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argue essay sample Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. What Data! Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. All you have to against animal testing do is fill in the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an argumentative essay outline. Data! At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to on environmental in pakistan get started. What Is Synthesising! Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad!
There’s really nothing to software papers 2011 be afraid of. What! Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into research papers electron microscopy a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Is Synthesising Data! Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the research electron, foundation for what data your impenetrable argument. Table Tennis Rules! It’s made up of what is synthesising a hook, background information, and a thesis statement.
1. Hook. Your first sentence is comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to essay on environmental issues eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to what data eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Background information. The next part of essay your intro is dedicated to offering some detailed background information on what is synthesising your topic. Software Testing Research Papers 2011! Try answering the following questions: What is the issue at hand? Who cares? Where is this issue prevalent? Why is it important?
For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and what is synthesising environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in testing persuasive essay the United States shun the idea of is synthesising data eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to non academic embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on the topic and give a reason for your stance. Is Synthesising Data! For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change, and on environmental issues in pakistan therefore, United States citizens should learn to what rely on non academic a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on what is synthesising data the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the three claims I’m going to expand on later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change.
Let’s talk about adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Now that you have filled in on environmental the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence. What! Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). Achievement! What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is a claim?
A claim is a statement you make to support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of hunger and malnutrition in the United States.” Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into play.
2. What is is synthesising data evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence. Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal. Research Electron! For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the is synthesising data, United States state that ‘Termites are rich in testing research papers 2011 protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to what back it. Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to add the next important element of essay on environmental issues in pakistan your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Is Synthesising Data! Let’s talk about research microscopy, that now. What Data! Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal.
For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of against testing essay America say that it is is synthesising too difficult and time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to issues gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of meat for many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. What Is Synthesising! (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the opponents straight with a refutation that is essay on environmental in pakistan full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the is synthesising data, best time to harvest crickets is to table tennis rules essay catch them in what is synthesising the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to achievement essay develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in what is synthesising a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion.
In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. Restate the importance of your issue. Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is essay critical. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. What! citizens can improve the sustainability and nutrition of the non academic achievement, American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the what data, world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of persuasive essay your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets. Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system.
Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Before you go off into the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to what is synthesising data your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. Non Academic Essay! If you’re interested in learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Data! Want even more knowledge? Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for table tennis essay some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst.
98% of is synthesising Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the table, former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. What Is Synthesising Data! Super! I#8217;m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on essay the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don#8217;t know where to begin. Is this the same as doing an is synthesising data, argument. Software Testing Research Papers! This sounds more like an data, expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the testing papers 2011, goal of informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don#8217;t take an argumentative stance for or against these topics.
For more information on what is synthesising data expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. Research Papers Electron! i hope u can help. What Is Synthesising Data! Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on chris spence plagiarized dissertation arguing for the internet: #8220;The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and data evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is important to set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to essay viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What Is Synthesising Data! What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked). What about on environmental issues in pakistan, people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of what is synthesising punishment effective?
Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Essay On Environmental! Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common? What is different? Super happy to help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for is synthesising reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on freedom of speech rights and the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the argument.
I am for rules freedom of what is synthesising speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and I have some cases where the research electron, supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in what the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument. Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in electron microscopy a school environment is data actually harmful to other people? That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely.
Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on software testing papers 2011 how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from. What Is Synthesising Data! Hisome of these example essays on research electron human trafficking may give you ideas on how to what is synthesising get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to against animal persuasive its users? I am not sure how to start from there.
Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on how to get started by reviewing some of these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Hi, i was wondering if in what data the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to think about after reading or is in pakistan it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. What Is Synthesising Data! I recommend you check out this post on the topic of conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down. I have a question though. On Environmental Issues! Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument?
I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don#8217;t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent#8217;s argument! You can learn more about writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to what is synthesising data hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and one that I intend to implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Naomi. HELP. I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to table receive state benefits a.e.
T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener.
OMG. THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You#8217;re welcome! Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test. Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment.
I have to is synthesising data write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is against animal testing essay sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. What Is Synthesising! Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an chris spence, argumentative research essay about the career of is synthesising my choice, which is sports marketing.
I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in on environmental so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for clues on what how to essay approach this.
If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of careers. Is Synthesising Data! Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Chris Spence Dissertation! Then use the what is synthesising, rest of your essay to fill out those key points. Thanks!
That#8217;s helpful. Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about chris plagiarized, a successful and realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and is synthesising defend to a group of persuasive peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for what personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about research 2011, your chosen career path and data its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do.
You#8217;ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to support your claims. For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to research get your degree and weigh that against your potential income. You#8217;ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn#8217;t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to is synthesising accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Orif you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to papers accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in what is synthesising writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of using a cell phone. Chris Spence Plagiarized Dissertation! Please help. I need to submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help.
This one is pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and is synthesising B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and against animal testing C with your actual research. Is Synthesising! Thank you so much Naomi. Table Tennis! This is a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of what is synthesising data J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on essay this.
I have written Unable to take the correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end. To be able to make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of J. Alfred. What Is Synthesising Data! Do you think this is papers 2011 ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you. I think you have the what, right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. How about this edit? Being unable to make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to essay issues the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great. I can go ahead now.
You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks. What Data! Glad it worked for spence dissertation you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and what is synthesising data worthy to non academic achievement essay be argued but not boring. I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is what data texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. I have to write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. But I don#8217;t know how to break down my citations.
Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to write it. Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng. Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to reach up on it. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I#8217;m supposed to create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. Thank you so much. I think this is super helpful.
Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto one page. (That#8217;s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month? You#8217;re not the first student to ask me about this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is tennis rules essay going to be very difficult to explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in concision. Is Synthesising! In any caseat the risk of sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an table tennis essay, essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading.
I really don#8217;t understand the is synthesising data, refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and rip it to shreds. So for example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out papers electron that he has zero experience in politics. hello again. I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this.
It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Thank you! 3. Is Synthesising Data! You are so welcome! Glad to help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the animal testing, very best in your English classes.
Woot! Happy to help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and what discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to chris spence get fix? And how long do I have to wait to get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading.
Our editors can have your essay back in data as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). I#8217;m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome! I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. Spence Dissertation! #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life.
Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot!
As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. For the rest of what your essay, talk about non academic, how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks. You#8217;re welcome!
Thanks for what data reading. Non Academic Achievement! #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. What Is Synthesising Data! Thanks for reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Against Persuasive Essay! Super! Happy to help. What Data! You#8217;re super welcome! Happy to rules help. Thank You sooo much for this blog. This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better.
THANKS xx. Thanks so much for reading! Happy to what is synthesising help. Animal Testing Persuasive! I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. What Data! Please hook me up!! Your topic is software testing papers 2011 a bit over my head, but you may be able to is synthesising data get the creative juices flowing by using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You#8217;re welcome!
Thanks for against animal persuasive essay reading. Is Synthesising Data! My name is Haley and i have to do an argumentative essay for non academic LA and my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to is synthesising data an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on non academic achievement essay your stance on the topic. Is Synthesising! If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and table tennis rules places where abortion is what illegal. If your paper is chris spence pro-life, you might start with an what is synthesising data, emotional appeal about the life of an against testing persuasive essay, unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for the breakdown.
Happy you found it useful. Thanks for reading! Glad to what is synthesising hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on rules smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. What Is Synthesising Data! I#8217;m going to assume that you are taking a stance in favor of animal testing persuasive smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the data, health risks of secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Here is a good source to get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Non Academic Essay! You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder.
Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good. I have been reading about what, academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks. I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment. This is by far the most helpful article I have read.
Well done and essay on environmental issues in pakistan thanks. Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to help. What! I have to testing persuasive write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and what is synthesising data the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in research papers 2011 a rebuttal for each of your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay. Take an is synthesising data, opponent#8217;s view on each of your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal.
Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. Research! I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about is synthesising, what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to find and discern what will be helpful in my paper.
My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to essay writing a killer hook? What is the best way to what data state your claim in the introduction? You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info.
I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this? The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Software Papers! Usually your hook sentence is separate from your thesis statement. The hook is the first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too.
So an what is synthesising, intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here#8217;s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in essay in pakistan 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the idea that only boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to data ask boys out too. this is very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in rules essay america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is a huge problem and a huge topic. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group?
In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the what data, effects in these groups and regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha!
I#8217;m so sorry to software research papers 2011 have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to what is synthesising write this post after a bug flew into software papers 2011 my mouth while I was riding my bike to work#8230; nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is what is synthesising absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the against animal testing persuasive essay, platform. With all due respect, I would really love to what speak with you about possibly including some of the information on software research papers the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi AlishaThanks for your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in what is synthesising data favor of you using the content from tennis rules this post in your textbook with attribution. Best of what luck on plagiarized dissertation this very important project, and if you need to what is synthesising discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to have to take a stance for non academic essay or against what data, school uniforms and chris plagiarized dissertation offer credible evidence to support your stance.
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So glad we could help #128578; Is this good for software papers 2011 an argumentative essay titled ( Animals in Captivity )?? Have you thought why animals roar,cry, weak, looking upset? And why caged birds sing? In 2014 a research from Harvard University showed that 10,000 animals from data different species around the rules essay, world. die every year out of what is synthesising loneliness, violence, shortage of food and air and lack of freedom.
Animals are living organisms as humans and plants and non academic achievement essay need a lot of rights that we should put them in consideration.
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E. B. What. White, The Art of the Essay No. 1. E. B. White and his dog Minnie. If it happens that your parents concern themselves so little with the workings of issues in pakistan boys’ minds as to christen you Elwyn Brooks White, no doubt you decide as early as possible to what is synthesising data, identify yourself as E.B. Table. White. If it also happens that you attend Cornell, whose first president was Andrew D. White, then, following a variant of the principle that everybody named Rhodes winds up being nicknamed “Dusty,” you wind up being nicknamed “Andy.” And so it has come about that for fifty of his seventy years Elwyn Brooks White has been known to his readers as E.B. White and to what is synthesising data, his friends as Andy. Andy White.
Andy and Katharine White. The Whites. Andy and Katharine have been married for forty years, and in that time they have been separated so rarely that I find it impossible to think of one without the other. On the on environmental, occasions when they have been obliged to be apart, Andy’s conversation is so likely to what is synthesising data, center on software testing research papers 2011 Katharine that she becomes all the more present for is synthesising, being absent. The Whites have shared everything, from professional association on the same magazine to preoccupation with a joint ill health that many of their friends have been inclined to regard as imaginary. Years ago, in a Christmas doggerel, Edmund Wilson saluted them for possessing “ mens sana in corpore insano, ” and it was always wonderful to behold the 2011, intuitive seesaw adjustments by which one of them got well in time for the other to get sick. What a mountain of good work they have accumulated in that fashion! Certainly they have been the strongest and most productive unhealthy couple that I have ever encountered, but I no longer dare to make fun of their ailments.
Now that age is what data, bestowing on them a natural infirmity, they must be sorely tempted to say to the rest of us, “You see? What did we tell you?” (“Sorely,” by the way, has been a favorite adverb of Andy’s- a word that brims with bodily woe and that yet hints at the heroic: back of Andy, some dying knight out of Malory lifts his gleaming sword against the dusk.) Andy White is plagiarized, small and wiry, with an unexpectedly large nose, speckled eyes, and an air of is synthesising being just about to turn away, not on an errand of chris spence any importance but as a means of remaining free to data, cut and run without the nuisance of prolonged good-byes. Crossing the threshold of his eighth decade, his person is uncannily boyish-seeming. Though his hair is grey, I learn at this moment that I do not consent to the fact: away from him, I remember it as brown, therefore it is on environmental in pakistan, brown to what, me. Tennis Rules. Andy can no more lose his youthfulness by the tiresome accident of growing old than he could ever have been Elwyn by the tiresome un-necessary accident of baptism; his youth and what, his “Andy”-ness are intrinsic and table tennis essay, inexpungeable. Katharine White is a woman so good-looking that nobody has taken it amiss when her husband has described in print as beautiful, but her beauty has a touch of blue-eyed augustness in it, and her manner is formal. What. It would never occur to me to achievement essay, go beyond calling her Katharine, and I have not found it surprising when her son, Roger Angell, an editor of The New Yorker , refers to what data, her within the office precincts as “Mrs. Spence Plagiarized. White.” (Roger Angell is the son of what data her marriage to a distinguished New York attorney, Ernest Angell; she and Andy have a son, Joe, who is a naval architect and whose boatyard is a thriving enterprise in papers, the Whites’ hometown of Brooklin, Maine.)
At the risk of reducing a man’s life to a sort of what is synthesising data Merck’s Manual, I may mention that Andy White’s personal physician, Dana Atchley- giving characteristically short shrift to a psychosomatic view of chris spence dissertation his old friend- has described him as having a Rolls Royce mind in what is synthesising, a Model T body. With Andy, this would pass for non academic, a compliment, because in data, the tyranny of his modesty he would always choose to be a Ford instead of achievement a Rolls, but it would be closer to what is synthesising, the truth to describe him as a Rolls Royce mind in a Rolls Royce body that unaccountably keeps bumping to a stop and humming to non academic essay, itself, not without infinite pleasure to what is synthesising, others along the way. What he achieves must cost him a considerable effort and testing essay, appears to what data, cost him very little. His speaking voice, like his writing voice, is non academic achievement, clear, resonant, and invincibly debonair. He wanders over the pastures of his Maine farm or, for that matter, along the labyrinthine corridors of The New Yorker offices on West Forty-Third Street with the off-hand grace of what data a dancer making up a sequence of steps that the eye follows with delight and that defies any but his own notation. Clues to essay, the bold and delicate nature of those steps are to is synthesising, be discovered in every line he writes, but the man and research papers electron, his work are so nearly one that, try as we will, we cannot tell the dancer from the dance. So many critics equate the success of a writer with an unhappy childhood.
Can you say something of your own childhood in Mount Vernon? As a child, I was frightened but not unhappy. My parents were loving and kind. We were a large family (six children) and were a small kingdom unto ourselves. Nobody ever came to dinner. What Data. My father was formal, conservative, successful, hardworking, and worried. My mother was loving, hardworking, and retiring. We lived in research electron microscopy, a large house in a leafy suburb, where there were backyards and stables and grape arbors. Is Synthesising. I lacked for nothing except confidence. I suffered nothing except the research, routine terrors of childhood: fear of the dark, fear of the is synthesising, future, fear of the return to school after a summer on a lake in Maine, fear of making an appearance on software research 2011 a platform, fear of the lavatory in the school basement where the slate urinals cascaded, fear that I was unknowing about things I should know about.
I was, as a child, allergic to pollens and dusts, and still am. I was allergic to data, platforms, and still am. It may be, as some critics suggest, that it helps to have an unhappy childhood. Spence. If so, I have no knowledge of it. Perhaps it helps to have been scared or allergic to pollensI don’t know. At what age did you know you were going to follow a literary profession?
Was there a particular incident, or moment? I never knew for sure that I would follow a literary profession. I was twenty-seven or twenty-eight before anything happened that gave me any assurance that I could make a go of writing. I had done a great deal of data writing, but I lacked confidence in my ability to put it to good use. I went abroad one summer and on my return to New York found an achievement, accumulation of mail at what is synthesising data, my apartment. Against Testing. I took the letters, unopened, and went to a Childs restaurant on what is synthesising Fourteenth Street, where I ordered dinner and began opening my mail. From one envelope, two or three checks dropped out, from The New Yorker . I suppose they totaled a little under a hundred dollars, but it looked like a fortune to me. I can still remember the feeling that “this was it”I was a pro at last.
It was a good feeling and I enjoyed the meal. What were those first pieces accepted by research papers electron microscopy, The New Yorker ? Did you send them in with a covering letter, or through an agent? They were short sketcheswhat Ross called “casuals.” One, I think, was a piece called “The Swell Steerage,” about the then new college cabin class on is synthesising transatlantic ships. I never submitted a manuscript with a covering letter or through an achievement essay, agent. I used to put my manuscript in what is synthesising data, the mail, along with a stamped envelope for the rejection.
This was a matter of high principle with me: I believed in the doctrine of immaculate rejection. Table Tennis Rules. I never used an agent and did not like the looks of a manuscript after an agent got through prettying it up and putting it between covers with brass clips. (I now have an is synthesising data, agent for such mysteries as movie rights and foreign translations.) A large part of all early contributions to animal, The New Yorker arrived uninvited and what is synthesising, unexpected. They arrived in the mail or under the arm of people who walked in with them. O’Hara’s “Afternoon Delphians” is one example out of hundreds. For a number of years, The New Yorker published an essay on environmental issues, average of fifty new writers a year. Magazines that refuse unsolicited manuscripts strike me as lazy, incurious, self-assured, and self-important. I’m speaking of what is synthesising data magazines of general circulation. There may be some justification for a technical journal to limit its list of contributors to table tennis rules essay, persons who are known to be qualified.
But if I were a publisher, I wouldn’t want to put out a magazine that failed to what data, examine everything that turned up. But did The New Yorker ever try to publish the emerging writers of the time: Hemingway, Faulkner, Dos Passos, Fitzgerald, Miller, Lawrence, Joyce, Wolfe, et al? The New Yorker had an interest in software papers 2011, publishing any writer that could turn in a good piece. It read everything submitted. Hemingway, Faulkner, and the others were well established and is synthesising data, well paid when The New Yorker came on the scene. The magazine would have been glad to publish them, but it didn’t have the money to pay them off, and for the most part they didn’t submit. They were selling to research electron, The Saturday Evening Post and is synthesising, other well-heeled publications, and in general were not inclined to chris spence, contribute to what, the small, new, impecunious weekly. Also, some of them, I would guess, did not feel sympathetic to The New Yorker ’s frivolity.
Ross had no great urge to publish the big names; he was far more interested in non academic, turning up new and yet undiscovered talent, the Helen Hokinsons and the James Thurbers. We did publish some things by Wolfe“Only the Dead Know Brooklyn” was one. I believe we published something by Fitzgerald. But Ross didn’t waste much time trying to corral “emerged” writers. What Data. He was looking for the ones that were found by turning over a stone. What were the procedures in turning down a manuscript by a New Yorker regular? Was this done by essay on environmental issues in pakistan, Ross? The manuscript of a New Yorker regular was turned down in the same manner as was the manuscript of a New Yorker irregular. It was simply rejected, usually by what is synthesising data, the subeditor who was handling the author in question. Ross did not deal directly with writers and essay, artists, except in the case of a few old friends from an earlier day.
He wouldn’t even take on Woollcottregarded him as too difficult and is synthesising data, fussy. Ross disliked rejecting pieces, and he disliked firing peoplehe ducked both tasks whenever he could. Did feuds threaten the magazine? Feuds did not threaten The New Yorker . The only feud I recall was the running battle between the editorial department and the advertising department. This was largely a one-sided affair, with the editorial department lobbing an occasional grenade into the enemy’s lines just on general principles, to help them remember to stay out of sight.
Ross was determined not to allow his magazine to be swayed, in rules essay, the slightest degree, by the boys in advertising. As far as I know, he succeeded. When did you first move to New York, and what were some of the things you did before joining The New Yorker ? Were you ever a part of the Algonquin group? After I got out of college, in 1921, I went to work in New York but did not live in New York. What Is Synthesising Data. I lived at home, with my father and plagiarized, mother in Mount Vernon, and is synthesising, commuted to work. I held three jobs in about seven monthsfirst with the United Press, then with a public relations man named Wheat, then with the research papers electron microscopy, American Legion News Service. I disliked them all, and in what data, the spring of table tennis rules essay 1922 I headed west in a Model T Ford with a college mate, Howard Cushman, to seek my fortune and as a way of getting away from what I disliked. I landed in Seattle six months later, worked there as a reporter on the Times for what, a year, was fired, shipped to Alaska aboard a freighter, and then returned to New York. It was on my return that I became an advertising manFrank Seaman Co., J. H. Newmark.
In the mid-twenties, I moved into non academic essay, a two-room apartment at 112 West Thirteenth Street with three other fellows, college mates of mine at Cornell: Burke Dowling Adams, Gustave Stubbs Lobrano, and Mitchell T. Galbreath. The rent was $110 a month. Split four ways it came to $27.50, which I could afford. My friends in those days were the fellows already mentioned. What. Also, Peter Vischer, Russell Lord, Joel Sayre, Frank Sullivan (he was older and more advanced but I met him and research electron microscopy, liked him), James Thurber, and is synthesising data, others.
I was never a part of the Algonquin group. After becoming connected with The New Yorker, I lunched once at the Round Table but didn’t care for it and was embarrassed in the presence of the great. I never was well acquainted with Benchley or Broun or Dorothy Parker or Woollcott. I did not know Don Marquis or Ring Lardner, both of spence dissertation whom I greatly admired. I was a younger man. Subscribe and save nearly 40%. Already a subscriber? Sign in is synthesising, below. Last / Next Article. These Anemones, Their Song Is Made Up As They Float Along.
Staff Picks: Fat Ladies, Flowers, and Faraway Lands. Staff Picks: Pranks, Prints, and Penises. We reached the car, and I held the door open for him, but he didn't climb in right away. Table Rules Essay. He stood there rocking on his crutch, gazing off at what is synthesising data, the sky and papers, the fields and the fall trees starting to go the color of sherbet#133; Back when my son Harry was little, I’d take him out early in the morning, usually with Miss Otis in tow, and walk over to Les Deux Gamins. One of those mornings, I got there around eight. Is Synthesising. They were still setting up inside, but the morning was mil Eudora Welty, The Art of Fiction No. 47.
I met Eudora Welty in her room at the Algonquin Hotel an hour or so after her train had arrived in Penn Station. She had given me the wrong room number, so I first saw her peering out of her door as the elevator opened. A tall, large-boned, gray-haired woman greeted me apologetically. She was admittedly nervous about being interviewed, particularly on a tape recorder. After describing her train rideshe won’t flyshe braced herself and asked if I wouldn’t begin the testing research 2011, questioning. Once the interview got underway, she grew more at ease. As she herself might say, she was “not unforthcoming.” She speaks deliberately with a deep Southern drawl, measuring her words. She is extremely private and won’t reveal anything personal about herself.
You wrote somewhere that we should still tolerate Jane Austen’s kind of family novel. Is Austen a kindred spirit? Tolerate ? I should just think so! I love and admire all she does, and profoundly, but I don’t read her or anyone else for “kindredness.” The piece you’re referring to was written on assignment for Brief Lives , an anthology Louis Kronenberger was editing. He did offer me either Jane Austen or Chekhov, and Chekhov I do dare to think is is synthesising data, more “kindred.” I feel closer to rules, him in spirit, but I couldn’t read Russian, which I felt whoever wrote about him should be able to do. Chekhov is what, one of usso close to table rules essay, today’s world, to my mind, and very close to the Southwhich Stark Young pointed out a long time ago. Why is data, Chekhov close to animal persuasive essay, today’s South? He loved the singularity in people, the what data, individuality.
He took for microscopy, granted the what is synthesising, sense of research microscopy family. He had the sense of fate overtaking a way of data life, and his Russian humor seems to me kin to the humor of table a Southerner. It’s the kind that lies mostly in character. You know, in Uncle Vanya and The Cherry Orchard , how people are always gathered together and talking and talking, no one’s really listening. Yet there’s a great love and understanding that prevails through it, and a knowledge and acceptance of each other’s idiosyncrasies, a tolerance of them, and also an acute enjoyment of the dramatic.
Like in The Three Sisters , when the fire is going on, how they talk right on through their exhaustion, and is synthesising data, Vershinin says, “I feel a strange excitement in the air,” and laughs and sings and talks about the future. Tennis Rules. That kind of responsiveness to the world, to whatever happens, out of their own deeps of character seems very southern to me. Is Synthesising Data. Anyway, I took a temperamental delight in Chekhov, and gradually the connection was borne in upon me. Do you ever return to Virginia Woolf? Yes. She was the one who opened the door. When I read To the Lighthouse , I felt, Heavens, what is this? I was so excited by the experience I couldn’t sleep or eat.
I’ve read it many times since, though more often these days I go back to her diary. Any day you open it to will be tragic, and yet all the testing papers, marvelous things she says about her work, about working, leave you filled with joy that’s stronger than your misery for her. Remember“I’m not very far along, but I think I have my statues against what is synthesising, the sky”?* Isn’t that beautiful? About your own work, are you surprised that Losing Battles was on the best-seller lista first for you, I believe? It occurred to me right at first it must be a flukethat whoever had that place on the best-seller list had just got up and given me his seatlet the lady sit down, she’s tottering.
Yet any reception would have surprised meor you could just as well say nothing would have surprised me, because I wasn’t thinking of how it would be received when I wrote it. I thought about the opinion of spence a handful of friends I would love to what is synthesising, have love that book, but not about the public. Do you write for your friends? At the time of writing, I don’t write for my friends or myself, either; I write for it , for the pleasure of achievement essay it . What Is Synthesising Data. I believe if I stopped to wonder what So-and-so would think, or what I’d feel like if this were read by a stranger, I would be paralyzed. I care what my friends think, very deeplyand it’s only after they’ve read the finished thing that I really can rest, deep down. But in the writing, I have to just keep going straight through with only the thing in spence plagiarized, mind and what it dictates. It’s so much an inward thing that reading the proofs later can be a real shock. Is Synthesising. When I received them for my first bookno, I guess it was for Delta Wedding I thought, I didn’t write this. It was a page of dialogueI might as well have never seen it before.
I wrote to my editor, John Woodburn, and told him something had happened to that page in research papers, the typesetting. He was kind, not even surprisedmaybe this happens to all writers. He called me up and read me from the data, manuscriptword for word what the issues in pakistan, proofs said. Proofs don’t shock me any longer, yet there’s still a strange moment with every book when I move from the position of writer to the position of reader, and I suddenly see my words with the eyes of the cold public. It gives me a terrible sense of exposure, as if I’d gotten sunburned. Do you make changes in data, galleys? I correct or change words, but I can’t rewrite a scene or make a major change because there’s a sense then of on environmental in pakistan someone looking over my shoulder. It’s necessary, anyway, to trust that moment when you were sure at last you had done all you could, done your best for that time.
When it’s finally in print, you’re deliveredyou don’t ever have to look at it again. It’s too late to is synthesising data, worry about against testing persuasive, its failings. I’ll have to apply any lessons this book has taught me toward writing the is synthesising data, next one. Is Losing Battles a departure from your previous fiction? I wanted to see if I could do something that was new for me: translating every thought and feeling into action and speech, speech being another form of actionto bring the whole life of it off through the against animal persuasive, completed gesture, so to speak.
I felt that I’d been writing too much by is synthesising, way of description, of introspection on the part of table tennis essay my characters. What Is Synthesising Data. I tried to see if I could make everything shown, brought forth, without benefit of the author’s telling any more about what was going on inside the characters’ minds and hearts. For me, this makes almost certainly for comedywhich I love to write best of all. Now I see it might be a transition toward writing a play. Did you know what you were going to write before you put it on paper? Yes, it was there in my head, but events proliferated as I went along. Table Essay. For instance, I thought all the action in the novel would be contained in one day and night, but a folder started to fill up with things marked “Next A.M.” I didn’t foresee the stories that grew out of the data, storiesthat was one of the joys of papers electron microscopy working the novel out. I thought the book would be short, and instead it was three or four times longer than my normal work. What Is Synthesising Data. There’s no way of estimating its original length because I had great chunks of things in paper clips, which weren’t numbered until they went to the printer.
And I must have thrown away at least as much as I kept in the book. Did you learn anything new about rules, writing dialogue? I believe so. In its beginning, dialogue’s the easiest thing in the world to write when you have a good ear, which I think I have. But as it goes on, it’s the most difficult, because it has so many ways to function. Data. Sometimes I needed to make a speech do three or four or five things at oncereveal what the essay on environmental, character said but also what he thought he said, what he hid, what others were going to think he meant, and what they misunderstood, and so forthall in his single speech. And the speech would have to keep the essence of this one character, his whole particular outlook in concentrated form. This isn’t to say I succeeded.
But I guess it explains why dialogue gives me my greatest pleasure in writing. I used to data, laugh out non academic essay, loud sometimes when I wrote itthe way P. G. Wodehouse is said to data, do. I’d think of some things my characters would say, and even if I couldn’t use it, I would write the achievement essay, scene out just to let them loose on somethingmy private show. Sign up for the Paris Review newsletter and keep up with news, parties, readings, and more. Join the writers and staff of The Paris Review at our next event.
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resume part files Upon several occasions throughout your career you will need to provide your potential employer with important information about what is synthesising data your background and your qualifications. The most common method to electron, provide information to potential employers is to create a resume. A resume can create a vivid word picture of what is synthesising data yourself. The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently became more popular, and is often considered the newest form of popular media by non academic, many people. Data. In fact, making your resume available on the World Wide Web is comparable to broadcasting it on national television during prime time hours. The most obvious benefit you will immediately receive by making your resume available on the Web is that you will reach an non academic achievement essay unlimited number of people and have opened new doors to audiences you would otherwise probably have never reached before. Many companies will visit college resume lists searching for potential employees. If you have your resume on paper but not on the Web, they will undoubtedly never see it. Another benefit of is synthesising data creating an electronic resume is cost.
Many colleges provide space on their web server for their students' resumes free of charge. Using college web servers, students can practically eliminate paper and printing costs. Rather than performing mass mailings of your resume, you can reduce the papers, number of data printed copies you will need and essay, reserve these for companies you are particularly interested in. Is Synthesising Data. Other benefits you will receive by creating an HTML resume include: the software testing research papers 2011, ability to provide electronic links to your reference and previous employers as well as providing links to is synthesising, previous jobs or projects you have been involved with the ability to make updates immediately available ease of maintainability the ability to show that you can adapt to, and use new technology as it becomes available (a plus to many employers) simply making your resume look more professional. By creating your resume using HTML and making it available on the World Wide Web, you will improve your chances of getting a job that best suits your interests as well as your employer's interests. Writing Your Resume in HTML Format. CREATE YOUR RESUME ON A WORD PROCESSOR AND PRINT IT. When writing your resume, consult English books, writing guides, or take advantage of career services provided by many universities.
Be sure to table tennis rules, have someone proofread and what is synthesising data, review your resume. Many instructors in the English department of a University will gladly proofread your resume, but be sure to non academic achievement, give it to him/her enough in advance to provide enough time to review it and so that it will not be an what data inconvenience to him/her. Remember to essay in pakistan, be courteous and data, thank them; after all, they are doing you a big favor. It is much better to have a professor see your mistakes while you have the chance to software testing papers, correct them than for a potential employer to see them. It is important that your resume be grammatically correct as well as in the correct format. Your resume is often the first impression an employer will receive. It will be easier to htmlify your resume if you have already created it. By creating your resume first you can focus on is synthesising data formatting it rather than trying to create it and format it at the same time. SAVE YOUR WORD-PROCESSED RESUME IN TEXT (.txt) FORMAT. This can usually be done by using the tennis rules, save as option found under the file utilities of your favorite word processor. If you are unable to is synthesising data, locate a save as feature for your word processor consult your user's manual or contact customer support.
After selecting save as choose text or Ascii text from the table rules, available list of formats. By saving your resume in text form, you will be able to what is synthesising, add HTML formatting tags more easily. Although you could save your file in table tennis rules other formats, saving in what data text format will make it easier to edit because text file format does not save any formatting information. Other file formats embed formatting information like boldface, italics, and indentations as part of the file. When you view or edit word processor formatted files you will see formatting information that is unreadable by HTML browsers, thus you will need to delete it before you will be able to proceed. Editors allow you to change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and underscoring into the file. Many editors are available to use. Tennis Rules Essay. Some of the most common are: edit on DOS machines and PCs; emacs and vi on UNIX workstations; and edit on data VAX/VMS machines. You can also use your favorite word processor to open a text file. For more information on the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual.
Which editor you should use depends upon the type of system you are using and your preference between the editors on your system. Make sure you use an editor that you are familiar with. By using an testing papers 2011 unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of what is synthesising your time trying to learn to use the editor rather than actually creating your resume. Throughout the remainder of this document I will base the research papers electron, steps on the DOS editor and a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the editor by what data, typing edit at a DOS prompt, or the research papers, appropriate command for the editor you intend to use. Next, choose the Open File option from the FILE menu.
Fill in the filename you choose earlier or use the browse feature to locate the file. Elements of an HTML document are denoted using HTML tags. An HTML tag usually consists of a left angle bracket ( ). Tags are also usually paired (e.g. ltP and lt/P), the first is what is synthesising data, used to essay, identify the beginning of the element and is synthesising data, the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the element. Non Academic Achievement Essay. Some tags may also contain additional information. Data. This information should be placed inside the angle brackets. For example, to display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt. HTML documents have a minimum requirement of tags. These tags are required by microscopy, HTML browsers in order to recognize a file as a HTML file. The following is a summary of the data, required HTML tags:
The required HTML tags must be placed in the appropriate order inside and HTML file. The following HTML is a simple example of the minimum HTML document. Using indentation can greatly improve the looks of your HTML, make it easier to read, and make it much easier to maintain. Although indentation is dissertation, not required, you should always use it to improve your HTML. The benefits greatly outweigh the extra time it takes to what, write your HTML. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the plagiarized dissertation, indentation will not be visible when the document is viewed using a HTML browser. What Is Synthesising. Here is the previous example written using indentation to make it easier to read. ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY. The use of additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the appearance of your resume. HTML contains numerous tags to use, in addition many new tags will be added in the future.
I could not possibly cover every tag here. However, I will briefly describe some of the commonly used and papers microscopy, most useful tags. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the is synthesising data, latest HTML reference manual. This manual can be found on the world wide web at http://www.sandia.gov/sci_compute/html_ref.html. The following table contains many of the most common and most useful HTML tags. You can use any of these tags by simply placing the begin tag, the text to format, and the end tag directly in your HTML document.
You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes. Non Academic. See step 9 for what data, instructions on testing research papers 2011 how to view your current HTML document. By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the tags. In order to ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into is synthesising, your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the .html or .htm extension. To do this choose save as from the file menu. Next you should choose the text or ASCII text format from the available format list. Finally, type your filename in the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the non academic achievement essay, name you wish to call your file (e.g. resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming. There are many tools available to what is synthesising, help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint.
For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and copy it. Chris Dissertation. One method of locating useful and is synthesising, free images is to research papers microscopy, view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of is synthesising data Clipart. Another method of locating useful images is to use the Yahoo search engine and search for the image. To do this simply type image:keyword in papers electron the Yahoo's search box and click on is synthesising data the search button. This type of searching is very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images.
If you are unable to create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to plagiarized, create the image for you. Although images can improve the appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly. Often the what, quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in persuasive essay the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in what is synthesising data size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and electron, will in turn drive impatient viewers away from your page.
In addition, you should keep the content of your images on a professional level unless the image directly relates to what data, your job qualification. For example it is acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an image into your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the testing research, ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the location and filename of your image. What Is Synthesising Data. For example, to display an image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in size, use the following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. Animal Testing Persuasive Essay. All images should be in the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to load your image.
Possible causes of data this problem are: you used an incompatible file format, the image does not exist, you did not specify the testing research 2011, correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the is synthesising data, file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to 770. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on microscopy its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at the command prompt. There are many browsers available for is synthesising, use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM.
Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by clicking on non academic achievement the Open File option on the File menu. Next, type the is synthesising, filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the browse feature to locate the file, then click on table rules essay the ok button. Your resume should be displayed in the browser window. Data. Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an excellent way to spence, ensure the content of your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes. Once you are familiar with the process of creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in any order. You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the links you've created using your HTML browser.
Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. What Is Synthesising. Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the impression a potential employer has on your resume. Broken links are usually the result of a typographical error or a link to a web site that no longer exists. Because the web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the resources for students to install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to software testing research papers, obtain information. You can often locate the Webmaster through an email address on is synthesising data the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and achievement essay, all of the images you have used to the directory your web provider specifies. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it.
Visit the URL your web provider supplies to insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to potential employers that contact you as soon as possible. In addition you should always mail a paper copy of your resume to any potential employers. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an what is synthesising data employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Java environment. Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the persuasive essay, Web.
Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to bring the reader a broader range of information. In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an excellent job of explaining to the reader how to create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course. Is Synthesising Data. The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code. I strongly agree with Mr. Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to testing essay, develop a Java application. An entire section of Java Report is devoted to Product Review. In this section the authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. What Is Synthesising. This information was the equivalent of a Consumer Reports article.
This section is a great source of information about testing essay individual products. In general, Java Report is a great source of information relating to what, the use and essay on environmental, development of Java applications for what data, any software developer. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the scope of the average reader. Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. Software Testing Research 2011. The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec.
C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and what is synthesising data, disadvantages of an HTML resume. The article, which appeared in The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. Against Animal Testing. Some of the topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the searchability of data HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and essay in pakistan, the dehumanization of the process. Mr.
Rampe also discusses the what data, importance of writing your HTML resume in the proper fashion, to the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to achievement, address your resume to 'Dear Computer. What Data. ' and just ignore the dehumanization of it all. In addition, the article provides the URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the reader get started. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of plagiarized dissertation information and should be reviewed by anyone who decides to create and HTML resume. Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Rampe provides an ample amount of is synthesising information and resources necessary to create an HTML resume. Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to decide the necessity of an on environmental issues HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996.
Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the most complete and what is synthesising data, useful source of against testing persuasive HTML information. Although the manual is currently over a year old, the information it contains is accurate, precise and very helpful. The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions. Next the authors validate the what data, document's content by discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the importance of Sandia requirements for essay on environmental in pakistan, specific HTML elements. What. Next the authors discuss the general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Finally, the spence plagiarized, authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into what is synthesising, a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in non academic essay content of, and variations. In addition the document contains an easy to use index which allows the reader to jump directly to any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available. In addition it is what data, well written, well organized and research papers, very easy to use. What. This document is an excellent source of information for software 2011, both the novice and expert HTML programmers.
Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by what is synthesising, their respective owners.
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and is synthesising Sample Essays. Papers Electron. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas.
You'll write faster and what data easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about table tennis, can make research faster and easier. What Data. Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is research microscopy half done. Is Synthesising Data. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too.
Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for software testing research papers 2011, how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and data relationships, and science and technology, with videos and many links to against animal testing research and data student essay examples. 3. Non Academic Achievement. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about data, makes writing an against persuasive, argument essay easier.
Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. Is Synthesising Data. It also helps if the animal persuasive, topic is is synthesising something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from table tennis rules, people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to what is synthesising you and that you care about. Chris Dissertation. Steer clear of is synthesising overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and against animal testing persuasive is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about what data, these issues and it is hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it?
Do the testing papers 2011, economic benefits of what data cutting down forests outweigh the software research, environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of data love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for persuasive essay, a father to what raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for essay in pakistan, a family?
Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the what is synthesising, hunger faced by papers microscopy, people around the what is synthesising data, world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor?
How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult?
Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the software research papers, size of data soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and essay in pakistan other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in is synthesising data students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy?
Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese?
Is surgery a good method for people to papers lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on what, Obesity and plagiarized Dieting.
Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. What Is Synthesising. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for papers electron, Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and what is synthesising data kept it off for research papers 2011, long periods of time. Overweight and what data Obesity.
U.S. government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference?
Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to testing 2011 litter?
What could motivate people to what is synthesising clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from essay issues, earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the what is synthesising data, environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is deforestation?
How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is electron fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution?
Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations?
Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world. What Is Synthesising Data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and on environmental in pakistan technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for your topic. What Data. U.S.
Government Recycling and software testing research 2011 Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from?
Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out what is synthesising data, of the friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children?
Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for microscopy, families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children?
Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the what data, expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and software 2011 how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage?
Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and what reading a book?
Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is better, the software research papers 2011, PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and what is synthesising quality of life?
How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and table tennis rules essay research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of what is synthesising data Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis).
Write down everything you know about the issues, topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the is synthesising data, research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at your question and on environmental refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it.
Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). What. Using those reasons, look at research papers electron the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper? Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by what is synthesising, Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Electron. This is a great resource. I've just entered into is synthesising, college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to essay on environmental issues in pakistan do with the is synthesising data, argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and testing research papers I need some reliable sites.
Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Is Synthesising. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for tennis rules, several years. I will have to put together some topics for what data, primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. Against Testing Essay. I am in what is synthesising primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Table Tennis Rules Essay. Good job making this page. I don't know what to what data do at first. I was clueless and essay on environmental in pakistan was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for this.
Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on what is synthesising data, how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on how to write an testing, argumentative paper.
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It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to what solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the chris spence plagiarized dissertation, other person and developing points that would persuade that person.
In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. What Is Synthesising. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Microscopy. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in what is synthesising data papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of persuasive essay providing useful links. What Data. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the state and the society.
For example, should the testing 2011, state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and what data food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for achievement essay, a good work!
Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Is Synthesising. Well done. should guns be allowed on research microscopy, school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. What Data. This is an chris spence plagiarized dissertation, interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial.
I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. What Is Synthesising. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to table tennis see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak.
Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. What Is Synthesising Data. Thank you so much for the topics. Against Animal Persuasive Essay. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article!
Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about. The less the words the greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the what data, case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from achievement essay, Australia. What an what is synthesising, interesting range of chris plagiarized ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal!
Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and what is synthesising data I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is animal essay very useful to what data those who must teach essay writing (and to essay issues those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp.
Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on what data, each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Against Persuasive. Very interesting. Fun ideas and data great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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Counterfactual Theories of Causation. The basic idea of counterfactual theories of data, causation is that the meaning of causal claims can be explained in terms of counterfactual conditionals of the form “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”. Essay On Environmental Issues? While counterfactual analyses have been given of type-causal concepts, most counterfactual analyses have focused on singular causal or token-causal claims of the form “event c caused event e ”. What Data? Analyses of token-causation have become popular in the last forty years, especially since the development in the 1970's of possible world semantics for counterfactuals. The best known counterfactual analysis of causation is David Lewis's (1973b) theory. However, intense discussion over achievement forty years has cast doubt on the adequacy of any simple analysis of singular causation in terms of counterfactuals. Recent years have seen a proliferation of different refinements of the what is synthesising basic idea to achieve a closer match with commonsense judgements about causation. The first explicit definition of causation in terms of counterfactuals was, surprisingly enough, given by Hume, when he wrote: “We may define a cause to be an object followed by another, and where all the objects, similar to non academic achievement, the first, are followed by what is synthesising, objects similar to the second . Or, in other words, where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed .” (1748, Section VII). It is difficult to understand how Hume could have confused the first, regularity definition with the second, very different counterfactual definition.
At any rate, Hume never explored the alternative counterfactual approach to causation. In this, as in tennis essay much else, he was followed by generations of empiricist philosophers. The chief obstacle in empiricists' minds to explaining causation in terms of counterfactuals was the obscurity of counterfactuals themselves, owing chiefly to their reference to unactualised possibilities. Starting with J. S. Mill (1843), empiricists tried to analyse counterfactuals ‘metalinguistically’ in terms of implication relations between statements. What Is Synthesising? The rough idea is that a counterfactual of the form “If it had been the case that A, it would have been the case that C ” is true if and issues, only if there is an auxiliary set S of true statements consistent with the antecedent A , such that the members of what, S , when conjoined with A , imply the consequent C . Much debate centred around the issue of the non academic essay precise specification of the set S . (See N. Goodman 1947.) Most empiricists agreed that S would have to what data, include statements of laws of table rules essay, nature, while some thought that it would have to what is synthesising, include statements of singular causation.
While the truth conditions of counterfactuals remained obscure, few empiricists thought it worthwhile to try to explain causation via counterfactuals. Indeed, the first real attempts to present rigorous counterfactual analyses of causation came only in the late 1960's. (See A. Lyon 1967.) Typical of these attempts was J. L. Mackie's counterfactual analysis in software papers 2011 Chapter 2 of his seminal book The Cement of the data Universe (1974). As well as offering a sophisticated regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, Mackie presented a counterfactual account of the concept of testing research 2011, a cause as “what makes the difference in relation to some background or causal field” (1980, p.xi). Mackie's account of the concept of causation is rich in is synthesising insights, especially concerning its relativity to a field of background conditions. Papers Electron? However, his account never gained as much attention as his regularity theory of causation ‘in the what objects’, no doubt because his view of on environmental, counterfactuals (in his (1973)), as condensed arguments that do not have truth values, compounded empiricists' scepticism about counterfactuals. The true potential of the counterfactual approach to causation did not become clear until counterfactuals became better understood through the what development of possible world semantics in the early 1970's. 2. Lewis's 1973 Counterfactual Analysis. The best known and animal testing persuasive essay, most thoroughly elaborated counterfactual theory of causation is David Lewis's theory in his (1973b), which was refined and extended in articles subsequently collected in is synthesising data his (1986a). In response to doubts about the theory's treatment of preemption, Lewis subsequently proposed a fairly radical revision of the theory. (See his Whitehead Lectures, first published in his (2000), and spence, reprinted in his (2004a).) In this section we shall confine our attention to is synthesising data, the original 1973 theory, deferring the rules later changes he proposed for consideration below.
2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence 2.2 The Asymmetry of Causal Dependence 2.3 Preemption and Transitivity 2.4 Chancy Causation 2.5 The Theory's Advantages. 2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence. Like most contemporary counterfactual theories, Lewis's theory employs a possible world semantics for counterfactuals. What? Such a semantics states truth conditions for counterfactuals in terms of similarity relations between possible worlds. Lewis famously espouses a realism about possible worlds, according to which non-actual possible worlds are real concrete entities on a par with the actual world. (See Lewis's defence of modal realism in his (1986e).) However, most contemporary philosophers would seek to deploy the explanatorily fruitful possible worlds framework while distancing themselves from full-blown realism about possible worlds themselves. On Environmental? For example, many would propose to understand possible worlds as maximally consistent sets of propositions; or even to treat them instrumentally as useful theoretical entities having no independent reality. The central notion of a possible world semantics for counterfactuals is a relation of comparative similarity between worlds (Lewis 1973a). What Is Synthesising Data? One world is said to be closer to actuality than another if the testing research first resembles the actual world more than the second does.
Shortly we shall consider the respects of similarity that Lewis says are important for the counterfactuals linked to causation. For now we simply note two formal constraints he imposes on this similarity relation. First, the relation of similarity produces a weak ordering of worlds so that any two worlds can be ordered with respect to their closeness to the actual world, with allowance being made for ties in closeness. Secondly, the actual world is closest to actuality, resembling itself more than any other world resembles it. In terms of this similarity relation, the truth condition for the counterfactual “If A were (or had been) the case, C would be (or have been) the case” is stated as follows: We shall ignore the first case in which the counterfactual is vacuously true. The fundamental idea of this analysis is that the counterfactual “If A were the what case, C would be the case” is true just in case it takes less of a departure from actuality to make the antecedent true along with the consequent than to make the antecedent true without the consequent. In terms of counterfactuals, Lewis defines a notion of causal dependence between events, which plays a central role in non academic achievement essay his theory of causation (1973b). This condition states that whether e occurs or not depends on whether c occurs or not. Data? Where c and e are actual occurrent events, this truth condition can be simplified somewhat.
For in table tennis this case it follows from the second formal condition on what the comparative similarity relation that the counterfactual “If c were to occur e would occur” is automatically true: this formal condition implies that a counterfactual with true antecedent and chris, true consequent is is synthesising, itself true. Consequently, the truth condition for causal dependence becomes: The right hand side of this condition is, of course, Hume's second definition of causation. (As we shall see shortly, Lewis's official definition of causation differs from non academic essay it, as he defines causation not in terms of causal dependence directly, but in terms of chains of causal dependence.) Why is is synthesising, it plausible to think that causation is conceptually linked with counterfactuals in the way specified by this definition of causal dependence? One reason is that the idea of essay, a cause is conceptually linked with the idea of something that makes a difference and this idea in turn is best understood in data terms of counterfactuals. In Lewis's words: “We think of chris plagiarized, a cause as something that makes a difference, and the difference it makes must be a difference from what would have happened without it. What? Had it been absent, its effects some of them, at papers, least, and usually all would have been absent as well.” (1973b, p.161)
There are three important things to note about the definition of causal dependence. What Data? First, it takes the persuasive essay primary relata of causal dependence to what is synthesising data, be events . Lewis's own theory of events (1986b) construes events as classes of possible spatiotemporal regions. Table Tennis Rules Essay? However, very different conceptions of events are compatible with the basic definition. Indeed, it even seems possible to formulate it in terms of facts rather than events. (For instance, see Mellor 1996, 2004.) Secondly, the definition requires the causally dependent events to be distinct from what is synthesising data each other. Distinctness means that the events are not identical, neither is part of the other, and research electron microscopy, neither implies the other. What Is Synthesising? This qualification is important if spurious non-causal dependences are to be ruled out. (For this point see Kim 1973 and Lewis 1986b.) For it may be that you would not have written “Lar” if you had not written “Larry”; and research papers microscopy, you would not have said “Hello” loudly if you had not said “Hello”. But neither dependence counts as a causal dependence since the what is synthesising paired events are not distinct from each other in the required sense. Thirdly, the counterfactuals that are employed in the analysis are to be understood according to what Lewis calls the standard interpretation. There are several possible ways of interpreting counterfactuals; and some interpretations give rise to spurious non-causal dependences between events.
For example, suppose that the events c and e are effects of a common cause d . It is tempting to reason that there must be a causal dependence between c and e by engaging in the following piece of counterfactual reasoning: if c had not occurred, then it would have to have been the case that d did not occur, in which case e would not have occurred. But Lewis says these counterfactuals, which he calls backtracking counterfactuals, are not to be used in the assessment of causal dependence. The right counterfactuals to be used are non-backtracking counterfactuals that typically hold the past fixed up until the time at which the counterfactual antecedent is research electron, supposed to obtain. 2.2 The Temporal Asymmetry of Causal Dependence. What constitutes the direction of the causal relation? Why is this direction typically aligned with the is synthesising data temporal direction from against animal essay past to future? In answer to these questions, Lewis (1979) argues that the direction of causation is the direction of causal dependence; and it is typically true that events causally depend on is synthesising earlier events but not on later events. He emphasises the software testing 2011 contingency of the latter fact because he regards backwards or time-reversed causation as a conceptual possibility that cannot be ruled out a priori . Accordingly, he dismisses any analysis of counterfactuals that would deliver the temporal asymmetry by conceptual fiat. Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence is is synthesising data, based on microscopy a de facto asymmetry about the actual world. He defines a determinant for an event as any set of is synthesising data, conditions jointly sufficient, given the laws of against animal persuasive, nature, for the event's occurrence. (Determinants of an event may be causes or traces of the event.) He claims it is contingently true that events typically have very few earlier determinants but very many later determinants. As an illustration, he cites Popper's (1956) example of a spherical wavefront expanding outwards from a point source.
This is a process where each sample of the wave postdetermines what happens at the point at which the wave is emitted. He says the reverse process in which a spherical wave contracts inward with each sample of wave predetermining what happens at the point the wave is absorbed would obey the laws of nature but seldom happens in actual fact. Lewis combines the de facto asymmetry of overdetermination with his analysis of the comparative similarity relation (1979). According to this analysis, there are several respects of similarity to is synthesising, be taken into plagiarized dissertation, account in what is synthesising evaluating non-backtracking counterfactuals: similarity with respect to laws of essay, nature and also similarity with respect to particular matters of fact. What Is Synthesising? Worlds are more similar to essay issues, the actual world the what data fewer miracles or violations of the actual laws of nature they contain. Again, worlds are more similar to the actual world the greater the spatio-temporal region of perfect match of particular fact they have with the actual world. If the actual world is research papers, governed by deterministic laws, these rules will clash in assessing which counterfactual worlds are more similar to the actual world. For a world that makes a counterfactual antecedent true must differ from the actual world either in allowing some violation of the actual laws, or in differing from the actual world in particular matters of what, fact.
Lewis's analysis allows a tradeoff between these competing respects of similarity in such cases. It implies that worlds with an extensive region of essay, perfect match of particular fact can be considered very similar to what is synthesising, the actual world provided that the match in particular facts with the actual world is achieved at the cost of a small, local miracle, but not at the cost of a big, diverse miracle. Taken by itself, this account contains no built-in time asymmetry. That comes only animal testing when it is combined with the what is synthesising data asymmetry of overdetermination. To see how the two parts combine, consider the research papers 2011 famous example of Nixon and the Nuclear Holocaust. An early objection to data, Lewis's account of counterfactuals (Fine 1975) was that, counterintuitively, it makes this counterfactual false:
The argument is that a world in which Nixon pressed the button, but some minute violation of the laws then prevented a nuclear war, is much more like the actual world than one in which Nixon pressed the tennis rules essay button and a nuclear war took place. Lewis replied (1979) that this does not accord with his account of the similarity relation. On this account, a button-pressing world that diverges from the actual world by virtue of what data, a miracle is papers microscopy, more like the is synthesising data actual world than a button-pressing world that converges with the actual world by virtue of a miracle. For in view of the asymmetry of overdetermination, the divergence miracle that allows Nixon to in pakistan, press the button need only be a small, local miracle, but the what is synthesising data convergence miracle required to chris dissertation, wipe out the traces of Nixon's pressing the button must be a very big, diverse miracle. What Is Synthesising? Of course, if the asymmetry of overdetermination went in achievement essay the opposite temporal direction, the very same standards of similarity would dictate the opposite verdict. In general, then, the symmetric analysis of similarity, combined with the de facto asymmetry of what is synthesising data, overdetermination, implies that worlds that accommodate counterfactual changes by research papers, preserving the actual past and data, allowing for table tennis essay divergence miracles are more similar to the actual world than worlds that accommodate such changes by allowing for is synthesising data convergence miracles that preserve the actual future. This fact in turn implies that, where the asymmetry of overdetermination obtains, the present counterfactually depends on table rules essay the past, but not on the future. According to Lewis, causal dependence between actual events is sufficient for causation, but not necessary (1973b): it is possible to have causation without causal dependence. This can happen in data the following way.
Suppose that c causes d in virtue of the microscopy fact that d causally depends on c , and what data, d causes e in virtue of the fact that e causally depends on animal persuasive essay d . Then because causation is transitive, Lewis insists, c must cause e . However, because causal dependence is not transitive like causation, the causal relation between c and e may not be matched by a causal dependence. What Data? (We shall shortly consider an example of this kind.) To overcome this problem Lewis extends causal dependence to papers, a transitive relation by what, taking its ancestral. Research? He defines a causal chain as a finite sequence of actual events c , d , e , where d causally depends on c , e on d , and so on throughout the sequence. Then causation is finally defined in these terms: This definition not only data ensures the transitivity of causation, but it also appears to solve an additional problem to do with preemption that is illustrated by the following example. Suppose that two crack marksmen conspire to assassinate a hated dictator, agreeing that one or other will shoot the dictator on a public occasion. Acting side-by-side, assassins A and B find a good vantage point, and, when the dictator appears, both take aim. A pulls his trigger and fires a shot that hits its mark, but B desists from firing when he sees A pull his trigger.
Here assassin A 's actions are the actual cause of the table tennis rules dictator's death, while B 's actions are a preempted potential cause. (Lewis distinguishes such cases of preemption from cases of symmetrical overdetermination in which two processes terminate in the effect, with neither process preempting the other. Lewis believes that these cases are not suitable test cases for what data a theory of research 2011, causation since they do not elicit clear judgements.) The problem raised by this example of what is synthesising data, preemption is that both actions are on a par from the against animal persuasive point of view of what, causal dependence: if neither A nor B acted, then the dictator would not have died; and if either had acted without the other, the dictator would have died. However, given the definition of chris spence plagiarized dissertation, causation in terms of causal chains, Lewis is able to distinguish the preempting actual cause from the preempted potential cause. There is is synthesising, a causal chain running from A 's actions to the dictator's death, but no such chain running from B 's actions to the dictator's death. Take, for papers 2011 example, as an intermediary event occurring between A 's taking aim and the dictator's death, the is synthesising data bullet from A 's gun speeding through the air in mid-trajectory. The speeding bullet causally depends on A 's action since the spence plagiarized dissertation bullet would not have been in mid-trajectory without A 's action; and the dictator's death causally depends on the speeding bullet since by the time the bullet is in data mid-trajectory B has refrained from firing so that the dictator would not have died without the presence of the speeding bullet. (Notice that this case illustrates the papers failure of transitivity of is synthesising data, causal dependence since the dictator's death does not causally depend on non academic A 's actions.) Hence, we have a causal chain, and so causation.
But no corresponding intermediary can be found between B 's actions and the dictator's death; and for this reason B 's actions do not count as an actual cause of the death. So far we have considered how the counterfactual theory of what, causation works under the software testing papers 2011 assumption of determinism. But what about causation when determinism fails? Lewis (1986c) argues that chancy causation is a conceptual possibility that must be accommodated by a theory of causation. Indeed, contemporary physics tells us the actual world abounds with probabilistic processes that are causal in is synthesising data character. To take a familiar example (Lewis 1986c): suppose that you mischievously hook up a bomb to a radioactive source and geiger counter in such a way that the testing papers bomb explodes when the counter registers a certain number of clicks.
If it happens that the counter registers the required number of clicks and the bomb explodes, your act caused the explosion, even though there is no deterministic connection between them. In order to accommodate chancy causation, Lewis (1986c) defines a more general notion of causal dependence in terms of chancy counterfactuals. Is Synthesising Data? These counterfactuals are of the form “If A were the case Pr ( C ) would be x ”, where the counterfactual is an ordinary would-counterfactual, interpreted according to the semantics above, and the Pr operator is a probability operator with narrow scope confined to the consequent of the counterfactual. Lewis interprets the probabilities involved as temporally indexed single-case chances. (See his (1980) for the theory of single-case chance.) The more general notion of causal dependence reads: This definition covers cases of deterministic causation in which the chance of the effect with the cause is 1 and the chance of the effect without the cause is 0. But it also allows for cases of irreducible probabilistic causation where these chances can take non-extreme values. It is similar to achievement essay, the central notion of probabilistic relevance used in is synthesising probabilistic theories of type-causation, except that it employs chancy counterfactuals rather than conditional probabilities. (See the discussion in research papers microscopy Lewis 1986c for the advantages of the counterfactual approach over is synthesising the probabilistic one.
Also see the entry “Probabilistic Causation”.) The rest of the theory of tennis rules essay, chancy causation follows the outlines of the theory of what is synthesising data, deterministic causation. Causal dependence is extended to a transitive notion by taking its ancestral. As before, we have causation when we have one or more steps of causal dependence. Before turning to survey some of the problems confronting Lewis's theory of causation, it is worthwhile pausing to consider some of the animal essay advantages it affords. At the time that Lewis advanced his original theory, regularity theories of causation were the orthodoxy. Taking Hume's first definition as their point of departure, these theories defined causation in terms of subsumption under lawful regularities.
A typical formulation went like this: c is a cause of e if and only c belongs to a minimal set of conditions that are jointly suficient for e , given the laws. It was well known that theories of this kind were faced with a number of recalcitrant counterexamples. Thus, while c might belong to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for what is synthesising data e when c is against animal testing persuasive essay, a genuine cause of e , this might also be true when c is an effect of data, e an effect which could not have occurred, given the laws and the actual circumstances, except by being caused by e . Or it might be true when c and e are joint effects of a common deterministic cause. Or when c is a preempted potential cause of e something that did not cause e , but would have done so if the actual cause had been absent. In contrast, Lewis's counterfactual analysis of causation is not subject to the same counterexamples, so long the counterfactuals in the definition of software research papers 2011, causal dependence and causation are interpreted in a non-backtracking fashion. The theory implies that even if c belongs to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e , e will not causally depend on c when c occurs after e as its effect, since earlier events do not typically causally depend on is synthesising later events. Nor will e causally depend on c when c and in pakistan, e are joint effects of a common cause, since the non-backtracking counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would still have occurred” will be true in is synthesising view of the animal persuasive essay fact that it holds fixed the presence of the common cause. Nor will c count as a cause of e when c is a preempted potential cause of e in a typical case of what, preemption. For, as we have seen, c will not be connected to e by a chain of causal dependences. So at against animal testing persuasive essay, the time it was first proposed, Lewis's counterfactual analysis offered considerable explanatory benefits. (For a more negative assessment of the explanatory benefits of Lewis's theory see Horwich 1987.
For extensive discussions of the merits of counterfactual theories of causation, including Lewis's, see Moore 2009: Chaps. What Is Synthesising? 16-17; Paul 2009; Paul and Hall 2013 passim ). 3. Problems for Lewis's Counterfactual Theory. In this section we consider the table rules essay principal difficulties for Lewis's theory that have emerged in discussion over the last thirty years. 3.1 Context-sensitivity 3.2 Temporal Asymmetry 3.3 Transitivity 3.4 Preemption. In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to data, the context-sensitivity of causal statements. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Hitchcock, forthcoming; Hitchcock 1996a, 1996b, 2007; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009; Maslen 2004; Menzies 2004a, 2007, 2009; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005, 2013) In so far as Lewis's theory overlooks this context-sensitivity, it represents a shortcoming of the theory. The theory assumes that causation is an absolute relation whose nature does not vary from one context to another. Research Papers? (This follows from the way the counterfactuals that define the central notion of what is synthesising data, causal dependence are governed by a unique, context-invariant system of weighted respects of similarity.) According to the theory, any event but for which an effect would not have occurred is one of the effect's causes.
But this generates some absurd results. For example, suppose a camper lights a fire, a sudden gust of wind fans the fire, the fire gets out of control and the forest burns down. It is essay, true that if the camper had not lit the fire, the forest fire would not have occurred. But it is is synthesising, also true that the forest fire would not have occurred if any of a vast number of contingencies, including the camper's birth and his failure to research papers, be struck down by a meteor before striking the match, had not occurred. But commonsense draws a distinction between causes and background conditions, ranking the camper's lighting of the fire among the former, and his birth and his failure to be struck down by data, a meteor, among the latter. H. L. A. Hart and A. Honoré (1965; 2nd ed 1985) argue that the distinction between causes and conditions is spence dissertation, relative to context in at least two different ways. One form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of occurrence.
If a forest is destroyed by what is synthesising data, fire, the presence of oxygen would be cited as a mere condition of the tennis rules essay forest's destruction. On the data other hand, if a fire breaks out in a laboratory where oxygen is deliberately excluded, it may be appropriate to cite the presence of oxygen as a cause of the fire. The second form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of enquiry. For example, the cause of a great famine in India may be identified by non academic, an Indian farmer as the drought, but the World Food Authority may identify the Indian government's failure to what is synthesising data, build up reserves as the software testing papers 2011 cause, and the drought as a mere condition. For the what is synthesising data most part, Lewis ignores these subtle context-sensitive distinctions, as he says he is interested in a broad, non-discriminatory notion of table, cause. In his view (1986d), every event has an objective causal history consisting of a vast structure of events ordered by causal dependence. What? The human mind may select parts of the non academic achievement causal history for attention, perhaps different parts for different purposes of enquiry. However, Lewis does not specify the ‘principles of invidious selection’ by which some parts of the what data causal history are selected for attention, except to mention the animal persuasive essay relevance of Grice's maxims of conversation. But Grice's maxims of conversation, as general principles of rational information exchange, are not well suited to explaining the data causation-specific distinctions we draw. As several philosophers have pointed out (A.
Garfinkel (1981); C. Hitchcock (1996a, 1996b); P. Lipton (1990); J. Woodward (1984); and B. Van Fraassen (1981)), some of the contextual principles behind our causal judgements seem to rely on considerations concerning which class of situations the effect is contrasted with. Thus, in the example of the Indian famine, we contrast the on environmental actual situation in what is synthesising data which a famine occurs with another situation in which normal conditions prevail and a famine does not occur. On Environmental Issues In Pakistan? A cause is then thought of as a factor that makes the what data difference between these situations; and the background conditions are thought of as those factors that are common to the two situations. In different contexts of enquiry, the contrast situation is framed in different terms. A farmer may take the research microscopy contrast situation to be the normal situation in which the government does not stockpile food reserves but there is no famine. In this case it would be reasonable for what the farmer to identify the drought as the factor that makes the difference between this contrast situation and essay, the actual situation in which there is famine.
On the is synthesising data other hand, an official of the World Food Authority with a different conception of what normally happens may take the contrast situation to be one in which governments build up food reserves as a precaution against droughts. Consequently, it would be reasonable for chris spence plagiarized dissertation the official to see the is synthesising failure of the government to testing papers 2011, build up food reserves as the factor that makes the what is synthesising data difference between the contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is a famine. (For discussion of the on environmental relevance of contrastive explanation to the causes/conditions distinction see Menzies 2007 and Schaffer 2005.) A good case can be made that causal statements display contrast-relativity not only at what is synthesising data, the effect-end but also at the cause-end. (See Hitchcock, 1996a, 1996b; Maslen 2004; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005) Recognising this helps to deal with a problem affecting Lewis's original theory. Software Papers? In evaluating whether an event c caused an event e , Lewis's theory says we have to is synthesising, consider what would have happened in those closest worlds in which c did not occur. For example, in non academic achievement evaluating whether the camper's lighting of the fire caused the what is synthesising forest, we have to consider what would have happened in those closest possible worlds in which the camper's action of lighting the fire did not occur. Are these worlds in which the camper does not light the fire but does something else instead, or are they worlds in which he lights the spence fire in slightly different manner (perhaps with a lighter instead of matches) or at a slightly different time (three minutes later when the data wind died down)?
In order to answer such questions, Lewis says it is necessary to say how much of a change or a delay it takes for an event to become an altogether different event, rather than a different version of the same event. (Lewis sometimes discusses this issue as the question of how fragile events are: a modally fragile event is papers electron microscopy, one which cannot occur in a different manner or at a different time from its actual manner and time of occurrence. See Lewis 1986b.) The problem, as he sees it, is that there is no unique principled way in which we do this: there is linguistic indeterminancy about what event nominals refer to. He writes: “We have not made up our minds: and if we presuppose sometimes one answer and sometimes another answer, we are entirely within our linguistic rights. This is what is synthesising, itself a big problem for a counterfactual analysis of causation, quite apart from the animal essay problem of preemption.” (2000, p.186) However, if we recognise that the cause-end of data, causal statements displays contrast-relativity as well as the effect-end, we can obviate the need to provide an account of the microscopy identity of events under counterfactual changes. For example, suppose we are interested in why the forest fire took one path P 1 rather than another path P 2 . Variation in the starting point of the fire will be relevant to this difference. So it would be appropriate to say that the camper's lighting the fire in location L 1 rather another location L 2 caused the forest fire to take path P 1 rather than P 2 . On the other hand, suppose that we are interested in why the forest occurred rather did not occur at all. Variation in the starting point of the fire will probably not be relevant to this contrast. Rather the appropriate causal statement will be one that says the what is synthesising data camper's lighting the fire (in some or other location) rather his not lighting it (in any location) caused the fire to occur rather than not to occur. Such causal statements reveal the relevant contrasts at both the cause- and the effect-ends. Sometimes, such contrasts are indicated by papers microscopy, the use of what data, emphasis as in “The fire's starting in location L 1 caused the fire to take path P 1 ”.
But more often than not the surface form of causal statements does not disclose the table tennis contrasts that are intended and they must be supplied by context. This fact means that there may be linguistic indeterminacy in causal statements. But it is is synthesising data, not indeterminacy about the reference of event nominals, but rather about the situations that are intended as contrasts for non academic the cause and the effect. Once these are resolved the linguistic indeterminacy is resolved as well. The contrast-relativity of causal statements, if it is genuine, has significant implications for the form that a counterfactual analysis should take. Those who accept the what is synthesising data arguments above for the context-relativity of causal statements think that the canonical form of causal statements is “ c rather than c* caused e rather than e* ”, where the contrast situations c* and e* are supplied by context. This suggests that the definition of causal dependence should not be formulated in achievement terms of the counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would not have occurred”, but the more specific counterfactual “If c* had occurred instead of c , then e* would have occurred instead of e ”. This formulation has several advantages over the old formulation. (For discussion of this point see Schaffer 2005. For criticisms see Steglich-Petersen 2012; Reiss 2013) Its chief advantage from the point of our discussion is that it obviates the need for the counterfactual theory to provide an account of the identity of is synthesising, events under hypothetical changes. With this new formulation, there is no need to work out chris dissertation, whether c* and e* are identical with, or different from, c and e ,respectively. It is data, simply stipulated on the basis of research papers, contextual considerations that c* and e* are intended to act as contrasts to c and e . There have been several important critical discussions of Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of causation. (See Elga 2000; Frisch 2007; Hausman 1998: Chap.
6; Horwich 1987: Chap. 10; Loewer 2007; Kutach 2013: Chaps. 3-7; Price 1996: Chap. 6.; Price and Weslake 2009) One kind of data, criticism has focused on the psychological implausibility of chris spence plagiarized dissertation, Lewis's explanation. (See Horwich 1987.) Recall that the explanation appeals, on is synthesising the one hand, to a system of tennis, weighted respects of similarity between possible worlds that is delivered by a priori conceptual analysis and, on data the other hand, to an asymmetry of overdetermination that is claimed to be a contingent a posteriori truth about the actual world. The two-part explanation is supposed to employ facts that are sufficiently well known to play a role in the explanation of our linguistic use of counterfactuals. However, it is psychologically implausible that the intricate system of non academic, weighted respects of similarity involving comparison of what is synthesising, miracles of different sizes could capture the intuitive similarity relation used in counterfactual reasoning. Why should we have developed such a baroque notion of similarity?
Moreover, the asymmetry of overdetermination is an esoteric scientific hypothesis that is not common knowledge to everyone using counterfactuals. So it is very unlikely that this hypothesis could account for ordinary speakers' mastery of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. (For Lewis's reply to this criticism see Postscript E to “Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow” in his (1986a, p. 66).) Another criticism is that the asymmetry of overdetermination does not exist in the form required to support Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of microscopy, counterfactuals. Lewis's idea is that any event e has many postdeterminants and few predeterminants, where a predeterminant or postdeterminant of an event is a set of conditions that are jointly sufficient, given the what data laws of non academic, nature, for the occurrence of the event. But if Lewis is assuming that the laws involved are like those of classical mechanics, he is data, mistaken on this score. For a theory that is time symmetric and deterministic in both the forward and backward direction will imply that for any local event e and any time t , there is a unique set of conditions obtaining at t that are necessary and sufficient, given the laws, for the occurrence of the on environmental issues in pakistan event e . The conditions may not be localized conditions that are typically regarded as events, but nonetheless they will qualify as predeterminant or postdeterminants. Data? For example, consider Popper's example of the wave spreading out from a point source. If there is a process that postdetermines what happens at the point at electron microscopy, which the wave is emitted, there is also a process, perhaps a very unlocalized process, that predetermines this. Pace Popper and is synthesising, Lewis, both processes are equally likely; and whether they occur depends on the boundary conditions of the system. (For discussion of this point see Arntzenius 1993; Frisch 2005; North 2003; Price 1996. Also see the entry “Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time”.)
A related criticism concerns the asymmetry of miracles that is central to Lewis's account of the temporal asymmetry of causation. The asymmetry of miracles consists in the fact that a miracle that realises a counterfactual antecedent about particular facts at time t by having a possible world diverge from the software papers actual world just before the time t is smaller and less diverse than a miracle that realises the same counterfactual antecedent and makes a possible world converge to the actual world after the what time t . Adam Elga (2000) has argued that the asymmetry of miracles does not hold in non academic many cases. Elga's argument proceeds by way of an example: Gretta cracks an egg into a hot frying pan at 8:00am and at 8:05am the egg is cooked. Consider the is synthesising process that occurs in the period from 8:00am to 8:05am, run backwards in spence dissertation time: a cooked egg sits in the frypan; it coalesces into a raw egg and leaps upward; and a shell closes around it. The laws of thermodynamics allows that this process is physically possible but extremely rare. These laws also state that the process is very sensitive in its initial conditions: even the slightest changes in the molecules making up the state of the cooked egg would result in the process evolving in such a way that the cooked egg continues to sit in the pan rather than coalescing into a raw egg and leaping upwards. But this is, Elga points out, exactly the kind of change that would make for a “convergence miracle”. Take the state of the actual world at 8:05am, holding fixed its future after this point; make some small changes to the molecules making up this state; and what is synthesising data, then run the laws of thermodynamics backwards in time, and we will almost certainly arrive at a state in which the research egg sits in is synthesising the pan growing colder.
This state will be one in which Gretta does not crack the egg. The small change in the state of the actual world at 8:05am is a “convergence miracle” that yields a possible world that realises the counterfactual proposition that Gretta does not crack the egg at 8:00am while holding fixed the animal persuasive actual future after 8:05am. But this miracle is not the what large, diverse miracle that Lewis claims a convergence miracle would have to be. As we have seen, Lewis builds transitivity into causation by defining it in non academic essay terms of chains of what data, causal dependence. Essay Issues? The transitivity of causation fits with some of our explanatory practices.
For example, historians wishing to what, explain some significant historical event will trace the explanation back through a number of causal links, concluding that the event at the beginning of the causal chain is responsible for chris plagiarized dissertation the event being explained. On the other hand, a number of counter-examples have been presented which cast doubt on transitivity. (Lewis 2004a presents a short catalogue of these counterexamples.) Here is a sample of two counterexamples. First, an example due to Ned Hall (2004). A person is data, walking along a mountain trail, when a boulder high above is dislodged and comes careering down the mountain slopes. The walker notices the boulder and ducks at the appropriate time. The careering boulder causes the walker to duck and this, in turn, causes his continued stride. (This second causal link involves double prevention : the duck prevents the collision between walker and boulder which, had it occurred, would have prevented the walker's continued stride.) However, the careering boulder is the sort of thing that would prevent the walker's continued stride and so it seems counterintuitive to say that it causes the stride. Second, an example due to Douglas Ehring (1987). Jones puts some potassium salts into a hot fire.
Because potassium compounds produce a purple flame when heated, the flame changes to achievement, a purple colour, though everything else remains the same. The purple flame ignites some flammable material nearby. Here we judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the purple flame, which in turn caused the flammable material to ignite. But it seems implausible to judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the flammable material to ignite. Various replies have been made to these counterexamples. The second counterexample seems the most easily deflected. For example, Maslen (2004), who endorses the contrast-relativity of causal statements, has argued that this example is misdiagnosed as a counterexample to transitivity, as the contrast situation at the effect-end of the first causal statement does not match up with the contrast situation at the cause-end of the second causal statement. Thus, the first causal statement should be interpreted as saying that Jones's putting potassium salts in the fire rather not doing so caused the flame to what data, turn purple rather than yellow ; but the second causal statement should be interpreted as saying that the purple fire's occurring rather than not occurring caused the flammable material to spence, ignite rather not to ignite. Where there is a mismatch of this kind, we do not have a genuine counterexample to data, transitivity.
L. Paul (2004) offers a similar diagnosis of the second example, though her diagnosis proceeds in terms of essay on environmental, event aspects, which she takes to be causation's primary relata. She argues similarly that there is data, mismatch between the event aspect that is the effect of the first causal link (the flame's being a purple colour) and the event aspect that is the cause of the second causal link (the flame's touching the flammable material). The first example cannot be handled in the same way. Some defenders of essay on environmental, transitivity have replied that our intuitions about the what is synthesising data intransitivity of non academic, causation in these examples are misleading. What? For instance, Lewis (2004a) points out that the research electron counterexamples to transitivity typically involve a structure in which a c -type event generally prevents an e -type but in the particular case the c -event actually causes another event that counters the threat and causes the data e -event. If we mix up questions of what is generally conducive to what, with questions about what caused what in this particular case, he says, we may think that it is software testing, reasonable to deny that c causes e . But if we keep the focus sharply on the particular case, we must insist that c does in fact cause e . The debate about the transitivity of causation is not easily settled, partly because it is tied up with the issue of how it is best for data a counterfactual theory to deal with examples of preemption. As we have seen, Lewis's counterfactual theory relies on the transitivity of causation to handle cases of preemption. Essay On Environmental? If such cases could be handled in some other way, that would take some of the theoretical pressure off the theory, allowing it concede the persuasive counterexamples to transitivity without succumbing to the difficulties posed by preemption. (For more on this point see Hitchcock 2001.
For an extensive discussion of the what is synthesising issues around transitivity see Paul and Hall: Chap. 5.) As we have seen, Lewis employs his strategy of defining causation in terms of chains of essay, causal dependence not only to make causation transitive, but also to deal with preemption examples. However, there are preemption examples that this strategy cannot deal with satisfactorily. Difficulties concerning preemption have proven to be the biggest bugbear for Lewis's theory.(Paul and Hall 2013: Chap 3 contains an extensive discussion of the problems posed by preemption and other kinds of redundant causation for counterfactual theories.) In his (1986c), Lewis distinguishes cases of early and late preemption . In early preemption examples, the is synthesising data process running from the preempted alternative is cut short before the main process running from the preempting cause has gone to completion. The example of the two assassins, given above, is an example of this sort. The theory of causation in terms of chains of causal dependence can handle this sort of example.
In contrast, cases of late preemption are ones in which the process running from the preempted cause is cut short only after the main process has gone to completion and brought about the effect. The following is an example of late preemption due to Hall (2004). Billy and Suzy throw rocks at a bottle. Suzy throws first so that her rock arrives first and shatters the non academic achievement essay glass. Without Suzy's throw, Billy's throw would have shattered the bottle. However, Suzy's throw is the actual cause of the shattered bottle, while Billy's throw is is synthesising, merely a preempted potential cause. Spence Plagiarized? This is a case of late preemption because the what is synthesising data alternative process (Billy's throw) is cut short after the main process (Suzy's throw) has actually brought about the effect. Lewis's theory cannot explain the judgement that Suzy's throw was the actual cause of the shattering of the bottle. For there is no causal dependence between Suzy's throw and the shattering, since even if Suzy had not thrown her rock, the chris spence dissertation bottle would have shattered due to Billy's throw. Nor is there a chain of stepwise dependences running cause to effect, because there is what data, no event intermediate between Suzy's throw and the shattering that links them up into a chain of dependences.
Take, for instance, Suzy's rock in non academic mid-trajectory. Certainly, this event depends on Suzy's initial throw, but the problem is that the shattering of the bottle does not depend on it, because even without it the what bottle would still have shattered because of research microscopy, Billy's throw. To be sure, the bottle shattering that would have occurred without Suzy's throw would be different from the bottle shattering that actually occurred with Suzy's throw. For a start, it would have occurred later. This observation suggests that one solution to the problem of late preemption might be to what, insist that the events involved should be construed as fragile events. Accordingly, it will be true rather than false that if Suzy had not thrown her rock, then the actual bottle shattering, taken as a fragile event with an essential time and manner of occurrence, would not have occurred. Essay On Environmental Issues In Pakistan? Lewis himself does not endorse this response on the grounds that a uniform policy of construing events as fragile would go against our usual practices, and would generate many spurious causal dependences. For example, suppose that a poison kills its victim more slowly and painfully when taken on a full stomach. Data? Then, the victim's eating dinner before he drinks the poison would count as a cause of his death since the time and manner of the death depend on the eating of the dinner. Essay? (For discussion of the limitations of what data, this response see Lewis 1986c, 2000.) When we turn from preemption examples involving deterministic causation to those involving chancy causation, we see that the problems for Lewis's theory multiply.
One particularly recalcitrant problem is described in Menzies 1989. (See also Woodward 1990.) Suppose that two systems can produce the same effect, perhaps at software research 2011, the same time and in the same manner. (It does not matter whether this is an example of early or late preemption.) However, one system is much more reliable than the other. The reliable system starts and, left to itself, will very probably produce the effect. But you do not leave it to itself. What Is Synthesising Data? You throw a switch that shuts down the reliable system and turns on plagiarized the unreliable one. As luck would have it, the what data unreliable system works and brings about the effect. Testing Persuasive? This kind of example presents a problem for the probabilistic generalisation of the counterfactual theory because the what preempting actual cause decreases the software papers chance of the effect while the preempted potential cause increases its chance. In addition to the problem of explaining how the preempting cause qualifies as a cause when the is synthesising data effect does not causally depend on it, the probabilistic counterfactual theory faces the problem of explaining how the preempted cause is not really a cause when the effect does causally depend on it.(Examples of this kind have been the subject of extensive discussion in the context of software testing research papers 2011, both counterfactual and what, probabilistic theories of causation. For discussions about how best to deal with them within theories admitting of achievement, indeterminism, see Barker 2004; Beebee 2004; Dowe 2000, 2004; Hitchcock 2004; Kvart 2004; Noordhof 1999, 2004; Ramachandran 1997, 2004.) In this section we shall consider some recent developments of the counterfactual approach to causation, which have been motivated by the desire to overcome the deficiencies in Lewis's 1973 theory, especially with respect to preemption. 4.1 Lewis's 2000 Theory 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.
In an attempt to what data, deal with the various problems facing his 1973 theory, Lewis developed a new version of the counterfactual theory, which he first presented in his Whitehead Lectures at Harvard University in March 1999. (A shortened version of the lectures appeared as his (2000). Plagiarized Dissertation? The full lectures are published as his (2004a).) Counterfactuals play a central role in the new theory, as in the old. Is Synthesising? But the counterfactuals it employs do not simply state dependences of software testing research papers 2011, whether one event occurs on whether another event occurs. The counterfactuals state dependences of whether , when , and how one event occurs on what data whether , when , and how another event occurs. A key idea in non academic the formulation of these counterfactuals is that of an what is synthesising data alteration of an event. This is an actualised or unactualised event that occurs at a slightly different time or in a slightly different manner from the given event. An alteration is, by definition, a very fragile event that could not occur at animal essay, a different time, or in a different manner without being a different event. Lewis intends the terminology to be neutral on the issue of whether an alteration of an event is a version of the same event or a numerically different event.
The central notion of the new theory is that of influence. Where one event influences another, there is a pattern of counterfactual dependence of whether, when, and how upon whether, when, and how. As before, causation is defined as an ancestral relation. One of the points Lewis advances in favour of what data, this new theory is that it handles cases of late as well as early pre-emption. (The theory is restricted to deterministic causation and so does not address the example of probabilistic preemption described in section 3.4.) Reconsider, for instance, the example of late preemption involving Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle. The theory is supposed to explain why Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, is the cause of the shattering of the bottle. If we take an alteration in which Suzy's throw is slightly different (the rock is lighter, or she throws sooner), while holding fixed Billy's throw, we find that the shattering is different too. But if we make similar alterations to Billy's throw while holding Suzy's throw fixed, we find that the shattering is unchanged. Another point in favour of the new theory is that it handles a type of preemption Lewis that have come to be called trumping . (Trumping was first described by Jonathan Schaffer(2000).) Lewis gives an example involving a major and a sergeant who are shouting orders at the soldiers. The major and testing 2011, sergeant simultaneously shout “Advance”; the soldiers hear them both and advance. Since the soldiers obey the superior officer, they advance because the major orders them to, not because the sergeant does.
So the major's command preempts or trumps the sergeant's. Where other theories have difficulty with trumping cases, Lewis's argues his new theory handles them with ease. Altering the major's command while holding fixed the sergeant's, the soldier's response would be correspondingly altered. In contrast, altering the sergeant's command, while holding fixed the major's, would make no difference at all. There is, however, some reason for scepticism about what, whether the new theory handles the examples of late preemption and trumping completely satisfactorily.
In the example of late preemption, Billy's throw has some degree of influence on the shattering of the bottle. For if Billy had thrown his rock earlier (so that it preceded Suzy's throw) and in a different manner, the bottle would have shattered earlier and in a different manner. Likewise, the sergeant's command has some degree of influence on the soldiers' advance in that if the sergeant had shouted earlier than the major with a different command, the soldiers would have obeyed his order. In response to these points, Lewis must say that these alterations of the events are too-distant to be considered relevant. But some metric of distance in alterations is required, since it seems that similar alterations of Suzy's throw and the major's command are relevant to their having causal influence. It has also been argued that the new theory generates a great number of spurious instances of causation. Research? (For discussion see Collins 2000; Kvart 2001.) The theory implies that any event that influences another event to a certain degree counts as one of its causes. But common sense is more discriminating about causes. To take an example of Jonathan Bennett (1987): rain in December delays a forest fire; if there had been no December rain, the forest would have caught fire in January rather than when it actually did in what is synthesising data February. Testing? The rain influences the fire with respect to its timing, location, rapidity, and so forth.
But common sense denies that the rain was a cause of the fire , though it allows that it is a cause of the what is synthesising delay in the fire . Similarly, in animal persuasive essay the example of the poison victim discussed above, the victim's ingesting poison on a full stomach influences the time and manner of his death (making it a slow and data, painful death), but common sense refuses to software testing research, countenance his eating dinner as a cause of his death , though it may countenance it as a cause of its being a slow and painful death . Pace Lewis, common sense does not take anything that affects the time and manner of an event to be a cause of the is synthesising data event simpliciter . 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation. One way of treating preemption that has been recently discussed departs from a purely counterfactual analysis of causation. Against Persuasive? It has been argued that preemption examples highlight the intuitive idea that causation is an is synthesising intrinsic relation between events, which is to say it is a local relation depending on the intrinsic properties of the events and what goes on between them, and nothing else. The proposed treatments of preemption marry this intuitive idea with a crucial deployment of counterfactuals. At one time Lewis himself resorted to research electron, this way of treating late preemption examples when he invoked the notion of quasi-dependence . (See his (1986c).) To explain this notion consider a case that resembles the case of Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle.
Suzy throws a rock and shatters the bottle in exactly the same way in which she does in the original case. But in this case Billy and his rock are entirely absent. Lewis argued that since the process in the original case and the process in the comparison case are intrinsically alike (and also obey the same laws), both or neither must be causal. However, the comparison process is surely a causal process since, thanks to Billy's absence, it exhibits a causal dependence. What Is Synthesising Data? Accordingly, the process in the original case must be a causal process too, even though it does not exhibit a causal dependence. In such examples Lewis has said that the actual process that does not exhibit causal dependence is, nonetheless, causal by courtesy: it exhibits quasi-dependence in virtue of essay in pakistan, its intrinsic resemblance to the causal process in what data the comparison case.
A related idea is pursued in Menzies (1996; 1999). Menzies argues that there is an chris spence plagiarized element in our concept of causation that resists capture in what is synthesising data purely counterfactual terms. Tennis Essay? This element consists in the idea that causation is a structural relation that underlies and supports causal dependences. This idea can be captured by treating the concept of causation as the concept of is synthesising data, a theoretical entity. Applying a standard treatment of against, theoretical concepts, he argues that causation should be defined as the unique occupant of data, a certain characteristic role given by the platitudes of the folk theory of causation. One platitude is that causation is an intrinsic relation between events. Another platitude is that it is research electron, typically , but not invariably, accompanied by causal dependence.
Accordingly, causation is defined in the following way: On this account, causation is not constituted by causal dependence. It is, in fact, a distinct relation for which causal dependence is, at best, a defeasible marker. Data? The relation may be identified a posteriori with some physically specifiable relation such as energy-momentum transfer. It may, indeed, be identified with different relations in different possible worlds. This definition is supposed to explain common sense intuitions about preemption examples.
For example, Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, caused the shattering of the bottle, because the intrinsic relation that typically accompanies causal dependence connects Suzy's throw, but not Billy's throw, with the shattering of the achievement bottle. Lewis later rejected the approach to preemption via quasi-dependence in favour of his 2000 theory in terms of influence. In Lewis 2004a and 2004b, he claims that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation do not do justice to the full range of our intuitions about causation. (For related points see Hall 2002, 2004.) He offers several reasons, but one reason will suffice for our discussion. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic matter does not apply to what is synthesising, cases of double prevention. Suppose that billiard balls 1 and 2 collide, preventing ball 1 from continuing on its way and hitting ball 3. Non Academic Achievement? If the collision of what, balls 1 and 3 had occurred, ball 3 would not have later collided with ball 4. Essay? So, we have double prevention: the what collision of balls 1 and 2 prevented the collision of balls 1 and 3, which would have prevented the later collision of balls 3 and software testing research papers 2011, 4. Here it seems reasonable to say that the what data collision of balls 1 and 2 was a cause of the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Lewis observes that the causation in such cases of double prevention is partly an extrinsic matter. If there had been some other obstruction that would have stopped ball 1 from papers microscopy hitting ball 3, the collision of 3 and 4 would not have depended on the collision of is synthesising data, 1 and 2. Chris Spence Plagiarized? Moreover, he notes that much of the spatiotemporal region between the is synthesising data collision of balls 1 and chris plagiarized, 2 and the collision of balls 3 and 4 is simply empty so that there is is synthesising data, no chain of events to serve as a connecting process between cause and effect. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic relation does not apply in this case. More generally, he argues that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation are overhasty generalisations of one specific kind of causation, and they fail to do justice to our intuitions about causation involving absences (as causes, effects or intermediaries). 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.
A number of contemporary philosophers (Hitchcock 2001, 2007; Woodward 2003; Woodward and essay issues, Hitchcock 2003) have explored an alternative counterfactual approach to causation that employs the structural equations framework. This framework, which has been used in the social sciences and biomedical sciences since the 1930s and 1940s, received its state-of-the-art formulation in Judea Pearl's landmark 2000 book. Hitchcock and Woodward acknowledge their debt to Pearl's work and to data, the related work on causal Bayes nets by chris spence plagiarized dissertation, Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and Richard Scheines (1993). However, while Pearl and data, Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines focus on issues to plagiarized, do with causal discovery and inference, Woodward and what data, Hitchcock focus on issues of the meaning of causal claims. For this reason, their formulations of the structural equations framework are better suited to the purposes of this discussion.
The exposition of this section follows that of Hitchcock 2001, in particular. While philosophical work using this framework has only just begun, it would seem that this framework looks likely to rival Lewis's framework in terms of essay on environmental issues in pakistan, its theoretical richness and fruitfulness. The structural equations framework describes the is synthesising data causal structure of a system in terms of a causal model of the system, which is papers, identified as an ordered pair V , E , where V is a set of variables and E a set of structural equations stating deterministic relations among the variables. (We shall confine our attention in this section to deterministic systems.) The variables in V describe the different possible states of the what data system in question. While they can take any number of values, in the simple examples to against animal persuasive, be considered here the what is synthesising variables are typically binary variables that take the value 1 if some event occurs and the value 0 if the event does not occur. For example, let us formulate a causal model to describe the system exemplified in the example of late preemption to do with Billy and Suzy's rock throwing. We might describe the research papers system using the following set of variables: BT = 1 if Billy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; ST = 1 if Suzy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; BH = 1 if Billy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; SH = 1 if Suzy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; BS = 1 if the bottle shatters, 0 otherwise. Here the variables are binary. But a different model might have used many-valued variables to represent the different ways in which Billy and Suzy threw their rocks, their rocks hit the bottle, or the bottle shattered.
The structural equations in a model describe the what data dynamical evolution of the system being modelled. There is a structural equation for research each variable. Data? The form taken by a structural equation for a variable depends on which kind of variable it is. The structural equation for an exogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors outside of the model) takes the form of Y = y , which simply states the actual value of the variable. The structural equation for an endogenous variable (the values of which are determined by papers, factors within the model) states how the what is synthesising data value of the variable is determined by the values of the other variables.
It takes the spence plagiarized form: What does this structural equation mean? There are in is synthesising data fact competing interpretations. Pearl (2000) regards the structural equations as the conceptual primitives of his framework, describing them as representing the chris spence basic mechanisms of the system under investigation. However, for the purposes of exposition, it is more convenient to follow the data interpretation of Woodward (2003) and Hitchcock (2001), who think of the structural equations as expressing certain basic counterfactuals of the non academic following form:
As this form of counterfactual suggests, the structural equations are to be read from right to left: the antecedent of the counterfactual states possible values of the variables X 1 through to what is synthesising, X n and the consequent states the corresponding value of the endogenous variable Y . There is a counterfactual of chris dissertation, this kind for is synthesising every combination of possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n . It is important to note that a structural equation of this kind is not, strictly speaking, an identity since there is testing papers, a right-to-left asymmetry built into it. This asymmetry corresponds to the asymmetry of non-backtracking counterfactuals. For example, supposing that the actual situation is one in is synthesising which neither Suzy nor Billy throws a rock so the bottle does not shatter, the non-backtracking counterfactual “If either Suzy or Billy had thrown a rock, the bottle would have shattered” is true. But the research papers counterfactual “If the bottle had shattered, either Suzy or Billy would have thrown a rock” is false. As an illustration, consider the set of data, structural equations that might be used to model the late preemption example of Billy and Suzy. Given the variables listed above, the structural equations might be stated as follows: In these equations logical symbols are used to represent mathematical functions on binary variables: X = 1 − X ; X v Y = max X , Y ; X Y = min X , Y . The first two equations simply state the actual values of the exogenous variables ST and BT . The third equation encodes two counterfactuals, one for each possible value of ST . It states that if Suzy threw a rock, her rock hit the bottle; and if she didn't throw a rock, her rock didn't hit the bottle. The fourth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of essay, values for what is synthesising BT and. SH . It states that if Billy threw a rock and Suzy's rock didn't hit the bottle, Billy's rock hit the bottle; but didn't do so if one or more of these conditions was not met.
The fifth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of values for SH and BH . Table Rules Essay? It states that if one or other (or possibly both) of Suzy's rock or Billy's rock hit the data bottle, the tennis essay bottle shattered; but if neither rock hit the data bottle, the bottle didn't shatter. The structural equations above can be represented in terms of a directed graph . On Environmental In Pakistan? The variables in the set V are represented as nodes in the graph. An arrow directed from one node X to another Y represents the fact that the variable X appears on the right-hand side of the structural equation for Y . In this case, X is said to data, be a parent of Y . Exogenous variables are represented by nodes that have no arrows directed towards them. A directed path from achievement X to Y in a graph is a sequence of arrows that connect X with Y . Data? The directed graph of the model described above of Billy and Suzy example is depicted in Figure 1 below: The arrows in this figure tell us that the bottle's shattering is a function of Suzy's rock hitting the bottle and microscopy, Billy's rock hitting the bottle; that Billy's rock hitting the bottle is what, a function of chris dissertation, Billy's throwing a rock and Suzy's rock hitting the bottle; and that Suzy's rock hitting the bottle is is synthesising data, a function of her throwing the rock. As we have seen, the structural equations directly encode some counterfactuals. Research Papers Microscopy? However, some counterfactuals that are not directly encoded can be derived from them. Consider, for example, the counterfactual “If Suzy's rock had not hit the bottle, it would still have shattered”.
As a matter of is synthesising data, fact, Suzy's rock did hit the bottle. But we can determine what would have happened if it hadn't done so, by replacing the structural equation for the endogenous variable SH with the equation SH = 0, keeping all the other equations unchanged. So, instead of having its value determined in the ordinary way by the variable ST , the value of SH is set “miraculously”. Pearl describes this as a “surgical intervention” that changes the value of the variable. In terms of its graphical representation,this amounts to microscopy, wiping out the is synthesising data arrow from the variable ST to software papers 2011, the variable SH and treating SH as if it were an exogenous variable. After this operation, the value of the variable BS can be computed and shown to what, be equal to 1: given that Billy had thrown his rock, his rock would have hit the bottle and shattered it. So this particular counterfactual is true. Spence? This procedure for is synthesising data evaluating counterfactuals has direct affinities with Lewis's non-backtracking interpretation of counterfactuals: the software surgical intervention that sets the variable SH at its hypothetical value but keeps all other equations unchanged is similar in what is synthesising data its effects to Lewis's small miracle that realises the counterfactual antecedent but preserves the past. In general, to evaluate a counterfactual, say “If it were the case that X 1 ,,X n , then ”, one replaces the original equation for each variable X i with a new equation stipulating its hypothetical value,while keeping the other equations unchanged; then one computes the values for the remaining variables to animal persuasive, see whether they make the consequent true. This technique of replacing an equation with a hypothetical value set by what is synthesising, a “surgical intervention” enables us to research papers, capture the notion of counterfactual dependence between variables:
How does the structural equations framework deal with examples of late pre-emption that pose such problems for what Lewis's counterfactual theory? Can this framework deliver the intuitively correct verdicts in the example about Suzy and Billy? Halpern and Pearl (2001,2005), Hitchcock (2001),and Woodward (2003a) all give roughly the non academic same treatment of examples of late preemption. The key to their treatment is the employment of a certain procedure for testing the existence of a causal relation. The procedure is to look for an intrinsic process connecting the putative cause and effect; suppress the influence of their non-intrinsic surroundings by “freezing” those surroundings as they actually are; and what is synthesising data, then subject the putative cause to a counterfactual test. Against Animal Testing? So, for example, to test whether the variable Suzy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter, we should examine the process running from ST through SH to BS ; hold fix at its actual value the variable BH which is what data, extrinsic to this process; and then wiggle the animal persuasive essay variable ST to what is synthesising data, see if it changes the value of on environmental issues in pakistan, BS . The last steps involve evaluating the counterfactual “If Suzy hadn't thrown a rock and Billy's rock hadn't hit the bottle, the bottle would not have shattered”. It is what data, easy to see that this counterfactual is true. In contrast, when we carry out a similar procedure to test whether Billy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter,we are required to consider the counterfactual “If Billy hadn't thrown his rock and testing essay, Suzy's rock had hit the what is synthesising data bottle, the bottle would not shattered”. This counterfactual is plagiarized, false. It is the difference in what is synthesising data the truth-value of these two counterfactuals that explains the fact that it was Suzy's rock throwing, and not Billy's, that caused the bottle to against animal persuasive, shatter. (A similar theory is developed in Yablo 2002 and 2004 though not in the structural equations framework.) Hitchcock (2001) presents a useful regimentation of what data, this reasoning.
He defines a route between two variables X and Z in the set V to be an ordered sequence of variables X , Y 1 ,, Y n , Z such each variable in the sequence is in V and is a parent of its successor in the sequence. A variable Y is spence, intermediate between X and Z if and only if it belongs to some route between X and Z . Then he introduces the new concept of an active causal route: This definition generalises the informal idea sketched in what data the example of Suzy and Billy. There is an active causal route going from Suzy's throwing her rock through her rock hitting the bottle to the bottle shattering: when we hold fixed Billy's rock not hitting the bottle, which is the actual value of the only intermediate variable BH that is not on this route, we see that the bottle's shattering counterfactually depends on Suzy's throwing her rock. There is, however, no active causal route between Billy's throwing his rock and the bottle shattering. In terms of the notion of an active causal route, Hitchcock defines actual or token causation in the following terms: A crucial notion in this definition is that of “an appropriate” model. Plagiarized Dissertation? It would be undesirable to have multiple structures of causal relations being posited by different models willy-nilly. So Hitchcock insists causal relations are revealed only by what, “appropriate models”.
He mentions a number of criteria for appraising whether a model is appropriate, the tennis most important one being that the structural equations posited by the model must not imply any false counterfactual. In order to deal with examples of symmetric overdetermination, Hitchcock (2001) defines a notion of a weakly active route , the essential idea being that there is a weakly active route between X and Y just when Y counterfactually depends on X under the freezing of some possible, not necessarily actual, values of the variables that are not on the route from X to Y . As we shall not be considering any examples of oversymmetric overdetermination, we shall focus on the stronger notion of an active causal route. This account of causation differs from Lewis's accounts in a number of respects. One difference is is synthesising data, that the account does not appeal to the transitivity of causation to essay on environmental issues, deal with preemption examples, in contrast to Lewis's accounts, both early and late. Hitchcock (2001) is at pains to stress that the structural equations framework described above allows for failures of transitivity. What Is Synthesising? Another difference between the accounts is that the structural equations account appeals to special counterfactuals with complex antecedents in order to handle preemption examples. These counterfactuals describe what would happen if a causal variable were changed when certain other variables are held fixed at testing persuasive, their actual values. (Hitchcock calls these “explicitly nonforetracking counterfactuals”.) Lewis's accounts does not make use of what is synthesising, such counterfactuals, relying as it does on counterfactuals with simple antecedents that describe single changes in the causal variables. Table Essay? The differences between the accounts should not, however, overshadow the similarities that also exist. Both accounts make central use of non-backtracking counterfactuals and they interpret these counterfactuals in roughly the same fashion. Setting aside complications to do with backwards causation, Lewis's account and what is synthesising, the structural equations account have us evaluate a non-backtracking counterfactual in much the same way: we are to dissertation, hold fixed the past history of the system, imagine that the antecedent is is synthesising data, realised “miraculously” by a surgical intervention from outside the system, and then consider how the new state of the system would evolve in conformity with the structural equations or laws of the system without any further interventions. How plausible is this new counterfactual approach to causation?
It is too early to say with any confidence, as the approach is still being developed. Nonetheless, some early problems have emerged. (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Pearl 2005; Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock 2007; Menzies 2004b; Weslake forthcoming.) Consider, for instance, the following example, which is a variant of one described by Hitchcock (2007). An assassin puts poison in the king's coffee. The bodyguard responds by pouring an antidote in the king's coffee. Papers? If the bodyguard had not poured the antidote in the coffee, the king would have died. On the other hand, the antidote is fatal when taken by itself; and if the data poison had not been poured in first, it would have killed the king. The poison and the antidote are both lethal when taken singly but neutralise each other when taken together. In fact, the king drinks the coffee and survives. Suppose we model this scenario using the following variables: A = 1 if the research papers electron assassin pours poison into the king's coffee, 0 otherwise; G = 1 if the bodyguard responds by is synthesising data, pouring antidote into the coffee, 0 otherwise; S = 1 if the king survives, 0 otherwise. And also suppose that we employ these structural equations:
The directed graph for this model is depicted in Figure 2. Testing for active causal processes, we can see that the process that goes directly from the essay assassin's pouring the poison in the coffee to the king's survival is active. Holding fixed the fact that the bodyguard poured the lethal antidote into is synthesising, the coffee, we note that the king would not have survived if the assassin had not put the rules essay poison in the coffee first. So the theory licenses the verdict that the assassin's pouring in what the poison caused the king to survive. However, many regard this as a mistaken causal verdict: putting poison in against animal testing the king's coffee is exactly the kind of thing that is likely to kill the king. It might be argued that the causal verdict is justified in view of the fact that the is synthesising assassin's action caused the bodyguard's action, which in turn caused the king's survival. But this appeal to animal testing persuasive essay, the transitivity of what is synthesising data, causation is not open to the defenders of this theory, who deny the research papers 2011 validity of transitivity.
One counterexample by itself is not enough to disprove the whole structural equations framework. Strictly speaking, it only casts doubt on the theory of causation that defines causation in is synthesising terms of the presence of an active causal route. There are alternative definitions within the structural equations framework that might fare better. (See Halpern and Pearl 2005; Weslake forthcoming.) One possibility explored by several philosophers is to appeal to a distinction between what Hitchcock has called “default” and “deviant” values of software testing research 2011, variables.(See Hitchcock 2007.) The default value of some variable represents a normal or to-be-expected state of the is synthesising data system, whereas a deviant value represents an abnormal or unusual state of the system. The correlative notion of the chris spence plagiarized dissertation default course of evolution for a system can be characterised as a temporally-ordered sequence of values that the variables in a model take when the default values of the exogenous variables are plugged into the structural equations of the model. Thus, if we set the what value of the exogenous variable A in the example above at its default value 0 instead of its actual value 1, we can see that the scenario described above will evolve in the following way: the assassin doesn't put the poison in the coffee, the bodyguard doesn't put the antidote into the coffee, and the king survives. Now if we evaluate counterfactual dependences with counterfactuals centred on the default course of evolution rather than the actual course of evolution, we can see that the bodyguard's action counterfactually depends on the assassin's action and the king's survival depends on the bodyguard's action, but the king's survival doesn't depend on the assassin's action. If counterfactual dependences centred on the default course of evolution are taken to table rules essay, indicate causal relations, these counterfactual dependences more accurately reflect our intuitive causal judgements. What Is Synthesising? (For further discussion of rules, this idea, see Hall 2007 and is synthesising, Menzies 2004b, 2007.) It remains to chris spence plagiarized, be seen whether the various attempts to what is synthesising data, augment the structural equations framework with a distinction between default and chris spence, deviant values are successful or not. (For other attempts see Hitchcock 2007; and Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009. Is Synthesising Data? For a critical discussion of these attempts see Schaffer 2013. For general discussion of the role of the default/deviant distinction in causal judgements see Maudlin 2004.)
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