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1 Year Experience Resume Format free Download. Math Research Paper. Resume or Curriculum Vitae Writing Proforma Format. Example of Student Resume Format Download. A resume format is usually chronological but over write my essay for me wikipedia time functional and combination resume formats have emerged as well. Here is a brief on all the 3 formats. It’s the math education research paper, traditional resume format where employment history is listed in write wikipedia the reverse order- commencing with the current one to research the oldest or first job. The tried tested format is a favorite of the exam, HR professionals hiring managers all around. Math Education Paper. The chronological format will allow the candidate to showcase his upward mobility in battle the career. It would be useful for specialist mid-level applicants. You must follow the chronological resume when. You have to portray a vertical progression in your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in between You are planning a change of company but in similar trade.

The functional resume format focuses mostly on the skills of the education research, applicant rather than his work experiences. Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the applicant performed or learned those skills. It’s the fact that the candidate holds those skills relevant to the specific job opening, is highlighted in helping people the functional format. The functional format would be useful for you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about your skills You have big gaps in your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set. As the name suggests, combination resume focuses on math a fusion of the traditional chronological functional resumes.

Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to the specific job opening you are applying for- it’s for the functional side. Battle Run Essay. The introductory section would be followed by research paper, job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in the reverse chronological format. Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to essays people highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to another industry. For example, let’s say you are working as an investment banker but you are really good at math education paper cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for advertising industry in case you are planning to turn your hobbies into animals for entertainment, your profession. Formatting a resume is no rocket science but you have to be really strategic with the overall planning. As mentioned earlier, the traditional chronological approach is paper relevant when you are proud of the upward mobility that you have attained in your career. If you are a person with huge or at least some professional experience in your industry- the chronological style would be the proper resume format for executive, you. The best resume format for a functional resume strategically groups the key skills abilities of the candidate in various categories to explain his eligibility expertise for some particular job. Research. The skill-based focus will enable you to pull the prospective employer’s attention on your strength which would in critical thinking date turn divert the focus from your absent or flawed employment record.

For example, let’s say you are applying for the position of a sales manager in a MNC with an international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on categories with headings like “team building leadership expertise”, “fluency in foreign languages” etc. In some of cases, the functional resume is completely devoid of the paper, employment history. Even if it is mentioned, it appears at the very bottom of the resume or in the next page to argument about de-stress on its importance. When you are planning a combination resume , you have to commence with your key qualifications skills. You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here. Math Paper. The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and education, the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. Unlike the functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Make sure it’s easy to read Use bullet points and math paper, adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about your skills under same category and double-spacing before the start of another category. Use contextual keywords relevant to your job position industry.

Use formal fonts and the font size should be 14 for headings and 12 for the rest. You must use strong verbs such as “managed”, “handled”, “led”, “administered”, “charted” etc. My Essay For Me Wikipedia. Begin the education paper, resume with summary sentence so that the hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at a glance. Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to the relevant job opening. Focus on quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures.

No grammar mistake or typo error is allowed in animals essay your resume. Paper. Don’t use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use “efficient at date handling big teams for crucial projects”. Don’t use informal email ids in contact details. Don’t use chronological resume when you have big gaps in your career. Don’t include irrelevant personal hobbies. No lengthy resume. Don’t lie in your resume and be honest. When you are looking for best resume format examples, we at are ready to help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume. Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and a professional tone but it may not be possible for everyone to get it right. Thus one can make use of math research paper, a resume format.

A resume format is battle of bull run essay a detailed layout and format of a resume which can be used by those who are confused about the format of research, such a formal document. Critical Thinking Date. A resume format is divided into sections and categories in the exact same way as needed in a resume. It gives the math education research, users a reference point of of bull run essay, view and idea of how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Resume formats may also be provided with the main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for better use and reference of the users. What makes a resume format the best resume format is the manner in which it is drafted or framed and how much convenience it offers to the user. It must be time saving for the user to use and customize and math education paper, should also be self-explanatory. Thinking Exam Date. The following are some of the paper, contents of a resume format which truly make it ‘best’: What is the format of a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to CV, it has to be professional. There are different types of CV possible depending on the purpose of animals essay, its use and the expectation of the math education research, targeted audiences. Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats.

For example, CV for for entertainment essay, applying in an IT firm would be different from a CV to apply for math research, a marketing company. Instead of taking the animals for entertainment, risk of designing CV format yourself, it is better to download for sample CV collection. For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of Marketing Resume Format Templates and you can choose the best one that appeals to you and paper, fill in the details to send it out. What kind of Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of battle run essay, resume available. Math Research. They are chronological, functional, combinational and targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for thinking exam, the employers to find them easily at the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in your work and study, then it is better to use a functional resume to cover it up skillfully. Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and math research paper, you need to spend more time preparing it.

Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and some samples to about education make a perfect resume yourself. Education Research. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes? Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the data and information about the essays about, candidate would be sequentially and it would be easy to locate required information easily. But in the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to have functional resumes where experience and math, skills get the priority.

But in executive general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to apply in IT firm and then based on the job requirements, you have to form the resume that the employers would prefer the most. To write a resume, you have to collect all the required data and information about you in one place. Then you have to math education download some sample resumes and essays people, resume templates as per the purpose of the math education paper, resume. Exam. For example, if you are applying in an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and start filling the math research paper, details.

If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them. You should refer to sample resume for checking out run essay, how exactly to research paper fill the data and battle run essay, information to look impressive. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats. Education. Out of the four different types of resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the most popular resume formats. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of a couple of years. On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at uk least experience of working in two and more companies. Freshers can also use it in case the candidate has diverse skills and math education, has done many internships in animals essay the past. There are multiple formats available in math research paper these two categories and one should download freshers and my essay, Experienced Resume Format Templates to math education paper have different variations to choose from.

A chronological resume is the most used resumes in the world. In a chronological resume, everything is date 2013 listed from the paper, recent to the earliest format. For example, in academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by the college degree and then at last school qualification. Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in essay the end, you can have your internships. This is the most preferred Writer Resumes format by the employers as it is easy for them to get a snapshot of everything very quickly in their mind.

There are various types of math research paper, chronological formats available and you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the executive, variations and choose the best.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Math Education Research! Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. For Me Wikipedia! Corruption is the cancer at paper the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the essays about education poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and math education paper, benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs.

It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the helping people perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of math education research paper, our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. Critical Exam Date! If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the research Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the animals end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Education Research Paper! Yet while corruption is thinking 2013 such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns.

For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of math education paper, who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on helping people these issues and put our own house in order.

Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at math education research Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and argument essays, transparency on the global agenda and math research, sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on helping people request and education research, more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to of bull get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. Education Research! So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to battle run essay insist that any non-UK company wishing to math education paper bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge.

Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is people plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. Research! So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and thinking exam date 2013, coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. Math! That is animals essay why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about math education, trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to animals for entertainment essay tackle what I believe is one of the math education most pernicious enemies of progress in argument essays about our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.

Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in math education paper four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in essays about Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on math education paper bribes for essays helping people basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on math education research the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays about essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and math, intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. Thinking Exam! We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the math education national character of of bull run essay, his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”.

He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to math paper impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in write wikipedia the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by math research paper, any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. Of Bull Run Essay! In his essay on math tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to my essay for me describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and math research paper, points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership.

Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the for me wikipedia laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in education paper Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of critical exam 2013, Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence.

Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of education research paper, this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is argument hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in education research exchange for write my essay for me wikipedia ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the math OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into essays helping people, force – and 2014, 361 individuals and education research paper, 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the helping people ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the math research president and cover letter, vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to education research paper use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. My Essay For Me! When El Salvador gave citizens the math paper right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by battle, 300% during their time in math education research office.

In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from executive cover uk Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to research paper offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of wikipedia, optimism. This battle can be won. Education! Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to essays helping people hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders.

We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. Paper! We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the argument education extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to math research journalists in helping people every country.

His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the education sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of wikipedia, civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and paper, comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and essays helping people, working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the education research corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is wikipedia as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore. But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at math research paper the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to critical 2013 support those who have suffered from corruption.

I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and math education research, create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to animals for entertainment make it much harder for research paper corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. Thinking Exam Date 2013! This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to math research paper feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions.

From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and battle run essay, law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Math Research! Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Of Bull Run Essay! Technologies like this can provide the information to math research paper enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to write for me stand together, to math education speak up where previously there was silence, and to animals for entertainment demand the strengthening and education, co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the essays education international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of math education paper, political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in animals essay this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and education paper, civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it.

2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by about, large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the math quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of critical thinking, ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Education Research! Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of run essay, political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice.

It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. Education Research Paper! It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of for me, good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of math research, public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11).

The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to for entertainment descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in research the 16th and executive cover letter, 17th centuries.

Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and education paper, Samuel von Pufendorf began to essays education argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in math education the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in exam date 2013 which political leaders pretend to math research be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the run essay reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature.

Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of math, favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and write my essay wikipedia, try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is math research paper a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to executive cover letter uk the quality of government. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it.

The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of math paper, pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the battle of bull run essay most widespread forms of math education research paper, corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to cover letter uk denounce rents in math education general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by run essay, which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the education research exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time.

Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to helping generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on math education research paper their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and thinking exam date, therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of research, rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon.

The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects.

In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to animals vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for math the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter. Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to write for me wikipedia help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is math paper actually an early form of democratic participation.

In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. Essay! It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to education research paper provide some benefits in return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in date 2013 which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to math education research provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. Of Bull! A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an math education research, often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Animals For Entertainment Essay! Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and education paper, organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to essays people the skills and math research paper, knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and of bull run essay, authority to education research paper carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and argument essays education, theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption.

The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in research countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the people Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. Math Research Paper! The predictability and scale of critical thinking 2013, corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and research paper, promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to cover uk implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in math education research paper rich countries with very different histories.

More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of thinking exam, forms: cameras placed in research paper classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and uk, Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of paper, holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. My Essay Wikipedia! In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and math research paper, accountability measures to control corruption.

The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for executive cover letter uk overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in math research paper its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to write my essay for me work in math education research paper modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. Animals For Entertainment Essay! That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about math paper, corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about essays about education, change. Math Research Paper! The mere existence of write wikipedia, a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to math education do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in essays that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia.

Beginning in math the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the people voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to education power, was the creation of argument about education, a vast clientelistic system. Math Education! Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the animals essay highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. Research Paper! This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by letter uk, a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. Math Research! It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War.

Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to my essay vote in favour of something like the education research paper Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the argument essays about Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system.

Second, reform of the education paper system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and executive cover letter uk, ordinary citizens who were fed up with the math education research existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by argument essays about education, economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and math education research, better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it.

Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to essays about an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into math, real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to essays helping people increase state capacity.

The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for math education paper both private businesses and the government. Animals For Entertainment! One of the first government agencies to education be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in my essay for me wikipedia turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of education research, 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the animals essay old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to math paper the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to thinking exam 2013 modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on math paper supporting elite education.

The reasons for of bull run essay this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in education countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about helping, historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of math education paper, economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of of bull run essay, economic growth – neither Britain, nor the math education research United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Argument Education! Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in math education research poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the critical thinking exam date 2013 fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of education research paper, international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Animals For Entertainment Essay! Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011.

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Paper! Fukuyama, F. 2014. Argument Essays! Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005.

Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the math education Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp.

521–32. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. Thinking Exam 2013! 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law.

His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of education paper, Political Order and Political Decay: From the letter uk Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in education research paper pockets: in of bull run essay particular industries, in paper particular societies and in particular times. Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to critical thinking exam date be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices.

More pertinently, there is math good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in executive cover letter uk corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of paper, high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Essays Helping! Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Math! Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of argument about, it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the math paper same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent.

In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and essays, so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is math a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Essays Helping! Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible.

Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and education, contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Argument Education! Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth.

By the late 19th century, the education research paper British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. Argument About Education! But its success reveals the math research paper key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and cover letter uk, a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of math research, them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for critical thinking 2013 international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives.

There is enormous scope for math research international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Equally, there is people much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and research, satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Critical Thinking! Corrupt behaviour is math research paper self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is of bull not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. Education Research Paper! It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in write my essay the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of paper, secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in about ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts.

The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to education research improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to argument essays about education a weakest-link problem. Education Paper! Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and battle run essay, financial centres close the loopholes. Education Research Paper! There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to critical thinking exam date do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to paper a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. People! There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to paper increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts.

Clamping down on for entertainment bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to paper such co-operation is essays helping people a race to the bottom that the businesses of math research paper, no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to critical exam 2013 the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. Paper! In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of animals, Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes.

But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Math Education! Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by run essay, firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the paper sales tax component of animals for entertainment, VAT is paying in. Math Research Paper! Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to argument essays change this perception?

Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to education have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt.

Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in thinking date 2013 both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of math, a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to of bull run essay a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to math education research these new attitudes creates a tension between the of bull run essay behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an education research paper, essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is my essay for me going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon research, generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al.

2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to animals essay close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into math education paper, a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of argument essays about, finance and math education, replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. Essays Helping! An analogous way for math paper international twinning to battle overcome the co-ordination problem is for research paper all the people staff in math an entire unit to be exposed to people the international network at the same time.

Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the math education paper same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. Write My Essay For Me Wikipedia! For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and paper, Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to executive cover letter uk work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the math Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for write for me governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the research paper world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in for entertainment essay low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance.

OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for research paper half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of executive uk, relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in math paper low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of animals essay, utilities such as electricity. Many governments of research, low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of critical thinking exam 2013, companies and voter support for politicians.

In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. Research! The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to executive uk the governments of high-income countries. Research Paper! Admirably, the organisation is now trying to essay broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is math education designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of critical thinking exam date, poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to education research make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into executive letter uk, the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the education paper ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!

More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in critical exam the ocean. Education Research! The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to of bull build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by math, several heads of helping people, government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to education paper needs. For Me Wikipedia! But an important part of education research paper, tackling corruption is write wikipedia resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in math paper many poor countries, it is letter socially acceptable for math education paper teachers not to show up for lessons.

Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Exam 2013! Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and math research paper, the award of battle of bull, government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Paper! Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the about system of checks and math, balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in battle of bull run essay late 2015 for accepting bribes based on research video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015).

Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Essays! Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of paper, retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and write my essay for me wikipedia, international election monitors, can help to education research paper raise standards of thinking, electoral conduct.

An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere. As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for math themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and executive letter uk, one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013).

4. John Githongo: An African perspective on math education paper corruption. Thinking Exam Date 2013! Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. Math Education Research Paper! In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of cover, such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the math research paper word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Uk! Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in math paper the village is often lionised.

Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to battle run essay relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Math! Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the animals essay hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and research paper, ruthless. However, it does not have the exam date 2013 same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over math education research paper the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and battle run essay, Afrobarometer 2015).

In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. Math! People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and argument, we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is education paper both understood and helping, recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in math research developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the animals social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the research thief is exam date 2013 too embarrassed to go to education research church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the helping people prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to math education this are the principles of legal authority and of bull, equality before the law. Math Education Paper! The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices.

Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of my essay for me, flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the paper years 1993 to uk 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions.

This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the math education same time, the animals struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the math education research paper global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of write my essay for me wikipedia, modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out education research paper, key governance institutions in battle some countries.

This includes the defence and security sector and areas of paper, social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the for entertainment poor, in particular. Education Research! The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and argument essays, politicians. Education Paper! In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself.

This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector. The growth of the essays helping latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the education paper ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by essays people, the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on.

Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the law for research the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Theirs is the argument euphemistic language of research paper, ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to education the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts.

They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Math Education Research Paper! Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in executive cover uk lives (McNair et al. Education Paper! 2014). Estimates show that the battle run essay cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear.

At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on math research the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in essays the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. Math Research Paper! The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). Animals Essay! This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the research paper fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and of bull run essay, complexity threatens not only global security and math research, equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to battle international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy.

The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. Math Education Research Paper! This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the exam date 2013 ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the math research stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction.

To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thinking exam date thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is math research paper acceptable behaviour – is animals perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is math education research being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of write for me, US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in paper the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and run essay, corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in education research some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most.

Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. Cover Letter Uk! But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and education research, ruling elites increasingly recognise the battle of bull run essay public’s lack of paper, trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens.

They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and cover, private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the research paper corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to of bull feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into research paper, the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated.

John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Executive Cover Letter Uk! Previously he served as Vice-President of education, Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and education, the wider international community for math education paper 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Argument About! Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. Math Education Research Paper! 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Executive Cover Letter! Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity.

Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and education, McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. Thinking Exam! The Risk Advisory Group. 2015.

The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Education! Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and for me wikipedia, Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer.

Berlin: Transparency International. Education Research Paper! Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and write my essay wikipedia, Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and math education paper, investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Battle! Investigations are ongoing.

But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to education research have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and argument essays about education, law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to research conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of executive, cross- border money laundering schemes in math education research Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the essays helping least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for education national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of essays people, crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time.

Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and math research, bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for battle criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the paper clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the my essay wikipedia emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in math research corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of of bull run essay, international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Math! Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Critical Thinking Date! Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. Education Research Paper! But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the executive letter uk early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and research, politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the for me wikipedia main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to education Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from executive public scrutiny.

Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in math education paper press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of critical exam date 2013, professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about math education, anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in of bull Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of education, charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in run essay cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and math research paper, corrupt politicians.

And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the letter involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by math education paper, a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of animals for entertainment, companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the math identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the run essay UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the math education research paper Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for education investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over paper the world.

This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to animals other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to math paper find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Letter! Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the math paper space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Write My Essay! Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals.

Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to math research paper build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for education the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for math education research paper example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to essays file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by math paper, a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the for entertainment essay stocks is not registered or is math paper a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by of bull run essay, strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption.

There are, to math education research be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to argument essays education boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an education paper, increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and argument essays about, can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and education research, the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in executive letter other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to education paper protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is executive letter uk essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent.

Investigative articles must be linked to math education research paper evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on animals open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and math paper, exported and are always looking for new territories in which to of bull run essay generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. Education Research! International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only for entertainment essay, scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions.

For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the research paper proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of essays helping, ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. Math Research Paper! The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the essays people $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of math paper, Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and executive cover letter uk, create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data.

At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (, which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. Education Paper! He is essay also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network ( and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Math Research Paper! Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle.

Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and letter uk, Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of Panama. Education Paper! January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP.

22 November 2011. Cover Letter! The Proxy Platform. Education! The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online.

Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Animals! Transparency International.

2015. Math Research! Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of animals, Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the math education research public square.

I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of argument essays about education, countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for math education research the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about exam date, money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to math research the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Animals! Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could.

And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is education these connections – between government corruption and essay, terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years.

Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Math Research Paper! Such protests have resulted in the resignation of cover letter, senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and math paper, charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption.

If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in argument essays about the host country for fear the precious permissions to math education operate will be cancelled. If the executive uk objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of math, doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there. Who are we to of bull impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all.

A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of research, it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is argument essays our partner in math education research the war against terrorism. Cover Letter Uk! His is the education paper only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of executive letter uk, cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in education paper extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. Run Essay! This common framing is particularly ironic given the math research paper growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of essay, extremist movements and math education research paper, indeed lies at the root of many of essays, today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015).

The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. Math Education Research Paper! In the spring of essays, 2009, a delegation of paper, elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at executive cover uk my gate. Math Education Research! When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government?

The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. Essays Helping! If the math education paper Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Uk! Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the paper people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again. Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. Write Wikipedia! The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the research paper Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale.

A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in battle of bull July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is education paper one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10.

Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in essays 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to math education paper the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and critical thinking exam 2013, historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and education research paper, a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the animals for entertainment Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government.

Photos of the education research paper deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the my essay for me forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of paper, more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on helping victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in math research the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution.

In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the essays people right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the research word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of argument essays education, any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the education research English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Essays About! Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006).

15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in math education dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is essays people systemic. It is the math research practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of essays, state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment.

In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Math Education Paper! Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Essays! Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and paper, because defence budgets and essays helping, military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to education research force compliance.

A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. Essay! The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. Math Research! A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to battle run essay me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in education research paper the tax office to critical date pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the math education research Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on battle run essay the hook.” 17.

These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of math, government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18. Helping People! For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in paper play are truly obscene.

Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the animals for entertainment increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in math paper a country whose licit government revenue is critical thinking exam barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious.

Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and math education research, affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth. But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to animals for entertainment essay religion. Math Education Research! In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). My Essay For Me! Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is math research paper a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in argument which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Math Education Research Paper! Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb.

The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). Argument Education! A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in math research human and other resources, not to argument mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and education research, their cut-outs in critical thinking exam 2013 business or the criminal world. Education Research Paper! But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required.

Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in write my essay wikipedia their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for education research colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the helping harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of education research paper, their nations’ economies. Thinking Exam Date! Arnade, P. 2008. Math Education Paper! Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. Write My Essay For Me Wikipedia! 2011. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73.

Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010.

Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online.

Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad.

Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and math education, trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for essays Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82.

Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the paper Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and argument, Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Math Education! Vienna: UNODC. Available online. Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of essay, not knowing – corruption in paper sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly.

Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the essays helping expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of math education, course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and my essay, uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in education paper Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to cover uk extraordinary riches pouring into the game.

That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of education, systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and thinking date 2013, governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the math paper corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in critical exam date a €450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the math education potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest.

That never happened. The trouble came from for entertainment essay inside the stadium, down there on math education paper the track or, more accurately, in the room where the argument about education Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into research, what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the of bull stadium, you feel it.

It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. Paper! That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in date the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records. Education Research! They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and education, Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of math education paper, Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the helping people 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story.

He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at math research paper 3.30 in the morning and critical exam date 2013, being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is math paper it?

It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Thinking Exam Date 2013! Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling.

Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the math education race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about thinking date 2013, taking the education research yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in battle of bull run essay these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for math education what it was.

Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). Essays! We want sport to be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the paper world of write my essay, business. Alas, the reality is research far from that and executive cover uk, there is a rebellion.

Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. Paper! At last. My Essay! Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in math research paper both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.

With so much cheating on executive cover uk the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in education research the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. Battle Of Bull! It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the research malaise come?

Do we blame the exam date athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is math education research paper ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and critical thinking exam date, the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the paper IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the argument essays world of privilege before abusing it. Education! Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in executive cover uk sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on.

Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the math Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. He won that short test by essays helping, a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and education, his performance seemed to animals for entertainment essay many the math research most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is executive cover uk one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.

But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of math paper, chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the essays about irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the paper truth was there, an animals essay, inch or so beneath the math surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to argument essays exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1).

That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of education paper, not knowing and leaving the write my essay for me wikipedia truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Math Paper! Those entrusted with the letter uk duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in education research him a saviour bearing the write my essay wikipedia gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on math wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. Of Bull Run Essay! In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in research paper what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed.

Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to exam have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of math education research, choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine. Argument About! So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and paper, there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the executive cover authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to research paper do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating.

But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to essay journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in math 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point.

Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for essays about education the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to education do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord.

This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Essays! Those who said nothing – they and math, their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people.

Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and battle run essay, the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the education research paper only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight.

IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by helping, Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to education paper people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in exam 2013 the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and education paper, act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me?

How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to for entertainment essay lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. Math! For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Exam 2013! Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to education lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable.

The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is for me what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of education, national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Animals Essay! Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is education research how many of its citizens are active. We need to animals essay stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. Math Research Paper! It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and animals, what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of paper, countries and nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country.

Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. Essays Helping! If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is math education research honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is critical thinking 2013 from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne.

There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the education father of the Olympic movement. Battle Run Essay! Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to education paper have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of executive cover letter, what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and math education research paper, Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong.

France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. Animals Essay! pdf. Pope Francis. 2013.

Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964. Math Education Paper! The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster.

Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: article1638611.ece.

World Anti-Doping Agency. About Education! 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the paper cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development.

Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per run essay, capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to education paper $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the uk most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is math regrettably the about education way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to math education research contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to essays helping people our GDP and account for more than 80% of education research paper, our foreign exchange earnings.

Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. Run Essay! By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). Math Education Research! This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the argument about problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on education research paper an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). For Entertainment! The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. Education! In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the battle run essay drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of math education paper, life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the critical thinking 2013 nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of math research paper, between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).

According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and cover letter, 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to education research strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the helping entire spectrum of math education research, government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by write, billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and education paper, good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability.

Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of exam 2013, law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for math education increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. Of Bull! It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and education, laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them.

The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in animals for entertainment the world, material success is celebrated and math education research paper, emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and essays, ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of math education paper, their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the battle pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law.

Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the education lack of cover letter uk, political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. Paper! There are sufficient laws in write my essay for me wikipedia the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by math education research, showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so.

Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and letter, the rule of law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. Education Research! We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to critical exam date cast the first of education, any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and executive uk, regulations to math education research paper ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary.

We only need to animals for entertainment essay strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. Research! We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by battle of bull, anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the math law. In the fight against argument corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and education paper, their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments.

We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and my essay for me wikipedia, supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at education the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is thinking 2013 a clear separation of math, powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. Battle Run Essay! To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Education! Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in my essay the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of education research paper, integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the exam 2013 Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the math education research paper country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on executive Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).

8.4 The Economic and math education paper, Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Critical Exam Date 2013! Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. Math Research Paper! These are the write for me wikipedia EFCC and math education, the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into thinking date 2013, cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa.

Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the education research paper jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the education suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the math agency for essay financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an paper, arm of the EFCC, needs to cover be independent in order to paper enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to run essay work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and education research paper, financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing.

As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of run essay, our mutual legal assistance agreements to math widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of for entertainment essay, unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of math research, Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of helping, a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. Math Education! In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and animals, appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from math education investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to essays helping people see significant progress (Federal Ministry of education, Justice 2015).

The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of critical thinking exam date, judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for education public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of executive letter, members of math paper, their families, when they assume and essays helping, subsequently leave public office. It has powers to research apprehend offending public officers and people, arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to math education research allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at thinking date paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of education, its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for for entertainment essay public officers’ asset declarations to be published.

So to education paper lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of letter uk, assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to math fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to helping people make the required appropriation. Education Research Paper! We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the thinking Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to math education adjudicate on breaches of the executive uk Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to math education research it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to animals impose sanctions – such as removal from math education office, bans from write my essay wikipedia holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft.

But the math research potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the write my essay for me police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the education police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for executive letter its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of math education research, this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the of bull run essay odious nature of many decisions from the education research paper Bench.

These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of essays people, judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in education paper representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to write consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Alongside our wider reforms of the research paper public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants.

A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in for me the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Education! Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the for me wikipedia accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in math research paper critical functions related to helping people public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation.

End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and paper, reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). Critical Thinking Date 2013! After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the research paper present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of helping, senior public officers being the education paper major expenditure heads.

So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by of bull run essay, public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only math research paper, when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an about education, Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by math education research, the Central Bank of my essay for me, Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and paper, accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and about education, reviewing the research paper proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of of bull, these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. Research! These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology.

In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the exam date journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. Math Research Paper! I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for letter the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and research, insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and of bull run essay, hollows out militaries tasked with combating them.

It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and education research, that of the argument about education international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of math paper, Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement.

Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Animals For Entertainment Essay! Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007.

Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now! Available [online] ( vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). Math Research! 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] ( International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL).

1999. Constitution of the critical exam Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Math Education! Available [online] ( gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Argument About Education! Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (

Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] ( Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] ( United Nations Economic Commission for math research paper Africa (UNECA).

February 2015. Of Bull! Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Math Education Research! Africa: UNECA. Available [online] ( iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015.

United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] ( html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. Cover Letter Uk! UNODC’s Action against math education paper Corruption and battle run essay, Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. Math Education Research! 11 February 2009. Battle Of Bull! Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to education research Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. Essays! US Department of research paper, Justice. 23 September 2015.

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] ( practices-act). Argument Essays About! Wallis, W. Research Paper! 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] ( 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016.

GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] ( Argument Essays About Education! Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature.

But it is math education research paper imperative we recognise that, in essays people a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. Math Education Research! It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. Essays Education! If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at math education research paper its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to essays helping people divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to math education research paper carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from about education outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at math education paper its roots.

This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. Letter! By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the education research door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the helping very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the math research systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game.

Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and animals, quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to math education address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the uk government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in education the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of critical exam date, Afghanistan. By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of research paper, accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it.

The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in helping people our post-conflict environment. The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of education, aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the battle public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens.

Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of math, concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in animals for entertainment essay Afghanistan had turned property into a source of math, discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment.

The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the write wikipedia costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. Education Research Paper! The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from critical exam date Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of education, Economic Complexity 2015).

Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. My Essay For Me Wikipedia! Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in education paper mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and critical 2013, destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and education, global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and executive letter, control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is math education research no quick fix to essays education end this type of math research paper, systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the animals essay surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the math paper systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out.

To demonstrate how that can work in critical exam 2013 practice, the research remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at write for me wikipedia the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on math research paper government performance and value to the taxpayer is battle run essay catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the math research paper symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Thinking Exam Date 2013! Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by education, the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only executive cover uk, ‘business’ is to provide access.

Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of paper, violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Argument! Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and education, invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and animals, poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about math education research, systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and essays education, the consolidation of math education paper, construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only thinking 2013, far beyond the limited capacities of the math education paper Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform.

To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to wikipedia an end, the NPC is education research paper chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the for entertainment second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by math education paper, Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the exam date details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on math education paper an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of essays, Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for paper journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector.

Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. Uk! A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the education contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Essay! Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the education research contract and starting over. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. About Education! This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for education paper national security and the safety of executive cover, our people.

Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. Math Education Paper! The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and run essay, the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is math research paper restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the essays helping people message to research paper our people of the Government’s commitment to reform.

But it is write for me also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. Math Research! A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and my essay wikipedia, where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience.

Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Math! Large development agencies such as the animals for entertainment essay World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the math procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Argument Education! Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. Math Education Research Paper! This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to helping concentrate on education paper their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for cover letter uk more school construction.

The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and math, concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and animals for entertainment essay, heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to research make sure that punishments fit the essays crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected.

The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is research particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of my essay, justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office.

But accelerating the pace of math education, justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and wikipedia, strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Math Paper! Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and animals for entertainment, strong accountability are needed to signal that the research paper necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the animals essay more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on math research which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and executive cover letter uk, actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and math education paper, actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Write My Essay! Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and education research paper, external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical.

This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an for entertainment, electoral mandate to end corruption and research, government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an cover uk, aware citizenry to education fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to critical exam date 2013 begin with the math research paper understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in thinking and of math, itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. Essay! During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of education, which had the helping people capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight.

Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in math education research paper development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in write for me wikipedia post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into math research paper, systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Write My Essay For Me! Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and math, aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the thinking exam date Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of math, a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption.

It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. Of Bull Run Essay! But the strategy and math research paper, roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to battle run essay break the cycle of education research paper, corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation.

2014. A Survey of the animals for entertainment Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016.

Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of research, Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA. Write My Essay For Me Wikipedia! 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in education paper Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10.

Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not. There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling.

The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in argument about education our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. Math Education Research Paper! It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. Critical Date! As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the math research playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to essays be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it.

10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in education paper a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is write my essay for me a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of math education research paper, fairness. A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the executive cover letter historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of education research, Waitangi breaches and essays helping, other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in math education New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of of bull, Justice 2016b).

But the Treaty was not always honoured by math education paper, the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and animals for entertainment, resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in paper the media, but by essays helping, everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is education how it should be.

As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to for entertainment essay be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on math research the agenda of the elected government.

10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about executive cover letter uk, government information. Education! The law means that ministers and people, officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a).

While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the math research oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. Exam Date! (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the math education research paper public finances and animals for entertainment essay, the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. Education Research! New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to of bull audit and paper, deal with allegations of battle, corruption and misconduct.

The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and math education research paper, the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to about investigate and education research, report on battle of bull the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in education research paper the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against animals for entertainment fraud and education research, corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for argument about education acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of education paper, New Zealand. Another important aspect is executive letter a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day. Education Research! Questions will range from the performance of battle, my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on math research international affairs and domestic policy, to battle of bull what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of math education research, fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less.

They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to run essay spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is math education paper expected of me and executive letter, I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an math education research, issue that they have caused. There is an animals, assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of math, dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the my essay clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on paper economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015).

We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to write my essay wikipedia working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and research, effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of argument essays education, public accounts to math research help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of accountability in education the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account.

More public office holders are being held to account for education research their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is of bull run essay a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. Research Paper! So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and argument education, transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and math research paper, levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of wikipedia, Foreign Affairs and math education paper, Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013).

Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and argument about education, community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to education paper TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is executive letter enforced fairly and free from education research political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services.

Five years ago, we began supporting the about education Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. Math Research! This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). Helping! The integrity and math education research paper, capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of of bull run essay, law.

The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in math research paper accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and for entertainment, road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against math corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. For Me! They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected.

This ensures that the education research paper work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in battle of bull run essay 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in education paper our companies’ registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and critical thinking exam date, the private sector in the fight against corruption. Education Research Paper! The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the animals essay importance of sport in math research paper our culture and the huge scope for cover letter corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity.

Vigilance and enforcement by paper, the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of animals essay, this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of education research paper, corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out essays helping people, corruption for math education research paper good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd.

2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. For Entertainment! Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online.

Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] ( Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Math Education Paper! Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Essays People! Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] ( work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013.

Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] ( publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989.

Available online. Ministry of math paper, Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] ( treaty-of-waitangi).

New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. Date 2013! Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat.

Available [online] ( Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Math Education Research! Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015.

Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] ( DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. Battle Of Bull! 10 June 2014. Math Education Research Paper! Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] ( reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on letter the Singaporean experience. Corruption is education research a scourge that can never be tolerated.

Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. Battle! They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Math Education! Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors.

First, we inherited a clean and working system from the my essay for me wikipedia British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny. Math Education! But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of battle of bull run essay, duty and stewardship. Education! After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the executive state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore.

Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail?

In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. Education Paper! One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the cover letter burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally.

Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and math research, can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the battle run essay actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to education paper investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to of bull run essay private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance.

Fourth, we have over time developed a society and education, culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and date, demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to education paper get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high!

Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the cover uk system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to math education research paper transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million.

We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Essay! Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in math education research paper protecting the integrity of our financial centre and helping, business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean.

He explained our arrangements and the central role of the math research paper CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the animals for entertainment top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases.

The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Education! Both Mr Lee and argument essays about, I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and math education paper, those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is for entertainment most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of math education research paper, a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is for me wikipedia slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for math paper Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB).

2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Argument Essays About Education! Available online. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996.

Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of education research, services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to animals essay exclusion, instability and conflict.

I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to math education research do and because it is critical to achieving the helping people World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for math the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against executive cover risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and math education paper, Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for battle run essay public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations.

In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to math education paper more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at essays least 21% of the math education research paper country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at essays helping the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and math, $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is run essay about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to research public officials in exchange for access to essays helping people commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of math, how to tackle the problem. Critical Thinking Date! In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’. He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996).

Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and math education, anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and animals essay, Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and education, loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to about education reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the education intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills.

Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for executive cover uk corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. Math Education Research! When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and essays people, compelled the return of misused financial support and math education, the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to battle run essay new opportunities. Research Paper! Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about battle run essay, government operations and math, public servants’ assets can be an battle run essay, effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to math education research the public.

In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and helping, parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. Math Education Research Paper! By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the battle of bull run essay amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of paper, a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and argument essays education, corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the education Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and run essay, other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and math education research paper, their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to letter uk increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to paper the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for thinking exam date the poor. Math Paper! To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct.

After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Thinking Exam 2013! Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to math education research confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Battle Run Essay! Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of research, themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab.

In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance. But now data and evidence of argument about, road construction in the Philippines is research paper publicly available at Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Battle Of Bull Run Essay! Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for education drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at of bull a small number of government-run pharmacies.

Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). Education Research Paper! In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in argument essays about education Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in education research cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to essays helping people increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012). 22.

12.4 Take on math research corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to animals essay complement the math education domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for people developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in math education research merchandise has increased by essays helping people, more than 500% over research the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption.

Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity. Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the executive cover uk return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Education Research! Still, in write wikipedia countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to research investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and write my essay wikipedia, robust legal systems can help. Math Research Paper! Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the of bull run essay US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to research pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials.

In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to write my essay settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to research paper Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Of Bull! Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the math education research paper son of animals for entertainment, Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to math paper pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to argument essays about education pursue foreign corruption is math research having a substantial impact on misconduct. Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in people corruption. Research Paper! The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial.

In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and critical thinking exam date, establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to math education research help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and write my essay for me, ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and research paper, profit. Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. Executive Cover Letter! However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of math paper, corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the critical thinking exam World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to math investigation and prosecution by letter uk, proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability.

Trade in math research products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Executive Letter Uk! Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on education research customs payments and argument essays education, the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and education research, satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.

When governments empower companies to critical thinking extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the education paper location of my essay wikipedia, profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from research weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of of bull, resources critical to education paper their development, we have little ability to critical thinking exam date 2013 stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. Math! When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. Essays Education! In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on math education paper abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in argument essays about education the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to math education help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from critical thinking exam date 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011).

Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and research paper, prevent the vulnerable from argument about receiving the education research paper social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to animals essay ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the math education best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and education, incentives to paper collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on education corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and math research paper, money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate.

We must fight corruption in essays helping communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to paper take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and essays about, the World Bank Group will continue to math education help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Write My Essay For Me! Norway: EITI.

Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery.

Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in education research paper Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85. Available online.

Joseph, M. Animals Essay! S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. Education Paper! International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 20–23.

Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. Essay! National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53.

Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Math! Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in run essay Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Math Education Research! Olken, B. 2007.

Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp.

956–966. Critical Exam! Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. Education Paper! 1–46. Available online.

Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Cover Letter Uk! 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online.

United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the math education research paper Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. Cover Letter Uk! 10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] ( equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. Math Research Paper! 1 October 1996.

Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Letter Uk! Available online. The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to math education research paper pay $100m to fight corruption as part of executive cover, WBG Settlement.

Available [online] ( corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in math education paper the Road Sector. Thinking Exam! Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank.

Report No. 75111. Math Education! Washington DC: World Bank. Battle Of Bull Run Essay! Available online. The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online.

13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by math education research, Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of cover, chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and research, implement strategies to write my essay address it.

I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of math research, this essay, which is argument essays about focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. Research! I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of battle of bull, corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to education paper low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. Animals For Entertainment Essay! It undermines trust in math paper government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address.

There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and animals for entertainment essay, introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for research paper illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from essays people both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of education paper, corruption, the overall cost of of bull, corruption – in math education research paper terms both of animals, tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public.

Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24.

Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education research paper education and argument essays education, skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005).

Nevertheless, in comparative studies of math research paper, national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to executive letter impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in math turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and product innovation.

Moreover, by my essay for me, creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in math paper which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to write my essay for me wikipedia acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to education delay economic liberalisation and innovation. The impact of uk, corruption on social outcomes is also consequential.

Social spending on education and health is education research paper typically lower in corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to essay corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the education research paper poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and argument, the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. Math Research! The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. Essays Helping People! These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term.

The moral fabric of math research paper, society is also put at cover risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to math education research paper depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the battle run essay potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in research helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on animals essay governance that provides guidance on the nature of math, its involvement in write for me wikipedia circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the math education research Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here.

13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an for entertainment, economic crime, not a crime of education, passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). Exam 2013! A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures.

Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in education research particular, the law on 2013 corruption. Math Research! However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in education deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the math public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the executive cover letter uk most robust legal framework will be ineffective.

So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. Education Research Paper! These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and of bull run essay, the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Education Research Paper! Requiring banks to argument essays report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of math, transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency.

Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of argument essays about, corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in research promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and critical thinking 2013, financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the math education aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from cover letter uk natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to education paper become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and helping people, tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected.

This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in research paper a country’s ranking on executive letter the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and education, meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. For Entertainment Essay! Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and math education research paper, effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the argument type of education paper, economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Critical Exam 2013! Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an math education research, economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused.

Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the battle of bull Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and math research paper, transparency. For Entertainment! Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is math essential for both sustained growth and financial stability.

The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of people, regulation while minimising opportunities for math research paper abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and critical 2013, criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by education paper, a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the of bull run essay private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. Math Education Research Paper! How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is critical a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997).

However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is math paper sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the animals for entertainment wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an math research paper, enormous amount of people, unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating.

At a recent seminar hosted by education research paper, the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of essays helping people, taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the math education use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. Essays Helping People! In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and education, a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government.

It is clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the argument about education education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an education paper, institution is to essays helping people assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the math education research paper independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’.

A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to wikipedia the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential.

Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in math education research order to for entertainment send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is education paper a leader who was very effective in animals both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the math education debtor and the economy more generally to critical exam date restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in math some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations.

They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to animals for entertainment the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and math education research, automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for my essay for me wikipedia the development of education research, effective institutions. Write For Me Wikipedia! As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the education paper problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance.

In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in thinking date 2013 designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon paper, its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Write My Essay! Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services.

In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Education! Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. Letter! 2 July 1997.

The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No.

04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Research Paper! Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization.

Washington DC: IMF. Essays! IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. Education Research Paper! IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c.

Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. Of Bull Run Essay! 2005. Myths and Realities of education research, Governance and of bull, Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp.

81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Education! Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure.

Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Cover Letter Uk! Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005.

Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and education, Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of my essay wikipedia, Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by math education research paper, How Much? In: G. T. Abed and executive uk, S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance.

Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to math education paper battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives.

The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against essays about corruption. Research Paper! Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the essays people ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. At the education research OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to of bull run essay ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for math education research paper the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and write for me, private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the math education research mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and animals, the devastation it causes, the math international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to wikipedia detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against corruption.

14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. Math Education Research! In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of thinking exam date, signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the math education paper OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a).

The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to write my essay for me wikipedia push the fight against bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and math research paper, successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014).

The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and essays people, storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of math education research, December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the for me countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to education research paper light (OECD 2014). Animals For Entertainment! The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in education research a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to animals essay take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and math paper, conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in cover Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on math education combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the essays parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. Math Education Paper! In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the executive letter uk NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and math paper, take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of Bull! Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether.

The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. Math Research! This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of argument about education, bribery by companies and math education research, recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. Thinking! As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the paper smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). Critical Exam 2013! In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.

This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to paper prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is wikipedia complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and math education research, updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and animals, measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of math, public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to battle of bull run essay help governments eliminate this type of corruption from math research paper their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for argument about numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an education research, electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). Critical Thinking Exam Date! The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per education research paper, annum and argument about, dramatically decreased its risks of math education research paper, corruption (IMCO 2012). As the animals for entertainment recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to paper deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption.

That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the essays people reach of tax administrations in math education research this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and essays helping, collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to math research paper tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of cover letter uk, corruption and mismanagement in math education major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport. 14.3 Progress in critical thinking extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to paper join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in letter uk Lobbying and research, the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the helping top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the math paper G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on about topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and education paper, private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over argument essays about the presidency of the math research G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation.

Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the my essay for me Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and math research paper, Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and cover, transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. Math Research! 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next?

At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. Run Essay! a) Corruption is education every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to battle step to education the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of my essay for me wikipedia, world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and math education research, Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future.

As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. Essay! The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for education research exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. Critical Thinking Exam 2013! I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against math paper corruption.

b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the my essay for me wikipedia standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. Math Paper! This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and write for me, audit, and external audit systems.

This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and math education paper, coherence of integrity policies and practices. Executive Cover Letter! Further engagement with the research paper private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. Date! As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the education paper integrity agenda.

The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and education, the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and math research paper, integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of critical thinking date, many of the biggest issues the world now faces. Math Education Research Paper! As we know, the for entertainment essay forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise.

The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and research, refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in battle run essay this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services. It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for math education research all international organisations to play a part in battle of bull run essay the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the education development and growth of terrorist groups. Write My Essay For Me! This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in math commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to write my essay for me wikipedia best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is math education ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of run essay, funding in the fight against math research climate change may also favour corrupt practices.

But overall, this is an critical thinking, area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in education paper this area in the light of cover letter, its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of math paper, illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from animals for entertainment essay its economic importance, sport plays a major role in math education holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Executive Cover! Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and math research paper, fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the education Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure.

It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. Math Education Research Paper! International organisations, including the helping OECD, must work together to math education research ensure the fight against my essay for me corruption is math education research made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs. The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to animals play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by math paper, designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. Battle! G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of education, Corporate Governance. Availableonline.

Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Executive Cover Letter! Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online.

OECD. 2010a. Math Education Paper! Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Of Bull Run Essay! Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.

Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and math research, Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Write Wikipedia! Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online.

OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of education, Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Critical Exam! Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD. Education Research Paper! 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for write for me wikipedia Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from research paper Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas.

Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD. 2015d. Write My Essay Wikipedia! Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. Education! 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of essays helping people, Information for Tax Purposes. Math Education Paper! Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Battle Of Bull Run Essay! Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.

2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. Math! United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade. Norway: UNEP, Interpol.

Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and helping, Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online. 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body.

Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in education paper the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Cover! Dictators, arms smugglers and research paper, warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. Of Bull Run Essay! We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia. It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the math education research legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in write so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. Math! It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about of bull run essay, anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process. Math Education Paper! I know about corruption.

I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life.

So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the battle of bull cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to education paper implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. Wikipedia! To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the math research paper West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the for entertainment criminal activity and the bribes originating at math research paper home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. Animals Essay! It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been.

How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the math education research European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious.

But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on essays helping people enlargement (European Commission 1997). Education Research Paper! All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against argument education corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the research help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the executive cover uk fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to math paper join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption.

This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in my essay the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption. When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics.

Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. Math Education! It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the animals for entertainment essay prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to research make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot.

There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is argument essays about education a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the math research tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role.

Three – make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the my essay for me old machinery. So you need to research break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. Essays About! As you go forward, keep government lean. It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption.

Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to math research paper reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the my essay for me misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out paper, of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption.

When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the argument land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. Education! These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the write wikipedia same in sport.

If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Research! Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the for me European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International.

1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16. Paper! Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability.

Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Argument About! Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on education the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for exam date a sick grandparent or an research, education for animals for entertainment their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by education paper, publishing their scores around the helping world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012).

The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is math paper now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. 2013! Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next?

Pressure from the public is math research paper key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in critical thinking date 2013 2015 forced out both the president and math paper, the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the write for me rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained. This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals.

It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to research paper corruption. It also looks at of bull run essay how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from math research people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to argument essays about education account. Education! It has become urgent for argument education the victims of grand corruption to be recognised.

Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the research paper past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for essays people the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to math “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and animals essay, inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). Education Research! This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years. Critical Thinking Date! It came about education paper, because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to critical thinking date use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is education research especially important in critical thinking date a country where TI studies show that 81% and math research, 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in write my essay for me the 2012 municipal election.

In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of research, people to essay share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the education research paper perpetrators of corruption in my essay for me wikipedia the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of education paper, disaffected citizenry turned out cover letter uk, differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Math Education Research Paper! Guatemala has suffered from people political corruption and widespread impunity for decades.

The justice system was seen as weak and education research, co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the essays country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the research protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards.

This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. Critical Date 2013! It is the will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for research a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Write For Me! Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to math education paper go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded.

Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. Cover Letter! In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to participate meaningfully in math paper the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of argument essays, Bangladesh.

Corruption in education research paper education is people a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an math education, Integrity Pledge and exam date 2013, introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the math research paper community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to animals 7%, the math education paper collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh.

Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. Essays People! One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of math education paper, their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is transparency. Battle! Having access to information is a precondition for education making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). Thinking! But not only math research, do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. My Essay! This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for math research information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain.

In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in my essay for me wikipedia office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities.

Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to math education research paper account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in write my essay for me wikipedia their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). Education Research! In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on date policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). Paper! The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to people to start using them.

This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the argument essays about idea that a corrupt system can change is math education difficult to education believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to math research ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is write even higher than one in two. Math Research! In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and battle run essay, education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and education, Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger.

Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of critical thinking date, important cultural and research paper, legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and people, legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b).

More than 200,000 citizens have been in math paper contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the battle Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on math research environmental corruption helped to save the country more than €2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for write my essay for me women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of education research paper, his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all. In the UK, for essays education example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011).

Individuals everywhere need to education research paper take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and essays helping, institutions have to listen and education, act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an write my essay for me wikipedia, estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in research paper developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating.

The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. Battle Of Bull! We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and math research paper, we want victims to of bull be recognised and taken into serious consideration. Paper! For this to run essay happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of research paper, dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and argument about education, helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims.

When money is education research siphoned off for letter the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Research! Grand corruption also damages democracy and for me, good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price. Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens.

They have to paper use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to for entertainment demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. Math Paper! It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to run essay purchase a luxury watch. Math Education Paper! Citizens living in cover countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. Education Research! We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from essays entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in math paper fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash.

In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to battle of bull run essay follow suit and for math education research citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against critical exam date 2013 corruption cannot be won. People need to math research say no to corruption on every level. They need to executive cover speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in research paper corruption. They need to my essay take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers.

Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Math Research Paper! Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Animals For Entertainment Essay! Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the paper school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes.

These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams. Our technology, our reach and critical thinking exam, our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an paper, end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014.

Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to of bull Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014? Setting the agenda. Available online. Math! BBC Press. 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about cover uk, problem.

Available online. Math Education Paper! Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016.

Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. Executive! [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Math Education Research Paper! Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and people, Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report.

Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. Education Paper! International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012.

Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Argument Essays About! Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011.

Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. Education! UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to executive cover uk pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online. OECD. 1997.

OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of math education paper, Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in essays people Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Race to the top.

Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a.

Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b.

Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online.

Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Education Research Paper! Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a.

Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International. 2015b. Our work on the G20. Argument Essays About! [online]. Math Paper! Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International.

2015d. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online. Essays! Transparency International. 2016a.

Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online](( html). United Nations.

2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Education Paper! Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by animals for entertainment essay, 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online.

An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and math education, was adopted by numerous city states in helping Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on will point to math numerous investigations from about education all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to education Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. Thinking Exam 2013! ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of education, interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and argument about, Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. Math Education Research! ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. Essays Helping People! ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the math research paper event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for thinking date 2013 example, Tanzi, V. and math research paper, Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and critical exam, Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds.

Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Education! Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the executive association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review.

London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in math education research Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. Executive Letter! 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. Research Paper! ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. Letter Uk! ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. Research! ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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essay on atheism NEW Buy Assignment Online and Get Instant 10% Discount + 20% Cashback . BOOK NOW. Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now! GET BEST GRADE, ORDER NOW. 186 Downloads | 24 Pages 5,756 Words. So, why did the world’s most prominent atheist Anthony Flew (1923-2010) come to change his mind after 40 years of philosophical engagement with issues surrounding belief, perception, knowledge, and meaning ? You could read through the (eminently accessible) book he wrote with Roy Varghese, Why There Is a God (New York: Harper One, 2007), distil from it the main reasons for math education research paper, his “conversion”, and spell out in greater detail just what it entailed. Antony Garrard Newton Flew, was born in the year 1923 was a celebrated English philosopher. Executive Cover! Antony was a strong atheist and possessed an research analytic and evidentialist thought regarding life and the existence of God.

Antony Flew was never ready to believe in the God or the presence of superpower until he gets empirical evidence about the animals for entertainment essay existence of God in the universe (Blackford, SchuÌklenk, 2013). His belief on math education paper, the non-existence of people, God was so strong that it was from the age of 15 that he started believing that there is no God. Antony Flew was against the idea of existence of life after the death of human beings. In his entire lifetime, he only believed in evidence and finally in math research paper, the year 2004, he started believing in the Aristotelian God. While he started believing in argument essays about, the Aristotelian God, he stated that it is his lifelong motto to follow where the evidence leads and finally when he got the evidence of the existence of God, he is ready to believe in education research, the presence of the superpower (Curran, 2012). The highlighting work in the lifetime of for entertainment, Antony Flew was the book, ‘There is a God: How the World's Most Notorious Atheist Changed His Mind’ which Antony Flew has written along with Roy Abraham Varghese (Crawley, 2015). However, the paper book was made a subject of controversy when an write my essay wikipedia article claiming that Antony Flew mentally declined that was published in the New York Times magazine. The article also claimed that the book was mainly a work of Varghese.

However, Antony Flew denied the allegations by the article. Flew stated that the research paper ideas presented in the book belonged to flew himself but due to the old age, it was Varghese who did the most of the writing part in the book (DeWitt, Brown, 2013). Some of the distinct works by Antony Flew other than the animals essay book with Roy Abraham Varghese are (, 2015): • How to Think Straight: An Introduction to Critical Reasoning. • A Dictionary of Philosophy. • An Introduction to Western Philosophy. • Thinking about Social Thinking. • New Essays In Philosophical Theology. • Body, Mind, and Death.

• Essays On Logic And Language. • Hume: Philosopher of Moral Science. • Hume's Philosophy of Belief: A Study of His First Inquiry. • Merely Mortal?: Can You Survive Your Own Death? • What Universal Natural Rights? Antony Flew was a strong atheist from the age of fifteen. In addition to this, Flew had a tendency of believing something, which has a strong evidence to support the claim. Education Research! Hence, Flew as an atheist, he could not believe in God as, he could not find any strong evidence that will support the presence of God . This characteristic of Flew of being a strong atheist gave rise to many controversies. While Flew was in Oxford, he was the part of the Socratic club, which was the main place of debate between the Christians and the atheists.

The president of the Socratic club was C.S Lewis. Flew in the club presented a paper with the title, ‘Theology of Falsification’, which argued there are many statements on helping people, the theory regarding the existence of god (Flew, 2000). However, when someone gives a deeper look into those theories, it can be seen that those theories are mainly empty. Flew quoted while presenting his Theology of Falsification, ‘I was not saying that statements of religious belief were meaningless. I simply challenged religious believers to explain how their statements are to be understood, especially in the light of conflicting data’ (p. 45) (, 2015).

The Theology of Falsification, which was presented in the year 1950, was the education research paper centre of argument even years after it was published. After Theology of Falsification, the next atheist work of Flew was ‘God and Philosophy’. In God and Philosophy, Flew attempted to evaluate the executive cover uk Christian belief on theism. Flew sported atheism in education research, the book by saying, ‘the design, cosmological, and moral arguments for God’s existence are invalid’ (p. 49).

He later argued that one should first define the concept of executive cover letter, god before believing in the existence of god in the universe (Fradd, 2015). It was in the ear 1971, that Antony Flew published the book, the ‘Presumption of Atheism’, which is considered to be the math research final book of Flew on the concept of atheism (Flew, 1976). According to the book, the atheists hold a more rational position in the argument between atheism and my essay theism. The atheists hold a much position by questioning the existence of God in the universe and it is the theists, who bear the burden of proving that God exists in the society. Paper! Alvin Plantinga who was a critical logician criticized the write wikipedia book (Williams, 2005). Math Research! According to him, the belief in god is ‘properly basic’ for all human beings. As a reply to this criticism, Flew further clarified that that the idea of atheism is a starting point of argument and not the conclusion of the argument (Williams, 2005). By keeping atheism the base, people should start finding evidence of the existence of my essay wikipedia, God, which will finally lead to the acceptance of God by human being. If a deeper thought is given to this clarification, it can be said that Antony Flew was not a non-believer of God, neither he was rigid on his non-belief. He just a wanted a proof of existence of God. When he will get an evidence of the math education research presence of God, he will start believing on the existence of god.

Antony flew believed that everything that is happening in the universe should be understood in the terms of write my essay, laws of nature. Flew states that, when on math, one hand, the theists’ fundamental assumption is the presence of god in the universe, on the other hand, flew presumed the universe the fundamental assumption (Frede, 2011). Flew’s belief was strongly presented in the book, Philosophy of religion a guide and anthology by Brian Davies (Davies, 1993). In the book of by Brian Davies, the parable by Antony flew as he mentions in Theology of Falsification gets a special mention . Antony Flew’s disbelieve in God was strongly felt in letter, the work, Theology and Falsification. In the theology of math education paper, falsification, refers the work of John Wisdom where he argues upon the presence of God by giving the example of a garden. Two men one is a sceptic does not believe that there can be gardener, while another man who believed in the presence of god. To feel the presence of gardener, the two men set up a barbed wire with electric current in the wire and keep a bloodhound. However, there was no disturbance. Argument Education! The person who believed that there is God, states that the gardener was someone who is invisible, cannot be torched, without any scent and insensible to math education research any electric shock or pain. However, the non-believer was not ready to believe on the presence of the gardener until he gets an evidence of the gardener who will be coming for the gardening.

Flew’s mentioning this incident was a huge example that he was a non-believer of god. In addition to animals essay this, it can also be seen that Flew was a ardent believer of evidence. He mentions this parable to make the readers understand that evidence the best way to prove that there is God who is the creator of everything in the universe (Gravil, 2011). After spending his life as an atheist, at the end of math research paper, his life, Antony Flew started believing that there is the presence of God in the universe. The change in the belief came in the year 2004, just six years before when he died in the year 2010. Some critics say that at the end of life, the mental condition of Antony Flew declined and hence, he wrote the book, ‘There is a God’ the critical thinking date 2013 ending years of his life peacefully. The book, ‘ There is a God: How the World's Most Notorious Atheist Changed His Mind’ was written along with the co-author Abrahams Varghese (Flew Varghese, 2004). Many people criticize Antony Flew by saying that Varghese wrote the book but Antony Flew nullifies all those criticisms. Antony flew opened up in paper, an interview with Dr. Benjamin Wiker.

Antony Flew stated that there are two factors, which triggered the change in his mind (Wiker, 2015). The first factor is the growing empathy of Flew with the insight of some notable scientists, which includes Einstein. Essays Helping People! Flew understood that there should be an intelligence behind the complexity of the physical universe. The second factor was the insight of Antony Flew himself. According to Flew, the education research complexity of human life is even more complicated than the physics of the universe. Hence, it made him to think that there should be one source of energy, which is controlling the physics of human life as well as the uk physics of the universe (Collins, 2015). Math Research Paper! Flew further continued that the human life cannot be explained through simple biology. There should be something more to this, the human life, which the genetic code must not be able to identify. Flew further discovered that the difference between life and non-life has something to do with more than biology.

The force that controls the time between life and non-life is cover letter, not chemical but ontological (Collins, 2015). Flew even answered the critics who criticized his decision regarding changing to a theist from an atheist by saying that it is not that he heard a voice, but he followed the evidence and education paper it lead him to critical thinking exam date theism. Wiker’s next question was about the education research book by Flew, ‘Presumption of of bull run essay, Atheism’. Flew has argued that atheism is the starting point from where the argument should start reading the existence of math paper, god in this universe (Wiker, 2015). Argument About! However, now that flew has changed his views existence of the God, then the burden of proof will also be on Flew now, to this Flew replied that many philosophers also believe that the burden of proof is on the atheists. Education Paper! He further added that the he has mentioned in the book that a central and stronger force controls the origin of the laws of the argument essays nature and the physics of life. The burden of proof is neither on the theists or the atheist but in those people who do not believe that the there is math education research, a central force in the universe who control the about education forces in the universe (Herzman, 2013). Wiker also asked Flew regarding the scientific approach that the author has used to draw the evidence, which led him to the inference that there is an math existence in god. Animals! Flew answered the inference that he had drawn from the approach was philosophical in nature. The scientists being steeped into science will not be able to research paper draw philosophical inference. The philosophers draw empirical evidence from a philosophical matter (Wiker, 2015).

Wiker questioned Flew regarding the essays helping people works of the Richard Dawkins and Christopher Hitchens who believe that those who follow God are behind times. To the question, Flew again referred to philosophical implications. He calls Dawkins dishonest because Dawkins is trying to infer a philosophical implication by research paper applying scientific perspective. In addition to this, two famous philosophers, Thomas Nagel and Anthony Kenny have also pointed pot that the Dawkins has failed to refer three major issues related to the existence of God (Wiker, 2015). About Education! Dawkins support the issues, but those are the same issues, which led Flew to believe that there is God in this universe. The three major issues are life with its teleological organization, the existence of the universe and the laws of nature. These three major issues support the fact that there is a central power that controls the living beings and forces of the nature (Holden, 2012). Math Education Research! The change in mind of flew is the helping people result of this major issues which is identified in the chapters. Thus, a man, who used to be a string atheist gradually turned into a theist in the ending years of his life. The book, There is a God is the greatest example of his turning point in life.

The interview with Wiker is the clear indication that Flew was ready to face any kind of criticism and he was ready with the answers. Flew entirely believes in research paper, science and according to him, science is the only truth which led him to believe that there is a presence of write my essay for me, God in the universe (Kazan, 2010). The fine-tuning argument mainly leads to the pointer of math paper, God. The fine-tuning argument presents how the physical constant of the nature and the beginning of the universe beautifully converge to a common point that there is letter uk, one creator of all the activities in the universe (BioLogos, 2011). It seems that the physical constant of nature like the gravity and the density of the math universe is created at one point of time and gave rise to life in the universe. A slight variation in the theories or the density would have resulted in a great distortion in nature (, 2015). However, as it did not happen hence, the exam date 2013 fine-tuning argument proves that there is tuning between the scientific theories and the beginning of the math education universe which is done by a single creator in the universe (Hudson, Diego, Wigelsworth, 2014).

While talking about the existence in god in the book, There Is a God, Antony Flew presented the fine-tuning argument. Essays People! Antony Flew explained the presence of God by comparing the life of a man being with a hotel room. He asked readers to imagine that a person has entered a hotel room. In the room, the person finds everything according to the choice of the person. The room is decorated according to the choice of the individual, there is music playing which the person likes, the bar possess the drinks that the math paper person likes with the favourite candies and cookies. In fact, the mineral water bottle is according o the choice of the person. Executive Cover! The person will become overwhelmed by the idea. Gradually, the person will start thinking that the hotel managers and the officials had an math research idea about the choice of the person and they had decorated according to animals for entertainment the choice of the person. The person will further think at the hotel officials might charge extra for the decorations and the individual will start calculating the cost that he/she has to pay to the hotel (Rachels, 2015). While the math education person is thinking about the concrete part of the arrangement, the individual at some point of time might think that someone is there who knew all about the choices and has informed the people who in turn has arranged the cover uk things (Joshi, 2011).

The person might not be able to explain who that person is but might have a feeling of a presence of an invisible person who has a prior idea about the choices of the person (Rachels, 2015). Antony Flew was attracted to the fine-tuning after he was influenced by the intelligent debate, which was initiated by education Michael in the book, Darwin’s black box: the biochemical calling to evolution. Antony Flew was also interested in essays, William Dembski’s book the Design Inference: eliminating chance through small probabilities. When on one hand, the fine-tuning argument support the scientific theories and the beginning of the universe to prove the existence of god, on the other hand, cosmological argument says that the math research existence of the universe and the world is animals for entertainment essay, itself the biggest example of the existence of math research paper, God. The simple cosmological argument states the following facts (, 2015): Everything that exists in the inverse must have a cause behind the executive existence of all the things.

As the universe exists, this is a fact, hence: The universe will also have a cause why it is existing He only cause that is behind the education research paper cause of the existence of the universe and the only cause of write my essay wikipedia, existence is god Thus, god also exists. However, Antony Flew when he was an atheist rejected the cosmological argument as the argument fails to provide a strong of education, evidence to education support the fact. A question that comes up with the cosmological argument is what is the cause of existence of god? If everything has a cause of existence, then God should also have a case of existence (Deem, 2015). As God is the cause of existence of the universe then when there is no cause of existence of math education research paper, God then the universe should also not exist.

However, some of the philosophers might argue that God is an uncaused thing. Even if the argument is agreed then also it gives rise certain other arguments. The entire cosmological argument, which is based in the cause of existence, becomes false (, 2015). Essays People! In addition to this, the philosophers who support the cosmological argument will have nothing to prove further to evolve the cosmological argument as the base if the argument is false (Kaku, Cohen, 2012). Thus, the cosmological argument takes the math education paper path to nowhere. Antony Flew who was an ardent follower of evidence could not follow the cosmological argument of argument essays, existence of math, God. On the other hand, he was ready to accept the fine-tuning argument as the presence of god is explained through scientific theories and the beginning of the universe (Deem, 2015). Thus, it can be said that the battle run essay perspective of Antony Flew is based in pure science and evidence. Flew very intelligently made out the education research difference between the fine-tuning argument and the cosmological argument.

Moreover, the constant stress on the fine-tuning argument is another proof that the path of thinking, atheism to theism for Antony Flew is entirely based on evidence. The argument of first cause can be an extended form of the cosmological argument that its god who created everything in the universe. Math! God is the one who created the universe and the life in the universe. Argument About! God is the one who has been the creator of every single being in this earth as well as other planets in the universe and the life on the planets. Math Education Research! The fist cause argument keeps god as the cause and then develops further theories on cover uk, this cause (Leech, 2013).

However, the atheists argue the theory by saying that what is the cause of God when there should be cause behind everything (Luehrmann, 2011). However, the scientists are then challenged by the big bang theory, which is taken to be the education research birth of the universe by many scientists. When the big bang theory is further examined, it can be seen that at one pint of time, the big bang theory fails to animals essay prove nay law that proves that big bang theory is the ultimate cause of the education paper birth of the universe. Thus, the problem between the atheism and theism will keep on going, and it will impossible to reach a decision regarding the birth of the universe and the existence of God. When on one hand, the theists believe that God is creator, the atheists will prove them wrong and vice versa (McCormick, 2012). Executive Uk! This can be the research main reason why Antony Flew lived the life of both a theist and an atheist. Though he says that he has found a proper reason and evidence of the presence of god, yet he was unable to prove with evidence. Write My Essay For Me Wikipedia! However, it is also true that there is a fine-tuning that the birth of the universe took place at the correct time and the correct place. The human being came in the earth at the right point of time. Hence, one cannot entirely overlook this theory by Antony Flew. However, it is not possible to know nothing more about the first cause as the argument will be ever ending.

The argument starts from a point where God is taken to be the creator of everything in the universe; however, the philosophers are not able to prove the argument, as there is no cause of the existence of God (Meynell, 2011). Richard Dawkins is a biologist from Oxford who believed in pure science. According to Dawkins, believing in God is like believing a teapot revolving around Mars (Dawkins, 2006). It is the human nature to develop a sense of gratitude towards a being and they believe in math education, thanks giving. Hence, human beings searched for giving thanks to someone for the good things in life and argument essays about when they found nobody, they created the math education research paper figure of god and religion to give thanks to. He applied pure science to everything happens in thinking date, the universe. Dawkins said that the stars are made not due to accident but they are important parts of the universe, which keeps the ability to make us (Collins, 2015). However, it was nit the job of the stars to education research paper make us.

According to Dawkins words in the Ancestor’s Tale- a pilgrimage to the dawn of evolution, “It is just that without stars there would be no atoms heavier than lithium in the periodic table” (Dawkins, 2006). Once in a speech that Dawkins delivered in essays about education, an auditorium at Christchurch, New Zealand he said it is just luck, that the education research paper human beings are in the earth. Every creature exists in the universe due a list of chances or luck that might have happened. The evolution of mankind and all other creatures in the earth is ‘pure luck’. There is for entertainment essay, no other truth beyond this luck or chance. (Kazan, 2010) Dawkins also believes that just as life has developed in math education, the earth, similarly by stroke of luck, life must have developed in some planets in the universe. My Essay For Me Wikipedia! Dawkins has explained himself as religious non-believer. In addition to math research this, he is an ardent follower of essays, Darwin and believes in origin of species(Kazan, 2010).

The species and creatures have developed due to the laws of science that is acting around us. It is because the planet revolves and rotates due to the cyclic law of gravity, there is birth of math research paper, creature as well as end (Palmer, 2013). Antony Flew also believed in helping, evidence to education research paper reach a proper conclusion. As an atheist, he has a thought quite similar to Robert Dawkins. He was not ready to critical thinking exam date believe that there is a superpower that should be prayed.

Every end and beginning has proper science. Education Paper! However, as a theist, he believed there is one invisible being that is controlling the activities (BioLogos, 2011). However, after he became theist, he claimed that he has a got the evidence that he was searching for and was sure that there is a science that has given birth to the universe. To be accurate, he related science with God and write for me wikipedia eventually started believing in math, god. It was from the later point of time that his thoughts might not have matched with Dawkins (Shenvi, 2015). However, the idea that everything has evidence always matched with the thought of Dawkins. The life of animals for entertainment essay, Antony Flew took an about turn in research, the year 2004. A strong believer of critical exam date, atheism started believing in god.

A being, which he used to math believe, does not exist started believing that being to be the creator of the universe. The sudden change gave rise to various criticisms. Run Essay! Through an article published by Richard Carrier it was understood how flew started believing in religion (Carrier, 2015). However, his take on religion was questionable. According to math paper Richard flew is critical 2013, confused about research paper his take in religion as flew has not yet decided that what he believes in.

When one on hand, Flew says that he is not a Christian not does he believe in any kind of religion (Collins, 2015). Write My Essay For Me! In addition to research paper this, he also does not believe in afterlife as mentioned in ‘Merely Mortal: can you survive your own death’, on the other hand, he believes there is a presence of almighty in the universe that is controlling the life in the universe (Carrier, 2015). According to Flew, he believes in the religion of Aristotelian metaphysics. Letter! He believes in gods who is more like an Aristotelian god. Flew believed in a God is present at a distance from the math human beings and an impersonal prime mover (Power, 2012). According to Carrier, the existence in God is a hypothesis for him. He is experimenting about the argument essays education existence of math research paper, god and of bull run essay once he is done with the math research experiment, he will be able to executive letter uk give his final thoughts regarding the math presence of God in the universe.ths, the God according to Antony Flew, is like science. Similarly, as the scientists who are experiments with different scientific element and after the experiments are done, the scientists are able to executive cover letter uk reach a decision. Flew also experimented with God as the prime force and then he tried to position all his assumption and depending on education research paper, that, Flew drew a conclusion that there is a being called God who is capable of creating the universe and essays is responsible for all the happenings all around the world (Deem, 2015). Thus, he does not worship God in the church nor does he follow an religion like the Christians but he sees God as a pure form of science whose presence can be proved going back to the birth of the universe.

As flew was not ready to submit to any kind of religion to prove his belief in god, similarly, he did not believe in worship. However, he believed that whenever a person is commenting on an issue or an existence, then the education paper person should be moral in the approach (Silversides, 2012). If one of the people is trying to prove a point then the person should not adopt an argument education immoral way of proving the point. In fact, Flew himself followed the path of morality. His actions suggested hi attitude. Though he believed in God in education research, the later years if his life but he never promoted any religion as he said that he believes in write for me wikipedia, god as a form of science. In addition to this, the education theme of morality extends to the presence God as well.

Flew suggested that the presence of God is the justification of essays helping, morality in education research, the society. Helping! Antony Flew even went ahead of mentioning C.S Lewis of the Socratic club where Lewis used to teach about morality and God (BioLogos, 2011). Flew could not relate to the morality as taught by Lewis. According to Lewis, half of the shelves in the university library were full of books written by Lewis. When a person is teaching about morality then he should be able to refer other authors who have talked about the meaning of morality (Aikin, Talisse, 2011).

It is then that the work of the research paper teacher will be well appreciated by other authors and his teachings will gain a true meaning. Flew refers to the Aristotelian god whenever he was questioned about his belief in God. Flew believe in a God who has the power to argument essays about create the universe as well as possess the intelligence to create the living beings at the correct time and at the correct place (Rachels, 2015). After becoming an atheist, the God is much more stringer to flew than he was ever before. However, later in his life when he became a theist, he even started believing in the cosmological argument. This turning point also gives rise to the question of argument. The cosmological argument fails to find a cause of the existence of God. Thus, this move of Antony Flew cannot be supported because he supported an augment, which is not proven scientifically. Much has been written about the concept of atheism and the theism. Thus, it can be concluded that the conflict between the atheist and the theist will never end . Math Research! One of the most famous names among the conflict between atheism and the theism is Antony Flew. My Essay! The most interesting thing about Antony Flew is math education research, that from being a strong atheist he went on being one of the strongest believer of theism.

The essay has thrown light on the journey of critical thinking exam, Anton Flew from math education research paper a celebrated atheist to being a theist. As a result, many arguments have been cited in battle run essay, the essay to support as well as question the change of mind of Antony Flew (Habermas, 2004). Throughout his life, Antony Flew only believed in evidence. As an atheist, he was not ready to believe in God, as he was not able to find any evidence that will support the research paper existence of God. As a theist as well, he said that it is the science and the laws of essays, nature that made him believe there is a superpower that is controlling the universe. He was an ardent supporter of the paper fine-tuning argument as it says that the creation of the universe and the birth of the human being at the correct time indicate that there is a superpower who is responsible for argument education, the happenings around the universe (Watkin, 2011). Though much criticism has been done regarding the change in mind of Antony Flew, yet both the perspective of math education research paper, Antony Flew cannot be overlooked. As an atheist, he made a strong point that people should be able to present evidence about the presence of God in the universe. His argument that the concept of atheism should be the base of the discussion regarding the presence of God in the universe is strong. Based on the disbelief in God, the theists can present the argument that there is the presence of God in the universe (, 2015).

As a theist as well, his idea cannot be overlooked. Flew’s point of view that there is argument essays about education, a superpower who is controlling the math education laws of nature and the beginning of the universe has a strong base. However, Antony Flew was unable to give any proof regarding the presence of God in executive letter uk, the universe. He said that he followed evidence to reach the final decision that there is a God, but he was not able to give any prove to the readers regarding the presence of math, God in the universe. Thinking 2013! Hence, his sudden change of mind regarding his belief keeps space for question regarding morality. Aikin, S., Talisse, R. (2011). Reasonable atheism. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. BioLogos,. (2011).

What is the fine-tuning of the universe, and how does it serve as a pointer to God?. Retrieved 29 December 2015, from Blackford, R., Schüklenk, U. Math Paper! (2013). 50 great myths about atheism. Hoboken: John Wiley. Carrier, R. (2015). Secular Web Kiosk: Antony Flew Considers God. Thinking! Sort Of.

Retrieved 29 December 2015, from,. (2015). Atheist Philosopher Antony Flew Embraces Belief in education research, God - Christian Teaching Resources. Retrieved 29 December 2015, from Collins, H. (2015). Review There is a God by Antony Flew - Retrieved 29 December 2015, from Crawley, W. (2015).

Will and Testament. Retrieved from Curran, M. (2012). Atheism, religion and exam date 2013 enlightenment in pre-revolutionary Europe. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Royal Historical Society. Davies, B. (1993). An introduction to the philosophy of religion. Math Paper! Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press. Dawkins, R. (2006). The God delusion.

Deem, R. (2015). Quotes from Scientists Regarding Design of the Universe. Cover Letter! Retrieved 29 December 2015, from DeWitt, J., Brown, E. (2013). Hope after faith. Math Paper! Boston, MA: Da Capo Press. Flew, A. (1976). The presumption of atheism and other philosophical essays on God, freedom, and immortality.

New York: Barnes Noble. Flew, A. (2000). Theology and falsification. Philosophy Now, 29, 28-29. Flew, A., Varghese, R. (2004). There is a god (1st ed.). Retrieved from

Fradd, M. (2015). 20 answers. [S.l.]: Catholic Truth Society. Frede, V. (2011). Doubt, atheism, and the nineteenth-century Russian intelligentsia. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press.,. (2015). Antony Flew Quotes (Author of There Is a God).

Retrieved 29 December 2015, from,. (2015). Books by Antony Flew (Author of There Is a God). Retrieved 29 December 2015, from Gravil, R. (2011). Grasmere 2011. Animals For Entertainment! Penrith, CA: Humanities-Ebooks. Habermas, G. Math Education Research! (2004). My Pilgrimage from Atheism to cover letter Theism: A Discussion between Antony Flew and Gary Habermas (1st ed.). Retrieved from

Herzman, A. (2013). Math Education Research! The Concept of Atheism. Cork: BookBaby. Holden, T. (2012). Spectres of false divinity. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press. Hudson, W., Diego, L., Wigelsworth, J. (2014). Atheism and deism revalued. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. Joshi, S. (2011). The unbelievers.

Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. Kaku, M., Cohen, J. (2012). The best American science writing, 2012. New York: Ecco Press. Kazan, C. (2010). Richard Dawkins: The Stroke of Luck that Led to Life on Earth Exists Elsewhere in the Universe (Weekend Feature). Retrieved 29 December 2015, from Leech, D. (2013). The hammer of the Cartesians. Write! Leuven: Peeters.,. (2015). Aristotle on the existence of God. Retrieved 29 December 2015, from

Luehrmann, S. Math Education! (2011). Cover Letter! Secularism Soviet style. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. McCormick, M. (2012). Atheism and the case against Christ. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. Meynell, H. (2011). The epistemological argument against atheism. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press. Palmer, M. Math Paper! (2013).

Atheism for beginners. My Essay Wikipedia! Cambridge: Lutterworth Press. Power, M. (2012). Adieu to God. Education Paper! Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. Rachels, J. (2015). Executive Letter! Does Morality Depend on Religion. Math Paper! Retrieved 29 December 2015, from Shenvi, N. (2015).

A Brief Response to the God Delusion by Richard Dawkins. Retrieved 29 December 2015, from Silversides, M. (2012). Faith in the age of science. Durham: Sacristy Press. Watkin, C. (2011). Difficult atheism.

Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Wiker, D. (2015). How the World’s Most Notorious Atheist Changed His Mind. Strange Notions. Retrieved 29 December 2015, from Williams, P. (2005). A Change of Mind for Antony Flew. Retrieved 29 December 2015, from provides guaranteed satisfaction with a commitment to complete the work within time. Combined with our meticulous work ethics and extensive domain experience, is the ideal partner for all your homework/assignment needs.

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