those impacts promised by modi rather we have paid a big price for this demonetisation#8230;#8230;#8230;.. N our economy has gone back several years.
It would greately help me for my forth coming icse exam on 10th march. This is very helpful in english 2017 board. Good work. Sry but I don#8217;t like it. Why Did The United States! It#8217;s a very nice and easy language essay which will help me in my boaRd exam. It#8217;s a value based topic.
9 ko CBSE Mei article aayega. awesome man what a essay i am finding demonitisation essay from 2 hours and now i got it. bhagwan kare bas icse mai aajaye#8230;.then full marks. thanks vishal gupta. Thnx for your excellent article!? Today I have exam of English!! It will surely Help me. A big master piece. It will help in distinctive questions, my boards today. Thanks for this essay.
It had really helped me in essay on the swimmer, writting the essay on the topic of #8220;DEMONITIZATION#8221;which had came in my exam. And keep up the good work Modi! Good thought but badly organised. Very good essay.It will be helpful for ise board exam. I like it it is the best decision of modi ji thanks. Nice essay very helpful. Need more improvement in impact containing both good and bad . Especially about distinctive voices effect on economy.
Useful for my ICSE board examination. Should Essay Have References! very good essay ! Will surely help all students facing the board exams hopefully! Nice essay it will help me in ICSE exams. A fabulous essay . This has provided me with some pt which will help me. Nice comprehension. #8230;..my language ICSE exam will held tomorrow and this will be useful to me. It should show the bad impact too . By the way it will help me for my ICSE exams tomorrow. Up me namo sarkar. Helpful for board exams!! Thank a lot I think this essay will surely be helpful to me in my ICSE BOARD EXAM and distinctive essay questions I think I can score good marks in language thanks for essay #8230; It will help me in my board exam in my eng paper. Nice essey it will help in my board examination today.
It will help in ICSE exams. Today is should references my board . I will see how far is it helful. The way this essay has been written is just appropriate and the language is good enough to understand thanks it helped me for my boards! Excellently explained thnk u so much#8230;#8230;it will be very helpful for my boards. Voices! good article it is informative. Tomorrow is lansa resume my board exams hope topic related to this comes. I like this decision . Thanks Prie minister. There is a english paper on 15 th march and this essay will be helful inmy board exam.
Thank you PM Modi I support this decision. Tomorrow is my SSC board exam and English paper and this will help me a lot. Distinctive Essay! GUJARAT. I gate use full for me thank as. Darko! Thanks it will use for my board exams. Voices Essay Questions! Today is my board exam I live In vadodara and I loved the fanatic way u explained its just monotonous enough for me#8230;it really helped a lot____! Too gud article#8230;appreciate. Very good article. To Logic And Critical Salmon! good article i am impressed. Distinctive Questions! it wll hlp on salmon my boards exmntion.
I like this article very much i hope that this topic mudt come in voices essay questions, my isc board paper so i can write it in this excellent method . Donnie Darko Essays! I loved this article#8230;It will definitely help me for my ssc cgl exams #8230; Thanks a lot. good explaination ,I#8217;m from manipur 11 arts student my name is Max. Clear cut explanation I#8217;ve ever seen. Surly it will help in my board examination. Very nice work sir thanks a lot for writing. It helped me a lot#8230;.really clear explanation.
One of the best essay I have ever read. Article is so nice it will definitely help in my board examination. everything is done for the name and fame. Really nice one. I wish that like it helped me, it will help others too. it is really helpfull.. Really helpful THANK YOU #8230;.. Thank u so much sire it helps me in exams of distinctive, class 9th . But this is the topic of higher class . On this basis thanks again . Plz send replay or send email od i want to talk with u sire.
Definitely will help me in my final examinations. Definitely the essay is very helpful for darko belonging essays exams homework.We can get much information on demonetization.Thanks a lot. This will definitely help me and lead me to distinctive questions a rank in to logic, essay writing competition#8230; It really best one and also helpful for my broad exam and for holiday homework. Vishal sr thx A lot coz u hv put the grt n unique information on this site it #8230;..Really a grt information for all of us#8230;..Gen salute for ur positive thinking#8230;.Jai. hind Sr#8230;.. Sumit#8230;. It#8217;s superb it very helpful. not so bad, far too short.
We need other help and your also helped but you think about voices essay that why it create dimonetisation (wgm) and wins. Yooooo. awesome.this website made me to complete my project work and get 20 marks in growth parties, my board. nice article but nit impactfull yet enough but it delivers the main aim set behind demonetisation. it is a good eassay.Heplfull to me i know i will got good marks for rhis eassay. Informative and distinctive voices essay questions good eassay. It Is awesome it helped me out in essay writing competition. It helped me a lit in political essay, my test. Love this#8230;#8230;..nice sentences#8230;#8230; Limited and good. Nice sentencesong#8230;.limited and good.
You can fetch good marks in the board. As u see I have fetched good marks in ASL :-it is distinctive voices questions a test conducted by board of 20 marks. © ExamWeb 2015-17 - Copyright Protected Content. - Sitemap.
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How to Make Sure We All Benefit When Nonprofits Patent Technologies Like CRISPR. [Please consider supporting Food and Farm Discussion Lab with an ongoing contribution of $1, $2, $3, $5 or $10 a month on distinctive voices Patreon. All contributors receive a subscription to our email newsletter the the united states ww1 essays FAFDL Dispatch . ] This article originally appeared on The Conversation. It appears here under a Creative Commons license. Reform Is Needed When Nonprofits Patent Technologies Like CRISPR. Universities and other nonprofit research institutions are under increasing fire about their commitments to the public interest. In return for tax-exempt status, their work is supposed to benefit society. Voices Questions. But are they really operating in the public interest when they wield their patent rights in ways that constrict research? Or when potentially lifesaving inventions are priced so high that access is limited? The public partially underwrites nonprofit discoveries via tax breaks and isn’t seeing a lot of benefit in return.
Non-profit patent licenses are one place where reforms can be made to put the public interest at the center. Questions like these arose recently in the case of CRISPR, the lansa resume promising new gene-editing technology. After patenting it, the Broad Institute of distinctive voices essay MIT and Harvard sold the exclusive right to develop CRISPR-based therapies to its sister company Editas Medicine. Critics worry that this monopoly could limit important research and result in exorbitant prices on emerging treatments. We’ve seen this situation before: For example, Xtandi, a prostate cancer drug developed and patented by researchers at the University of California-Los Angeles, now costs US$129,000 for a course of treatment. Nonprofit research institutions usually argue that any revenues they receive from their patents are reinvested in research and education. Essay On The Swimmer. They contend this approach ensures that new technologies become widely available in the marketplace. But I argue that nonprofit institutions can and should do better. At a moment of spiraling drug costs and distinctive, declining trust in donnie our science and essay, technology policy institutions, they must develop a more sensitive and systematic way of thinking about the public interest in their intellectual property strategies. Critical Essay Swimmer. I offer one possible path.
The logic of non-profit patent licensing. Nonprofit research institutions’ understanding of the public interest is based on a U.S. Distinctive Essay. innovation logic that dates back to the country’s founding. Early patent laws encouraged all citizens to participate in the system. The more people who took advantage of the should have references exclusive property rights afforded by a patent, the thinking went, the distinctive voices more robust the intro and critical salmon private sector, the more economic growth and the more new technologies available. This logic guided passage of the 1980 Bayh-Dole Act, which lets universities, small businesses and distinctive questions, nonprofits own patents for inventions and discoveries that stem from the united states, federally funded research. The law was triggered by policymakers’ concerns that companies were hesitating to commercialize federally funded inventions. Because the federal government paid for the research, it was unclear who – if anyone – owned the inventions that resulted. Companies worried that because the research results were in distinctive essay questions the public domain and unprotected by a reflective essay have references patents, they’d face competition and limited profits if they decided to voices essay questions, develop a technology further. But if nonprofits and small businesses could patent the inventions they developed, then they could exclusively license these inventions and essay have references, defuse the threat of voices competition.
Both the research institutions and companies would benefit. So too would the public because it would gain access to new technologies. It seemed like a win-win-win. Licenses are first step to profits. In the wake of Bayh-Dole, many research institutions created technology transfer offices to help faculty and staff patent and sell their innovations. These offices secure patents and then work to license the belonging patented inventions and discoveries. The licenses come in two flavors. “Exclusive” means the company will have the sole license to voices essay questions, develop the invention. Why Did The United. “Non-exclusive” allows the university to sell multiple licenses on a single patented invention. Exclusive licenses, like those negotiated by the Broad and UCLA in the cases of CRISPR and Xtandi, are common, but also controversial. Perhaps most famous is the exclusive license on distinctive essay questions Zerit, an the united states enter ww1 essays, important AIDS drug produced by researchers at Yale University. In 1998, Yale licensed its Zerit patent to distinctive essay questions, Bristol Myers Squibb. The pharmaceutical company developed the drug further and eventually priced it so high that it was unaffordable for many in the developing world, where the AIDS crisis was severe.
Doctors without Borders, working with Yale students, successfully pressured the Yale administration to lansa resume, allow a South African company to create a generic version of the distinctive voices essay questions drug, and the price dropped by 96 percent. This activism spawned the advocacy group Universities Allied for Essential Medicines, which now operates 100 chapters in 18 countries across the world. Researchers in UAEM advocate for why did the united ww1 essays better access to medications, which means rethinking patent licensing on questions what comes out of their labs. Holding back on some non-profit patent licenses. Companies usually expect universities to sell them exclusive licenses to exploit their patents. They’re banking on the big profits that presumably come from having a monopoly on darko a valuable technology. Universities usually acquiesce because they too want to distinctive, make the product available and generate maximum revenue. But some universities have responded to states, UAEM’s activism. For instance, Harvard now reserves its right to questions, license patents nonexclusively for growth parties humanitarian purposes in distinctive essay low-income countries. It accepts the potential for a smaller revenue stream as a trade-off for lower drug prices and darko, greater accessibility.
Such provisions would come in distinctive voices essay questions handy for patents on essential medicines that could, say, cure Zika or HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, in other areas that raise significant moral, environmental and public health concerns, nonprofit research institutions are experimenting with “ethical licensing.” To prevent the abuse of their patented technologies, these licenses come with limits. The Broad Institute’s exclusive licenses on the CRISPR technologies, for example, have multiple restrictions. Licensees may not use the gene-editing technology to modify human embryos, alter the ecosystem or grow stronger tobacco plants. The Broad Institute’s approach is not a systematic or transparent one, though. It’s not clear, for example, how or why the organization decided on these restrictions, and why did the united enter, under what circumstances it would decide to issue restrictions on its other patents. A better solution for non-profit patent licenses.
While promising, these efforts are still rare and distinctive voices, ad hoc. I propose a better, more methodical, solution. Stand-alone nonprofit research institutions, universities and belonging essays, university-based hospitals should create intellectual property governance committees that would review pending patents and licenses. These committees would include not just patent lawyers, but also experts on innovation in its social, economic and historical context, ethicists and members of the public. There’s a good precedent for this approach. Distinctive Voices. In the to logic latter part of the 20th century, in response to revelations of unethical biomedical research conducted by university faculty, the distinctive essay questions federal government began to require that all institutions getting federal funds develop a research ethics infrastructure. Now all federally funded research in the U.S. involving human subjects – no matter what kind of institution conducts it – must be approved by an institutional review board.
These are made up of scientists, lawyers, at lansa resume least one member of the public and others with expertise in essay questions the responsible conduct of research. The 1980 Bayh-Dole Act clarified that nonprofits like the Broad Institute can own patents based on federally funded research. Peter Vanderwarker, CC BY. Suppose researchers at a nonprofit research institution develop a drug that treats opioid addiction. The drug would clearly have major societal benefit, since it could save some of the 500,000 Americans the lansa resume disease is distinctive voices essay projected to kill within 10 years.
An intellectual property governance committee could recommend that the institution negotiate only lansa resume, nonexclusive licenses on the drug – in turn fostering research, competition and lower prices. In addition, the committee might advocate a narrowly written patent to distinctive voices questions, encourage related innovation. Whether or not they embrace this idea, universities and nonprofit biomedical research institutions need to hold up their end of the societal bargain more carefully. The United Ww1 Essays. If they don’t, they’re likely to face greater controversy and even more questions about distinctive voices essay whether they really deserve their special status. [Please consider supporting Food and Farm Discussion Lab with an ongoing contribution of $1, $2, $3, $5 or $10 a month on Patreon. All contributors receive a subscription to our email newsletter the FAFDL Dispatch . ] A Food Historian Steps Into the Minefield of to logic thinking Cultural Appropriation. [Please consider supporting Food and voices questions, Farm Discussion Lab with an ongoing contribution of $1, $2, $3, $5 or $10 a month on critical essay on the Patreon. All contributors receive a subscription to distinctive essay, our email newsletter the FAFDL Dispatch . ] This essay previously appeared in two separate posts on the author’s blog. It appears here by permission of the donnie darko essays author. Cultural Appropriation and distinctive voices essay questions, Other People’s Food: Preliminary Thoughts.
No one but a fool, particularly a white upper middle class fool, would plunge into the debate swirling around culinary cultural appropriation . I’m that fool. Like many people, I’ve been trying to lansa resume, get my head straight about culinary appropriation. Culinary appropriation is not a distant issue to me. My first food book on the cuisines of distinctive essay Hawaii nearly didn’t get published because the intro to logic salmon publisher, the distinctive voices questions University of Hawaii Press, thought that a “mainland haole (white person)” author like me publishing on the foods of the Islands would provoke a political uproar. The uproar never happened. The episode did, however, mean that I was never in the slightest doubt that dealing with the foods of other peoples could be political dynamite. Lunch Wagon at political parties the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. Now, to voices, be clear. Culinary appropriation is not just eating, enjoying, adopting, or benefitting from elements of other people’s cuisines. Critical On The Swimmer. That’s gone on voices throughout history.
Thank goodness, because without that we’d all have miserably limited diets. No, the core elements of culinary appropriation are three. A transfer of knowledge of food (raw material, ingredient, dish, or whole cuisine) from one group to another group or individual. A sharp difference in power such that the obtaining group can exploit the food knowledge in the united states a way that the voices questions original group could not. This is usually due to a difference of race, class or gender (though I can imagine other asymmetries).
Hence recognition and money accruing to the obtaining group (or individual) without acknowledgement or reward to those who generated the essay food knowledge. As a white upper middle class person and citizen of two of the most powerful empires of the distinctive voices essay twentieth century, I can appropriate the cuisine of others. But by the above definition, if others chose to write about or offer for growth political parties essay sale my cuisine (English, so I am not in fear and trembling that it will happen), that is essay questions not appropriation. The great advantage of the term appropriation (which has been around much longer in music, literature, and the arts than in why did the united states ww1 essays food) is that it suggests theft, it creates shock, it makes people examine their behavior in a new way. The consequences (or perhaps disadvantages, depending on your perspective) are two.
First, that since it’s often not defined precisely, it leads the kind of shouting matches that have occurred on social media in the past few weeks. Second, that this leads to antagonism and defensiveness from which it’s hard to recover. As a result, I’ve bracketed “culinary appropriation” for the time being in distinctive voices essay favor of “dealing with other people’s food.” (I’d also love to introduce a little humor, or at donnie belonging least irony, because humor can both lighten and enlighten moral competitions that verge on the priggish. Unfortunately, humor is not my strong point so there won’t be much.) Dealing with other people’s food is something every individual, every society has to distinctive voices questions, decide how to handle.
These decisions have become more pressing as travel and migration, whether voluntary or forced by war or captivity, have become commoner. These are tricky issues. To reiterate, this is a personal attempt to put my thoughts in order about issues that have arisen ever since I first started writing about a reflective food nearly thirty years ago. It’s easy to assume that right-minded people have always assumed other people’s food to be delicious and voices essay questions, thus to be explored with respect. That’s just not so.
It’s taken a long time to donnie essays, reach this historical point. So to get some distance on contemporary issues, I want to establish the distinctive long historical base line. For most of history, most people hesitated or outright avoided other people’s food. Why? What were the essay exceptions? What had to change to make other people’s food seem interesting or desirable? Which of these attitudes still lurks today? Chinese courtesans trying a western meal. By Wu Youru (d. Distinctive Essay Questions. 1893) one of China’s leading newspaper editors and illustrators. The Historical Norm: Shunning Other People’s Food.
“Other people’s food? No thank you,” was, and often still is, the norm in a reflective have references dealing with other people’s food. Ancient Greeks looked down on the way Scythians ate, Byzantines thought the food of Gaul coarse, Western Europeans described the distinctive voices garum (fish sauce) of Byzantium as like piss, as the why did the united enter ww1 essays Persians were later to describe the beer of the questions Western Europe, Jesuits in China in the seventeenth century hated tofu, while Spanish in the New World had no use for corn tortillas. The French gastronome, Curnonsky in the 1930s, dismissed American food as only slightly less barbaric than German. In the critical on the 1960s, I listened to Igbo teenagers describe Yoruba food as inedibly hot, Yoruba teenagers retort that Igbo food had no taste. The Underlying Rationale for Shunning Other People’s Food.
Fundamental beliefs about the health of the distinctive voices questions human body, about essay on the swimmer human nature, as well as about essay questions religion, I suggest, underpinned the widespread wariness of the food of others. Consider health. Physicians across the Old World advised that the healthiest food for an individual was the a reflective essay have food where they had been born and raised. The further away you went, the more likely you were to get sick. There was something to distinctive essay questions, this. In the mid nineteenth century, European armies began keeping records of the non-combat deaths of their troops overseas. This confirmed their hunch that soldiers–young presumably fit men–died much more frequently in the tropics than they did in a reflective essay references their home countries. In Europe deaths per thousand were 10, in Bengal 70, in Sierra Leone 480. 1. At the time, no one knew why. Many of the deaths were from gastrointestinal diseases, though, so it was natural to suspect the distinctive essay foreign food and water.
Or consider, your very nature. In most parts of the Ancient World, philosophers and physicians were agreed that you literally were what you ate, a belief that persisted until quite recently as I discuss in Cuisine and Empire. Donnie Darko Belonging Essays. And what people were and distinctive voices, what people ate were both arranged in a hierarchy. At the bottom were animals who ate raw food. Essay On The. Eat raw vegetables like an animal, and you would become animalistic. Eat milk and cheese but no grains like a barbarian and you would become barbaric. Eat lesser grains and you would become a country bumpkin. Moving up, you came to the powerful, who depending on whether their power derived from war, religion, or politics, would eat appropriately.
Eat lots of meat and you would become a warrior. Eat pure white vegetable foods and you would enhance your spirituality. Eat refined (highly processed) food like the aristocracy and you would become more refined. Now experimenting with your very nature, even if it held out the promise of improvement, was not something to be undertaken lightly. Think of some modern surgical procedures that promise just this. If experimenting meant trying foods that might bring about degeneration, then it was to be avoided. (Doubtless prejudice played a role too, then as now. So did regular human behavior, kids trying to essay questions, figure out where they fit in the world, travelers fearful of making fools of themselves, or too tired to take on yet another novelty, the poor too sensible to risk what little they had on to logic and critical food that they might not like. These reasons were not, I hazard, as important as the beliefs about what made you what you were). The Exception: The Global Network of the Foods of the Powerful.
If the voices essay powerful, whether their power was political, military, spiritual or cultural, had dealings with others of equal or greater rank, then foods might be exchanged or emulated. Rank, rather than race or ethnicity, shaped people’s eating habits. Alexander the Great seized on Persian cuisine, the and critical thinking salmon Mongols adopted much of Persian and Chinese cuisine. When the Spanish arrived in the New World, they had every intention of continuing to eat wheat bread, the food that made them what they were, as Rebecca Earle has explored in marvelous detail. 2/ They, like the English, Dutch, and French who followed, did everything they could to get wheat, planting it where it flourished, importing it where it did not, like New Orleans as Nick Foreman of the University of distinctive voices questions Florida is investigating. 3/ Only when absolutely necessary, as in New England, the American South, or parts of essay Brazil, did they risk eating indigenous maize or cassava.
In the early nineteenth century, African merchants on distinctive essay questions the Gold Coast entertained American sea captains with soup, meat, desserts served on silver dishes and wine to accompany them. 4/ Later in the nineteenth century, Japanese, Indian, and Mexican nobility served high French cuisine. In food, as in the arts, therefore, imitation was the sincerest form of flattery (thanks to John Whiting for pointing this out). Reinforced by the fact that every empire has always had to rely on local elites to growth parties, help rule, cuisines of the elites became interconnected over vast distances. Meanwhile, the food of most people, that is poor rural people, was ignored or disdained. The Exception: The Global Network of the Foods of the Powerful.
All this matters for distinctive voices several reasons. First, this world view was to be crucial to the united states enter ww1 essays, global attempts to impose food on others at the end of the nineteenth century. Second, dismantling and replacing this world view led to questions, other problems with the food of others. Third, the past casts a long shadow. Remember the critical swimmer phrase “Real men don’t eat quiche.” 1. Philip Curtin, Death by Migration (Cambridge University Press, 1989), 8. Distinctive Voices Questions. The exceptions to this rule were remote islands. 2. Rebecca Earle, The Body of the Conquistador: Food, Race and the Colonial Experience in donnie Spanish America, 1492-1700 (Cambridge University Press, 2014). 3. Distinctive Voices Questions. Paper presented at the American Historical Association, 2017.
4. James D. La Fleur, Fusion Foodways of Africa’s Gold Coast in the Atlantic Era (Brill, 2012), 135-6. [Please consider supporting Food and lansa resume, Farm Discussion Lab with an ongoing contribution of distinctive voices essay questions $1, $2, $3, $5 or $10 a month on Patreon. All contributors receive a subscription to our email newsletter the FAFDL Dispatch . ]
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There Is No Homework In Finland [Infographic] It’s likely that most students would agree that homework is one of the biggest downfalls to going to school. Voices Questions! When coming home from school, the last thing school students want to why did the united states enter do is get out voices questions, their books and do more work and it seems that they’re not the only ones who have that exact thought. The United! It seems that Finland have jumped on board the voices essay questions, same wavelength as students around the world as there is the united states enter actually no homework in Finland and it’s actually having a surprising knock-on effect to their students. In Canada, the distinctive voices, high school graduation rate is around 78 per intro to logic and critical, cent and in America it comes in at around 75 per cent. Now, consider the fact that the distinctive voices, graduation rate for students in Finland comes in at 93 per cent – showing a massive comparison between the countries.
Finland also happens to have the highest rate in should a reflective have references Europe for students going to distinctive voices essay questions college (two out of three). So, how does it so happen that Finland can claim such a high percentage of graduating students – is it all purely down to growth essay the fact that they don’t have homework? Not necessarily. There are a few other things to factor in, which will also help manage to make Finland sound like the best place ever to send your children to school. Students in Finland manage to get plenty of teacher interaction as their classes are capped at only twelve students per teacher and they also don’t tend to have as many standardized tests as other countries.
For example, students in New York will take around ten standardized tests before he or she reaches high school whilst students in Finland would only essay have one standardized test at the age of 16. Take a look at the infographic below to see just how impressive the Finnish school system actually is and how it can compare to the rest of the world. So, does this manage to convince you that moving to Finland may be a really great idea? This infographic was made on references, behalf of voices, OnlineStudents, the popular online resource of informative articles. Check out our portfolio for more infographics here.
13 Equally Engaging Alternatives To Infographics. The 3 Reasons Why We Don't Offer Infographic Design Services. How To Be A Gmail Power User [Infographic] 5 Content Mistakes From Creating Over 1000 Infographics. As a Finnish person I can tell that we do have homework in Finland, even on political parties, the first grade and forward. Actually we have homeworks like “Jonne” said, but usually wehave time to distinctive questions do those when we are in school. Maybe that is the reason why they are made. Another thing is intro to logic thinking salmon that we have (or we had) discipline in schools and’ve been brought up to respect parents and authority, so everyone really does something in class. lucky you don’t get homework. nice your so lucky that you don’t get any at distinctive voices, all.
Yes, if YOU did some work in intro thinking class and at essay questions, home you might realise that you should have said “you’re” not “your”. Realise works too. It depends on where you live, idiot. This is excellent information. The US has been going in the WRONG DIRECTION for so long. I graduated from college in 1999 and I was reading textbooks written by Finland and New Zealand authors. Why is it taking so long for our country to figure education out. Yes. It sure is an excellent myth. I’m finnish myself. I’m in intro to logic and critical thinking salmon middle school.
I have homework. I have lived in Finland all my life and I can tell you something for a fact: We DO have homework, and a lot of it. I wonder why this has been published? Has the essay questions, writer been in Finland? Or even talked to essay references a finn? Of course we have homework! From first grade in voices essay elementary school on. The student teacher ratio is about 1 to 25. There are standard tests on all levels.
Our teachers work long days and do not have a high salary. Beside all this our kids have to learn good English, and usually some other European language to do well in university. Please, get your facts right before you publish! Very late reply, but: By standardized tests, the US refers to why did the united states enter ww1 essays tests that are the same everywhere in the country, and Finland very much does not have these. We have one, the matriculation exam at age 18 (not 16), and that’s it. Otherwise, teachers are given freedom to voices essay prepare their own tests, and nothing is parties standardized there. The reason the US and Canadian numbers are so low is distinctive essay questions because of intro thinking salmon, mass immigration. If you break things down by race you’ll find that our numbers are essentially equivalent. The numbers are in (PISA) and it is voices essay sadly not true. Growth Political Essay! American “millenials” defined as 16-34 years old have scored abysmally against other first world countries both in general and in particular demographics specifically, including, quite surprisingly, the graduate degrees holders. Finland and Japan took the first in all categories.
I sat in on a workshop by a Finnish professor who teaches in the US. Her take was that Finland is much more homogenous and distinctive has fewer non- Finnish speakers and parties immigrants and that is why your schools do better. Distinctive Questions! Apples to oranges. This is an excellent case study in lansa resume “how to lie with charts”. The circle-pie-chart puts the smaller values in the middle, where they are shorter in distinctive voices essay questions addition to having a smaller angular slice. The bar graph axis goes from 520 to essay have 570, and uses cute pencil graphics that are hard to read. 2 of the 6 references are broken links. One of them (businessinsider.com) is simply a list of factoids taken out of context (like this infographic itself), and cites a Smithsonian.com article but itself doesn’t seem to know the difference between “percent higher” and “percentage points higher”. Distinctive Voices Essay Questions! It’s kind of impressive that this page got the number right, since the direct source did not. I couldn’t find any of your sources that support the “PISA” chart you have here.
I did look up the PISA 2006 results on their own webpage (oecd.org) and found that not only is your chart misleading, it’s using incorrect numbers. In 2006, Finland had a science score of 563, a reading score of 547, and a math score of 548. These average to swimmer 552.7, not the 560 value (it’s hard to tell exactly where the “pencil” graph is supposed to end) that is distinctive questions claimed here. Even the Wikipedia article on PISA has the 2006 numbers correct, so it’s easy to verify, if you don’t want to dig through the lansa resume, OECD’s spreadsheets. The obvious question to voices ask is: why is a 2013 infographic using old 2006 test data? The answer seems to be: because that is the year in which Finland did the best, with the #1 score in why did states enter 2 of the 3 categories. Back in 2000, Japan and South Korea both beat Finland overall (with each of the 3 countries taking the distinctive essay, top score in one category). In 2009, several non-OECD countries were included in political PISA for the first time, and China tested far ahead of everyone, 39 points ahead of distinctive, Finland in math, 21 points ahead in lansa resume science, and 20 points ahead in reading.
The rest of the world could learn a lot from you, China. Hopefully, that includes how to make an accurate infographic! Right ON! Tufteman. I see people lie with charts everyday!”‘ The article should emphasis that Finland have plenty of distinctive voices, good teachers that are highly qualified (Masters degree) and very well paid (last point is my assumption based on lansa resume, the doctor/lawyer comparison). The counter argument then is how can we in other countries to afford that? with people having better education the countries make more money. One major point is that in Finland the education is free.
There are no first, second, and voices other class of education according to what the parents can pay either directly (private schools) or by relocating in rich locations where better schools are. Intro To Logic Thinking! To the same school goes the kids of the distinctive voices essay questions, prime minister and the ones of a plumber. This equality makes the decision makers (goverment) to take care of the education system. If the decision makers are separated from the effects of the education system they decide upon, by the united ww1 essays, letting them their kids go to other, private schools, then the they would be careless. This is in distinctive voices my opinion the darko essays, major reason that they have a good education system, because they care about it, because all the kids are on the same system. And because they care, the care to have the voices essay questions, best for intro to logic teachers (and pay them accordingly), show respect to those that breed the next generation, invest to better education, and it shows. I know we may have a good school system, but a lot of this is just not factual. There certainly is homework, the 1:12 ratio sounds like a wild pie in the sky dream when class sizes are probably around 25… during elementary school the only standardized test is at 16, but this is to get statistical data to ensure that the voices, non-standardized tests are in donnie belonging line with what is distinctive questions generally expected. States Enter! And then of course then there is the distinctive essay, end of lansa resume, high school matriculation examination, which once again is a big standardized test.
Greetings from Finland! There IS indeed homework, starting first grade. Better info on distinctive, the Finnish education system is for example here http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/Why-Are-Finlands-Schools-Successful.html (it says “minimal” homework, but I do not think that is lansa resume quite true either) Sources please? I must say that when I went to school in Finland there was homework every day since day 1 at school. I have no clue what is this standardized test at 16, never heard of it.
There is the high school final exams but those are taken at 18. Also, the breaks between lessons used to be 8 minutes, except lunch hours that was 30-40 but that included the time to eat the food. Also, the school days are 4-6 hours so not likely that 1/3 of the school day would have been turned into break time. High school graduation rate is high, but where is the mention that not everyone gets to voices essay questions go to high school – so only the best kids will qualify and I think at least 50% have to essay references choose a different educational route, such as vocational training. And then this 2/3 goes to college – the definition must be quite vague. When I studied in distinctive voices essay questions Finland (and I am no dinosaur) there was about 10 universities in the whole country and you could only go for master’s degree. There are now other schools that offer bachelors, but those would normally have the belonging essays, criteria of passing the voices essay, high school, so if everyone got in, it could still only critical essay be 50%… Also the larger class sizes has always been a problem: mine had 32 except the first year when I lived in a tiny village and the whole place only had 15 other kids of essay, my age… check your sources?? I am definitely checking with friends who are teachers in Finland and those with kids at school, but this story sounds a bit weird to me. Agreed. I have been around there and there was homework everyday.
This post needs to intro to logic thinking salmon be updated or re editited. Voices! This article doesn’t seem very reliable. There must be another Finland out there, as the Finland I’m living in has homework. When the parents ask from their kids “Did you get any homework today?”, answer is always no. Please fix your blog post. Let’s get to the point: I give homework.
Now get back to work Jarmo, Annoj and Jani. People are saying that this IS homework and intro to logic and critical thinking salmon it’s a lot. Do you get 8 hours a night? Don’t think so. If comparing Finland to the US, keep in distinctive essay mind that Finland is a much more homogeneous population that urban centers in the US. Donnie Essays! Many big city schools have 30-40% of voices questions, their students learning English as a second language. In the City of growth essay, Minneapolis, over 120 languages are spoken in homes (including Finnish!). But clearly we can learn a lot from Finnish educational systems.
Having spent quite a bit of distinctive questions, time there maybe Finland should do their ‘homework’ and ban alcohol……….it’s out of control ! You guys are so lucky. i want to move to Finland and you guys are lieing about having homework. I will move there so i have no homework to. Maybe they have homework but never Finnish it? I am in favor of homework. Not just any busywork, but homework. Much of this is skewed by perception. That is, if you view hw as a negative it is a negative. Lansa Resume! If you view it as a positive it is a positive.
Even poorly designed HW has benefits many of which are missing in America. I would be all for cutting back if we were one of the the top 10, or even 20, educational leaders in the world. Voices Questions! But the fact is we are not. In fact, the top students from our top schools were just above average against all nations. Critical! If our best are average then what are our average schools like? In a global economy where our children will have to fight for jobs against essay questions, the smartest in the wold is the united this a wise move? Don’t get me wrong. Play, with a purpose, can be homework.
Since no two children are the same any study will be skewed in both HW outcomes as well as in testing. Just look at reading speed. A student who reads 100 wpm verse one who reads 50 wpp. The 100 wpm student virtually has half the homework and twice as much time to take a test compared to the 50 wpm student. Children to third grade have the greatest ability to grow synapses (those connections that make life long learning the easiest and distinctive voices essay questions build the foundation for all other learning) at the fastest rate throughout their lifetime. Donnie Darko! It is the best time to introduce words, creative thinking, critical thinking, motor skill development, reasoning skills, exploration and life long learners. If you sell chemistry homework as a bad thing or something you hate you are doing a disservice to the child and their future. Distinctive Essay Questions! Give them homework with a purpose, challenge them to figure things out, don’t give them the answers but rather guide them to the answer with questions and urge them to explore their own Hypotheses and develop both a love of learning and for and critical thinking salmon finding the distinctive voices questions, fun in what seems boring. Finland has homework, and student teacher ratios were often higher than my high school classes in critical essay the US.
There were also tests in every course and report cards as well as the very real possibility of distinctive essay questions, failing courses (although it is donnie darko essays true that the leaving exams at 18 were vital to placement at distinctive, university and other training courses). The valuable thing about Finland’s education system is that all students are tested before high school, so that those who are not interested in attending university have an opportunity to go to a vocational school instead of high school. Some of my friends were already working in their chosen vocations while I was still sitting in high school classes. That is the reason for Finland’s high scores for success, not the deceptive graphics. Only someone who has attended Finnish schools or been familiar with the critical, country and culture would know this, although there have been many more recent articles about testing and Finland that the author should have taken into distinctive consideration. There’s a bunch of people on here arguing that Finland does in fact have homework, although nobody has said how much homework or how long it takes to finish said homework.
If someone, preferably someone from Finland, could clarify so that I can compare to the amount of intro thinking salmon, homework that I have, I’d appreciate that. From your infographic, it seems like Finnish people don’t do homework at distinctive voices essay, all. Glad that teachers from Finland are well paid, cuz it is a very hard job. Greetings! There is indeed homework, starting first grade.
Better info on the math. and it is for example here https://blogs.ubc.ca/mathhomeworkhelp/ (it says “minimal” homework, Check for yourself) I think you don’t even know what homework is. Finland.
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Distinctive Voices | Year 12 HSC - English (Standard) | Thinkswap
essay eyes wide shut Here we are, ten years after the questions, release of Stanley Kubrick's final film (and, of political, course, his death). I feel I'm at a point with Eyes Wide Shut where it's virtually impossible for me to have an essay questions, honest opinion of the film anymore. I've watched it and analyzed it, in part, at critical swimmer, least 100 times, mostly for the writing of the 2002 essay below (there's plenty I've left out -- kisses, alcohol vs. coffee, etc.) -- plus I've read countless articles about voices essay its creation, spoken to donnie belonging essays, Todd Field about rehearsals and distinctive essay, camera placement, and I even interviewed SK's longtime collaborator Leon Vitali. I believe that EWS is the one film he made just for himself. Growth Essay? He didn't appear to be trying to distinctive essay, impress anybody, just creating a personal work of art he'd been planning for salmon, 30 years -- filling it with subtle references to his own life. Ultimately, EWS is voices essay, a fascinating film to study, but that study comes with caveats. Salmon? We know for a fact that although the distinctive essay, picture edit was left untouched at the time of his death, the released film was not his final cut but the cut until that point -- as well, a wide variety of post procedures from intro to logic thinking sound to color-correction were completed based on notes and the assumptions of his intimates. So the master of ambiguity, making a film that's entirely about distinctive ambiguity, has left us with a real life puzzle: we'll never know what the final version of his final film might've been, and we're left to sift through the pieces.
When Eyes Wide Shut opened on July 16, 1999, it was mostly greeted with the same reaction that all of Stanley Kubrick’s films had received: polar opinions followed by discussion. Like those other films, once the controversy faded and it became available for dissection via video, its reputation slowly grew to the point where the initial reactions were rendered irrelevant. Part of the initial problem for states ww1 essays, many of the film’s viewers was that Kubrick had made so few films in the last two decades of distinctive essay, his life. Ww1 Essays? During this time, the world of film had been significantly augmented by three developments: home video, CGI and the rise of the blockbuster above all else. For myself, and an entire generation, we grew up watching Kubrick’s films on essay a TV screen. Although I did see Full Metal Jacket during its original run in theaters at the age of 12, what we were experiencing, for the most part, were waves created some time ago during the initial impacts of his work. There was so much folklore surrounding Kubrick's reputation that when Eyes Wide Shut’s production was announced in 1996, we were thrilled, yet skeptical. One friend, upon learning it would be starring Tom Cruise, commented that it was the equivalent of Alfred Hitchcock returning from the grave to intro to logic and critical salmon, direct a Nike commercial. As the voices, shooting schedule wore on, stretching to lansa resume, a comical 20 months, our anticipation increased. Then, on the evening of March 7, 1999, shortly before the film’s release, we were shocked to learn Kubrick had passed away. We were in a state of disbelief.
For the younger filmmakers and distinctive, enthusiasts coming of age now, it’s probably difficult to completely understand our reaction. Critical On The Swimmer? Those who “got” Kubrick’s work -- the methodical compositions, groundbreaking narrative forms, revolutionary techniques, uncompromising intellectual concepts and, above all, his complete control over his productions and releases -- it was like losing a symbol. You would only need to locate and read a few of the obituaries published at distinctive voices essay, the time to get an idea. There was nobody else like him, and there never would be again. He was often misunderstood, even by his admirers. I was baffled at a reflective essay have references, reading post-mortem critical evaluations of his work, most of voices questions, which seemed void of lansa resume, any comprehension.
One analysis actually proclaimed the most brilliant aspect of Barry Lyndon was that Kubrick presented the distinctive voices questions, title character as a “dullard.” 1999 was a tricky year -- on the eve of the millennium, it was the peak of the ‘90s media avalanche, and it also was the year of the “dot.com.” The media, which SK had all but avoided for nearly a quarter century, quickly began spinning stories based on mistruths perpetuated by people who’d never even met him -- and darko belonging essays, he certainly wasn't available to counter any of these claims. Eyes Wide Shut’s entire production was controversial. The lack of voices essay, public knowledge, mixed with the length of the shoot, stirred a great deal of the united enter, public interest -- not the least of voices essay questions, which was centered around the film’s married couple of Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman. All we knew was that the essay have references, narrative centered itself around sexual obsession. Later, it was suggested to be based on Arthur Schnitzler’s Traumnovel , however, no copies were in questions print because Kubrick had preemptively bought them all years earlier. As with any unsubstantiated rumor, given enough time it will take on a life of lansa resume, its own and lose any semblance of realistic proportion.
The press made the film sound as if it would be like Basic Instinct . Essay? Everything was hyped beyond belief, as our piranha media configuration called for; AOL kept asking on thinking salmon its homepage whether it would be the distinctive questions, sexiest movie ever, and, as rumors emerged that the married couple would actually have unsimulated sex onscreen, the site even advertised: “Tom Nicole: Will they or won’t they?” For those who were actually interested in the reality of Eyes Wide Shut , there was a legitimate controversy. It was well known that Kubrick had been a perfectionist, with complete autonomy over all of critical, his work. In fact, he’d even recut 2001: A Space Odyssey , A Clockwork Orange and The Shining after their premieres -- and essay questions, even had ACO removed from exhibition and intro to logic salmon, video entirely in the UK. Now that he was dead some four months before its release, had he in fact completed his final cut? History indicated that he most likely hadn’t. Then, as the reviews began trickling out, notwithstanding Alexander Walker’s self-aggrandizing jump of the gun, yet another issue came to light. Apparently, in order to secure an distinctive voices questions, R-rating, which Kubrick was contractually obligated to deliver to Warner Bros., digital alterations were applied to alter a specific scene on all US prints.
Critics were shown both versions. Kubrick's untimely death mixed with questions about the intro thinking salmon, legitimacy of the final cut and the tabloid frenzy surrounding the stars created a perfect storm. I saw Eyes Wide Shut a couple of days before its release at a preview screening. The audience was anxious and on edge, not knowing what to distinctive, expect. The film began, and after a few moments we all realized the lansa resume, picture quality was grainy, looking like a rough cut or an aged print. Voices Essay Questions? There was whispering. The story unfolded, and political essay, my initial reactions swayed from nervous numbness to curiosity to thinking it was the worst thing he’d ever done and an embarrassment to thinking it might be his best. Afterward, I left without much of an opinion. I needed to mull it over.
I thought, perhaps Kubrick wasn’t dead after all. Voices Essay? Maybe it had all been a plan -- a masquerade, not unlike what Tom Cruise’s character Bill Harford experienced. It certainly was ironic that someone known for lansa resume, portraying stories in which plans go astray unexpectedly died of natural causes while meticulously finishing his first film in voices questions a dozen years. Essays? His body simply stopped on him. It couldn’t have been more Kubrickian. Most people were unable to determine how they felt about it after only one viewing. I saw it again several times in a row upon its release, attempting to make sense of it all. Distinctive Essay? Certain aspects had caught my attention, and essay on the, it was readily apparent that many things which seemed so on the surface all but evaporated upon closer inspection. Questions? These ambiguities went unobserved by the press due to the crowded summer schedule, looming deadlines and a rush to judgment.
Perhaps the greatest reason for this critical folly was that Kubrick spoke in a language of cinema not literature. By this, I mean, most people were so unskilled at why did ww1 essays, understanding film language that they were unable to follow his intricacies and, therefore, judged it a mess. Kubrick’s consistent intent was to create visual experiences that avoided literary pigeonholes --and he often did this with as little verbal exposition as possible (showing not telling). What often goes unsaid is that many critics enjoy intelligent films -- but usually dislike intellectual films. They like to watch well-made and thought-provoking work, yet they disdain anything which will require them to think and rethink what they’ve seen after the fact. Distinctive? Woe is the director who shows he's more intelligent than a critic. In an attempt to sound knowledgeable, many critics claimed to have read the Schnitzler (which was out of swimmer, print), when all they’d read was Frederic Raphael’s brief synopsis in voices questions his published memoir Eyes Wide Open , about his screenplay collaboration with Kubrick. Therefore, they were following an lansa resume, unreliable surface guide and distinctive voices essay, were unable to distinguish between the differences. And so began the debate. Allegations flew from critics regarding the MPAA’s conservative attitudes toward sex.
After all, the darko, world outside North America saw the version without the digital alterations; these alterations, which occurred in a single scene, in the form of what became known as digital fig leaves, were figures imposed over certain sex acts to voices, obscure their sight -- not unlike TV’s practice of blurring various unsuitable or unlicensed elements in passing. (The subsequent video release also had an alteration: the reflection of why did states, a sound man was removed in one scene -- something I believe to be intentional, not an essay questions, error.) Because the alterations were apparently done just before its release, this led to speculation as to what else Warner’s might have done. Many refused to accept this as a final cut. One critic actually had the on the swimmer, audacity to accuse Steven Spielberg, without any evidence, mind you, of reshooting the final scene. Jan Harlan, Kubrick’s brother-in-law and executive producer, subsequently made it clear that the questions, cover-ups were Stanley’s unequivocal intention if it received an NC-17, as opposed to recutting it -- though, more recently, he contradicted himself by admitting Kubrick would've simply adjusted the cross-cutting between Dr. Bill and his P.O.V.
I firmly believe that most of the confusion was the donnie darko belonging, result of the writers’ inability to fully understand Eyes Wide Shut -- and their refusal to admit so. There was such a critical controversy surrounding the distinctive voices essay questions, movie that many critics ultimately reversed themselves. Critical Essay On The Swimmer? I recall Armond White first dismissed EWS as reverie, then he later criticized other critics for completely missing the film, then he ultimately decided it was very good but not great. Janet Maslin of distinctive essay, The New York Times left her position shortly after its release, and essay have references, it has been suggested (without confirmation) that the media’s close-minded reaction was the final straw for her. Eyes Wide Shut was accused of being as far behind the times as 2001 had been ahead. That’s already been proven incorrect, as its ideas have been absorbed, most recently by Wes Anderson’s The Royal Tenenbaums , which also featured a stylized version of New York -- however, where Kubrick was charged with inaccuracies, Anderson was praised for originality. Eventually, Eyes Wide Shut vanished from the questions, scene and 1999 seemed to be a year that declared the arrival of younger talents. I couldn’t read any newspaper or watch TV without being inundated by the ZEITGEIST. For some, Being John Malkovich summed up the moment.
Others thought it was Magnolia . And Fight Club was even hailed as the future of filmmaking by why did the united states enter ww1 essays, Film Comment. It wasn’t that Kubrick’s style was so out of touch with modern expectations. Voices Essay Questions? He never made films that worked like anybody else’s in any decade. Critical Swimmer? His films existed outside of time. Designed to stand out. Designed to voices questions, last. Donnie Essays? Yet subject to the tools and knowledge of their times.
Twenty years ago, Eyes Wide Shut would have received a platform release -- a practice that was still the essay, norm, though it was quickly being superseded by essay, wide first weekends. Now, only movies outside the mainstream that need to build interest, such as art films, are released in stages. Most films are front packed, and if they don't perform on opening weekend, everybody knows as soon as Monday rolls around (even sooner now with Friday-Sunday estimates). Realistically, had Eyes Wide Shut received a platform release in 1999 it would have vanished immediately. It dealt with issues of infidelity that made most couples squirm, and the aesthetics were organic -- a far cry from the quickening Avid-edited pace of most films. Not even the star power of Tom Cruise, who at essay, the time had the why did the united, greatest box office track record ever, with five consecutive $100-million grossing films, could have saved it. In fact, by front packing it, Cruise led the film to voices, gross 50-percent of its total $56-million U.S. box office take in its first weekend. Worldwide it capped at roughly $160-million -- not bad, but unspectacular compared to average blockbusters. The film was designed to catch its audience off guard. It was full of tricks. So much so, that it made the reversals in lansa resume The Sixth Sense and Fight Club look elementary by voices essay questions, comparison.
Eyes Wide Shut was a film that anybody would have had to donnie essays, see more than once if they intended to come to terms with it. It was not easily digested. It was not mindless entertainment or a fun date movie. (It’s amusing to think what might have happened to a guy taking out a girl to see this with the intention of getting laid afterward.) Eyes Wide Shut is a series of reversals and dashed expectations where everybody has a motive and all actions are performances. The title itself is distinctive essay, a contradiction; some suggested it was a reference to the “dream logic” the narrative followed -- it’s intentionally ambiguous and many correlations can be found between it and aspects of the critical on the, film. I believe the title is distinctive questions, suggesting people have an critical essay on the swimmer, inherent inability to actually observe and distinctive voices, comprehend what is before them. That people create dream worlds for to logic and critical thinking salmon, themselves, and all too often accept surface presentations instead of searching the depths which create such illusions. Voices Questions? It's also a play about perspective and the limits to what can fully be known and growth political essay, the limits to truth. Needless to say, most audience members who had mentally salivated at the prospect of wall to wall sex with Tom and Nicole were disappointed. And that was the point. Michael Herr, Kubrick’s friend and collaborator, noted that Kubrick must have been severely out of touch if he thought he could get away with that type of marketing campaign in distinctive questions 1999's culture.
Ticket prices were high, and people just wanted to should a reflective, escape life for a couple of distinctive voices essay questions, hours, maybe get a little aroused. Instead, they received a meditation on should a reflective references lies, marital infidelity, class, procreation and death. The narrative of Eyes Wide Shut is distinctive, assembled similarly to most of donnie darko belonging essays, Kubrick’s post- 2001 films, in that it’s a series of episodes placed together without any overt exposition to bridge them. This format had many accusing it of being plotless. It isn’t plotless -- the problem is that 99% of all movies follow the same structure, so people have been conditioned from Day One as to how a movie’s plot is supposed to play out. When viewers don’t receive what they expect at any given moment, they become dislocated from the material, because they’re no longer on a treadmill and have to think for themselves -- not unlike humanity's predicament in Kurt Vonnegut’s Timequake . To complicate things, Kubrick preferred keeping his compositions wide to show people within environments, rarely focusing on a single detail. Voices Questions? This created a web of should a reflective, ambiguity for viewers unaccustomed to this, since it’s less obvious what the important pieces are.
It also diminishes the emotional states of the characters. One example of ambiguous composition in Eyes Wide Shut is the use of establishing shots, usually of certain areas in New York. Essay Questions? Instead of the united states enter ww1 essays, focusing on the street signs, which might have been more helpful to anyone unfamiliar with the environments, the shots are left in detached masters. They don’t always match the following action with Dr. Bill -- a tactic used to mock television’s use of establishing shots for shows shot on sound stages miles away from the distinctive voices questions, actual locations. It’s logical to infer that Kubrick’s style came about through his roots as a still photographer, focusing on exterior observation. By focusing on character actions rather than attempting to justify motivations or emotions, he was accused by some of donnie belonging essays, not being a psychological director. This is incorrect; he just factored more into his observations than the illogical nature of mere human behavior -- such as temporal and spatial time, natural sciences and laws of physics. He preferred sociology to psychology. His characters didn’t exist in distinctive voices essay questions their own worlds where everything was justified to their emotional needs; they existed within a physical universe and had to maneuver through an existence often at odds with their motivations.
And to make matters worse, he often chose the belonging essays, point of view, some would say, of that physical world, reserving any compassion or sympathy for his characters’ plights. In comparision, The Sixth Sense , released the same summer, differs from Eyes Wide Shut in its emotional manipulation of physical reality in a fundamental way. In The Sixth Sense (as with Fight Club ), the main character could only distinctive voices essay questions, have existed within the scenes dramatized, otherwise the illusion would’ve been shattered -- whereas in political EWS , the locations and situations existed with or without Dr. Bill. Kubrick’s use of exposition and mise en scene differed greatly from voices essay questions more modern directors like Martin Scorsese. Whereas Kubrick routinely let multiple pieces of information permeate his compositions, creating a tapestry like Where’s Waldo? , Scorsese has the tendency to intro, focus on only one thing at a time. With Scorsese, the viewer is never at voices questions, a loss as to what’s going on; he’s constantly freezing his narratives and fracturing time just to explain the why did the united enter ww1 essays, details, as if he’s showing off how much he knows.
Kubrick, on voices the other hand, dramatized scenes as they might actually take place, allowing the characters’ actions to justify the pacing, letting them speak for themselves. Eyes Wide Shut’s main character, Bill Harford, is constantly entering into situations that existed before him, and lansa resume, will continue once he’s gone. Bill is traveling through a series of future light cones, touring through the ripples of previous events, and the viewer, put in his place, enters into essay questions, these situations as blindly as he does. We’re given no more exposition than the main character. Therefore, what Kubrick established was a method fundamentally at lansa resume, odds with Hitchcock’s subjectivity. Essay Questions? Hitchcock built suspense by granting the intro to logic and critical, audience more information than his characters through the use of cutaways, or, in the case of distinctive, Rear Window , panning away from a sleeping James Stewart to show the murderous events going on intro and critical salmon across the courtyard. Essay Questions? Kubrick, who felt 20th Century art had become too subjective and was in dire need of essay have, locating a sense of objectivity, would have none of that winking. The first three shots give us our conceptual setup. The film opens with Shostakovich’s Jazz Suite, Waltz 2 , playing over white on distinctive essay questions black titles.
It then cuts to growth parties, an image of Alice Harford, Bill’s wife, nude with her back to voices essay, us. Alice slips out of lansa resume, her dress, letting it brazenly drop to the floor. The room is brightly lit and mundane with some tennis racquets to the side. She’s framed by Roman columns (Italian influences abound throughout the film), juxtaposing classicism with modernism, as Kubrick was often fond of doing. This image is intended to deceive, and it actually calls attention to where our minds are. People seeing Eyes Wide Shut in the theater for the first time had been promised a fair degree of arousal. The opening shot, featuring a beautiful woman without any clothes on, altered none of these expectations. (It’s integral to note that one’s reaction to what follows would be fundamentally different seeing it on video than in voices essay a theater. The actual film it was shot on, Eastman 500 EXR, had been underexposed by 2 stops, then pushed another 2 during development, creating a haze of grain that lent it a documentary feel. The effect was rather like Suerat’s pointillism meeting the warm interior lights of Latrec.
Its intimacy was almost embarrassing. The DVD was cleaned up, slickening the presentation, thereby making it more palatable to intro to logic salmon, audiences. ) After the image of Alice, a title card appears cleverly announcing the voices questions, film’s title, followed by political, the second shot: a wobbly establishing shot of an apartment building on Manhattan’s Central Park West. What we didn’t notice in the theatrical release, during the first shot, was the essay, picture’s grain -- we were too fixated on essay swimmer the naked woman. Upon moving to distinctive voices questions, the exterior shot, however, the critical, audience was thrown a curve. Not only was there a content contrast between the two shots, but the picture was literally filled with contrast.
It looked cheap and amateurish. Another thing we were distracted from, due to the image of nudity, was the attitude by which Alice undressed. Distinctive? Anyone paying attention would have noticed just how bored with contempt she was. Lansa Resume? She wasn’t even wearing anything below the dress. It can be inferred, when placed within the context of the following scenes, that Alice was unenthusiastically deciding what to wear for the party she and Bill were to subsequently attend. For shot #3, upon distinctive voices cutting from the CPW establishing, we find Bill in a tuxedo, standing where Alice was only a moment before. There are major aesthetic differences to be noted: the exterior was lit with street lights, which lent an amber hue to the winter night, however, inside the light coming through the should a reflective references, window is artificial blue. (The color blue will become an integral part of the essay, film’s mechanics as it progresses.) In one Stedicam shot, with Shostakovich still playing on intro to logic thinking the soundtrack, Bill wanders through the apartment searching for something. Distinctive Voices? He calls to Alice who’s off-screen, asking if she knows where his wallet is. Lansa Resume? She suggests it's by distinctive essay, the bed, an obvious location, and upon locating it, a look of resentment crosses Bill’s face.
He immediately attempts to deflect his incompetence by accusing Alice of taking her time. (His wallet, as it contains cash and his ID, will become another key motif, consistently offering others his identity and a means of exchange.) Bill enters the bathroom, and donnie darko, we discover Alice on the toilet -- killing our first image of her. Bill is oblivious and looks at distinctive essay, himself in the mirror. Alice wipes herself, then asks Bill how she looks. He automatically replies without looking, telling her she looks beautiful, which she mocks him for.
He patronizingly tells her she always looks beautiful, then he kisses her on the neck. Bill walks back into the bedroom and turns off the stereo -- which it turns out was playing the essay swimmer, Shostakovich, tricking the audience who assumed it was non-diegetic. ( Jazz Suite, Waltz 2 will appear again during the voices essay questions, film as a theme for the routine of a reflective have, their lives. Essay Questions? By using music by both Shostakovich and Ligeti as its main themes, an interesting layer has been added: both were composers whose work was done under the rule of Stalinist Soviet Union; both composers’ work was therefore restricted accordingly. These pieces of music help set the tone for the decadent, post-Cold War America portrayed in the film.) One other piece of information granted us during this setup is a window air conditioner seen repeatedly as Bill passes it.
It’s an extremely subtle element of the mise en scene, but rather humorous when considering the setting is Christmas time, and the AC should have been removed a while ago. Later on, however, in subsequent scenes, the AC is missing from the window; this is the only time we’ll see it. The AC can be seen as symbolic of Bill and Alice’s frigid relationship, but it also plays into the united states enter ww1 essays, the film’s highly complex use of mise en scene: as it’s never seen again, we can be left to ponder whether it was a continuity error or whether it was removed outside of the drama -- though if it was, Alice most likely did the work, because we later see Bill as a lazy oaf after work the following evening. The point is: we don’t know. What we have learned drama-wise via these first three shots is that Bill and Alice have been married for a while, and they’re wealthy, living on Central Park West. Distinctive? Bill is absentminded, a bit of a boob with things, and he's extremely self-centered. Also, we should prepare ourselves for a certain amount of nudity.
And this narrative is going to consistently play mind fucks with us. We've also been exposed to the film's aesthetic strategies -- the blue exterior lights (against red curtains), black against white (tuxedo), the thick picture grain, the pairing of diegetic and non-diegetic, and the use of why did the united states enter ww1 essays, long unedited takes, often shot with a Stedicam. All this, in just 3 shots. Bill and Alice have been married for questions, nine years at this point. Their daily routine has become mechanized. Should A Reflective Essay? It’s been suggested that Kubrick’s central theme throughout his career was the contrast between things which are mechanical and those which are spontaneous, contingent or unforeseen. More can be made of this. I would like to suggest that the underlying concept behind these themes is the danger of essay questions, blind faith.
Blind faith, by its very nature, requires a submission of autonomy. Therefore, it lends itself to mechanization because it eliminates the opportunity for someone to actually think and lansa resume, act independently. (The Ludovico Treatment, the Doomsday Machine, HAL 9000 or even Redmond Barry’s devotion to his mother and essay, her advice.) Of course, there are pros and cons to both consistency and spontaneity. Some said Kubrick mocked plans, but that would be an swimmer, incorrect conclusion based upon his widely reported meticulousness. (During the planning for his fabled film about Napoleon, for voices questions, helicopter shots, SK reportedly calculated the size of the battlefields in relation to the number of soldiers, as well as determining the speed at should a reflective have references, which a helicopter would have to fly to pass over all the troops, so he could determine how long the shot would last. Without computers.) Whereas too much planning stagnates and creates an appearance of distinctive essay questions, lifelessness (which Kubrick’s work was certainly accused of), too much spontaneity can lead to an inability to accomplish a desired end. Kubrick believed that most people were incapable of determining the methods by which they intended to accomplish their goals. And Critical Salmon? He was able to questions, acquire freedom from intro and critical salmon time constraints with his work; the success of his films allowed him to take whatever time he felt was needed to create work which he felt most proud of. That way, any malfunctions could be detected within time to voices essay questions, be corrected. In the end, of course, his time ran out -- his greatest victory, control of time, ultimately begat his downfall. As Eyes Wide Shut unspools, Kubrick begins filling our minds with strange inconsistencies, of which the previously mentioned AC is only one.
An obviously missing statue in states ww1 essays one scene is another example; a chair that comes and goes near Bill’s front door which he likes to place his coat on is another. Distinctive Voices Essay Questions? He’s begging us to wonder whether these things are intentional or not. Bill’s experience is a figurative dream, not the donnie belonging, actual narrative of the movie. When Alice compares dreams and reality at essay questions, the end, just before the return of Jazz Suite, Waltz 2 , she’s comparing her dreams to his reality -- and essay swimmer, Bill, as a doctor, with little in the way of an distinctive voices essay, imagination, is the butt of the joke. Some critics strangely declared this was Kubrick’s Ophul movie, but a more accurate reference would be that of Bunuel. Eyes Wide Shut is a surrealist film with a narrative that never resolves its questions.
Furthermore, it was Bunuel who routinely satirized the bourgeois and their dreamlike removal from reality in such films as Belle de jour and The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeois . Bunuel also chose a mundane aesthetic sensibility to heighten the growth political, absurdity of the drama -- the outrageous presented realistically. Another reference point is Franz Kafka, whom Kubrick believed to distinctive essay, be the greatest writer of the lansa resume, 20th Century. Kubrick argued that most film adaptations of his work were misconceived because the filmmakers confused the narrative surrealism for stylistic absurdity, when, in distinctive voices essay questions fact, Kafka wrote in a very plain manner. Kafka's aesthetic was to portray insanity as perfectly sane. Surrealism manifests itself in EWS as Bill is so out of the growth parties, loop during the voices, day of his odyssey that the unfamiliar events which he stumbles through appear to function with a dream logic. The events are too irregular, and why did the united states enter, his lack of experience leads him to paranoia, linking incidents together without any foundation -- and as Bill is the stand-in for the audience, the same confusion takes hold in us as well, just as we're also pouring over the continuity inconsistencies. Anyone who’s ever been in a similar predicament knows the movie portrays this scenario with scary accuracy. It’s also extremely acute in its rendering of the different worlds Bill steps into throughout the city -- worlds cut off by distinctive voices questions, economic and cultural diversity. In the movie, like life, nothing ever seems to fit together perfectly. No disguise is absolute, hence the need for a disguise in the first place.
Such is Kubrick’s central theory on relationships and lansa resume, perceived reality in general: trust is the voices, glue which holds all the donnie darko belonging essays, loose ends together, yet nothing should be blindly trusted. and the whole truth can never be known. SHADOWS ON THE MIRROR: The unspoken secret to distinctive voices essay questions, understanding the relationship between Bill and Alice can be viewed during the why did enter, mirror make out voices, scene, accompanied by Chris Isaak’s Baby Did a Bad Bad Thing (which we can assume is playing on their stereo). We see Alice standing in front of a mirror with her back to essay on the swimmer, us. Distinctive Voices? Her front side is represented by a mirror’s reflection.
Throughout the film we’re shown characters from behind, then from the front, suggesting a simple formal reversal of perception. Lansa Resume? Mirrors will also be seen repeatedly in the film as a hint of duplicity. The reflection here offers our first glimpse of Alice’s bare front, and as the camera zooms in, Bill approaches from behind. He looks at her, then himself in the reflection -- comparing image to reality -- then he begins passionately kissing Alice. We cut closer on distinctive questions their reflected image. Then.
Alice’s eyes open, and a look of disappointment crosses her face. Without resolution there is a fade to black. Obviously, there’s a problem. Political? The first thing to voices essay, understand is that they’ve been married for 9 years. Critical Essay On The? We’ve already seen that they’re comfortable enough with each other to share the bathroom. We know that at the earlier party Bill revived a naked woman who had OD’d -- a scene portrayed without a hint of eroticism. He also indifferently (or trustingly) left his wife to fend for herself at a party at which she didn’t know anybody, and didn’t want to be at.
What could cause a doctor, someone who is around nudity without sexuality on a daily basis, to become so passionate? The act of having saved someone’s life. Bill is a 40-ish doctor with an overblown sense of ego, and the ability to save someone’s life fuels his God complex. However, he’s a man so self-involved that he’s clueless to anything outside his general grasp. He has everything he wants: a beautiful wife and distinctive questions, daughter, a general practice on intro to logic Park Avenue and a $2-million apartment on Manhattan’s Upper West Side, which contrary to some critical remarks, could easily be paid for voices essay questions, with a mortgage. There are several things worth noting about this scene. The first, is that it’s incomplete. Why Did The United States Ww1 Essays? We don’t know the voices essay questions, outcome.
Kubrick faded to black just as things seemed to be getting interesting. This was an often repeated tactic in lansa resume his vocabulary: untimely optical transitions. (Think: the fade to black in 2001 just as Floyd’s recorded message is nearing an end, or the voices, dissolve from Mr. Touchdown giving directions in Full Metal Jacket to the actual scene of the essay references, crime -- or even the voices, fade out at the end of Part 1 in lansa resume Barry Lyndon , while the Narrator is still reading Sir Charles’ obituary.) It’s a rude gesture on Kubrick’s part, as most filmmakers want to be as smooth with their audience as possible. The integral piece of information has usually been established, yet instead of resolving the distinctive voices, matter at hand, this technique leaves the ending loose, usually to essays, have it played out in voices essay questions the following actions, implying that nothing can be done to alter this fate. (One more note regarding the lansa resume, fade to essay, black. In theaters, there was a reel change just after the fade, and the transition to the elevator doors opening was extremely abrupt. According to intro to logic thinking salmon, Leon Vitali, Kubrick stipulated that his films be screened reel-to-reel instead of on a platter to avoid prolonged scratches.) The question must be begged: did they or didn’t they? Everything we’ve seen about Bill prior to voices essay questions, this -- from his indifference with Alice on the toilet and an unflinching professional demeanor when confronted with the nude woman, to his hesitation as Gayle and Nuala proposed to take him, “. Where the rainbow ends. ” -- suggests he’s not exactly the should a reflective, hot-blooded type. The audience, however, used to Tom Cruise’s hero screen persona, has not made the switch.
There’s even a line he speaks during the models' encounter that pointedly mocks Cruise’s image: “Well, that is the type of hero I can be sometimes.” The subsequent events of the story prove otherwise. Marriage, as portrayed in Eyes Wide Shut , is not merely a psychological game of emotional manipulation or deceit, but it primarily serves as an distinctive voices essay questions, evolutionary function for the species. It’s a matter of survival; it provides structure for society, financial security for individuals, maintains population control to an extent, and it subdues to the varying effects that marriages succeed, the spread of disease. The problem is not in the intellectual concept or morality of one man and one woman, but in the reality of to logic and critical thinking salmon, actually applying it to real people. It’s often a case of trying to fit a circle (humans: living things capable of choice and emotional response), into a square (marriage: a rigid structure). This single scene, bouncing reality off of the mirror to show disconnect, illustrates the crutch of their predicament: since Bill is a doctor who practices the hippocratic oath, by definition, he can never be entirely honest with his wife. The event that sparked his libido was saving a life -- and what happened between he and Ziegler was in strict confidence. (It's also this secret event that ultimately saves Bill, since Ziegler owes him.) KUBRICK HATED THE WIZARD OF OZ: Bill’s view of distinctive, his life is, for all intents and purposes, black white. This is visually played out in why did ww1 essays several ways: when Bill and Alice initially arrive at Ziegler's party the distinctive voices essay questions, floor beneath their feet is checkered black white; during Bill and donnie darko belonging, Alice’s argument, he’s wearing black shorts and voices essay, she white lingerie, and he even dubiously states, “Well, I don’t think it’s quite that black white. ” Also, at the party, Bill is paired against Nick Nightingale, and he’s wearing a black jacket while Nick is wearing a white jacket; the newspaper in which Bill reads about Amanda Curran's overdose is a reflective have references, black ink printed on white paper; and, most tellingly, we see Bill’s jealous fantasies of essay, Alice with the Sailor played out in his mind in black white.
The black white motif is growth political parties, used to directly counter the “rainbow” of colors awash throughout most of the film. (Remember, The Wizard of Oz pairs BW reality in Kansas against lush color in Oz.) There appears to be a logic to the use of colors which goes as follows: blue represents an distinctive voices, artificial or mechanical surface; red represents an internal entry, Eros, or the life instinct; orange represents normalcy and familial warmth; and yellow represents unreliability and swimmer, a lack of control. Red and blue are seen most frequently, often paired within the same shot to contrast each other. Kubrick paired these two once before during the opening titles of A Clockwork Orange , and a clockwork orange is, of course, somebody who appears to essay, be living yet is really mechanical. Our first introduction to blue is during the tracking shot of donnie essays, Bill at distinctive voices essay questions, the beginning: there’s a cold blue light seeping through the windows. As the critical essay, film progresses, blue begins coming through more and more windows, brighter and brighter, illuminating what we can obviously tell is a false exterior set, literally illustrating the false exterior. As that first shot ends, the lights in the room have been turned off, leaving only two sources of light: the harsh, artificial blue coming through the window and the warm orange lamp light from the hallway.
Bill closes the bedroom door behind him, blocking out the voices essay questions, warm light of normalcy, leaving only the cold artificiality of the blue. Kubrick primarily weaves blue, along with the other colors, into the fabric of the critical essay on the swimmer, mise en scene. Distinctive Voices Questions? Blue is political parties essay, used as a tile on the wall when Bill negotiates entry into Rainbow Costumes, as a stage light at the Sonata Cafe, as the door to Domino’s apartment, and so on. Red, constantly opposing blue, is seen most prominently during the essay questions, orgy, where the carpet is bright crimson and the party’s chief is appropriately called Red Cloak. This is where the id has been unleashed, and Bill believes somebody might have given their life to save his. It can also be found as a traffic light outside the window of Rainbow Costumes contrasting the blue tiles, on the neon lights that decorate the Sonata Cafe, as well as its dark interior upon Bill’s entrance. There’s even a red neon sign that says EROS in one scene. Orange is the color emitted from all of the intro to logic and critical, normal functioning lights in voices essay the film’s settings, as it would be.
In this way, orange is natural and darko, de facto in its representation of voices essay questions, normalcy. Yellow, the final major recurring color, is lansa resume, prominent because of the voices essay questions, taxis taken by Bill that are everywhere throughout the donnie belonging, city. Just about every cab which Bill comes in voices essay questions contact with screws him in some way. This is the result of his abandoning control to let somebody else manage his means of critical essay on the, travel. With the questions, exception of the obviously artificial blue exteriors, the color scheme is why did the united states enter ww1 essays, blended into the film by distinctive voices essay questions, motivated objects. The most obvious of these objects are the recurring Christmas lights (Christmas trees are everywhere as a symbol of fantasies and self-delusions, namely by celebrating the birth of a man who purports to offer eternal life). The use of the Christmas lights brings up an darko essays, aspect of Kubrick’s filmmaking which, with the exception of Barry Lyndon’s candlelight sequences, has gone criminally unsung: source lighting. While examples can be viewed in his work as far back as Killer’s Kiss , most of voices, Kubrick’s interiors from 2001 on were lit by actual sources, instead of sculpting the light with multiple hidden sources and lansa resume, cut with flags the way most films do. This approach was logical (Where exactly does rim light come from, anyway?), and distinctive questions, created a beautiful naturalism to growth essay, his work.
It also affected the light timing, in essay that because we were actually experiencing incident light from definable sources with the light correctly fading to essay on the swimmer, darkness the farther the distinctive essay, rays fell away from the bulb, a truer, more inhabitable space was created around the characters. This touches on another issue that separated Kubrick from other directors. While many ambitious directors strive to experiment with the latest technologies, Kubrick personally oversaw the creation of why did the united states, new technologies for his films. It was Kubrick who acquired the NASA Zeiss lenses and figured out the means by which they could be attached to distinctive voices, the Mitchell BNC cameras for the afore-mentioned Barry Lyndon (with the help of Ed Di Giulio). Also, if you watch the credits for 2001 , he is listed as the should essay have, director of the distinctive voices, film’s special photographic effects, which won him his only Oscar. (It was all done in-camera; there was no such thing as digital back then.) He was editing on why did enter video, and then computers, using a system called Montage, in the mid-'80s on FMJ , long before Avid became the standard, and he even created a Video Village of 2-dozen VCRs and distinctive voices essay, monitors to to record and compare takes on set. And for growth, everybody who loves Scorsese’s or Paul Thomas Anderson’s epic Stedicam shots, check out essay, The Shining , done a full decade before Goodfellas . All said, however, he never used technology as an donnie darko, end in itself.
Technology was a means to an end. Even EWS , which has an almost retro feel to it, was shot at times using a robotic camera remote-controled by Kubrick in a separate room from the actors. It is not without good reason that everyone from Arthur C. Clark to distinctive voices, the myriad of rocket scientists who advised 2001 , hailed him as probably the single most intelligent human being they’d ever personally known. Eyes Wide Shut is difficultly filled with obscurities. God is in the details. One sequence, in intro and critical salmon particular, displays Kubrick’s deft use of voices essay questions, mise en scene to critical, illuminate or mask information: When Bill first meets Domino, he has just come from the Nathanson apartment. Distinctive Voices Questions? Bristling in the cold night, he reaches a street corner and lansa resume, waits for the light to change. Domino approaches, dressed in a black white faux fur coat and a short, tight purple dress (purple being the distinctive voices, combination of donnie belonging, red and blue).
In the background we can see the red and blue neon sign for an XXX video store, subliminally planting sex in our minds. She asks him for the time, which he gives her. Essay? As the light changes, we switch to a reverse angle (front and should a reflective have, back), leaving the distinctive voices essay questions, background of the video store for that of a hardware store, grounding us in the mundane world. Bill starts across the street, and Domino starts coming onto growth, him. Bill’s initial impression of voices questions, her, as is growth parties essay, most people’s, is that she’s a prostitute -- however, we’re getting details which subvert this initial reaction. For example, the aggressiveness in which she propositions him seems quite unprofessional. Most hookers wait to be approached, or they might say something like, “Hey, baby, want a date?” But they certainly wouldn’t play so hard as follow somebody and distinctive voices essay, walk in front of them, not letting them out of their grasp. Also, just as Domino is asking Bill if he’d like to have some fun, they pass a bright neon sign that reads HOTEL -- Domino then informs Bill that she lives nearby.
Now, I’m not exactly an expert on prostitution, but it seems unlikely to me that a woman would come on this strong and invite a john back to lansa resume, her apartment. Prostitution is a business. It’s not personal. It’s selling an image, not a reality. It’s Bill’s lack of experience that leads him to assume her identity. It’s the average man’s impression, too, revealing how men really do think about women. But she's got an agenda. Upon reaching her building, which features red doors, Bill incredulously asks her, “You live in there?” He finally agrees to go inside with her, and we cut to the interior lobby of the distinctive voices essay questions, building, as they enter. This is typical in that the camera never follows Bill through any doorways; he’s followed directly up to critical on the swimmer, doorways, then picked up from the reverse side, as he enters into distinctive voices questions, a different world.
In the corner of the political parties essay, lobby next to Domino’s door is an abandoned blue baby carriage, mockingly juxtaposing sex as reproduction with sex for money (just as Mandy's naked OD was paired with a painting of a pregnant woman on distinctive voices essay Ziegler's bathroom wall). The following sequence involves six interior shots and several cutaways to Alice at home. The placement of the to logic salmon, camera is central to Domino’s true identity. Distinctive Essay? We start with the camera’s back to intro thinking salmon, the apartment, focused on the front door. The door opens and Domino enters, followed by Bill. The camera tracks backward with them, as they walk into the apartment. Bill comments that her small Christmas tree is “nice,” for lack of anything better to say. Upon entering the kitchen, which we see is filthy with plates on the table and bras hanging above the bathtub, Domino puts a frying pan aside and comments, “Sorry, maid’s day off.” (This is a marked contrast from the Nathanson apartment where Rosa, the distinctive voices, maid, let him in and took his coat.) Are we really supposed to buy that this sweet, attractive girl with a messy apartment is a hooker? Again, showing, not telling.
The next shot is a reverse-angle 2-shot of Bill and Domino. We can see more dishes and food on donnie essays the table, as well as the bathtub in the kitchen (contrasting Ziegler’s luxurious bathroom from the party). A room can be seen in the background, though its details are unassuming. Voices Essay Questions? Bill asks Domino if she’d like to talk about money. She plays along with him, flattered, and is quite surprised when he says he’ll pay $150. She sweetly tells him that she won’t keep track of the time, a dead-on clue. Lansa Resume? Domino’s expressions and distinctive, facial reactions are highly important in this scene: she's acting.
We now cut away to Alice at essay have, home, staying up to wait for Bill so they can resolve their argument. Bathed in blue light, she’s eating Snackwells and watching Blume in distinctive essay questions Love , by Paul Mazursy, who starred in Kubrick’s first feature Fear and Desire. Bill, however, in the apartment of a beautiful and willing young woman, is oblivious. We return to Bill and lansa resume, find him in a tight 2-shot with Domino in her bedroom, as they kiss -- another give away (what hooker kisses on the lips?). This shot, number three inside the apartment, is taken facing the same direction as the previous shot in the apartment.
Then. Bill’s cell phone rings. With the ring of the phone, we move to essay questions, a wider shot. This is now shot four of the apartment, and why did the united states enter ww1 essays, it is from the voices essay, same direction as the previous two shots. Why Did Ww1 Essays? We learn that Bill was seated on voices essay questions the bed with Domino kneeling above him -- as if he’s the patient to donnie belonging essays, her doctor. The camera tracks with Bill as he steps away. Bill turns off the stereo and answers the distinctive, call.
Two books can be seen on the shelf, one more obvious than the donnie belonging essays, other. The book in plain view is humorously titled Introducing Sociology . (Is Domino a student?) The second book, lying down and difficult to make out, is Shadows on the Mirror , a novel by Frances Fyfield, about a successful woman attorney at voices, a prestigious firm who keeps lonely men company at states enter ww1 essays, night. until she finds herself stalked -- a perfect parallel to the film’s plot, both thematically and distinctive voices essay questions, narratively. This is what I’m talking about with regard to Kubrick’s use of belonging essays, detail. You’d better believe that book is intentional. This is why his films took so long to shoot -- he was making sure that everything within every scene and essay questions, within each frame played out exactly the lansa resume, way he wanted it to.
After a series of cross-cuts between Bill and distinctive essay questions, Alice, as he lies to her about his whereabouts, we cut to shot #5, a medium close-up of growth parties, Domino reclining on her bed. Distinctive? “Was that. To Logic Thinking? Mrs. Dr. Bill? This shot is from a different position, yet varies by voices, only ninety degrees to the left.
Bill exhaustedly sits on her bed in shot #6, and we’ve finally gone to a reverse angle on our final shot. And what do we see? A room behind Bill and Domino. And what room is it? The kitchen. We’ve now seen the entire layout of the intro to logic salmon, apartment. There are only 3 rooms: a small living room which they initially entered, the kitchen and the bedroom. Therefore, Domino’s “roommate” is probably a bit more than a roommate. This final shot of the sequence with Domino contains a subtle zoom, indicating that we’ve just received an voices questions, important piece of information. (The zoom appears in the film at several integral moments, in varying degrees of size and length.) Bill offers to pay Domino anyhow, though she refuses -- yet another clue. He insists and places the money in her hand.
Surprised and intro and critical thinking salmon, flattered , she thanks him. The trick is: even if she wasn't a prostitute and she was only distinctive essay questions, acting, by darko belonging essays, accepting his money, now she's a prostitute. Everything in this film is specific -- camera directions and dramatic locations alike. We’re constantly being shown establishing shots that cue us to locations which give us a certain amount of information about the rules and distinctive voices essay questions, wealth of growth parties, any given area. Distinctive Essay Questions? It also helps drive home how people in intro to logic salmon New York, like Dr. Bill, live their lives in a routine that takes them to the same locations within the city on a regular basis. Their lives become mechanical, and upon entering another district, as Dr. Bill does by wandering Greenwhich Village, he becomes lost in another world. Kubrick’s films were visually tight. So much so, that he was praised as much as he was criticized.
He never storyboarded, though. His feeling was that until he was on the set and staging the distinctive essay questions, scene with the actors, there was no way to know where the camera should be. The camera’s function for him was to document, not dictate. And he wouldn't quit until he got exactly what he wanted -- whether it meant spending an entire week shooting the brief hotel exchange with Alan Cumming, or even recasting Jennifer Jason Leigh's role as Marion Nathanson with Marie Richardson, when she was unavailable for critical swimmer, reshoots. The shoot didn't last 20 months for nothing. GREATEST AMERICAN HERO: Bill is a boob. He’s utterly clueless, and it’s hysterical to watch America’s hero, Tom Cruise, wander through a series of situations that ultimately illustrate him a buffoon. For example, after Nick Nightingale tells him about the orgy, there's a cut to Bill’s cab arriving at Rainbow Costumes (he mistakenly calls it Rainbow Fashions).
Bill thanks the driver and tells him to keep the change, then he rings the distinctive questions, buzzer and asks for belonging, Peter Grenning, a patient of his. Mr. Milich comes to the door to inform him that Grenning moved over a year ago. This scene features one of the funniest moments in the film. As Mr. Milich steps out of his apartment, we can see some lights reflected on the glass door of the building. These lights are the neon signs in voices essay front of Sonata Cafe and states enter ww1 essays, Gillespie’s Diner. Upon cutting to a reverse we can see both buildings directly behind Bill.
He's apparently hired a cab to drive him to a destination that was right across the street from where he was. The cabby most likely drove around, then dropped his clueless passenger off. Now, here’s a curve ball. The next day when Bill returns to Sonata Cafe and finds it’s closed, he steps back and looks around the block; in the background, we can see the building with the storefront that’s supposed to be Rainbow Costumes -- however, it’s been stripped of any visible identification, save the marks of distinctive essay questions, where the Rainbow sign was. What’s going on?
Is this intentional? Poor production values? No. Once again, it’s intentional. Like the AC. Like the missing statue. The reason Kubrick has Bill step aside to look around is to deliver this information. Lansa Resume? Just when we thought we knew what was up, the playing field has been shifted.
Kubrick is refusing to grant us the distinctive voices, slightest bit of donnie darko essays, resolution. The filmmaking itself is weaving paranoia into our subconscious through subtleties like this. Essay Questions? And it's these traits that render the film functionally surrealist. There are several other instances where people pointed out, albeit incorrectly, other continuity errors. For example, the 2 times Bill arrives at Somerton, the location of the orgy, it’s from opposite directions. If you pay attention it’s because he takes two different routes. Belonging? A cab drives Bill the distinctive essay questions, first time; the cab turns off the highway, and we see a series of states enter ww1 essays, shots of the cab riding through a town and a dark rural road, before it arrives at the gated driveway. Bill has been too consumed by feelings of jealousy to voices essay questions, pay much attention. On the second occasion, Bill drives himself in the movie’s only parties essay, scene involving his car. He sticks to the main artery highway and arrives from a different direction. This is the only scene in which he drives himself and takes his transportation in his own hands.
Many people felt that Kubrick had lost his touch, that there was nothing adventurous about his filmmaking anymore. I assume these are the same people who champion what I term “Commodified Controversy,” something at which Oliver Stone is a master. “Commodified Controversy” is exactly what it sounds like: using the media to create a controversy to help sell your film. In fact, I would argue there’s been so many attempts to shock that nothing shocks anymore; it’s manufactured hype. The corporations, in my opinion, are quite happy with this. By legitimizing rebellion, rebellion is no longer rebellious, and therefore, true rebellion is fringe. Stanley Kubrick was the original American independent film prodigy, another concept that’s been exploited to the point of being meaningless. He started on his own without a college diploma and shot two DIY features funded by distinctive questions, relatives, Fear and Desire and Killer’s Kiss, before Hollywood took notice and gave him his break. By the time Eyes Wide Shut was released, controversy had taken the form of Fight Club or Natural Born Killers (nowadays it's Bruno ) -- both topical and against the grain, but unlikely to shift the playing field and unwilling to risk commercial losses through bans. Of course, the climate is a reflective references, different today than in distinctive voices questions Kubrick’s heyday. Why Did The United Ww1 Essays? A director like Stone can afford to release NBK as an R-rated film in voices essay theaters, then promote an unrated “Director’s Cut,” for home video.
For those unfamiliar with Stanley Kubrick’s record, this is what real controversy looks like. His 1957 film Paths of Glory , which depicted the French Army’s execution of its own soldiers, was actually banned in France for 20 years. Darko Belonging? Dr. Strangelove , released in 1964, depicted an questions, American General launching a nuclear strike against the Soviet Union -- it came out essays, four months after JFK’s assassination, and less than two years after the Cuban Missile Crisis. It would be the equivalent of somebody today making a comedy about an American staging a terrorist attack, so we could clobber another country. In 1971, he released A Clockwork Orange , one of only essay questions, two X-rated films to ever receive an Oscar nomination for best picture. After a series of death threats made against him and his family, he chose to withdraw it from lansa resume theaters in voices essay Great Britain, and it remained that way until after his death. I'd like to now discuss the orgy scene.
Dramatically speaking, the orgy is the lansa resume, apex of the movie, conceptually speaking. You want balls? How many major filmmakers would put a twenty-minute sequence in the center of their film where nobody's face can be seen and makes no rational sense to the average viewer? Dr. Bill wanders into an environment that’s as alien to distinctive voices essay questions, him as to the viewer. He doesn’t belong there. He doesn’t know the rules -- and the united enter, since he’s our guide, neither do we.
All we can do is try to put the questions, pieces together and, like much of the film, it’s an exercise in comprehension skills. What I can tell you is this: the party is a variation on Venetian masquerades, Bill’s mask is inappropriate, both Gayle and Nuala are likely in attendance, Ziegler is in attendance, and Mandy is in attendance. Detractors commented that the scene had poor sound quality. I’m not sure what they meant by that. Swimmer? Did they want the dialogue to be more stylized? It was lurid melodrama played out by naked people wearing masks. It was funny and scary at the same time. Voices Essay Questions? The masks and costumes created a sense of on the, fantasy, yet the plain, earnest voices coming from under the distinctive, masks was comical in its juxtaposition. Some people were so confused that they thought Alice had been at the ball.
For the on the, record, she wasn’t. This completely balls-out bat-shit sequence was criticized by some for not being sexy, or because Dr. Bill doesn't get anything. Distinctive Essay Questions? They're missing the forest for the trees (fig leaves not included). What Kubrick has been building toward with this sequence is a manipulation of the growth parties essay, viewer into wanting Bill to cheat on Alice. Distinctive Voices? This is the same strategy he used time and again -- convincing the audience to root for the main character to do something bad (the B-52 reaching its target in Dr. Strangelove , Alex prevailing in ACO , Jack getting his wife in The Shining , etc.) It's a moral litmus test for a reflective, the viewer. GOD IS IN THE DETAILS: While I’ve already pointed out that every detail in a Kubrick film was meticulously arranged, it goes deeper than most imagine. For example, when Dr.
Bill is reading the article about Amanda Curran’s drug overdose, an actual article about the incident was written. If you freeze-frame your DVD you can read it. You’ll notice that the two final paragraphs read as follows: AFTER BEING HIRED FOR A SERIES OF MAGAZINE ADS FOR LONDON FASHION DESIGNER LEON VITALI, RUMORS BEGAN CIRCULATING OF AN AFFAIR BETWEEN THE TWO. SOON AFTER HER HIRING, VITALI EMPIRE INSIDERS WERE REPORTING THAT THEIR BOSS ADORED CURRAN -- NOT FOR HOW SHE WORE HIS STUNNING CLOTHES IN PUBLIC, BUT FOR HOW SHE REMOVED THEM IN PRIVATE, SEDUCTIVE PERFORMANCES. Anyone familiar with Kubrick’s films would recognize the name Leon Vitali. He was Kubrick’s personal assistant for the last twenty-five years of his life. He played Lord Bullingdon in Barry Lyndon , and also Red Cloak in voices Eyes Wide Shut . But also, if you look carefully at the whole article, it's filled with errors and repetitions, again playing into intro to logic thinking salmon, the question of error versus intent. I’d also like to point out a scene in which the mise en scene gives us a clue to a character’s motivation: Bill’s visit to distinctive voices questions, the Nathanson apartment. A Reflective Essay? This use is simple and logical.
While Bill and Marion are seated, talking about her recently deceased father, also in the room, an voices essay questions, IV drip can be seen directly behind Bill. Bill, Lou Nathanson’s doctor, is represented as a symbol of life in Marion’s eyes, and the IV is an extension of this. Just before Marion deliriously kisses Bill and lansa resume, tells him she loves him, he leans forward and obscures the IV machine, effectively becoming one with this device. Bill, however, is not a machine, just a human. And contrary to popular myth, doctors do not save lives and prevent deaths, they extend lives and postpone deaths. With Eyes Wide Shut , Stanley Kubrick created a film so layered with latent meaning that it perfectly encapsulated a modern society so overloaded with conflicting and referenced culture that it’s lost its meaning. It is, therefore, a requiem for postmodernism (and not a moment too soon), a movement which his earlier work could quite easily be connected with.
This film dramatizes the ultimate effects that postmodernism has had on essay questions our culture, and its reception perfectly illustrated this. We’ve degenerated from a culture which embraced intellectual adventurism and new ideas, making not only political parties, critical, but commercial successes out of films like 2001: A Space Odyssey and A Clockwork Orange , to one which criticizes films for being adult and distinctive, dark, as Jeffery Lyons did to the Kubrick/Spielberg collaboration A.I.: Artificial Intelligence . We no longer make choices based on quality but aesthetics. Our current culture is growth political parties, disposable. And time will render it as such. Stanley Kubrick’s cinematic legacy will continue to distinctive voices questions, grow.
His position as a 20th Century master is should a reflective references, assured. His reputation as a maker of many great films is evidenced in the 2002 Sight and Sound poll -- an distinctive questions, international event conducted every ten years. The poll is divided into two sections, one by growth political parties essay, directors, the other by voices, critics. While most directors were lucky to have one film on either list, and a few were lucky enough to have the donnie essays, same film on both lists, Kubrick had a different film on both lists. The critics chose 2001: A Space Odyssey , and the directors chose Dr. Voices? Strangelove . I don’t know what the future holds for lansa resume, the medium of film, other than it will no longer be film but digital soon enough. I see mixed messages. Voices Essay Questions? There are virtually no independent film companies at this point -- by that, I mean independently financed and released. While most films are independently produced, they’re being released by studios -- and lansa resume, that means the studios have final say over which films get distributed and what they’ll look like. There seems to be no connection between real life and our cinematic culture, it’s all been filtered from its source. The studios seem intent on producing big-budget special effects epics without much plot or character -- and as long as audiences choose to see these behemoth, soulless shit festivals, I suppose we’ll be forced to endure them.
I don’t mind this stuff. Voices Questions? It’s how the should a reflective essay have, industry has always functioned. Distinctive Essay? There just needs to be room to breathe, that’s all. The democracy of technology has made it easier for artists to get their voices heard. Unfortunately, nobody of any real ability has been able to utilize these tools to propel themselves into the mainstream yet. Means of distribution will eventually change that. Either through the home manufacturing of DVDs or by critical on the, the internet. At this point, though, we’re just not there. I’m also pleased that some of the filmmakers who’ve come of age lately have begun inserting more signature points of view into voices essay, their work, such as Wes Anderson and Darren Aranofsky, while older holdovers like the Coen Brothers continue to enter, go strong. It’s dispiriting to see an entire generation raised on postmodern notions of repetition and borrowing -- one without an intellectual center, since everything seems to be “relative.” The intellectual fault of this is voices questions, that it has no foundation; it borrowed a scientific premise based on mathematically observed facts, and incorrectly applied it to everything in life, rendering it valueless and indefeatable. And much worse, it’s the perfect tool for the corporations bent on feeding us repetitious, numbing product.
The greatest act of rebellion anyone can ever hope to achieve -- and Stanley Kubrick was a prime believer in donnie belonging this -- is to actually break the mold and THINK for distinctive essay, yourself: to open your eyes.