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bryn mawr cdo resume Graduate School of Social Work and Social Research. 300 Airdale Road. Bryn Mawr, PA 19010. Chief Development Officer: Please Touch Museum. Research Papers Spiral-tabbedw/out. Posted December 8th, 2016 at 12:00 pm. Please Touch Museum (the Children’s Museum of Philadelphia) a non-profit organization with an $8 million operating budget, seeks an i a citizen world essay experienced, energetic, and dynamic Chief Development Officer (CDO) to provide the leadership, direction, management and writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out, coordination of the Museum’s fundraising efforts to support the organization’s mission and the goals in its innovative new strategic plan. The CDO’s primary focus is to develop and maintain a culture of philanthropy at PTM and to ensure the success of fundraising programs including individual and corporate giving, foundation and dissertations bibliography, government grants and other sources as well as membership. The CDO will serve as a lead strategist for the Museum fund development, helping the President CEO creating a multi-year plan for increasing revenue which support the Museum’s plans for writing spiral-tabbedw/out aggressive growth in the next five years. She/he oversees a current staff of 4. The position reports directly to the President CEO and works closely with the President CEO and the board, board committees and executive team to achieve the fundraising goals of the Museum. Other responsibilities include but are not limited to: Maintain and writing, grow current funding and writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, membership based relationships; identify, research, and cultivate new funding prospects and an essay on man text, sources; maintain and grow a personal list of current donors and prospects; prepare short and research papers access, long term plans and timelines for strategies that build value to dissertations bibliography, the members, donors and corporate partnerships; advise, guide and provide leadership on planning for funding requests and outreach; coordinate closely with the research papers spiral-tabbedw/out other departments on corporate sponsorship, grant proposals and events; manage and oversee the ongoing planning and programming/development of the Museum as it relates to contributed revenue, membership and fundraising events;

participate in the development and maintenance of the on man text Museum’s plans and programs as a community partner; assist with securing business partners for programs and writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out, major fundraisers; serve as a representative of the Museum and bibliography, its’ mission at internal and external events, programs, meetings, conferences and presentations; prepare and deliver activity reports on access departmental activities; participate in professional societies and activities; and support and implement the Museum’s Strategic Planning Goals into department objectives. Requirements: Bachelor’s degree required, with an emphasis on Education, Communications, Museum Communications or related fields preferred; CFRE certification is preferred; 8 years plus demonstrated success in fundraising in essay, all categories of giving, and a minimum of 2 years of management experience. Demonstrated success in growing membership revenue as well as museum or arts/culture experience is a plus; experience in access, working closely with the Board of bibliography Directors and related committees is required. Candidates must demonstrate understanding of the best practices in writing research spiral-tabbedw/out, the fields of development membership, execution of the social media+term donor cultivation process and current philanthropic trends and stewardship practices; proven track record of proactive identification, cultivation and research, solicitation of major gifts; understanding of membership acquisition, direct mail, crowdsourcing public campaigns; strong analytic thinking skills; ability to bibliography, analyze donor prospect research information; high energy, positive, “can do” attitude, flexibility, teamwork and writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out, attention to detail; proven project management experience; ability to think strategically; ability to prioritize, make independent decisions and work well under deadlines; skills in i a citizen of global, budget management; experience at negotiating and writing research access, activating sponsorship agreements; ability to work in i a, multi-disciplinary teams; very strong writing and editing skills to write clearly and persuasively; exceptional interpersonal and writing spiral-tabbedw/out access, oral communication skills (public speaking, presentations). Please Touch Museum offers an excellent work environment with, a comprehensive benefit package, and competitive salary. To apply for this opportunity, please mail your cover letter including your accomplishments, resume and salary requirements to: Director of Human Resources, Please Touch Museum, 4231 Avenue of the Republic, Philadelphia, PA 19131; fax to: (215)-581-3182; Email: [email protected] Office phone: 215-581-3189 EOE. Comments are closed. October 2017 (3) September 2017 (8) August 2017 (48) July 2017 (55) June 2017 (8) May 2017 (57) April 2017 (7) March 2017 (41) February 2017 (3) January 2017 (6) December 2016 (32) November 2016 (46) October 2016 (4) September 2016 (3) August 2016 (23) July 2016 (14) June 2016 (31) April 2016 (1) March 2016 (5) February 2016 (44) January 2016 (25) December 2015 (8) November 2015 (29) October 2015 (3) September 2015 (25) August 2015 (21) July 2015 (19) June 2015 (31) May 2015 (20) April 2015 (35) March 2015 (84) February 2015 (69) January 2015 (30) December 2014 (10) November 2014 (41) October 2014 (7) This is a directory of job offerings of activities argumentative essay interest to constituents of the Nonprofit Executive Leadership Institute (NELI) of the Bryn Mawr College Graduate School of Social Work and Social Research (GSSWSR).

To use the directory, simply choose a category of papers access interest and click it to view job offerings in that category. You can also search for keywords. The directory is archival, so please confirm with members of the organization offering the positions as to whether the dissertations bibliography positions are still available, and not representatives of the writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access NELI program. Please share these opportunities with anyone who may be interested by linking them to http://nelijobs.blogs.brynmawr.edu. If you are interested in resume rates, posting your job offering here, please contact Margie DuBrow, Director, at [email protected] Thank you for your interest! Good luck job seekers!

Bryn Mawr College 101 North Merion Ave, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010-2899.

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pr case studies 2011 To cite this article. Young, C. L., Flowers, A. (2012). Fight viral with viral: A case study of Domino’s Pizza’s crisis communication strategies. Case Studies in Strategic Communication, 1 , article 6. Available online: http://cssc.uscannenberg.org/cases/v1/v1art6. Access the PDF version of writing research access, this article.

A Case Study of Domino’s Pizza’s Crisis Communication Strategies. Domino’s Pizza was embroiled in a viral crisis situation when two rogue employees posted videos of on man text, adulterated food on YouTube in writing spiral-tabbedw/out April 2009. Tim McIntyre, Vice President of Communications, was part of the internal team that delivered the company’s crisis communication plan through Twitter and YouTube. What makes this story so compelling is the social media aspect of both the crisis itself and the strategy for media+term paper, managing the crisis. Spiral-tabbedw/out Access? Using a case study approach, this paper assesses Domino’s decision to integrate the same medium that sparked the crisis into the strategies to resume manage the spiral-tabbedw/out access situation, and social media+term it questions the writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out efficacy of best practices and principles of crisis management in the age of social media. Keywords : Domino’s Pizza; crisis communication; social media; YouTube; Twitter; case study; public relations. The way in activities for teaching argumentative essay which companies communicate with stakeholders during a crisis event is rapidly changing with the 24-hour access provided by the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Public relations practitioners and other communication executives are struggling to craft messages and maintain control of the flow of messages within this dynamic landscape. As Schiller (2007) explains, in “times of crisis, while corporate communication executives are preparing manicured statements, customers are [simultaneously] blogging, e-mailing and posting photos out of rage and desperation because the papers spiral-tabbedw/out very people who should be listening to them aren’t” (p. 16).

Bell (2010) asserts that stakeholders become “interpretive communities in organizational crisis contexts,” capable of cultivating an organization’s reputation through information they receive in cyberspace (p. Resume Writing? 148). Social media allow stakeholders to control when, where, and how “reputational meanings are born and disseminated” as “an organization’s reputation is built on the stories formed by stakeholders and spread within networks” (Aula, 2011, p. 28, 30). Nowhere is spiral-tabbedw/out access this dynamic between organizations and their publics more apparent than on video sharing sites, such as YouTube, that encourage citizens and bloggers to be the co-producers of messages. Burgess and Green (2009) explain that YouTube users engage with this medium “as if it is bibliography a space specifically designed for them and that should therefore serve their own particular interests” (p. vii). Writing Research Spiral-tabbedw/out Access? This can have enormous positive or negative impacts for organizations involved in crisis management, including but not limited to the inability of boundary spanners to media+term paper monitor the writing vastness of this space; malicious users who might create a crisis; and the leveraging capabilities of this platform to of contrast enhance a brand during a crisis. Just as consumers can use this social medium to research spiral-tabbedw/out create a crisis for a company and resume interpret an research papers access organization’s reputation throughout, so too can an dissertations bibliography organization use this medium to manage a crisis and writing research papers access improve its reputation.

Patrick Doyle, President of Domino’s Pizza, would come to understand this dynamic as his brand suffered a devastating blow when two employees uploaded a vulgar video demonstrating their grotesque adulteration of food. Bob Garfield (2010), a writer for Ad Age Blogs , recounts in an online article how this incident began. On Easter Sunday in April 2009, two Domino’s employees who were bored “working in a North Carolina store figured it would be just hilarious to post a video of themselves, defiling sandwich ingredients” (para. 2). The duo created five videos in total, one of which showed an individual sticking mozzarella cheese up his nose and then blowing the activities essay cheese on a sandwich, among other unsanitary and stomach-turning activities. An estimated 1 million people viewed these videos before they were pulled two days later. During the first 24 hours, Tim McIntyre, Vice President of Corporate Communications, surveyed the situation and determined that the videos were not a hoax. He then began to communicate internally and externally with “relevant audiences at writing spiral-tabbedw/out access that time [including] our social media people, our head of security, senior management team,” according to Amy Jacques (2009) in an article published in The Public Relations Strategist (para. 4, 7).

McIntyre collaborated with the of contrast consumer watchdog organization GoodAsYou.org, which first alerted Domino’s of the employee video, to identify the rogue employees as Kristy Hammond and writing papers access Michael Setzer. I A World? By Tuesday, according to McIntyre, the research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access company was responding to customers’ queries on Twitter about whether the resume rates company knew about the writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out situation, what the company was doing, and why the company had not issued an official statement (Jacques, 2009). By Wednesday, Patrick Doyle, President of Domino’s Pizza, recorded an apology that was then uploaded onto YouTube. During this event, bloggers and citizen of global world essay journalists alike captured this crisis in articles and case studies, offering step-by-step timelines [1] (Jacques, 2009; Peeples Vaughn, 2010) and criticisms of research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, Domino’s responses (Beaubien, 2009; Esterline, 2009; Gregory, 2009; Vogt, 2009; Weiss, 2009; York, 2009). What follows in this case study is an analysis of essay, Domino’s crisis communication strategies, using a blend of best practices for crisis management from the principles of public relations management crafted by Arthur W. Page and from an writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out academic perspective as the i a of global framework for analysis. From a communication perspective, according to Jaques (2008), case studies “are generally a narrative of events which are critically examined in relation to recognized public relations theories and models in research access order to fully appreciate what happened and to social paper consider alternative strategies and outcomes” (p. 194), and are written to provide practical value to managers and practitioners alike who are struggling to manage and research control the flow of messages in the viral/digital landscape (Coombs, 2008; “How Social Media,” 2009; Oneupweb, 2007). The Arthur W. Page Society is a professional organization for executives in the public relations and communication industries. Named after one of the first public relations executives to dissertations work for a Fortune 500 corporation (ATT), this organization is charged with the goal of “embracing the highest professional standards; advancing the way communications is understood, practiced and writing research access taught; and providing a collegial and dynamic learning environment” (“Vision, Mission Goals,” n.d., para.

2). According to the Society’s website, the following principles are designed to guide public relations practitioners’ actions and behaviors and exemplify Page’s philosophy of public relations management: (1) Tell the truth ; (2) Prove it with action ; (3) Listen to the customer ; (4) Manage for tomorrow ; (5) Conduct public relations as if the whole company depends on it ; (6) Realize a company’s true character is expressed by its people ; and lastly, (7) Remain calm, patient and good-humored (“The Page Principles,” n.d.). These principles are similar to the 10 best crisis communication practices Seeger (2006) generated, based on the work of communication scholars and expert practitioners: Process approaches and policy development ; Pre-event planning ; Partnership with the public ; Listen to paper the public’s concerns and understand the audience ; Honesty, candor, and papers spiral-tabbedw/out access openness ; Collaborate and writing coordinate with credible sources ; Meet the needs of the media and remain accessible ; Communicate with compassion, concern and empathy ; Accept uncertainty and research access ambiguity ; and Messages of self-efficacy . Veil, Buehner, and essay of contrast Palenchar (2011) extend Seeger’s best practices, incorporating social media tools by making social media engagement a part of risk and crisis management policies and procedures; incorporating social media when scanning the environment; being a part of rumor management to determine appropriate channels; and using social media to communicate updates in an interpersonal manner (pp. 119-120). Compiling and synthesizing these practices is not an easy task as “crises and disasters are relatively unique in nature, inherently dynamic, and unpredictable” (Bell, 2010, p. 151). These practices, according the Seeger (2006) “do not constitute a plan, but are the principles or processes that underlie an effective crisis communication plan and papers access effective crisis response” (p.

242). Given the nature of crises, these practices will unfold and evolve differently within each situation. Taking a situational approach to crisis communication, Coombs (2004) offers the Situational Crisis Communication Theory as an explanation for how organizations select a crisis response strategy. Rates? Essentially, a crisis triggers attributions of responsibility to the organization from stakeholders, along three dimensions: 1) whether the crisis has happened before or will likely happen again; 2) whether the research spiral-tabbedw/out access event was controllable or uncontrollable by an individual or the organization; and 3) whether the crisis occurs within the organization or external to it. In this case, Domino’s as an organization was not directly responsible for this crisis, as the event occurred internally at the hands of world, employees, and this type of crisis had never happened before. Based on stakeholder attributions, an writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access organization will respond communicatively by cycling through a four step process: 1) observe events; 2) interpret information for accuracy and relevance; 3) choose a strategy among alternatives; and bibliography 4) implement the solution (Hale, Dulek, Hale, 2005). Writing? Ideally, the strategy chosen will be aligned with the best practices and essay principles articulated above and will follow the four step process. Did Domino’s follow the best practices outlined by Seeger and the Page principles? What were the brand’s overall actions, decisions, and strategies for managing the crisis? In the case of research papers, Domino’s, it was not the consumers’ attributions of responsibility to social media+term paper Domino’s that triggered the strategy. Rather, what triggered Patrick Doyle’s decision to deliver a video apology on YouTube was the medium itself, which begs the research access questions, How did social media impact or influence the decision making process?, and What crisis communication lessons were learned in essay the process?

Strategies and Execution. This first Page principle—Tell the truth—begs a series of questions about whose truth needs to be told and research spiral-tabbedw/out access about what in particular. Citizen? In crisis situations, multiple truths or social constructions of the event(s) are vying for attention simultaneously: in general, customers, the company, its employees, and the media. In the case of Domino’s, particular watchdog organizations like GoodAsYou.org and Consumerist.com were also constructing versions of the event. The truth that Tim McIntyre, VP of Communications, wanted to convey was that this incident was “a rogue act of two individuals who thought they were being funny. That they do not represent this brand. Writing Papers Spiral-tabbedw/out? That they do not represent the 100,000 people who work every day at resume writing rates Domino’s Pizza all over papers spiral-tabbedw/out the world” (Flandez, 2009, para. 6). The truth that Patrick Doyle wanted to articulate was that “We didn’t do this. We’re sorry. And we want to earn your trust back” (Peeples Vaughn, 2010, p. 3).

However, in wanting to be honest, open and candid (Seeger, 2006) about the situation, Domino’s needed to activities take responsibility. Research Papers Spiral-tabbedw/out Access? However, taking responsibility had the of contrast potential of exposing the organization to lawsuits and other legal vulnerabilities (Claeys Cauberghe, 2012), including freedom of speech and copyright claims. In order to mitigate the consequences of being truthful and writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access minimize the damage to the organization’s reputation, the company collaborated and coordinated with credible sources (the watch dog organizations and local authorities) and partnered with the public to observe and interpret the events , so as to not “act too hastily and alert more consumers to the situation it was attempting to contain” (York, 2009, para. 5), and to not “add fuel to the online fire” (Levick, 2009, para. 5). Unfortunately, a consequence of following the principles and best practices was that a 24 hour lag occurred. Because Domino’s hesitated, customers began tweeting about resume writing, whether the research papers access company actually knew what was happening and questioning what it was going to activities do about the videos.

Veil, Buehner, and Palenchar (2011) point to the fact that “The power to communicate remains with the communicating organization and their behaviors and writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access narrative content, not in the technology” (p. 120). A second challenge in telling the truth in the digital age hinges on additional questions (Roberts, 2010): Where in i a world essay cyber and virtual spaces does an organization tell the truth and writing research papers access with what social medium or platform? York (2009) brought this to our attention in her online article, asking “why Domino’s has been lambasted for a lack of social media presence. After all . . . the i a citizen world essay brand is on MySpace, Twitter, YouTube and most visibly on research papers access, Facebook with nearly 300,000 fans” (para. An Essay On Man? 18). There is a big difference, however, between how emerging social media are used for marketing and how they work in a serious crisis situation . Research? . . Companies that fail to integrate their marketing efforts with their online crisis response plans before a crisis hits are letting their antagonists have free reign. (Levick, 2009, para. 2-4) The first message acknowledging the crisis was uploaded onto i a of global world essay, the corporate website on the day after the offending videos had been posted, but the writing research spiral-tabbedw/out access message hardly yielded any hits.

Domino’s did not reach its most popular audience through this social medium. According to McIntyre, prior to this event , [the crisis team had a social media plan] already in place. Rates? We didn’t want to just jump in access without a strategy. Essay? We wanted to do it right. So the irony for us was that we have a plan and we were going to implement it only a week later, so we ended up having to jump in papers access [during] a crisis, which was the opposite of how we wanted to do it. (quoted in Jacques, 2009, para. Dissertations? 10) However, after listening to the customers/publics’ tweets , the company was compelled to papers spiral-tabbedw/out access speed up the implementation of the social media plan. A decision was made to. [change] course and [respond] with a viral video . . . [that] featured all the elements of citizen of global world essay, effective crisis communication.

The company president apologized. He thanked the online community for bringing the issue to his attention. He separated the company from spiral-tabbedw/out access, wrongdoers and announced their prosecution. Media+term Paper? And he outlined steps that Domino’s was taking to deal with the issue to make sure it never happens again (Levick, 2009, para. 6). This strategy and decision to fight the crisis’ viral nature using YouTube was the research spiral-tabbedw/out access tipping point that allowed the company “to cull user-generated content from social networking sites and use the platform for distributing information back to users” in order to essay prove itself with action and to communicate with passion, concern and empathy (Veil et al., 2011, p. 114). Levick (2009), in an online article for Bloomberg Businessweek , stipulated that “Domino’s not only demonstrated concern for its customers, but also an understanding of the research papers access critical importance of reaching out to essay of contrast a target audience on its own terms and in its own preferred space” (para. 7). This strategy and decision also suggests that Domino’s has the ability to manage the crisis for tomorrow : “This crisis happened online. It had to writing access be dealt with online. By learning that lesson under fire Domino’s broke new ground and opened a new chapter in the ongoing evolution of crisis communications” (Levick, 2009, para.

7). Arthur W. Page advocated for public relations practitioners to argumentative essay tell the truth, a laudable goal to aspire to, but nonetheless one that is increasingly challenging in today’s digital era. Initially, Domino’s relied on its traditional technology (the Internet) to upload a video response on writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, its corporate website to tell the public the truth about the situation. However, the number of people who viewed this video paled in comparison to bibliography the number of YouTube viewers who watched the employee prank videos—over one million within 24 hours. This realization accelerated and expedited the papers implementation of dissertations, Domino’s social media plan that was still in development. The crucial lesson to be learned about writing papers access, crisis communication comes in the form of extending and aligning the Situational Crisis Communication Theory with best practices for the integrating of social media (Veil et al, 2011). Coombs (2004) stipulated that a crisis triggers stakeholders’ attributions regarding the organization’s level of responsibility. Social? These attributions, in turn, influence the strategy that an organization will use to lessen the damaging effects. In this case, however, it was not stakeholder attributions that dictated Domino’s strategy, but rather it was the social medium in which the crisis occurred that shaped the company’s decision to respond on YouTube as well as its overall strategy. The only writing research access, way to combat and lessen the impact of media+term, a social media generated crises like what Domino’s experienced is to integrate social media into crisis communication strategies and to create strategies for monitoring social media dialogue (Tinker, Fouse, Currie, 2009). Schiller (2007) agrees that “Brands that get it right will be the writing research spiral-tabbedw/out ones that will use the same online tools as their customers” (p.

16). Further, Peeples and bibliography Vaughn (2010) concluded that Domino’s “effectively leveraged social media – the same channel used by the pranksters – to transparently communicate the research papers spiral-tabbedw/out company’s efforts to dissertations bibliography address the situation” (p. 1).The end result was that Domino’s emerged from this vulnerability criticized, yet knowledgeable about the reality of crisis communication in the age of social media. The reality of crisis communication today is complex and contradictory. The speed at which consumers generate information about organizations is surpassing the speed by which public relations practitioners can monitor and verify the writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access validity of such content, in order to respond before, during, and after a crisis incident. Because social media users can instantaneously create visual and textual dialogue with an organization, there is a corresponding expectation that organizations should respond just as quickly throughout all phases of a crisis incident. But taking the resume writing time to verify information and craft appropriate and effective responses is necessary to avoid legal issues and other complications.

This dynamic has several implications for: How often organizations need to communicate with stakeholders: Regular updates across multiple social media should occur, using such platforms as HootSuite or Bottlenose to ensure consistency. How far and wide organizations need to span the papers spiral-tabbedw/out boundaries of cyberspace and social media for potential crises and for potential stakeholder groups that can be impacted and on man affected: Johnson, Bazaa, and Chen (2011) conducted a study on boundary spanning, concluding that “organizations should focus on recruiting, attracting, and nurturing those online users with high levels of enduring involvement and social identity,” i.e., highly engaged social media users (p. 15). How organizations can manage their online reputations through search engine optimization (SEO). How new principles and best practices need to be developed to determine what messages or images from which stakeholder groups will tip towards a crisis. As organizations grapple with these new directions, employees and consumers will need to learn how to accept uncertainty and ambiguity , and remain calm, patient and good humored. What impact does social media have on public relations practices, particularly crisis communications and reputation management? How significant is it for organizations today to monitor content on social media sites, including hash tags and other signs of internal and external dialogue?

How should crisis communications preparedness plans address the proliferation of social media outlets? From the papers perspective of crisis communicators concerned with social media, what else could Domino’s have done or said to prove with action that its key messages are sincere? What other messages could Domino’s have delivered? What other types of traditional media and social media could Domino’s have used to reach its stakeholders? What other challenges do you think that PR practitioners, marketers, or corporate communicators could have in telling the truth in the digital age? How important is speed of response rate in a digital world, particularly when an organization is essay facing a crisis situation? Are there any other conclusions that you can draw from writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, this incident? According to its website, Media Curves “is the resume writing rates leader in public perception of access, topical issues.” This communications research company uses its patent pending technology to i a citizen evaluate the “believability” of a particular video, such as the apology posted on writing research access, YouTube by Domino Pizza’s President Patrick Doyle.

To see how Media Curves’ technology captured people’s perceptions of Doyle’s apology video, watch Doyle’s apology video here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uFiXWboPD5A. Discuss the specific moments in essay of contrast the video that people found most believable and least believable and what public relations practitioners can learn from studies like this. Visit the Media Curves website to writing access watch other assessments of video apologies. Using the framework presented in this article, apply the Arthur W. Page Society’s principles (“Vision, Mission Goals,” n.d.), Seeger’s (2006) best practices, and Veil, Buehner, and Palenchar’s (2011) suggestions for integrating social media to resume writing rates United Airlines and its handling of Dave Carroll’s “United Breaks Guitar Video” or to Providence Renaissance and its handling of “Joey Quits” video. What lessons can be learned about social media and crisis communication from analyzing these organizations’ strategies? To see how Domino’s has dealt with this crisis, consider some background information about its Pizza Turnaround campaign. How does this compare with the best practices? How did tweets like #newpizza help? [1] A visual timeline of the first four days is available on the Arthur W. Page’s website: http://www.awpagesociety.com/insights/winning-case-studies/2010/ Aula, P. (2011).

Meshworked reputation: Publicists’ views on the reputational impacts of research papers spiral-tabbedw/out, online communication. Public Relations Review, 37 , 28-36. Beaubien, G. (2009, April 21). Domino’s YouTube flap: ‘A landmark event in crisis management.’ Public Relations Tactics . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.prsa.org/SearchResults/view/7978/105/Domino_s_YouTube_flap_a_landmark_event_in_crisis_m. Bell, L. M. (2010).

Crisis communication: The praxis of response. The Review of Communication, 10 (2), 142-155. Burgess, J., Green, J. (2009). YouTube: Online video and essay participatory culture . Malden, MA: Polity Press. Claeys, A., Cauberghe, V. (2012).

Crisis response and crisis timing strategies, two sides of the same coin. Public Relations Review, 38 , 83-88. Coombs, W. Writing Research? T. (2004). Impact of past crises on current crisis communication: Insights from Situational Crisis Communication Theory. Journal of Business Communication, 41 (3), 265-289. Coombs, W. T. (2008, April 2). Crisis communication and social media. Institute for Public Relations . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from alexander pope, http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/crisis-communication-and-social-media/ Esterline, R. M. Research? (2009, April 25). Case study: Domino’s YouTube video . Essay? Retrieved December 31, 2012, from.

Flandez, R. Research Papers Access? (2009, April 20). Domino’s response offers lessons in crisis management. The Wall Street Journal . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://blogs.wsj.com/independentstreet/2009/04/20/dominos-response-offers-lessons-in-crisis-management. Garfield, B. (2010, January 11). Social Media+term? Domino’s does itself a disservice by coming clean about writing research papers, its pizza: We like apologies and honesty, but there are limits.

Just ask Ford. Bibliography? Ad Age Blogs . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://adage.com/article/ad-review/advertising-domino-s-a-disservice-ads/141393. Gregory, S. (2009, April 18). Domino’s YouTube crisis: Five ways to fight back. Time Magazine . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1892389,00.html. Hale, J. E., Dulek, R. E., Hale, D. P. (2005). Crisis response communication challenges: Building theory from qualitative data. Writing Papers Spiral-tabbedw/out? Journal of Business Communication, 42 (2), 112-134. How social media are changing crisis communications—for better and worse. Alexander An Essay On Man Text? (2009, November 1).

Security Director’s Report, 9 (11), 2-5. Jacques, A. Spiral-tabbedw/out Access? (2009, August 17). Domino’s delivers during crisis: The company’s step-by-step response after a vulgar video goes viral. The Public Relations Strategist . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.prsa.org/Intelligence/TheStrategist/Articles/view/8226/102/Domino_s_delivers_during_crisis_The_company_s_step. Jaques, T. (2008). A case study approach to issue and crisis management: Schadenfreude or an opportunity to learn? Journal of Communication Management, 12 (3), 192-203. Johnson, P. R., Bazaa, U., Chen, L. (2011, May).

The new boundary spanners: Social media users, engagement, and public relations outcomes . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Boston, MA. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.icavirtual.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/FULL-PAPER-SUBMISSION-TEMPLATE-EK1.pdf. Levick, R. S. (2009, April 21). Alexander Pope An Essay? Domino’s discovers social media. Bloomberg Businessweek . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.businessweek.com/print/managing/content/apr2009/ca20090421_555468.htm. Oneupweb. (2007). Principles of crisis management in a viral age: Integrating the tools and writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access lessons of search 2.0 into a comprehensive crisis response [White paper]. Writing Rates? Traverse City, MI: Oneupweb. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from spiral-tabbedw/out access, http://internetetopinion.files.wordpress.com/2008/01/crisis_management.pdf. Peeples, A. Vaughn, C. (2010). Domino’s “special” delivery: Going viral through social media (Parts A B).

Arthur W. An Essay On Man? Page Society case study competition in corporate communications . Papers Access? Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.awpagesociety.com/insights/winning-case-studies/2010. Schiller, M. (2007, March 5). Crisis and the web: How to leverage the Internet when a brand takes a hit. Adweek, 48 (10), 16. Seeger, M. W. (2006). Best practices in crisis communication: An expert panel process. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 34 (3), 232-244. Tinker, T., Fouse, D. (Eds.), Currie, D. (Writer). (2009). Expert round table on social media and risk communication during times of crisis: Strategic challenges and opportunities [Report]. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.apha.org/NR/rdonlyres/47910BED-3371-46B3-85C2-67EFB80D88F8/0/socialmedreport.pdf. Veil, S. R., Buehner, T., Palenchar, M. J. (2011). A work-in-progress literature review: Incorporating social media in risk and crisis communication. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 19 (2), 110-122. Vogt, P. (2009, April 24). Brands under attack: Marketers can learn from Domino’s video disaster. Forbes . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.forbes.com/2009/04/24/dominos-youtube-twitter-leadership-cmo-network-marketing.html. Weiss, T. (2009, April 22). Crisis management—Domino’s case study research.

Trendsspotting Blog . Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.trendsspotting.com/blog/?p=1061. York, E. B. Social Media+term? (2009, April 20). What Domino’s did right–and wrong–in squelching hubbub over YouTube video. Research Spiral-tabbedw/out Access? Advertising Age [Online]. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://adage.com/article/news/crisis-pr-assessing-domino-s-reaction-youtube-hubub/136086/ CORY L. YOUNG, Ph.D. , is an associate professor of communication management and design in the Department of Strategic Communication, Roy H. Bibliography? Park School of Communications, at Ithaca College in Ithaca, New York, where she teaches courses in research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access corporate communication. Email: youngc[at]ithaca.edu. ARHLENE FLOWERS is an associate professor of integrated marketing communications in the Department of essay of contrast, Strategic Communication, Roy H. Writing Research Papers Spiral-tabbedw/out Access? Park School of Communications, at Ithaca College in Ithaca, New York, where she teaches courses in public relations. Email: aflowers[at]ithaca.edu. This manuscript was made possible in part by a James B. Pendleton grant from the Roy H. Park School of Communications at Ithaca College. I A Of Global Essay? A version of this paper was presented at writing research spiral-tabbedw/out the International Communication Association’s pre-conference hosted in social paper Tokyo, Japan, June 2010.

Additionally, the following graduate assistants need to be acknowledged for their research contributions: Rui Liu, Savitha Ranga, Nate (Zheli) Ren, and Danielle Clarke.

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5.0 Marketing Strategy and Implementation. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will own, operate, and lease clean, well maintained single family residences to well qualified tenants. Others often miss the mark by investing in low quality properties which will not provide sufficient ROI (return on investment). Additionally other landlords often fall short in responding to tenants needs for repairs. When a tenant calls requesting repairs to say a leaky faucet, Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will have a repairman on research access, premises that same day and more than likely one of the owners will personally make the repair. What will set Real Estate Ventures, Inc. apart from other property managers will be its unique ability to bring quality properties and tenants together. The following sections address the various tactics that will contribute to this effort. SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A SWOT analysis is a method for strategic planning that evaluates these four elements as they relate to Real Estate Ventures, Inc.’s business objectives. The following section helps demonstrate Real Estate Ventures, Inc.’s marketing strategy: The rental property is well located in a growing neighborhood with easy access to neighborhood schools, shopping and restaurants.

Located less than 5 minutes from I-65, the commute to Nashville is activities for teaching essay less than 20 minutes. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. Writing Research Spiral-tabbedw/out! has an approved tenant in place with a security deposit. The tenant has excellent credit and payment history. The tenant is known by media+term paper Real Estate Ventures, Inc. and works as a teacher at the same school as Linda Rogers. Upgrades to the property will be made by a reputable contractor with a 15 year history with the papers, owners of alexander pope text Real Estate Ventures, Inc.. The owners of Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will paint the property themselves which will further reduce expenses. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will come out of pocket in writing spiral-tabbedw/out excess of $67,000 toward the house purchase and essay capital improvements resulting a low, loan to value (LTV) ratio of 50%. Research Papers Spiral-tabbedw/out! The owners of Real Estate Ventures, Inc. Alexander Text! have ‘day jobs’ and thus have additional income sources and savings to draw from to writing spiral-tabbedw/out access support business operations. New entrants into real estate property management, Real Estate Ventures, Inc. has limited experience owning and managing investment income properties.

Franklin has low vacancy levels at resume 6% compared to the national average of 7.9%. Research Papers Access! The property is located in a strong growing community and the fastest growing county in the state. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. has an alexander on man text opportunity to research access participate in a $1 million local real estate rental market. Investment real estate is economically tied – changes in unemployment, rent spikes and changes in the economy could adversely impact demand for rental units. Declination in the local neighborhood could impact attractiveness of rents Cost overruns in the construction budget and failure to argumentative essay complete upgrades in writing research spiral-tabbedw/out time could impact Real Estate Ventures, Inc.’s cash flow. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will only lease solid, clean, well maintained investment properties that generate positive cash flow. In order to meet these objectives, Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will not make the mistakes many new landlords make and perform thorough due diligence prior to essay purchasing any property; All perspective properties must meet the following requirements: Property must be clean and well maintained Property must be a growing community with low vacancy rates Rents will be priced within market range – typically between the $1,100-$1,400 range Property must generate positive passive income All tenants will be required to: Pass background and credit checks; Provide verifiable references Provide non-refundable application fee to cover the costs associated with these checks. All tenants will be required to provide a security deposit.

Tenants will be required to make payments via EFT which will further ensure payments will be made as agreed and on time. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will strive to be a superlative landlord as well – by responding within one hour to any tenant issues regarding repairs and writing research maintenance during normal business hours of operation. Weekend and evening calls will be answered the following business day unless it is a life threatening emergency (such as the dissertations bibliography, smell of gas, water main breaks) in which case the owners will be paged immediately and research an emergency response service will be sent. On a monthly basis, Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will change and replace air filters and monitor smoke and radon detectors. 5.3 Unique Selling Proposition (USP) The owners of Real Estate Ventures, Inc. Alexander Pope An Essay On Man! love what they do! And it shows in from the quality of the properties they invest in to the caliber of tenants they lease to. Research Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! They thoroughly review the activities for teaching argumentative essay, property and analyze the real estate market. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. Writing Spiral-tabbedw/out! will continually monitor and evaluate the local market trends.

They are in this for the long term! Real Estate Ventures, Inc. utilizes a thorough due diligence process prior to dissertations purchasing and investing in any property. Research Papers Access! By doing their homework, Real Estate Ventures, Inc. can competitively price their rents – often at or below market. Resume Writing! Thoroughly knowing their market gives Real Estate Ventures, Inc. the competitive edge over their competitors. Further, Steve’s background in painting and his extensive connections in writing access the construction field in rates the local Franklin market, gives Real Estate Ventures, Inc. the competitive edge when in research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access it comes to knowing the quality and caliber of the local contractors. Of Contrast! Many competitors will fall short and research papers access subcontract often to the lowest bidder with unknown track records. If a major tenant repair is required, Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will be prepared and have the ability to select the best contractor at a fair price. This in turn will keep expenses down and activities essay profit margins and return on investment on writing papers access, target. 5.5 Marketing Strategy and Positioning.

Real Estate Ventures, Inc.’s marketing strategy incorporates a Focus Strategy – that is, it targets a specific target market. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. concentrates their marketing efforts on essay of contrast, attracting solid, credit worthy tenants that are motivated to writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out live in growing, thriving comminutes. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. is a high quality real estate investment corporation. I A Citizen! Real Estate Ventures, Inc. carefully and methodically selects its rental properties in writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access growing neighborhoods, with low vacancy rates. The properties are clean, well maintained and provide positive cash flow. In keeping with their its high quality standards, Real Estate Ventures, Inc.’s tenants, reflect these attributes as well and activities essay have exceptional credit scores, timely rental payment history and a strong desire to live long term with their families in a solid community. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. is committed to their properties for papers spiral-tabbedw/out the long term – they do not foster a “here today gone tomorrow” mentality. Above all Real Estate Ventures, Inc.’s owners love what they do and essay are committed to the company for the long term. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. utilizes Competition Based Pricing – in which prices are based on research papers spiral-tabbedw/out, the market. The company’s thorough due diligence process assures that they never buy the highest priced property or the lowest priced for that matter. 5.5.3 Promotion and Advertising Strategy.

Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will primarily rely on advertising in the Franklin Elementary School Online Classified Ads and Word of Mouth advertising. As properties become available, Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will post signage in front of the property. As a last resort, Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will post classified ads with the local newspaper and Craigslist. Real Estate Ventures, Inc.’s website features properties available to rent, the business phone number to resume contact for information regarding renting or who to contact for repairs. Additionally the website will have links to complete an research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access online application and links to key articles for tenants such as the activities for teaching, importance of obtaining sufficient renters insurance for example. In the event that a property is available, the site will feature photos of the property along with detailed description of the writing papers, property, amenities, details of the bibliography, surrounding neighborhood and any concessions that are currently available. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. is papers spiral-tabbedw/out uniquely sized to both personally own and manage its investment properties. Through their extensive contacts in the Franklin area, Real Estate Ventures, Inc. hopes to rely on Word of Mouth advertising and not be forced to allocate a large portion of their budget to advertising costs.

However, in the event that a property remains vacant for 30+ days, Real Estate Ventures, Inc. has a policy in place to purchase classified advertising space in both the on man, local newspaper and on Craigslist. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will meet with prospects right on site. The prospects will be greeted and treated with the writing research papers access, utmost professionalism in a relaxed and respectful environment. The first meeting is an opportunity for the owners of Real Estate Ventures, Inc. to decide on leasing to the prospective tenant. If the prospect seems disagreeable, unpleasant or makes unrealistic requests, Real Estate Ventures, Inc. Media+term! will not lease the property. If however the prospect is professional, and papers spiral-tabbedw/out access has reasonable requests, then this meeting will be considered along with the credit report and citizen of global world background check in making a decision to lease. The following table represents the estimated sales from the rental unit the initial three years of operations.

The analysis assumes 100% leased and no escalations in rent the initial two years. Table 5.6.1 Annual Sales Forecast. The owners of Real Estate Ventures, Inc. personally lease their properties and do not need to pay incentives to sales agents. However, just like sales agents, the owners of Real Estate Ventures, Inc. are motivated to lease properties quickly- after all vacant properties do not generate revenue! Although the research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, owners of Real Estate Ventures, Inc. Alexander On Man! are motivated to get tenants in quickly they will not ‘rush’ at the expense of sacrificing quality. If Real Estate Ventures, Inc. is unable to find a perspective tenant in papers access a reasonable amount of time (approximately 30 days) then the cost of doing business are the advertising costs associated with placing classified ads with the local newspaper and Craigslist. Clean title and of global world essay zoning, will be instrumental in purchasing investment real estate. Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! The title search and tax record search must confirm this prior to Real Estate Ventures, Inc. purchasing any property.

The title search must be free of liens. All maintenance and repairs will be performed by bonded and activities for teaching argumentative licensed contractors that are in good standing with the state. Following are the Milestones Real Estate Ventures, Inc. believes will allow them to meet their objectives. Table 5.8 Milestones. In the research papers, event the rental unit remains vacant for an extended period of of contrast time or in the event that extreme repairs and depletes all cash reserves, the secondary recourse will be to writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access the owners. After the owners have depleted their personal reserves, the property will be sold. Bibliography! Proceeds will be used to satisfy obligations to creditors and any surplus will be returned to the owners. The following section highlights ownership and future staffing expectations of Real Estate Ventures, Inc.:

Both Linda and writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access Steve Rogers will own and manage the subject real estate. Steve Rogers will perform routine maintenance requirements and repairs. Linda Rogers will manage the daily bookkeeping requirements. She will submit payments to vendors such as trash service and recycling service, and forward the essay, required information to Real Estate Ventures, Inc.’s certified public accountant for preparation of the papers, annual income taxes. Steve Rogers will oversee the day to day maintenance of the rental unit. On a monthly basis he will replace air filters, inspect the grounds, and make notations of the overall physical condition of the bibliography, property. Research Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! The tenant will be put on notice for example if the yard needs to be mowed or weeds appear to be an issue. The tenant will have sufficient time to bibliography remedy the writing access, notice and will be fined daily until the issue has been resolved. Steve has successfully owned and operated his painting business for 15+ years and is in the neighborhood on resume writing, a daily basis. He will drive by the property frequently for visual inspections of the property. He is writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out readily available in essay of contrast the event the papers spiral-tabbedw/out, tenant has any repair needs.

Linda Rogers will oversee the day to day bookkeeping needs for the rental property. All tenants will be required to media+term paper agree to EFT (electronic funds transfer) for monthly payments – which should minimize the need to collect rents. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. does not have an accountant or attorney on its staff. Income tax preparation and consulting services will be provided by the owner’s long term personal public accountant. Real Estate Ventures, Inc. will rely on their title company to verify clear title. Steve and Linda Rogers will own and operate Real Estate Ventures, Inc. but draw no salary; both owners have outside incomes and will not draw salaries from the properties. Table 6.4 Personnel Plan. Steve and Linda Rogers, owners and writing papers access operators. The following financial plan covers the following: Required Cost of Start-Up Profit and Loss Cash Flow Balance Sheet Financial Ratios. Construction Budget Real Estate Ventures, Inc. estimates a 1 month completion.

Work will be performed by a contractor that is well known by the owners. The contractor is bibliography bonded, licensed and in good standing with the state. Source of Funds The owners of Real Estate Ventures, Inc. received approximately $100,000 in inheritance and have access to writing spiral-tabbedw/out liquidity to fund start up costs and meet operating shortfalls. However, they plan to invest a portion of these proceeds into additional rental income properties. Additional source of funds comes from both owners 'day jobs' - Steve Rogers owns his own house painting business and Linda Rogers is a math teacher at pope text Franklin Elementary. Profit and Loss Vacancy levels in Franklin are a low 6% and is substantially lower than the national average of 7.9%.

The analysis assumes 100% occupancy over the 3 years reviewed. The following table represents start up costs. Table 7.2 Start-Up Costs. The owners of Real Estate Ventures, Inc. Writing Research Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! received approximately $100,000 in inheritance and have access to liquidity to fund start up costs and meet operating shortfalls. However, they plan to invest a portion of these proceeds into dissertations additional rental income properties. Additional source of papers spiral-tabbedw/out funds comes from both owners 'day jobs' - Steve Rogers owns his own house painting business and Linda Rogers is an elementary school math teacher at Franklin Elementary.

The following table shows the proposed Source and Use of Funds: Table 7.3 Source and an essay on man text Use of writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out Funds. The rental income property is expected to generate $1,300 in monthly rent or $15,600 annually. Break even rents required are $14,020 or approximately 10.78 months of revenue. Resume Writing Rates! The following chart depicts break-even analysis: Table 7.4 Break-Even Analysis. The proforma profit and loss is writing papers based on the initial 3 years associated with the subject property.

Table 7.5.1 Pro Forma Profit and Loss. The statement of cash flow shows the dissertations bibliography, incoming and outgoing cash of the business. Table 7.5.2 Pro Forma Cash Flow. Table 7.5.3 Pro Forma Balance Sheet. The business ratios are based on NAICS code 531110. The ratios demonstrate that Real Estate Ventures, Inc. is well capitalized, has a low leverage position and has good liquidity.

Real Estate Ventures, Inc. compares more favorably to its industry peers primarily due to the owner’s injection in equity.

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A hackers guide to the GAMSAT essay question. GAMSAT is basically designed to narrow down graduate applicants for medical school. It does this rather ruthlessly but serves medical schools well, in reducing the applicants they must consider for a place. The most discerning part of the test is research access probably the essay question. There are a few reasons why this is deemed difficult by most graduates. Many graduates today, particularly those from a science background, have little experience in essay writing. Many graduates are not as well read as they would like to be and so lack confidence in writing about current issues with confidence. For the not so well read, trying to alexander pope on man get the required level of knowledge over such a wide range of topics could take over spiral-tabbedw/out, a year of careful reading of selected books and articles. Essay! (see last section of this article) Key points for your GAMSAT essay strategy. 1.Your essay is an argument. This is research papers obvious to seasoned essay writers, but actually a key point that never quite gets explained properly to the rest of us.

Any essay has to have a central point of view that its writer is seeking to convince the essay reader about. Writing Research Papers Access! Each point made in the essay will contribute to the formation of an paper, often multi-faceted argument. As an essay writer you can and should include arguments made by ‘the other side’ that you disagree with and then explain why you think they are invalid or at least why they fail to disprove your central argument. The conclusion should tie the argument together and give a final parting shot for your side. Don’t worry about the over-reliance on figures and data but do get an idea of the way the argument builds up sentence by sentence, paragraph by paragraph. Key point: His point of view is so clear to the reader that you can literally scan the article and miss some points and pick up on others and regardless of spiral-tabbedw/out this, the dissertations central thrust of the argument is always clear. 2. Research Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! Writing the essay plan should take longer than writing the essay. This is controversial, but it is something I was told at an early age and resume writing rates it has always served me well. The steps to writing a plan are as follows:

Decide on the overall thrust of your argument. Papers! (Hackers tip: If your knowledge in this area is really sketchy and you’re in a tight corner come back to this step once you have listed your points and can defend at least ONE viewpoint adequately) Use a whole sheet and place rough headings for. As quickly as you can, add points to each section in of contrast, whichever order they come to your into writing research papers access head . If the conclusion is clear, get that down first. For Teaching Essay! Personally, I often put my main argument and counter arguments down first. Scribble them down. Hurry up. Number the points in the order you want them to appear in writing access, the essay. This is rates unlikely to research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access be the order in which you’ve written them down. They should flow easily from one point to for teaching essay the next, making the writing papers access essay easy to read and the argument easy to grasp.

Remember, your examiner will probably not read every word but skim. The better it flows, the quicker that lazy, cheating, skim reading examiner, can score you well and move on to the next paper! Write the essay. Twenty minutes of planning followed by essay 10 minutes of writing spiral-tabbedw/out writing takes guts but is the an ideal formula. (Ammend this if you feel it doesn#8217;t work for you. It does take nerves of steel in an exam setting) This ensures your plan is perfectly tuned and all your points are clear.

Writing the social media+term paper essay should simply be a case of transferring your plan into writing papers access a neater form with all the points in the correct order. Keep your argument simple and easy to social paper understand. Use lots of simple individual points for your argument rather than a convoluted or complex point that requires careful reading to digest. This is research spiral-tabbedw/out easy for most science graduates, but if you’ve spent your undergrad years writing sophisticated essays for for teaching argumentative, politics or English literature, now is the time to dumb things down. Ask yourself, will this essay score lots of points in quick succession, or will it be better appreciated by an academic with a keen interest in this area? You definitely want the writing research spiral-tabbedw/out access quick, successive point scoring style for your GAMSAT essay.

4. Sound like an authority. Make your points concisely and confidently to sound like you know what you’re talking about. Use correct grammar, spelling and style. Use correct terminology including technical terms. Quote statistics, surveys, and other forms of ‘evidence’ to back up your points wherever possible. (Although fabricated surveys showing X or Y to be true are not easily verifiable by your examiner, they can cause you to lose badly if you get found out. You simply don#8217;t need to resume writing rates do this for GAMSAT yes, you know who you are!) Sound like you actually care a lot about the topic. Again this will lend credibility to your argument.

Use up to date examples from the mainstream media (ie broadsheet newspapers). In this day and age you are considered well read if you read a newspaper regularly. (If you think this is ridiculous, I agree.) These are all techniques used by most modern day journalists, almost all of whom are not specialists (or even knowledgeable) in any area at all. 5. So how can I think of good points to research make when my brain is actually empty! If you have more than six months before you sit the GAMSAT, it is definitely worth having some sort of reading regime that will help you feel confident constructing arguments that are pitched at the correct level for the GAMSAT essay. Ideally you also want to rates read things that will make you sound well rounded and intelligent at your future interview and writing spiral-tabbedw/out access kill two birds with one reading regime. You might have been told that there are no shortcuts to this but in fact there are: Read a newspaper every day.

If you want to follow my advice, this means a quick look through the guardian headlines each day (currently free online), skimming through any useful news and reading through the editorials and the opinion pieces a little more carefully. This chap writes about activities for teaching argumentative anything well and will save you much thinking. Have a quick look through the research papers reader comments below each article too for any useful points. I’ve found that over 90% of GAMSAT essay questions can be dealt with perfectly with just the material available on the Guardian comment is free section of the i a citizen of global website. What could be easier? For those with more time, read the latest key texts on various current topics.For a complete critique on the media, this cannot be bettered. For a lowdown on ethics in current political life try this. Book reviews in the LRB are an writing research papers, amazing way to digest the key arguments contained in a book without going to the trouble of reading the whole book.

The essays are always written by experts in on man text, the field. They are often good material for research spiral-tabbedw/out access, interview practice too. Not all are free, but subscription isn’t too expensive and you get a paper copy posted to media+term you each fortnight. I would particularly recommend David Runcimans pieces. For other sources of free, online, high quality writing on current affairs, try the following: d) Spiked online -plenty of simple arguments to writing spiral-tabbedw/out emulate. Do not overestimate the competition. If you do the simple things mentioned above, you will kill off the of global essay competition with ease.

Most people read advice but never act on it. Do a little reading each day, do a few practice questions (not too many) just to get the timing and access technique right, and dissertations bibliography then concentrate on other areas of the GAMSAT and your med school application. Like what you read? There’s more… The above is all correct to the best of our knowledge and papers access inside information channels. Do the decent thing and please forward to anyone you think may find it useful. Alexander Pope Text! Anything to add? Comments are open! Thanks. Research Access! All in one strategy.

As you say there are no shortcuts but this sounds like the nearest thing! The last 4 links are awesome thanks. An article a day should do it eh? It depends on your proficiency in dissertations bibliography, current affairs. An article a day over a few months sounds good. My method would be to read it quickly once, then re-read looking at the structure of the argument and research papers spiral-tabbedw/out key points used. For Teaching Argumentative Essay! Finally try recalling the papers spiral-tabbedw/out key points that made up the argument.

The whole process shouldn#8217;t take more than half an hour. Thanks for this. Am half expecting an invoice from you Leo! Invoice is in the post G#8230; Thank you for essay, providing such an writing, amazing resource.

Came here looking for The medical school interview spy book and found so much more!

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essay gothic study WITH VARIOUS PLANS AND DRAWINGS. DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THE USE OF. BY JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, D.D. Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Vermont. PRINTED BY SMITH HARRINGTON.

IN presenting the following work to writing research spiral-tabbedw/out access, those who are interested in Church Architecture, the author is sensible that he is resume writing liable, amongst professional architects especially, to the charge of presumption, for writing research papers access, meddling with a science which he cannot be supposed to understand. Of Contrast! Perhaps the best mode of defending himself against this accusation, and of making a true apology for research spiral-tabbedw/out access, the book itself, will be to essay, state the simple facts which gave rise to the undertaking. About the latter part of the year 1828, the papers spiral-tabbedw/out access author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and social paper the blessing granted to his humble labors soon excited his congregation to attempt the erection of a new church, which was designed to be in every respect superior to the building then occupied as their house of worship. The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of a plan; and amongst a variety of drawings produced for the occasion, the author saw none which satisfied him. His early youth had been passed in more than ordinary familiarity with the Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of taste and general science, he had no knowledge of Architecture. Admiring, however, the Gothic style above all others, and seeing nothing in the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the pencil himself, and tried to embody his own vague conceptions in a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by the gentlemen of the vestry; and the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on its head. But the author was conscious of his deficiencies in papers access, this new department; and felt himself bound, as far as possible, to supply them. With this view, he collected many of the best engravings of the fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and copied carefully what was most applicable to his purpose. And in this stage of his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by the acquaintance of a European architect who just then settled in his neighborhood, and kindly loaned to him the bibliography valuable works of Britton, in which he found a real treasury of taste and writing access information. [John Behau, Esq. Citizen Of Global Essay! a gentleman of great skill in his profession, of whose services the author would gladly have availed himself, if the access funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the completion of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in a manner which at least exceeded the expectations of dissertations, all concerned; and drew upon the author, from that time forward, more applications for research spiral-tabbedw/out access, church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to furnish. In the progress of his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of our large cities were chiefly indebted to the voluntary labours of amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to the Gothic style, or to the peculiar structure of churches; and that the works most easy of access on architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on resume the subject.

While, throughout the country at large, he saw every where the most uncouth combinations of the Gothic arch and battlement, with columns, entablatures, and pediments, of the papers Grecian order; clearly proving the general deficiency in this department of ecclesiastical taste, and calling for some attempt, however humble, to establish a better standard. Under these circumstances, and stimulated by the repeated calls made upon him for plans of churches by resume, his clerical brethren, the author commenced the research papers spiral-tabbedw/out following essay several years ago; and i a citizen world essay committed the greater part of the drawings to the lithographic press, during his residence near Boston. Availing himself of the excellent aids which he found in writing research, the Athenaeum of that city, and devoting to the work the chief portion of his leisure hours, he found it grow almost insensibly upon dissertations his hands, to a size which seemed, at research spiral-tabbedw/out, length, to warrant publication. He puts it forth, however; not presuming that it can teach the professional architect, nor claiming for it the paper rank of a regular and systematic treatise; but as the essay of a mere amateur, only intended to writing, be of citizen, service, where better guides are not at hand. And above all, his desire and writing research access hope, are that it may induce our rising [iv/v] clergy to give attention to a subject which peculiarly concerns themselves; and which must, in the nature of things, be principally committed to i a of global, their management in a country like ours; where the assistance of professional architects cannot often be obtained, and where, in a majority of cases, the funds provided for the building of access, our churches so seldom warrant the of contrast employing them. It would have much increased the value and acceptableness of the following pages, had they contained drawings of the Gothic churches in our principal cities which reflect so much credit on the gentlemen who designed them.

But the author omitted them on purpose, for two reasons first, because he considers the plans of these edifices as being the property of others; and secondly, because one of the benefits which he should rejoice to derive from the publication of the writing research spiral-tabbedw/out access present work, is the provoking some of his qualified brethren to put forth a better one. The author cannot dismiss these prefatory remarks without adverting to the possibility, that some of essay of contrast, his Christian brethren may regret the appearance of his book on another ground; as thinking that his whole time is little enough for the due performance of the higher and papers access more strictly spiritual duties of social media+term, his responsible office, and that the care of the outward edifice might be better left to other hands. To this he will only say, that every thing connected with the service of the Most High, is worthy the attention of his ministry, and indeed; devolves upon them, as forming a part of their peculiar office, which, if they will not take pains to writing research access, understand, they cannot expect that other men will. And many are the names honorably recorded in English Ecclesiastical history, for their skill in the science to which this humble volume is devoted. The famous William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, in the reign of Edward III, Archbishop Chichele, Alcock, bishop of Ely, Richard Beauchamp, bishop of Salisbury, who was appointed Master and Surveyor of the works, by Edward IV, in the rebuilding St. George's Chapel at media+term, Windsor, bishop Waynflete, in 1447, and the abbot of papers access, Westminster, Islip, in 1500, were all celebrated for their architectural knowledge, when the finest monuments of England's ecclesiastical glory were erected.

But far beyond these--Moses, the leader of Israel, took charge of all the details of the earthly sanctuary--Bezaleel the bibliography son of Uri, was called specially and filled with the Spirit of God (Exod. xxxi. 1, 2,) [v/vi] to make the work belonging to the tabernacle. Yea, the Lord himself condescended to furnish, in the mount, the pattern of every thing intended for his earthly worship. On a similar principle, David and Solomon, the most distinguished kings of Israel, employed themselves, the one in preparing for, and the other in erecting, the Temple at writing research papers access, Jerusalem: and the volume of heavenly wisdom--the blessed word of God--is occupied to a considerable extent, in the description of each minute appendage of his sanctuary. Most unscriptural, therefore, would be the censure--most misplaced the social media+term affectation of writing spiral-tabbedw/out, regret, which should seek to dissertations, dissuade the clergy from applying themselves to the art of erecting the earthly houses of God in writing research spiral-tabbedw/out, a fitting and appropriate manner. Resume Writing! The author would be among the first to maintain the superior claims of instruction, and writing research papers access devotion, and pastoral government, over every other branch of ministerial accomplishment. But he is argumentative fully persuaded, that a moderate degree of industry and application will find time for them all. He cannot understand, why the clergy Should not possess a competent familiarity with the papers whole range of subjects connected with their sacred calling; nor has he ever been able to see how a reasonable knowledge and zeal in the construction of the outward tabernacle, should lessen their energy and success in the preaching of the Gospel. BURLINGTON, VT.

MARCH, 1836. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. THE Gothic style of on man text, architecture has long possessed a high rank in the estimate of ecclesiastical taste, and writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out has drawn forth no small share of, erudition in the various attempts made by European writers, to trace its derivation. Hitherto, however, these attempts have not led to resume writing rates, any clear or positive result; and the field is still open to the claims of any reasonable theory. We design, therefore, to devote this chapter to research spiral-tabbedw/out access, the question: What was the probable origin of this admired style of building? The distinguishing features of the for teaching argumentative essay Gothic style seem to writing, consist in two particulars--the effect of the perpendicular line, and the terminating the various parts in a point. It must be understood, however, that we are not speaking of the. Gothic style in its application to castles or colleges, where its true principles are obliged to give way to the superior claims of pope an essay, strength and convenience. Our remarks are to writing research papers, be applied to alexander text, that pure and elevated species of research access, it which belongs to ecclesiastical purposes, and to them alone. I A Of Global Essay! In this--when exhibited in writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, its best specimens--we find that all the upper horizontal lines are broken into battlements, while the multiplied perpendicular lines of the buttresses, crowned with pinnacles diminishing to a point, the mullioned windows, and the slender clustered pillars, lead the eye of the beholder upwards; causing, by a kind of physical association, an impression of sublimity more exalted than any other sort of architecture can produce.

[2] Now it is here that we find the media+term paper superiority of the Gothic over the Grecian style, for ecclesiastical purposes. The Gothic, breaking the horizontal line, and leading the eye upwards till its pinnacles vanish in writing research papers access, the sky, seems adapted, by an easy correspondence, to the offices of that blessed religion, which takes the heart from the contemplation of dissertations bibliography, earth, and writing directs it to its heavenly inheritance. While the essay Grecian, with its lengthened colonnades and its horizontal extension, running in lines parallel with the ground, seems suited, by its characteristic expression, to secular objects and pursuits. Hence we should recommend the Grecian and Roman architecture for all buildings designed for legislative, judicial, commercial, civic, or merely scientific purposes; but wherever the spiritual interests of our race are to be the primary concern, the writing research papers access elevated solemnity of the Gothic style is activities for teaching argumentative essay far more appropriate. The origin of writing research, this interesting species of architecture has been much disputed.

Some have contended that it is of English growth; others, that it is social paper French or German; others, that it is Saracenic, and was introduced into Europe by the Crusades. [The opinion of Sir Christopher Wren was that the Gothic style is of Arabian extraction, and he has been followed by writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, the majority of other writers. Bishop Warburton's theory has an interesting mixture of truth with error. 'The architecture of the Holy Land,' says he, 'was Grecian, but greatly fallen from its ancient elegance. And from this it was that our Saxon builders took the social paper whole of their ideas. But when the Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the Saracens, they struck out a new species of architecture upon access original principles, and ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to classic magnificence. For this northern people having been accustomed to worship the Deity in groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and success they executed the project by of global essay, the assistance of Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in mind of the long vista through the Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access learned Bishop, that a new style of building could thus arise in dissertations, the 10th century, upon an original model, without any record of the design or the name of the writing research spiral-tabbedw/out access designer, is certainly, to say the least, a violent presumption. But his idea of a grove is beautiful and just; only that instead of referring it, on a mere conjecture, to an ordinary grove, and to the middle ages for its origin, it seems much more reasonable to trace it to the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and without, in the celebrated temple of Solomon.

Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by the term Gothic , which is now generally conceded to be a nickname of reproach, instead of a note of history. The notion of the dissertations bibliography poet Gray is strangely absurd, that the buildings of writing papers, Turkey, Persia, and the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the Greek architecture, broke into little parts indeed, and covered with small ornaments, but in taste very distinguishable from what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is a thing plainly of Greek extraction.' Now really this is amusing; for the cupola is found frequently, among the alexander an essay on man English Gothic Churches; of research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, which St. George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances. Indeed, the question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the models of pure antiquity? The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the East. A French writer in the 'Souvenirs du Mus©e des Monumens Fran§ais' so late as the year 1820, shews the doubtful state of this question very clearly by these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme si¨cle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il cr©e par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, ªtre appell© Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'©pithete de Fran§ais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirig©e des monumens ©lev©s par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 si¨cle? The title given by some to the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the alexander on man text admirable work of papers access, Pugin) 'ridiculous to our brethren on the continent. Germany, France and Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and towers, at least as magnificent as those of England, and of as early date.

And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is of contrast not of English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the latter has by far the greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is acknowledged that no specimens of pure and tasteful design in Europe, can be traced farther back than the twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to prove that the research papers spiral-tabbedw/out ecciesiasties were the architects, and often the very workmen, by whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to this day. Thirdly, because the architecture of Palestine and of the East generally, displays all the distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by social paper, segments of circles--the ornamental foliage and research access fourthly, because multitudes of an essay text, abbots, friars, priests, and monks, accompanied the armies of the cross to the very regions of this peculiar architecture. It is an writing research spiral-tabbedw/out access, obvious Inference from these premises, that the clergy of that [3/4] day brought home from Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and beautiful in the architecture of the East, adapted it to ecclesiastical purposes, and thus became designers of a style of building, previously, indeed, unknown in Europe, but for which they did not feel particularly anxious to writing rates, acknowledge themselves indebted to the paynim of the research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access Holy Land.

But if we suppose that such was the mode in which the Gothic style was introduced into Europe, a difficulty occurs in the name by which it has become generally known; for why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in social media+term, Palestine? In answer to writing research, this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is world commonly agreed to be the product of the dislike entertained against it by the architects of the writing spiral-tabbedw/out access sixteenth century, who, being desirous to establish the i a citizen world essay Italian style, in their devotion to the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, called the eastern style Gothic , in order to express their opinion of its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of writing research access, Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. vol. p. 10) had branded the pointed arch and all the buildings constructed on its principles, with the opprobrious term Gothic , an epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and devoid of regular design.] All late writers seem to admit that this name is every way objectionable; and rates many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of language, has not established this too firmly to allow of its being superseded. But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the Eastern style, or the papers spiral-tabbedw/out Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to dissertations bibliography, most of the phrases recommended by writers on the subject. Still the question recurs, what was the origin of this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in Palestine? In reply, it ought to be observed that the distinguishing features of this style are not confined to Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the East. Thus, in India, the mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and that of Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and the interior of the palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out, forms, proportions, and details, with the i a citizen world style in question. At Constantinople the mosques of Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and of St. Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the pointed arch, the lattice sash, the embattled top, the dome, the fret-work of the ceiling--all of the writing research spiral-tabbedw/out access same character. [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in the mosque of essay, St.

Athanasius, at Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. Spiral-tabbedw/out! we find, in social media+term paper, the accurate drawing of Denon, the ogee pointed arch, the quatre foil, and writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the buttress, the dome, and a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar. To these proofs we may add, that the public buildings of the Chinese display in many important particulars, a close correspondence with the same style. ['In both the antique and of contrast Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of almost every composition has a tendency to the pyramidal figure--fret-work is likewise very frequent among the Chinese,--and (like the Goths ) they always leave the writing research papers access timber work of the roof exposed within side, and often make both it and rates the columns which support it of precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. In the plates belonging to Chambers' work on papers spiral-tabbedw/out Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the Gothic forms of panel and fret-work, the foliage at the corners and essay of contrast the top of the roof, and the lofty towers, which are peculiar to the Eastern style, and are entirely foreign to the Greek and Roman architecture, the corroborations of our theory furnished by Chambers are altogether accidental on writing spiral-tabbedw/out access his part, for he seems to have had no taste nor knowledge on the subject of the activities Gothic style.] Now when it is remembered that a peculiar species of architecture, and one, too, which demands great skill and papers spiral-tabbedw/out labor in its execution, cannot spring up and reach perfection in of contrast, a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the Eastern nations in general are noted for the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of Europe-- and when we call to mind the fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to innovate, the art of Architecture, in all other respects, is much the same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in its principal features through all the research spiral-tabbedw/out vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the flood, must in all probability have been invented long before the Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the Egyptian architecture. [Thus Dr. Shaw remarks (Travels, p. 273,) that there is 'a near relation between the architecture of the Moors and that of Scripture.'] [6] But in my mind, there are traces of something like positive evidence in favor of this conclusion; for i a citizen of global world essay, I think there are remarkable indications, at least, that the Temple of Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to state, somewhat in detail, the reasons for this opinion. First, then, the proportions of the temple were of this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the writing research spiral-tabbedw/out front porch, 18 feet. Height of the main building, 55 feet.

Height of the porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the space occupied by the Holy of Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in its three principal dimensions to activities, the proportions generally adopted in research papers access, the best cathedrals. Secondly, it had chambers on the outside, three stories in height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the main building, and dissertations presented an accurate correspondence with the cloisters of a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the temple had windows of narrow lights . What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of expression is altogether different from the description applied to the windows of the king's own house. We also know that the Gothic window is extremely narrow in proportion to its height; and research papers spiral-tabbedw/out further, we are certain that these windows of the i a of global world essay temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and thus that they admitted the light from above, which gives us another correspondence with the mode in which the writing research spiral-tabbedw/out access nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the activities argumentative windows over the roof of the cloisters. [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of narrow lights,' is very obscure, and has given rise to a singular variety of interpretations. The original is (1 Ki. 6. 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the common version. Research Spiral-tabbedw/out! The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' Fenªtres la maison, large en dedans, et ©troites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Red. § 338, says on the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the meaning of the dissertations bibliography original is by no means clear.

It is sufficient for my purpose that the windows of the temple were peculiar in research, their form, and described in writing rates, words altogether different from those of the king's palace.] [7] Fourthly, we find that the cedar. wood with which the papers spiral-tabbedw/out access temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and flowers,' and this gives us a very good description, in popular terms, of the rosettes, crocketts, and pope on man finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and which form a regular part of the Turkish, Indian, and Chinese architecture. Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and palm trees and open flowers within and without. Writing Papers Access! Now it is dissertations remarkable that in this description we have the research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access very elements of the Gothic pillar and the groined arch. For palm trees, with their lofty and slender trunks and branching heads, if placed in rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the best imaginable prototype of the cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the pope an essay text heads of the pillars, and arching round in every direction. And the cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to have suggested the idea of the statues of the ancient churches, under their canopies of tracery and foliage. Sixthly, we read of two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and lily work upon the top of the pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to any thing we know of, unless it be the Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of research papers access, much observation, in estimating the testimony of the Scriptures on this subject, that soon after the temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and proportions of the social media+term Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into papers spiral-tabbedw/out the Grecian style.

I allude to 'the house of the forest [7/8] of alexander an essay, Lebanon,' perhaps so called from its multitude of writing research papers, cedar pillars. The dimension of this building were as follows; viz. Length, 183 feet. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars, and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on alexander text forty-five pillars, fifteen in a row, and there were windows in three rows, and light was against light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. 1 Ki. 7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and very different style of research, architecture, closely resembling the Grecian; and the contrast between the two is very strong. The temple is almost twice as high as it is broad, but the house of the forest of activities for teaching argumentative, Lebanon, is almost twice as broad as it is high. The first has no pillars.

The lofty palm trees fill the place which the slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. The first receives its light from papers, above: the other has light against light in three ranks. The first is adorned with knops and flowers, but the other has no ornaments of essay of contrast, this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of very different proportions and writing research access character the one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to the two great styles of architecture which we behold at the present day. Dissertations! And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the founder of papers, Balbec and Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at the Grecian taste of pope an essay, their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the house of the forest of writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, Lebanon, the alexander pope an essay on man text very same features; and recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and improved at a subsequent period. In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the nature of the case, impossible.

The true origin of Architecture, like that of all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and research access it is by no means improbable that it had reached a degree of i a citizen world, perfection even before the flood, of which we have no idea. Cain, we know, built a city. Tubal Cain was an papers spiral-tabbedw/out, artificer in brass and iron; and what progress might not have been expected in social paper, knowledge as well as vice, when the [8/9] age of man averaged eight hundred years! But of the extent of these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Nor, at a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the details of taste which characterised the magnificence of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. All that we can do, is to form the writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of both the bibliography Gothic and the Grecian styles, if not in all their minutiae, yet in their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the oldest, universally employing the characteristics of the research spiral-tabbedw/out access Gothic style; and media+term paper the whole posterity of Shem exhibiting the same general affinity in this, as in their language, their dress, and their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in assuming it as highly probable , at least, that the style in question is the most ancient, in writing research, the world which has been applied to essay, sacred purposes; and that it deserves to be esteemed, not only for its solemn beauty, and its general fitness for the offices of religion, but for its special application to those very objects by the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.

IT is the opinion of some very judicious writers, that the Gothic, or Eastern style, is only fit for spiral-tabbedw/out access, large buildings, where it can be carried out in full perfection. But I doubt the pope text correctness of this idea. Spiral-tabbedw/out! On the activities for teaching essay contrary, it appears to me, that there is no style of writing papers, architecture which admits of essay, such variety, which is so beautiful on any scale, and which is so little dependent on size for its effect. The utmost latitude of embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by papers access, it; but it is fettered by no precise rules with regard to the degree. And although the kind of ornament and finish is fixed by examples, from essay, which no man of papers, judgment or good taste would venture to depart; yet the distinctive characters of the style may be preserved in union with the utmost simplicity. The general proportion, securing a due height in all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and shade, and terminating in pinnacles--battlements, breaking the i a citizen of global world essay horizontal line, where it is access next the social sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in the windows; and papers access both windows and doors retreating from the outside of the resume rates walls, so as to writing research, furnish strong shadows, and increase the essay solemnity of the effect--these seem to present the prominent external features of the style, and may be preserved in connexion with the highest ornament, or with none at all, just as circumstances may require. Writing Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! The interior admits of the same variety, and demands attention to media+term paper, the same general principles. The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of writing spiral-tabbedw/out access, a simple pointed arch.

It may be supported on alexander pope on man text clusters of slender pillars, or it may spring from the walls [10/11] in the plainest form. Writing Research Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! But its terminating line should never be horizontal. The upper line of the pope an essay on man text galleries should be broken by foliage or battlements, and the lower line should take the form of the pointed arch. Research Papers Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! All the panel work should give preponderance to the effect of the perpendicular line, and every termination which admits of it, should come to bibliography, a point. Writing Papers Access! But still, the gradations of finish are such, that where economy is the object, the style may be preserved in reasonable consistency with it. Proportions and forms must be marked, but ornament, in which the expense is chiefly involved, is dissertations bibliography arbitrary; and writing spiral-tabbedw/out may be added afterwards, when the circumstances of those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to say, that it is a reproach to any Christian people to study economy too much in the erection of Churches. The Church is the house of God.

It is the place where his people assemble to transact the concerns of eternity, and it is a disgrace to our profession of zeal in alexander pope on man, behalf of religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the temples of the Most High, in beauty and costliness of workmanship. Spiral-tabbedw/out! The principle runs throughout the rates whole Bible, and is in accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to God, which is not the best of its kind in our power to spiral-tabbedw/out access, procure; and although it is very true that the unhappy state of division which deforms the Christian world puts it out of our power to i a citizen essay, equal the magnificent erections of other days, yet the average standard of research spiral-tabbedw/out, our efforts in this respect. might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to come up to resume writing, the scriptural rule of 'honoring the Lord with their substance and writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access with the first fruits of all their increase,' and remember that no rule of liberality is so likely to be acceptable in His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon ancient Israel. True, the [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the Lord has promised to inhabit, and 'he dwelleth not in temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Israel uttered this very sentiment in the dedication of the temple at Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the heavenly temple where the redeemed should one day be privileged to worship with celestial joy. And why should not the same correspondence still lead us to the same principle? As the Sabbath of God is the most precious day to alexander pope on man text, the Christian--as on that day he clothes his body in papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, his best attire that it may answer to the clothing of the bibliography soul--Why should not the house of God be the most precious of all earthly edifices, and why should not every thing about it answer to the sublime and spiral-tabbedw/out glorious end for which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to worship him together in heaven? [From the learned and ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of 1761, I extract the following just and eloquent argument of the famous Mede on this subject, which the of contrast scholar, the writing research spiral-tabbedw/out access man of taste, and the divine, will read with pleasure.

[De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparat© definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in urbe palatiorum. In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in villa aedes. Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to the decoration of Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of which is taken notice of by Mede in the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in lapides profusi.' His answer to this is spirited to a great degree. Essay! 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire.

Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus? Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the tendency which ornaments have to introduce. Access! superstition and citizen of global world popery.

But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of our temples is, whether we have passed the medium. 'What,' says the great Chillingworth, 'if out of devotion to God, out of a desire that he should be worshipped as in spirit and in truth in papers, the first place, so also in essay, the beauty of holiness? What if out of fear that too much simplicity and nakedness in the public service of God, may beget in the ordinary sort of men, a dull and stupid irreverence, and out of hope that the outward state and glory of it, being well disposed and papers spiral-tabbedw/out wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and nourish, the inward respect and devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and power? I say, what if out of these considerations, the governors of our Church, more of late than formerly, have set themselves to adorn and beautify the citizen of global world places, where God's honor dwells, and to make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is this a sign that they are warping towards popery? Is this devotion in the Church of England, as argument that she is coming over to the Church of Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is no fault more common, and none more opposed by every principle of research access, good taste, than the having too many windows in Churches.

There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for the purpose of reading with comfort. More than this increases the media+term expense, exposes to cold, and, above all,--so far as the eye is concerned,--destroys solemnity, and is unfriendly to devotion. Thus H. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the temples of his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on account of the unskilfulness of the architects, but by the choice of the priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of staining the glass of Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to moderate the glare of light, but also to give it a rich, mellow, and solemn effect. If this country, it is not yet practicable to writing research papers access, apply this expedient extensively. Instead of citizen of global world essay, it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at a small expense, by transparencies painted on linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and fixed inside the windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the windows were not brought near the floor.

A congregation assembled for worship have nothing to do with looking out, and writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access the light has always the best effect when it enters the activities building as near to the top as possible, consistently with true proportion. ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. THE Church being the house of God, dedicated to his service, and designed to assist in the preparing his people for his kingdom in heaven, it is plain that every thing in it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of human pride and ministers to the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of research spiral-tabbedw/out, place. Judged by this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. It is true, indeed, that they are common in many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and that some of our Churches in this country have, as might be expected, fallen into the same custom. But there was nothing of this sort in the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in the Primitive Church. The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in cemeteries, during the media+term times of persecution; and at a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over the tombs of eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in access, a very dark and barbarous period when the monuments of kings, and lords, and barons, were privileged with a place within the walls of the sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the social media+term distinction thus granted is a boon conceded to rank, or wealth, and not to research spiral-tabbedw/out access, piety.

So tar, indeed, is religion from having any thing to media+term paper, do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the Churches of the God of Holiness contain a standing commemoration of men whose lives would have scandalized, and whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession. And shall the pride of surviving friends be gratified, by putting the lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon the very walls of the writing research spiral-tabbedw/out sanctuary, in favor of such men as these? Surely it is i a world enough if the writing research papers access church yard is left free for the pageantry of this poor ambition, without having the very enclosure consecrated to the Most High, profaned by these shrines of i a essay, vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an invidious and painful task, to discriminate among those that may be applicants for writing research access, such a posthumous distinction. The better and essay of contrast the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in the house of God, unless he had already a place on the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an honor which the clergy disclaimed for themselves, could not and would not be expected by their people. Pictures and statuary representing the writing papers access characters and events recorded in the Scriptures, stand, of course, on a very different foundation. It is the design of the Lord that these characters and events should be commemorated in the Churches, and to that end, the pope reading of the Bible is an research, established part of our duty in his temple. Rates! And therefore it would seem that the same events might lawfully be presented to the eye by pictures and statues, since these would assuredly aid to fix them in the memory.

Besides which general argument, it is to be remembered, that statues of writing research access, cherubim were sculptured all round the temple of Jerusalem, and that the veil was covered with embroidery. Still it is very certain, that one of the early Councils of the alexander pope an essay on man text Church expressly forbade pictures in Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and violently opposed--that the case of writing research spiral-tabbedw/out access, ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the cherubim, and that in neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue. Equally certain is it, that the custom, when finally established, led the way to a species of idolatry, at least, amongst the ignorant and superstitious; and argumentative essay that it is a kind of ornament, which, in writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out, its own nature, is liable to alexander on man, abuse. On the whole, therefore, I should recommend the adorning the walls of Churches only with the appropriate architectural enrichments, and access with judicious and edifying selections from the of contrast word of God. These last cannot be too abundant, and should be so disposed, that the wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the papers spiral-tabbedw/out sacred edifice, by some counsel or warning of Divine truth, calculated to enlighten the conscience and amend the heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to the individuals of the congregation, have no authority in Scripture or ancient usage. 'Before the age of the Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Law, vol.

1. p. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to individuals, except for some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. 42) that 'the fastidious habits of bibliography, modern times have sadly disfigured the interior of our Churches by the introduction of close pews. Instead of being shut up in square boxes, the congregation, formerly, were seated on long benches, ranged on each side the nave of the Church, with their faces turned towards the altar. A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the upper end of a north or south aisle, and made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and writing papers tracery.' The objections to media+term, the modern custom, however, are much more serious in other respects, than in point of architectural beauty.

The right to occupy a place in the house of God, and that, too, the best place, is, in our day, a pure matter of merchandize. Writing Research Papers! It is a right sold at auction, to the highest bidder. Religion has nothing to do with it. Essay Of Contrast! Personal piety has nothing to writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out, do with it. The seats next to the altar, and in social media+term, the immediate eye of the ministers of Christ, may be occupied by men who have no real respect for the Gospel or its ordinances, and who exhibit, in writing research access, the gaze of the whole congregation, a constant example of ungodliness. Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and argumentative the omnipotence of gold covers the glaring inconsistency. And while every desirable place in a fashionable Church is thus appropriated to a special owner, the poor man--though pious and sincere, and longing to writing access, have his portion of the bread of life--is afraid to come forward in the midst of so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to some humbler assembly, where he can worship on a level with his fellow creature before that God who is no respecter of persons. Neither is this the whole of the evil.

Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to pope, keep many away from the writing research papers access house of God. Strangers do not like to intrude on other persons' property, nor to run the risk of being turned out of activities essay, their seat by research papers, the owner. And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for social, their pews, can all attend at once: so that our Churches usually display an writing research spiral-tabbedw/out access, abundance of vacant room, in dissertations, seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to listen to him. The luxurious accommodations of access, particular pews produce another variety of the activities argumentative essay same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of writing research papers, being turned out of their places, it is by essay, no means pleasant to use the silken couches, and tread the rich carpets, and open the splendid prayer books, prepared for research, the sons and activities for teaching essay daughters of opulence and fashion; when the intruder is conscious, that if the owners were present, they would probably give him the cold look of writing spiral-tabbedw/out access, unwilling sufferance. But worst of for teaching, all, is a method of constructing the pews, which has become very common, and which looks as if it had been contrived by some enemy to the work of devotion, We refer to the making them so narrow, that kneeling is impossible; and access all that the dissertations worshippers can do is to adopt a compound posture, half sitting and half kneeling, which usually ends in research, sitting altogether. And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of her liturgy, and in this very point of of global, kneeling in spiral-tabbedw/out, prayer, claims a superiority over other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into bibliography a practice, within one generation, which is not only in direct contradiction to her own formularies, and to the authority of Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to prevent the Divine blessing on the worship of her peop1e. On the other hand, there are two arguments in favor of writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, pews, which justice requires we should mention. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to worship together; and dissertations bibliography the second is, that they facilitate the collection of the Church revenue. We grant both these positions, although we think them by writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, no means of sufficient force to justify the custom. On the whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on the subject.

The old mode of benches, would be best. They should be substantial, made in Gothic style, to correspond with the building, and should have backs, for argumentative, the comfort of the aged or infirm. But they should be open to the occupancy of all the congregation, and the only right of precedency should be that which would naturally follow the claims of years, or the character of experienced and consistent discipleship. Those who had children to watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to the house of public worship so young, as to trouble and interrupt the devotions of writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, others. It is obvious that on dissertations this plan the revenues of the Church could not be charged upon the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for all other purposes, by voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in compliance with the research spiral-tabbedw/out access present custom, they should be made at least three feet wide, to i a of global world, allow abundant room for writing papers, kneeling; and they should never be furnished in a style beyond what reasonable comfort and moderation would justify.

The house of God is no place for the display of on man text, vanity or ostentation; and access there, at least, if no where else, men should learn to feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by the rights of nature and of grace; and that the superiority of alexander pope an essay, their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the research final tribunal. Social Paper! The principle that should govern as far as possible in this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in the architecture of papers access, Churches, which should have a tendency to flatter the pride of the social paper rich, or to discourage the just claims of the poor to the privileges of the writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and essay of contrast repose, being the characteristics of this mode of architecture, every thing light and gaudy should be excluded. Writing Research Papers Access! The only contradiction which might seem to oppose this rule is found in the windows, which we have recommended to be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in rates, imitation of it. But this is an exception strictly proper, not only because the light admitted through such a medium is in research spiral-tabbedw/out access, reality much softened and subdued, but also because the crimson and gold and blue, in the midst of i a citizen world essay, which the light of nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to the eye by the munificent hand of the Creator, seem to afford an analogy which justifies us in connecting the same hues with the light transmitted into the house of God.

But in all other particulars, the colors selected should be of a sober character. For the writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out stone work, the light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the grey. And for the wood work, either an imitation of the English oak, or the light olive brown produced by the mixture of white lead with raw umber, is to be used in preference to any other. In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an essay of contrast, imitation of the oak. Blue, grey, and writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access lead color, have a cold and chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in resume rates, the sashes of the windows; but the raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is of a good quality) gives a great variety of shades, from light drab color to a dark brown, by a judicious employment of which, great richness and papers access harmony of essay of contrast, effect can be secured in union with solemnity. For inscriptions on the walls, [19/20] it is best to make the body of the letters considerably lighter than the ground, and shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and writing papers access the drapery of the pulpit and desk, the old fashioned crimson is decidedly the best color. Resume Rates! The purple which has been employed of late instead of research spiral-tabbedw/out access, it, looks very well in a strong light; but when the day is resume writing cloudy, or by lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from black, and reminds the spectator of clothing the Church in mourning.

Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the wood work, which purple does not; and for spiral-tabbedw/out, this reason, too, the crimson seems preferable. For Teaching! It is to be observed, however, by those who are not much skilled in colors, that while crimson is appropriate, bright red or scarlet is writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of making the sash which contained the alexander an essay on man glass of writing, Church windows, was in lattice work of lead or pewter. Hence the alexander pope an essay sash in Gothic windows should be painted to research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, resemble this material. Bibliography! And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of drab color.

This does not seem a very desirable hue for any thing, according to the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and pleasing finish, for writing research access, the inside walls and wood work of a Church. It is solemn without being gloomy, and skews the workmanship of every part to essay, the best advantage. These are little things , and we should not mention them if it were not for the instances we have seen, where mistakes in them had spoiled the spiral-tabbedw/out access whole effect of an otherwise fine building. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. THE most beautiful mode of constructing the ceilings of large Churches, is in groined arches, the rules for which are the same in this, that they are in social media+term paper, the Roman style; the only difference being, that the arch in Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of papers spiral-tabbedw/out, being a regular segment of a circle. On this, or any common point of mechanism, it is not the design of the present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in the ordinary treatises on carpentry, and would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. We would only remark, that for small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to any arch whatever, on account of the echo produced by the arch whenever the ceiling is not very high, and which is i a essay a serious obstacle to the distinctness of the preacher's voice.

In this case, however, the Gothic effect must be provided for by spandrils across the writing research papers access ceiling, of which there are several examples in the plates. For the rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to these we will now refer him, only premising a brief history of the Gothic style in England, and a Glossary of the activities for teaching argumentative essay technical terms used in this kind of writing, architecture. A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. Rates! The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from A. D. 597, to A. Writing Research Access! D. 1066. THE buildings erected in England during the four centuries preceding the Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is no positive proof that we have any examples extant of this style, it can only be conjectured to dissertations bibliography, have been a modification of writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, Roman architecture.

2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. D. I A Of Global World Essay! 1606, to A. D. Papers Access! 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and a prodigious number of castles The style of these buildings is distinguished by strong and ponderous dimensions, round arches, and dissertations bibliography various mouldings peculiar to itself. Papers Access! This style resulted from media+term paper, sundry modifications of the Roman, and it has been very properly contended that it ought to be called the Romanesque . 3. From A. D. 1189, to A. D. 1272. The general adoption of the pointed arch, and a change from broad and massy forms to tall and writing access slender proportions, were fully established in the reign of pope an essay on man, King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in two or three instances. The several appellations of Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and Early English , have been given to the first period of this change. The most complete specimen of it is Salisbury Cathedral, and it may be considered as extending through the research reigns of Richard I, John, and Henry 3. 4. From A. D. 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the simple style of Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by one of a richer character.

Westminster Abbey is perhaps the earliest example on a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is a richer specimen. About the middle of the alexander text 14th century a new fashion of tracery in the heads of windows became apparent, wherein the curves were blended like the fibres of a leaf. Beautiful specimens of this ramified or foliated tracery, are to be seen in the western window of York Cathedral, that of Durham, Carlisle, c. This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c. 5. From A. D. 1377 to A. Papers Spiral-tabbedw/out! D. 1460. The lofty and simple form of the pointed arch, when struck from two centres on the line of its base, began to essay, be given up for a lower and more complicated form, in the reign of Richard, 2. But besides the introduction of the compound flat arch, this period is research access farther marked by the laying aside the carved interweaving of the, mullions, and carrying them up in perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. 6. I A Citizen Of Global World! From A. D. 1460, to papers spiral-tabbedw/out, A. D. 1547.

The last period of the dissertations Gothic style is marked by the general use of the flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the windows continued to be carried up in perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and writing research access delicacy. King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. George's, Windsor, and Henry the Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, are the grandest examples of this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. They evidently prove the commencement of Gothic architecture to have been subsequent to the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the alexander an essay text Gothic style had an English origin. I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS.

Vol. I. [It may be proper to observe that the literary part of Pugin's excellent work is by EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and useful to the general reader, to have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the wing, as it were, the inward portico on each side of spiral-tabbedw/out, a Church, supported by pillars within. Hence, middle aile seems improper, and side aile is dissertations bibliography tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to be shaken. ALLEY, ( all©e , Fr.) an aile, any part of a Church left open for walking through. Hence in some old surveys of writing spiral-tabbedw/out, Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an essay, arch springing over the roof of an aile or cloister, and abutting against the wall of a clere-story.

It is also called a Flying buttress, and it is applied to research papers spiral-tabbedw/out, the sides of spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in social media+term paper, antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in front of a gate to protect the draw-bridge, sometimes at a short distance from the main works to watch the approach of an enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the roof of writing spiral-tabbedw/out access, any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and of contrast other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in the fortification of a town. [25] BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to shoot through.

BAY, 1. an opening: 2. an arbitrary measure of size in a building: 3. and principally, the research spiral-tabbedw/out several lights in a window between, the mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an oriel, or projecting window. Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of a clustered column. 2. Such shafts attached to the jambs of windows or, doors. 3. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for of contrast, the torus of the Italian architects.

BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at the junction of the writing spiral-tabbedw/out ribs in a vaulted roof, or to finish the end of any projecting moulding. These were variously carved. BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to sustain the ribs of the roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to strengthen it. CANTED, (adj.) of a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in a cloister to sit and read in; so called from the carols, or sentences inscribed on the walls.--(Qu. Is it not more probably derived from Quarr¨ , the French for square.) CASEMENT, 1. a light or compartment, within the mullions of activities for teaching essay, a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the glazing of a window, 'witja hiuges to open and shut. CHAMFER, the angle of the jamb of a door or of an arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally.

CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for the end of a Church terminating on a semi-circular plan. The great Churches of France terminate generally at the East end, in a semi-circle or half polygon. This end is called the chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an ornamental figure resembling the herb clover, from whence its name. [26] CLERE-STORY, the upper story of a tower, Church, or other building. COIN, or QUOIN, the outward corner of a building.

COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, roofs, the essay of contrast timbers of which form a sort of pointed arch, by writing research papers, the inclination of the braces. COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the covering-stones of dissertations, a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of a buttress, c. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to papers, support an image; or the dissertations springing of an arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on writing the sides of gables, so called because the crows ( corbeau ) were observed to perch upon them. CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on corbels. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of mouldings, serving as a crown to cover and finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on a roof of a hall or kitchen, pierced at the sides to let out smoke and dissertations steam. See Louvre . CRENELLE, the writing research access opening of a battlement, an rates, embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the parapet or top of the wall, cut into crenelles.

CREST, an imagery or carved work, to adorn the head or top of any thing. CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to cover the top of a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into the form of little battlements or leaves. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the projecting parts of the research papers access foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. The earliest consisted of a simple curve turning downwards; the second variety had the point of the leaf returned upward. Rates! r he diversity of foliage carved on crockets is very great: and in a few of the latest buildings of the 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on the angles, in place of crockets. CUSP, a modern term for those segments Of circles placed in compartments to research papers, form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the plat form or raised floor at the upper end of antient dining halls, where the high table stood. Also, a seat with a high back and a canopy, for guests of rank. [27] DANCETTE, a term applied to the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the same as Bay ; the light of a mullioned window. DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and gilding, was said to be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof. DRIP, the projecting edge of a moulding, channelled beneath, for the rain to drip from it. DONGEON, the chief tower of a castle: the Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . ENTAIL, a term much used in ancient times, to signify any fine and delicate carving.

ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the ceiling and the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of metal turning on a spindle at the top of a tower or pinnacle, to show the alexander pope an essay on man course of the wind. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of architecture, with but little projection.

FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet. FINIAL, the top or finishing of a pinnacle or gable, as it is now generally understood; but antiently an entire pinnacle was sometimes described by this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . FOOT-STALL, the spiral-tabbedw/out access plinth, or base of a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. applied to ceilings, doors, c. GABLE, or GAVEL, the pyramidal wall which cavers the end of a roof: It is also extended in signification to the whole end wall of a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the end window of a Church or other building, however large and magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for tabernacles, screens, c. Previous to the 14th century these resembled the real gable of a roof. Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and terminated in a finial. [28] GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the mouth pierced, for the water spout of a roof, or a fountain to run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs.

GROIN, the intersection of two vaulted roofs, crossing each other. The diagonal lines formed by such compound vaulting, constitute the groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over a coffin, and covered with a pall. A hearse of brass is over the statue in resume writing, the monument of Earl Warwick in Beauchamp chapel, on which a drapery was formerly suspended. HOOD-MOULD, the outer moulding over the head of writing research papers, a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the other mouldings within. The ends of the hood-mould are sometimes finished by paper, a return, sometimes by a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for statues. HOVEL, the canopy over the head of a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of pulpit attached to the front, carried over the entrance into the choir of a Cathedral, for the reader of the lessons.

KEEP, see Dongeon . KERNEL, the same as Crenelle . It required royal license formerly, for any man to have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . A small compartment of a painted window, if of a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Also a smaller tower or turret, full of windows, and on the top of a steeple, or tower. LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for a large book to lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to light a stair case or closet. Also the crenelle or embrasure of research papers, a battlement. LOUVRE, the same as Cover . [29] LUCAINE, a window set upon essay of contrast the sloping side of a roof: a garret window.

See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Grooves or openings within the parapet of a fortified tower, for the purpose of throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon the heads of assailants, or to research papers, shoot down upon them unseen. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the opening of pope on man, a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the frame-work of a window, divided into two or more lights or compartments. NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of a column or pinnacle, beneath the writing research papers access capital or finial. NOSING, the projecting edge of a moulding. Of Contrast! See Drip . NUNNERY, a term employed by some writers, for research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the ailes and bibliography the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of moulding with a double curve, the writing research spiral-tabbedw/out access cima or cimatium of Vitruvius.

ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . PANE, the light of a mullioned window: the pieces of glass in it: the side of a spire or tower, or of a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings. The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to that which guards the gutters of of contrast, a roof. If a parapet is cut into embrasures, it is called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of entrance to papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by alexander on man, modern writers to ornaments hanging down on the inside of roofs.

PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of spiral-tabbedw/out, a pinnacle, or similar ornament. [30] POOP, the high ends of the seats in the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on their tops. PRESEYTERY, the eastern parts of large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the social media+term clergy. PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at the edges. QUARREL, a pane of glass, oblong or square, but usually of the writing spiral-tabbedw/out access diamond or lozenge shape.

QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an ornament of tracery composed of four intersecting circles, and resembling a flower with four leaves. REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the back of a fire place, an altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to a wall, and responding to another, or to a pillar opposite to it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over dissertations, the entrance into papers spiral-tabbedw/out the choir of the greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in front.

Since the Reformation the Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the essay tower or steeple built over the intersection of the body and cross ailes of writing research, a Church. ROUND, a turret of a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret. ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the resemblance of such windows to a wheel in the farm of their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to dissertations, set a light upon: a screen or partition to research papers spiral-tabbedw/out, cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of arms: also a quoin or angle buttress. SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of alexander, a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the remains of saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of a ceiling, door, or other opening: the open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an arch, from its impost to the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in the choir or chancel of a Church.

Every stall was enclosed for a single person only to sit in. STANCHEON, the upright iron bars of a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for an image to be placed in an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by modern writers for the ornamental pattern formed by the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in a window, or the fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle.

TREFOIL, an ornament resembling the three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of open work, whether wood or metal. TURN-PIKE, a flight of research papers, stairs winding round a centre. VICE, a spiral stair case; the same as the an essay foregoing. VIGNETTE, an ornamental carving in imitation of the tendrils and foliage of access, a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of dissertations, children or friends placed on the sides of a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the 12th century, erected by the Normans. EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.

THE upper half of this plate presents various modes of forming Gothic arches, copied from writing, 'Pugin's Specimens,' and paper selected from several edifices in England. a , the common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and never to be admitted in writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out, buildings of the Gothic style. b , the four-centred pointed arch. The dots shew the place of the of contrast compasses in describing this arch. c , the equilateral, where the points of the base and crown are equi-distant. This may be called the standard form of the pointed arch, and is reckoned, by many, the most beautiful. d , the lancet arch, described from two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. f , the four-centred pointed arch in another form.

g , the ogee arch, an ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and windows on a small scale. h , the writing papers access four-centred ogee arch. i j , other varieties of the same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by the crossing of straight lines, the curves being drawn through the intersections, by the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the for teaching argumentative essay centres of which are upon the diagonal lines, which are formed by dividing the base line into more or less parts, according to the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of writing research spiral-tabbedw/out, Gothic door-ways and doors, from the essay same author.

o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. The waving line across the bottom, shews the writing research papers access plan of the mouldings. One half only is laid down in the plate, [32/33] the other half being precisely in the same form. The date of this building is A. D. 1455. p , door-way from Oultin, Norfolk.

q , door-way from Horn Church, Essex, A. IX 1440. Fig. s . shews the ground plan of the same. r , door of the refectory of of contrast, St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of research spiral-tabbedw/out, panel from St. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. pp , specimen of text, panel from writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the activities for teaching essay monument of Henry IV, in Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of panel from Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of panel from the same. qq , specimen of panel from the same. ff , specimen of panel from the same.

kk , specimen of panel from writing research papers access, Magdalen College. mm , specimen of panel from the palace of Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in the florid style. dd , buttress and pinnacle, at Oxford. gg , finish of one of the small turrets of the dissertations bibliography palace at research papers spiral-tabbedw/out, Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and canopy of a buttress, from the South side of Magdalen Church, Oxford. The usual plan for these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and half projecting. ll , finial over the door-way of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. nu, niche of Bishop Beauchamp, from St. George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial.

xx , part of the foliated crest which finishes the top of the above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from Brazen Nose College, Oxford. [34] vv , plan of the tracery of the bibliography ceiling in the aile of Henry the Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of writing research, a compartment. ww , one half of the arch of the great window over the entrance to Westminster hall.

The tracery is confined by of contrast, perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the mullions of the chief lights. Writing Papers Access! The hood-mould of the arch is terminated by the figure of a hart, collared and chained, the badge of Richard II. aaa , elevation of Chancel, drawn for St. Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. Shewing the pulpit with its canopy, the desk, the communion table, the chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into the vestry room.

bbb , section of the above, shewing the canopy over the pulpit, the desk, the altar, the Chancel railing, and the steps, according to their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the same. These three figures are drawn according to the scale of feet, which is at the top of the plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for a pulpit or a niche, from All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an enlarged view of the parts which belong to a confessional in St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of a window from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the entrance tower of rates, Brazen nose College, Oxford. lll , turret, with a niche below, from the same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to lay out all similar figures, from the oriel window of Balliol College, Oxford.

THIS plate represents the interior of a plain village Church, with several of the external parts, viz. A, section of the end which contains the tower, shewing the frame-work o the roof, the belfry, the stairs leading to the same; the organ gallery with an appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into the vestibule, the two front windows, and the Gothic pilasters, with the Gothic arches, connecting them, and terminating in the main arch of the ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the vestibule and the stairs ascending to the organ gallery and belfry, in the first story: in the second story it is divided by a partition into two portions, of which the front portion contains the stairs ascending to the belfry, and the other portion contains the organ gallery as shewn in the plate. Writing Spiral-tabbedw/out! Its third story, also shewn in the plate, contains another flight of stairs, above which is the platform where the frame-work for the bell should be placed. The windows opposite the bell may be left open, as represented in the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and about the same distance apart, set in the manner of media+term, a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color.

The sound of the bell will not be obstructed by such blinds as these, and the beauty of the tower will be much improved. But in painting the tower, the common colors of white and green should never be employed. Stone colors of different shades are the only proper colors for a Gothic building. See on this subject, Chapter VI. B. This figure shews a section of the chancel and of the interior, with the frame work of the roof, the end windows, the Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the pulpit, from the papers centre of which, at each side, a Gothic screen extends to the end of the chancel railing, and is then turned at right angles to i a of global, the wall, forming an enclosure for the steps which descend to the vestry room in the basement story, and also for those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for a robing room; without which, an writing spiral-tabbedw/out, Episcopal Church should never be erected. Essay Of Contrast! Below [35/36] the pulpit, is seen the desk; on each side of which, are the doors of the screen.

Below the desk appears the communion table, and at research papers spiral-tabbedw/out, each end of the chancel, is a gothic chair. In front, is the chancel railing, in the centre of which is dissertations bibliography placed the research font for baptism. The wall behind and above the screen shews an appropriate finish, which may be given by painting; the two oblong squares representing tablets containing the Lord's prayer, the social media+term Creed, the ten commandments, or any other parts of Scripture, according to the choice of the minister; and the centre of the writing papers wall exhibiting the sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and impressive text, in larger characters. In the plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the well known and ancient symbol, I. H. S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the cross rising out of the middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on account of its solemn and affecting signification. Many pious people are afraid of this figure of the cross, because it is used so extensively by the Church of Rome; but this is a weak and unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in itself, possesses an activities for teaching, edifying and wholesome character. There would be a great improvement in the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in quarreling with the research papers spiral-tabbedw/out Church of Rome, as in agreeing with her.

C. This figure represents on a distinct scale, the ornamental heading of the windows of the tower outside, with the Gablet, Crockets and Finial, belonging to the enriched and florid variety of the Gothic style. They may be carved at dissertations bibliography, an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for the whole four windows; and they may also be cast in lead or pewter, and nailed on. I have used them in both ways, and consider them the most beautiful finish, in this or any other kind of architecture. It is not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is first erected, but it should be planned with regard to their being added at a future day. D. This figure represents the ornamental heading of the other windows of the access Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to the best specimens of the Gothic style. When these can be cast in lead, they should be much smaller than is here represented; but when they are of wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in most cases, of a size much less than the ordinary window sash. It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and I should recommend a much greater difference than the plate exhibits.

The reader will find in some of the figures of the three first plates, much better models for the construction of the pope text details of window heads and mouldings, than this. E. This figure shews an elevation of a baptismal font, which may be made square, the top containing a basin of marble, silver, or china, according to circumstances. But stone should be preferred, and the cost of marble for such a purpose, is inconsiderable. It should be observed, however, that the square form is by no means so good as the hexagon or octagon. F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the buttress, with its pinnacle and its coping. These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and securing it. If the Church be of brick, they may be one brick and a half oil the face, which face continues the same breadth from the bottom to research papers, the top. Their projection must be not less than a brick and a half beyond the wall at the bottom, where they should be built of i a world essay, stone with the rest of the research spiral-tabbedw/out access foundation. At the water table where the resume writing stone work of a brick edifice usually terminates, the buttresses fall back half a brick in papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, the form of a coping as represented in the plate: see the sections marked A and B. Essay! And opposite to the middle part of the wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the research remaining half brick to continue up to the top of the wall, and then extending inwards upon the wall, they are carried up to a height sufficient for the battlements, and a little above the top of the battlements, as in the plate, they finish square, a brick and a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. Writing! In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in a building altogether of stone, it will be advisable to allow something more for the buttresses in writing research papers, each direction.

I have been thus particular, because the buttresses are an alexander on man, indispensable feature in the Gothic style, and workmen are in research spiral-tabbedw/out, need of alexander an essay on man, minute instruction in regard to them, because they are not of frequent occurrence in our country. The copings where the writing spiral-tabbedw/out buttresses fall back, should be of stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the weather, they may be of dissertations bibliography, wood, built in, [37/38] and painted to agree with the rest of the wall. Their form in such case is marked in fig. F, by dotted lines; but the projection of the outward slope which casts off the writing research spiral-tabbedw/out water, ought to have a groove or channel below , which the plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of plank or thick boards, filled with brick and mortar, and set down in mortar upon the buttresses.

In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and will last, if well put together and painted, for many years. G. This figure represents the organ gallery of fig. Social! A on a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the research access top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the corner and pinnacle above, and the panel work, the i a citizen of global essay battlement, and the connexion of the arch beneath. The most simple method of producing the effect of the Gothic panel is here designed. The front of the writing research papers access gallery is for teaching essay first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to the corner posts for the subsequent finish, then the panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the inner edge is chamfered three quarters of an research papers, inch each way, and the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by side upon the wainscotting. A fillet of paper, about an inch square is then nailed over the joints, intersecting with the research same above and below, as in the plate. The same plan is applicable to the panel of the arch, the corner post, c. the citizen of global essay screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the effect to be produced is access similar. Citizen Of Global World Essay! The thicker the plank out of which the spiral-tabbedw/out panel is cut, the activities richer will be the effect, but a full inch board will look well, and the appearance of it when finished, will be greatly improved, by painting the writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out inside or bottom of the wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the media+term paper rest; as in the plate. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for architects, nor for men of taste and science in this branch of the research spiral-tabbedw/out arts, but for the clergy who may never have paid the attention of a moment to the subject, until, in some distant region of our extensive country, they are called upon to media+term, preside over the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them.

To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable. Writing! I furnish them for this reason, without any [38/39] regard to the criticisms of those for whom they were not intended. Utility, not fame, is my object. Happily for me,--let me take the liberty of adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the building mentioned in the preface, as being the lint fruits of the necessity which turned my attention to the study of i a citizen, Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of writing research spiral-tabbedw/out, this building is the tower, which exhibits an media+term paper, example of the papers spiral-tabbedw/out access flying buttress, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the tower are finished with crockets and writing rates finials, or purfled , according to the phraseology of the writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access Gothic style. Fig. 4, shews a method of striking a Gothic arch from four centres, which may be recommended as in good proportion.

Fig. 5, shews the method of laying out bibliography, a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the papers access part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and the other half shewing the filling up of the detail. Fig. 6, shews the base and the capital of social, a single Gothic pillar, taken from St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. 7, shews the flying buttress on a larger scale. Fig. 8, shews a pendant of the research access ceiling, taken from Crosby hall, London.

Fig. 9. This figure represents, according to the scale below, an arrangement of the chancel, in which the pulpit and the desk are at each side, and the altar in the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over it. Between the window and paper the buttresses at the side are tablets, containing sentences from research papers access, Scripture; [39/40] under which are the chairs. The entrances to the desk and pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. The light transmitted over the altar is from the vestry room, which stands immediately behind the whole chancel. Essay! There are canopies over the pulpit and desk, on each side of spiral-tabbedw/out access, which rises a buttress enriched in the florid style, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. In the front is the Gothic railing of the chancel, with a baptismal font in the centre. Upon this plan the pulpit and desk are in the same form, the pulpit being only resume writing a little higher. Fig. 10. This figure represents the construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the writing research spiral-tabbedw/out expense can be afforded, as it is both richer and more delicate in its effect.

There is a fault in the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. The circles are too large. Instead of cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the best proportion. Fig. Social Paper! 11, shews a good form for a Gothic pulpit. Fig. Writing Papers Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! 14, another for media+term, the same.

Fig. Research Papers Access! 15, shews the enriched buttress used in No. 9, on essay of contrast a larger scale. Fig. 17, shews the railing of the research papers spiral-tabbedw/out chancel in No. 9. on a larger scale. Fig. 13. This figure exhibits a perspective view of the ceiling, the front of the galleries, and the chancel, in bibliography, Trinity Church, Pittsburg. The ceiling is perfectly flat, but in order to give somewhat of the writing effect of the enriched Gothic style, it is crossed by spandrils from the heads of the for teaching pillars.

Where these meet along the centre, there are pendants, made in the form of that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is filled up with a representation in painting of Gothic tracery, done in various shades of stone color. When fresh, and for several years afterwards, this kind of finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an accurate picture of the spiral-tabbedw/out access exquisite fretwork of the media+term English Gothic Churches. But it requires to be renewed in time, and workmen are not often to be found who can do it justice. Fig. 12, represents the head of one of the pillars with its spandrils, as in No. 13, but on a larger scale. Fig. 16, shews the plan of the writing research papers ceiling in No.

13, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and that, at the right, shewing the filling up, in imitation of fretwork. Fig. 19, shews the border of foliage which surrounds the oval and the segments [40/41] of circles in No. 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the whole of of global world, this is derived from the research access Chapel of Henry the Seventh. Fig. 18, a perspective view of the battlements which finish the top of the galleries in pope on man text, Trinity Church, Pittsburgh,

THE principal figure in this plate represents a perspective view of a design for a Gothic Church, with an octagonal steeple, instead of a tower. Research! The top of the i a of global world essay steeple is not shewn, but a ball and writing vane is the usual and appropriate finish. In this design the dissertations windows are in a single row, and not doubled, as in Plate 6. And therefore this design is better, because it accords with the principle set forth in the first chapter; viz, the giving force to writing research spiral-tabbedw/out access, the perpendicular line, as far as practicable. The building at the end, is a vestry room, which agrees with the style of the main building, and the window above is to dissertations, throw light into the chancel, over the altar, where the plan laid down in Plate 6, No. 9, is research papers access preferred. In such case, however, the window over the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to subdue the bibliography light; for otherwise it would pain all but the strongest eyes in the congregation. Fig. 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better. A, is the vestibule, containing the stairs to the organ gallery.

B, is the space between the altar and the chancel railing which should be not less than from four to six feet. The centre of the railing shews the place for the baptismal font. C, is the altar, or communion table, at each end of research, which stands a Gothic chair. D E, the desk and pulpit, both entered from the vestry room behind. F, the vestry room, shewing the stairs leading to the desk, from which a plat form passing along to the other end leads to the pulpit. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of a simple plan to save the pope an essay text roof in a Gothic building. In order to understand it, the reader will bear in mind that the writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access finishing the wall with a battlement is constant characteristic of the [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the sloping roof meeting with the wall which forms the battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from which the water must be carried through pipes to the ground Now the practical difficulty in this case is, that no degree of care in the construction of these valley gutters, is essay usually able to writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, keep them from leaking In the summer half of the for teaching essay year, they do well enough, but in winter, the freezing and thawing of the snow upon the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in time, the ceiling below, occasions the papers spiral-tabbedw/out access plaster to crack and fall down, and makes the alexander pope on man text building both unsafe and unsightly. The mode in writing research, which I think the whole of pope on man text, this difficulty can be avoided, is shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the wall, the roof, the eavetrough, and the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the buttress, through which the eave-trough passes the writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access whole length of the building.

d , the plank which forms the battlement, which is dissertations bibliography spiked or screwed to the eavetrough in such a manner, that the openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the papers edge of the eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from this plank, is merely to give the appearance of thickness from media+term paper, below, without which, the battlement would seem to want substance. e , the eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of solid timber, and having the outer edge an inch lower than the inner The piece of plank below the trough, is for research papers, ornament, as is also the fillet outside, and the appearance of the whole is shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in the same plate. The operation of this is, that the battlement does not form a valley at all It is not, as in the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is of contrast attached to the eave-trough and whenever the eave-trough fills in frosty weather, and a thaw succeeds, the openings of the battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the eave-trough, ard an escape for the water, which effectually prevents its using above the writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out access edge of the roof; and flowing inwards upon the wall It is cheaper than the other method, because the application of tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the effect is so far from being diminished by pope, the projecting of the battlement outwards, that I think it is rather increased. Care, however, must be taken to have the buttresses project sufficiently to allow of this finish, without having any part of the work to come within an inch of their face. The inspection of the perspective view marked No. Writing Papers Access! 20, will make this plain.

THE figure in the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the front view of the same building of which the rear was presented in Plate 7. I A Of Global World! The upper part of the steeple is papers spiral-tabbedw/out access quite too short for a proper proportion, and should be about twice as high from the base of the pyramid to i a of global essay, the top. The size of the plate did not admit of its being so represented; but any one who likes the draught in other respects, can easily make the alteration. The rest of the tower is in reasonably good style, and research if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. The windows in the body of the building are, much more numerous and alexander pope an essay nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the beauty of the building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies. Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is one defect in this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience. It is the want of more passages of ingress and egress; the single door through the tower being by no means sufficient for the convenience of research, a congregation.

The best method of supplying the deficiency would be that which is shewn in Plate 10, fig. 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of a design for a small cathedral, in which the roof is concealed by a rich screen of tracery, the water, however, having the same means of bibliography, escape provided as formerly described, through the lower [43/44] row of small Gothic arches. The large tower, containing the chancel and vestry room, should be placed towards the East, according to ancient custom, derived from the Temple at Jerusalem. And two doors, one at each side of the tower would be necessary, in addition to the western door, shewn in the plate, for the ingress and egress of the spiral-tabbedw/out access congregation. The octagonal towers would afford room for winding stairs to i a citizen of global, ascend into the organ loft and the galleries. Writing! These octagonal towers are taken from King's College Chapel, and the great octagonal tower from the celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in Yorkshire, and is copied from Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. It is a much admired specimen of Gothic architecture for the purposes of a parish Church.

Fig. 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from Binham Priory Church, Norfolk. Fig. Citizen Essay! 28, shews the capital and base of a Gothic pillar from writing research, Red Mount Chapel. THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in simple elevation, according to the manner used for workmen. Alexander An Essay On Man Text! The scale is one tenth of an inch to the foot.

THE principal figure in research spiral-tabbedw/out access, this plate, No. 30, shews the front elevation, and fig. 31 shews the rear elevation of the same building, the side of which is exhibited in the last plate. Fig. 32, is social media+term paper a perspective drawing, taken from Britton, of St.

Botolph's tower, which is surmounted by a lantern, supported by flying buttresses. Papers Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! It is a remarkable example of the kind. THESE figures are two of the Crosses, so common formerly in for teaching, England, at which the people were in the habit of stopping to pray, and where the preaching friars delivered sermons to the surrounding multitudes on the Lord's day. Papers! I have added them to this little work, partly as an interesting relic of former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gothic monuments, in social, commemoration of writing access, 'the dead, who die in the Lord.' The figure on the left is the Cross at Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and dissertations bibliography that, on the right, represents the research access Cross at Winchester, Hampshire. This last is 43 1/2 feet high. There is, on i a citizen of global world the frontispiece, a representation of another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at Hereford--which, though in ruin, retains enough of its original character o afford a useful example of the Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of any arrangement for warming Churches, nor any place marked out for flues or chimneys.

The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the style of architecture. Writing Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! Chimneys are deformities in every public edifice, and all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to dispose of them where they shall attract the smallest possible observation. In the Gothic style, however, the buttresses afford an opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by making the pinnacles of those buttresses of cast iron, with the opening at the side which is farthest fom the spectator, the whole purposes of chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of good taste. And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the chimney may be so designed as to resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in consistency with the style of media+term, building. As to writing spiral-tabbedw/out, the modes of applying heat for pope, the purpose of writing research, warming Churches, it is [45/46] beside the resume object of this little work to research papers, enlarge upon them. I would only observe, that where a supply of heated air can be introduced below, it is, on many accounts, to be preferred before the common plan of erecting stoves in the Church itself. Best of all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to the practice of bibliography, our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in the house of God. But if this be too much to expect from the effeminacy of writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out, our day, it might be well to consider whether the end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of social media+term, each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of round, and secured by writing spiral-tabbedw/out, brick or stone work so as to form a part of the floor of the building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the reader of the alexander humble rank to which this volume lays claim.

It is but the essay of an amateur, designed chiefly for those who have not made architecture their study. Writing Papers Spiral-tabbedw/out! No man can be more sensible than myself, of i a of global essay, its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and simple directory of the kind, I lay it upon the altar of utility with the hope that it may be found acceptable to some of my brethren, and save them from many of those perplexities which commonly attend an attempt to erect the earthly sanctuary of God. With regard to credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the adage, 'Happy is he that expecteth nothing, for he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the wants of the Church, in any and every department within my power, is the main business of my life; and if I have succeeded in this design to spiral-tabbedw/out access, any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in vain.

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essay on access, pediatrics Pediatrics and Pediatric Subspecialties. Pediatrics if the care of infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatric Nurses/Pediatricians are the doctors who take care of these patients. Most children have the same pediatrician from the time they are born until they hit adulthood. A pediatrician requires years of schooling and training. You can further your education and choose to do one of the many pediatric subspecialties. There are plenty of of contrast, opportunities when you become a pediatrician, especially if you take the time to certify in a subspecialty. Pediatricians jobs are very important considering all the years of schooling that come along with the profession. To become a pediatrician, you must graduate from medical school and complete three years of research papers, education in a pediatric residency program. The three-year residency includes mandated rotations in general pediatrics, normal newborn care, and time in a selected subspecialty are.

It takes up to 3 more years of training to be certified in a subspecialty. Essay! (Becoming A Pediatrician) The annual salary for pediatricians can range from research spiral-tabbedw/out, $140,000 to $202, 547. (Pediatrician Salary) A pediatrician is held responsible for caring for newborns up to the point that they reach adulthood. Pediatricians make sure that a child is maturing into a healthy adult . It is the job of the pediatrician to give proper care to media+term paper their patients. Access! One of the main ways that pediatricians are able to do this is by paying attention to the patients needs. Children are not able to speak up about the way they are feeling especially infants, so, pediatricians speak to the parents and evaluate the child's behavior and writing rates, try to writing papers spiral-tabbedw/out work out what is activities argumentative essay, wrong. Pediatricians have the knowledge to treat major illnesses, but most patients they see on a daily basis have more minor illnesses. Pediatricians will treat issues of cold, fever, infections, and minor injuries. A pediatrician also deals with giving patients routine immunizations that they are to receive. Pediatricians who deal with major illnesses or injuries on a daily basis usually specialize in a specific kind of spiral-tabbedw/out access, condition, such as cardiology. Social Paper! These are called subspecialties.

Pediatricians can also be licensed to conduct surgery and can work from writing papers access, 50 to 60 hours. (Becoming A Pediatrician) A pediatrician can also expect to work all hours of the dissertations day and night, most are always on call, so they must be ready to work at all times, unless they are on vacation. A pediatrician advises patients, parents or guardians and community members on concerning diets, activity, hygiene, and disease prevention. Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! They collect, record, and maintain patient information, such as medical history, reports, and examination records. Rates! (pediatricians job description – part 1) Until the 19 th century, medical doctors were responsible for the treatment of adults, and the children were cared for by mothers and midwives. Also, before the 19 th century there were no subspecialties, most children had to do without or they were seen by an adult doctor.

Most doctors then did not know much about the differences in illnesses in children and in adults. An example would be walking pneumonia, this sickness occurs in children and can be deadly. Adults and children had different illnesses with their age, and most doctors back then did not realize it. Pediatrics began in Europe in the Infants-Trouves in writing research Paris in 1674. Essay Of Contrast! Infants-Trouves means Hospice for papers access, Found-Children, this was when people wanted to build separate institutions for pope, ill children, mostly to avoid exposing them to adults. In the West, the papers first accepted pediatric hospital, which was called the Hospital for Sick Children, opened in alexander pope on man Paris in June 1802. The hospital accepted patients up to the age of fifteen years old.

The Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital [Enfants Malades means ill infants] was created in 1920 as an add on to the Necker Hospital, which was founded in 1778 for adults. (History Of Pediatrics) In pediatrics, there are at least 20 subspecialties which include developmental/behavioral pediatricians, pediatric otolaryngology, pediatric neurology, pediatric ophthalmology, pediatric cardiology, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric rheumatology, and papers spiral-tabbedw/out, many more. (Types of Pediatric Specialist) Most subspecialties are usually referred if the patient needs further evaluation. Many of these pediatricians receive more extensive training in their area of practice. In an effort to complete the care for the patient, pediatric specialist will work with other pediatric specialist, therapist, dietitians, and others who might be needed to complete their treatment and care. A person who is interested in pursuing their training further and specializing in essay a subspecialty must achieve certification in general pediatrics and writing research papers, maintain the certification throughout their career. Pope On Man Text! (Types of Pediatric specialist) Subspecialties were not always here for us, in fact, subspecialties are quite new. Most subspecialties were formed to broaden the range of knowledge on writing spiral-tabbedw/out, a certain field.

Most pediatricians are not going to study every single subspecialty; it would take too much time. A specialty in medicine is a branch of resume writing rates, medical science. After completing medical school, students usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a residency. Now, a pediatrician would get a degree in general pediatrics and then choose a subspecialty. Furthering your education from a specialty to a subspecialty is narrowing your field of work. If your child has a developmental, learning, or behavioral problem, a developmental/behavioral pediatrician will be referred. They have the research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access training and expertise to evaluate, counsel, and provide treatment for the patient. They look at developmental delays/disabilities, attention and behavioral issues, school difficulties, habit disorders, and anxiety and stress management.

They would treat learning disorders such as dyslexia, writing problems, and math disorders. Also, they would treat and diagnose attention and resume, behavioral disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and research papers access, depression. Media+term! Developmental/behavioral problems also include delayed development in speech, language, and research access, learning skills. The job of this pediatrician can be very helpful to both the parents and the children. (Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics Clinic) A pediatric doctor who specializes in bibliography diagnosing and treating the ear, nose and writing research spiral-tabbedw/out, throat disorders is an otolaryngologist. Writing Rates! The areas in this pediatrician would specialize in are allergies, facial plastic and writing research access, reconstructive surgery, head and neck, laryngology (throat), otology/neurotology (ears, balance, tinnitus), rhinology (nose), and sleep disorders. Some otolaryngologist will choose one of of contrast, these eight areas.

These pediatricians would treat things like hay fever, sore throat, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), swimmers ear, and little things such as the common nose bleed. An otolaryngologist will treat little things and major things, and in some cases may need to refer another pediatrician for the job. (What is an Otolaryngologist) Pediatric neurology is writing research spiral-tabbedw/out, a major subspecialty that specializes in the brain and nerves. Social Media+term! Pediatric Neurologists have social training to diagnose and treat problems involving the nervous system. Some examples of research papers spiral-tabbedw/out, these problems include seizure disorders, head injuries, brain tumors, weakness, muscular dystrophy, nerve muscle disorder, headaches and media+term paper, or migraines. Writing Research Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! There are different kinds of specialists in the field of pediatric neurology. Pediatric neurologists are physicians who work to diagnose and treat neurological problems in children. Pediatric neurosurgeons specialize in performing complex surgeries within the nervous systems of children, which is a very dangerous job. (What is a Neurologist) If your child has an eye problem such as having trouble seeing, reading, or learning, or needs surgery or medical treatment for essay, an illness affecting the eyes, a pediatric ophthalmologist is writing research spiral-tabbedw/out, usually the one referred. These specialists are concerned with eye diseases, visual development and vision care in essay children.

Their treatments may involve prescribing medication and/or glasses, diagnosing visual disorders, caring for eye injuries, or performing eye and eye muscle surgery. Types of research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, examinations they provide include vision testing, measuring eye position, examining the paper eye for abnormal structures, determines what type and strength glasses a child needs at any age. Writing Research Papers Access! (Types of writing rates, Pediatric Specialists) Pediatric cardiology specializes in diagnosing and spiral-tabbedw/out access, treating disorders and essay, acquired heart diseases in children. Writing Access! Some pediatric cardiologists will diagnose and treat infants that are still in of contrast the womb. They may be required to work long hours and access, be on call much of the i a citizen world time. It takes a minimum of writing, 12 years to become a pediatric cardiologist. Examples of essay, conditions that would result in the referral to a pediatric cardiologist include murmurs, cardiac function, arrhythmia, cyanosis, syndromes, chest pain, dizziness, and cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease).

They usually work in writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access hospitals or universities but can own their own practice or work in a clinic. For a successful career in media+term paper Pediatric Cardiology, you have to care for children and have the ability to communicate with their families. (Pediatric Cardiologist Job Description) If children have problems with growth, puberty, diabetes, or other disorders related to the hormones and research access, the glands that produce them, a pediatric endocrinologist is the writing rates one to call. Problems that pediatric endocrinologist see are usually different from those seen by endocrinologist who treat adults. Hormonal problems are often present for life and writing access, require lifelong treatment. Pediatric endocrinologists deal with hormone disorders at all stages of social paper, childhood and adolescent years. They diagnose, and treat hormonal disorders such as growth problems, early or delayed puberty, enlarged thyroid gland (goiter), diabetes, obesity, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), and hypocalcemia (problems with Vitamin D). (Pediatric Subspecialties) Pediatric rheumatologists are pediatricians who have completed an additional 2-3 years of specialized training in pediatric rheumatology and are usually board-certified in pediatric rheumatology. These pediatricians specialize in providing care to writing spiral-tabbedw/out access children with rheumatic diseases. A child may be referred to a pediatric rheumatologist for problems with joints, muscles, bones or tendons, arthritis, unexplained rash, anemia, autoimmune disease, fibromyalgia, growing pains, and osteoporosis. Essay Of Contrast! A pediatric rheumatologist works with a pediatrician or family physician to treat a variety of joint, muscle, and bone disorders.

Pediatric rheumatologists have special interests in unexplained rash, fever, arthritis, anemia, weakness, weight loss, fatigue, muscle pain, autoimmune disease, and anorexia. They have skills in the evaluation of juvenile arthritis, spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, Sjogren's syndrome, vasculitis, cleroderma, sarcoidosis, Lyme disease, osteamyelitis, relapsing polychondritis, serum sickness, and writing research spiral-tabbedw/out, fibromyalgia in alexander text children. (What Is A Pediatric Rheumatologist) Pediatric nephrologist diagnose, treat, and manage issues affecting a child's kidney and urinary tract. They look at kidney problems such as kidney failure, inherited disease, and stones. Urinary tract issues like infections, bladder problems, or abnormalities in writing papers access the patients urine are issues addressed.

They also evaluate and treat high blood pressure and problems with growth and development that are specific to chronic kidney disease. Social Paper! They provide a list of services such as dialysis, kidney transplantation, kidney biopsies, x-ray studies of the kidneys, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Research Papers Spiral-tabbedw/out Access! (Nephrology) A neonatologist is a “preemie” doctor. A neonatologist can assist with delivery of a premature child and with the child's care. Neonatologists usually care for an infant that has be born premature, with a low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation (slow growth while in i a citizen of global the mothers womb), birth defects, sepsis (whole-body inflammatory state), pulmonary hyperplasia (incomplete development of the lungs), or birth asphyxias (inadequate supply of oxygen to the fetus). Neonatologist go through training as a pediatrician, 3 years of fellowship training in neonatology, and then become board-certified. Pediatric gastroenterologists have the knowledge and technical skills to diagnose and manage digestive, nutritional, and liver disorders in infants, children, and adolescents. Research Access! Patients can have many different different conditions including chronic diarrhea and malabsorption syndromes, feeding problems, and swallowing disorders, functional gastrointestinal disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic disease, motility disorders, acute and chronic inflammatory bowel disease, acute and chronic hepatitis, and inherited metabolic and immunological defects.

Some patients may have liver failure which would require them to have artificial liver support or liver transplant, others may have short bowel syndrome and rates, intestinal failure requiring intravenous or tube feedings and small intestinal transplant. Pediatric Gastroenterologists have the writing research access ability to diagnose and treat many of these disorders complementing laboratory tests with many different types of endoscopic procedures. (What is Gastroenterology) A major subspecialty is Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. These doctors usually provide care for children with an unstable, critical condition. A hospital based pediatric critical care specialist can be called on to provide the special care that your child needs. Some conditions that they might treat would be severe asthma, deep diabetic ketoacidosis (a problem that occurs in people with diabetes), or an overwhelming infection such as severe pneumonia, and serious injuries from accidents.

A PCCS will go through three years of pediatric specialty residency training, and three or more years of fellowship training in pediatric critical care. They treat children from rates, birth to teen years. They provide a diagnosis of papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, children who have an i a of global unstable, life-threatening condition, provide thorough monitoring, medication, and treatment of children in research spiral-tabbedw/out a PICU. (What Is A Pediatric Critical Care Specialist?) A pediatrician that some do not hear about as often is a pediatric geneticists. Pediatric Geneticists diagnose, counsel, and treat familiese with many different problems including birth defects, conditions that cause disabilities, inborn errors of i a citizen of global, metabolism, and excessive tallness or dwarfism.

Some birth defects include down syndrome, cleft palate, congenital infections and rubella -- which is caused by congenital infections. Conditions that cause disabilities are fetal alcohol syndrome or sickle cell disease. Pediatric Geneticists would treat these types of research spiral-tabbedw/out, diseases and defects. To become a pediatric geneticists you would have to go through four years of medical school, 2 years of residency training in pediatrics, 2 years of additional specialty training in medical genetics, become certified from the American Board of Pediatrics and get a certification from the American Board of Medical Genetics. They would treat children from birth to the time they reach adulthood, in some cases they would treat infants still in the womb. Their specialized training prepares them to give children the medical care they need. Those are some of the few major subspecialties in essay of contrast Pediatrics. Most pediatricians choose to major in writing research access a subspecialty, unless they want to own their own practice.

The pros of becoming a pediatrician are that they have many career options, flexible hours, and a high job satisfaction. Other pros are that they can work in most geographical locations, and there is an expected job growth of 22%. Cons of becoming a pediatrician are that it requires at least 6 years of schooling beyond an i a citizen undergraduate degree. (Becoming A Pediatrician) Also, they have an endless exposure to research access blood and essay, germs. Another is medical school can be very costly. The working conditions of a pediatrician may vary, but there are some aspects of the job that seem to research access be experienced by of contrast the average pediatrician. Working conditions are usually nice an pleasant since you work indoors and in well lighted exam rooms and hospitals. The job of a pediatrician can be very rewarding. Most enjoy helping others and especially children, but in writing research spiral-tabbedw/out some situations it can be heartbreaking. If a pediatrician gets attached to pope an essay on man a child or if the child is a family member and something happens it can be very heartbreaking. In some situations a pediatrician can refer another pediatrician for the job if the case is to overwhelming.

Pursuing the career of writing research papers spiral-tabbedw/out access, a pediatrician can be tough, but in the end it is a great thing to i a citizen world do.