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Stopping by woods on a snowy evening critical essay

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Stopping by woods on a snowy evening critical essay

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Stopping by Woods on a Snowy …

believe essay i this This I Believe Essay prompt. DEADLINE: Consult weekly syllabus. PROMPT: Write a “This I Believe” Essay that captures one of your fundamental beliefs in an interesting, artistic way. There is no exact formula for what a “This I Believe” essay should contain. The best way to stopping on a critical get a sense for how these kinds of essays work is to shoping read as many examples as possible at:

Of course, I can provide some key components. As you write your response, keep the following in stopping on a snowy evening mind: The essay should clearly articulate one of your central beliefs . Voice matters. Essay. The tone of the essay should fit your personality. Some will be silly. Some will be serious. Some will be sincere. Some will be sarcastic. Yet, be sure the tone “sounds like” you. The essay should be 400-900 words long. The essay should incorporate some of the descriptive writing techniques we’ve studied in by woods evening critical essay class. (Honors students have an additional task; see below.) Grammar matters.

Your essay should reflect your mastery of language. Find And Essay On Going. Edit, edit, edit. Stopping On A Snowy Critical Essay. HONORS COMPONENT - Style Analysis: Honors students must incorporate at least two stylistic techniques from example essays into their own essay and then write a 400-500 word explanation of how the sample essays influenced their own work, providing examples from life experience essay, both examples and their own essay. This style analysis should be included as an appendix to the actual essay. To accomplish this style analysis, honors students need to read at least five example “This I Believe” essays (in addition to those we study in class). Please be sure to link to the additional essays that you read within the document so that I can go back and read the essays, too. By Woods On A. Eventually you will share this essay with an audience outside of Beaver. Hopefully I can make connections with global classrooms, and you will eventually use this essay as a springboard for a larger assignment where, working with an international partner, you write a “This We Believe” essay (or video). This next step is “down the essay, road,” but I wanted you to know where I envision this work heading. Stopping Snowy Evening Critical. ALTERNATIVE PROMPTS (For those that already wrote a This I Believe essay): Most of the bullet points from above still apply. The main aspect of your essay I will be assessing is DESCRIPTIVE LANGUAGE.

Create your own prompt. Is there an admissions essay, essay you’ve always wanted to write, or a topic you’ve always wanted to explore? Now you can. Meet with me, and we’ll set the by woods on a snowy evening, parameters of the assignment. Write an I come from. Essay . Where do the find on going shoping, elements of the wonder-that-is-you come from? Yes, you come from Boston (or someplace else), but I don’t want you to by woods evening essay take this prompt so literally. Where did your sense of humor start? Why do you lack as much self-confidence as you would like? Why do you love music but find poems baffling? Get creative and life, react to the I come from. prompt in an unexpected way.

Enter a student essay contest or submit a creative essay to a student journal. By Woods Critical Essay. It is your responsibility to know the deadlines and submission procedures for a contest. You can find your own place to submit, or you can try one of eckerd college essay these: The Blue Pencil Online - a student managed literary magazine accepting submissions from teens around the world teenink.com Essay Contest at celebratingart.com Real Teen Issues Essay contest at Stageoflife.com A long list of essay contests at About.com. This I Believe Essay Scoring Guide. All points come from the 1-7 scale (on back) ____ Ideas: the main message of the piece. ____ The piece contains insightful, well-developed commentary (your ideas). ____ The student#39;s commentary does not simply repeat the stopping snowy essay, same idea with. different language. Instead, the unique, ideas grow as the piece develops. ____ The piece fully articulates the stopping on a snowy evening essay, belief, demonstrating significant consideration of abstract, multi-faceted meaning. ____ The piece demonstrates original thought; the points do not merely repeat those mentioned in-class or examples. In other words, the romeo and juliet essay, piece is interesting . ____ Organization: the internal structure of the stopping on a snowy evening, piece.

____ The piece begins with an interesting, well-organized introduction that effectively sets. up the lumiere resume, main point. By Woods On A Evening Essay. ____ Contains a direct or implied thesis that serves as a “blueprint” for the rest of the eckerd admissions essay, piece. ____ Each paragraph has a clear and by woods on a snowy evening critical, distinct organization; the ideas connect with on another. in romeo and juliet a logical way. ____ Contains strong transitions between paragraphs and snowy evening, between points within a. paragraph; a logical progression of ideas exists. ____ The piece ends with a clear conclusion that “opens up” the find shoping, topic by introducing a. new-but-connected idea and stopping by woods on a snowy evening, leaves the unique life, reader thinking. ____ Voice: the personal tone and flavor of the author’s style. ____ The essay has an engaging, thoughtful title. ____ Language is original in its word choice, avoiding cliches. Stopping By Woods Evening. ____ The writer takes risks. His or her language does not sound like everyone else’s. ____ The write uses a variety of literary techniques (e.g. figurative language, irony, humor, juxtaposition. ) in a skillful manner. ____ Word Choice: the vocabulary a writer chooses to convey meaning. ____ The piece contains clear, artistic, and precise language that makes the student#39;s ideas. very apparent and easy to understand. ____ The writer “shows, not tells.” The writer uses an effective balance of specific, personal, and concrete language and more general, abstract language. ____ Sentence Fluency: the rhythm and flow of the sentences. ____ Writing contains sentence variety. There is a blend of sentence types (e.g. simple, compound, complex, compound complex) and lengths (short, medium and long). ____ The writer demonstrates an “ear” for language, working to create effective, varied rhythm. Lumiere Resume. ____ Conventions: the mechanical correctness of the stopping by woods on a snowy evening, writing. ____ Writing contains no major distractions from sentence construction errors (run-ons, comma splices, or fragments) ____ The language is correct and free from on going, error. Obvious care has been taken in the editing. By Woods Snowy Evening Critical. process, and the language is polished as a result. ____ The essay follows MLA format (including the header) ____ Example essays are clearly linked and reflect a variety of writing styles. ____ The style analysis clearly articulates significant style elements in example essays. ____ The style analysis effectively illustrates how the example essays influenced the student’s own manipulation of language and and juliet essay, style.

WHAT THE 7-1 SCALE GRADE MEANS FOR ENGLISH. Outstanding writing, reading, speaking and listening work , showing: CONTENT – exceptional judgment, maturity, insight, analysis, and essay, imagination. STYLE - a sophisticated, almost faultless grasp and unique essay, application of formats, structuring and styles appropriate to context, purpose and by woods on a critical, audience, with adroit and creative vocabulary and syntax. INDEPENDENCE – marked independence, originality, sensitivity and flair. Very good writing, reading, speaking and listening work , showing: CONTENT - very sound judgment, maturity, insight, analysis, and imagination.

STYLE – a very thorough grasp and application of formats, structuring and styles appropriate to context, purpose and audience, with astute choice of find on going shoping vocabulary and syntax. INDEPENDENCE – independence, originality, and sensitivity. Good writing, reading, speaking and listening work, showing : CONTENT - generally sound judgment, insight, analysis, and imagination. Stopping By Woods On A Evening. STYLE – a thorough grasp and application of formats, structuring and styles appropriate to context, purpose and audience, with effective choice of vocabulary and syntax. INDEPENDENCE - some independence, originality, and sensitivity. Satisfactory writing, reading, speaking and unique life experience essay, listening work , showing: CONTENT - generally some judgment, insight, analysis, and imagination. Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Essay. STYLE - an adequate grasp and on going shoping, application of the formats, structuring and stopping on a essay, styles. appropriate to context, purpose and audience, with mostly effective choice of vocabulary and syntax.

Most or all of the writing, reading, speaking and college, listening work is on a essay marginal or mediocre , showing: CONTENT – partly successful handling of content, but little evidence of judgement, insight, or analysis. STYLE – a partly successful grasp and application of formats, structuring and styles. appropriate to essays abortion against context, purpose and audience, with basic vocabulary and syntax, and possibly some errors. The work indicates that the student may have clear difficulties in some areas, and/ or requires extra support. Most or all of the writing, reading, speaking and listening work is poor , showing: CONTENT – very limited handling of content, with no evidence shown of by woods evening critical essay judgement, insight, or analysis. STYLE – a very limited grasp and application of formats, structuring and styles. appropriate to context, purpose and audience, with vocabulary and syntax often inadequate; probably many errors. The work indicates that the student has marked difficulties in several areas, even with extra support. Most or all of the writing, reading, speaking and listening work is lumiere resume very poor , showing: CONTENT – very poor handling of stopping by woods snowy content, even with extra support, with no evidence shown of judgment, insight, or analysis.

STYLE - little or no evidence of grasp and application of formats, structuring and styles appropriate to context, purpose and against, audience, even with extra support, seriously inadequate vocabulary and syntax. No grade , because no evidence has been supplied by stopping by woods on a snowy evening critical, the due date, or because the work submitted includes plagiarism .

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Mario Liverani resumen tercera parte. El sacrificio y la fiesta no son episodios de un culto cerrado, realizado por sacerdotes, sino episodios del gran proceso redistributivo que implican a toda la poblacion. Stopping By Woods On A Critical! Los dioses son locales, semitico occidentales, donde Dagan prevalece sobre los demas. Life Experience Essay! El intento de equiparar estas divinidades locales con las mesopotamicas no ha dado buen resultado, ya que la composicion del panteon, la concepcion de la religiosidad y el culto, la mitologia y la organizacion sacerdotal son demasiado distintas. By Woods On A! La cultura palatina se caracteriza por su gran riqueza y exquisito refinamiento, que nada tienen que envidiar a los de las ciudades sumerias mas importantes de la epoca. Lumiere Resume! Hay una gran actividad intelectual y artesanal que da lugar a una cultura siria inconfundible, poniendo a su servicio los materiales preciosos que llegan desde distancias enormes, y los modelos mesopotamicos aprovechables.

Un elemento central de la cultura palatina eblaita es la utilizacion de la escritura cuneiforme como instrumento avanzado de administracion y comunicacion, escritura que ya era utilizada en la epoca del palacio real anterior y permanecio estable, aunque con innovaciones similares a las de la Mesopotamia protoimperial y sargonica contemporanea. Stopping Evening! En suma, Ebla forma parte del horizonte escriturario de la Mesopotamia central, la tradicion de Kish, con la que comparte el empleo de la escritura originalmente sumeria, expresando con ella la lengua local. Against! La necesidad de ensenar a los escribas, y adaptar la escritura y los instrumentos de aprendizaje al nuevo ambiente linguistico local, dieron lugar a los textos “escolasticos”, en lo que se encuentran listas de signos y palabras monolingues, hasta listas bilingues, una innovacion de Ebla, en las que se enfrentan el ideograma, la lectura sumeria y la lectura eblaita. Stopping On A Evening Critical! Pero surgen nuevas necesidades, las mas evidentes son las linguisticas, a las que se suman las del sistema de numeracion y de los distintos sistemas de pesos y medidas. Durante el transcurso del 3er milenio a.C., se produjo una segunda urbanizacion eblaita en la zona del Libano y Palestina, hasta llegar a Egipto. Science! Las caracteristicas de esta urbanizacion no variaron mucho, adaptandose a los recursos y el clima de la zona. By Woods! Destacaba la produccion de algunas materias primas como la madera de cedro en el Libano, las piedras duras en el Sinai y el cobre en ‘Araba.

La ciudad de Biblos, en la costa libanesa, actuaba de intermediario comercial entre Egipto y Ebla. Lumiere Resume! Ademas, Egipto comerciaba directamente con el Libano y Palestina en busca de las mercancias antes mencionadas, ademas del aceite de oliva y el vino producidos en Palestina. Stopping By Woods Snowy Evening Critical! Durante este tiempo, las incursiones mili-tares egipcias en Palestina fueron frecuentes, con objetivos puramente comerciales, hasta que una sobreexplotacion de los recursos naturales hizo desaparecer al sistema urbano palestino a manos de tribus nomades, para luego volver adaptandose a una nueva situacion. CAPITULO 14: HAMMURABI DE BABILONIA. 1.LA UNIFICACION DE MESOPOTAMIA. Rim-Sin de Larsa se dedico a la labor de consolidacion interior. Lumiere Resume! Promovio la construccion y restauracion de murallas, la excavacion de canales, enriquecio los templos, promulgo medidas de desgravacion fiscal, cancelacion de deudas y de la esclavitud por deudas.

Le dio especial atencion a la reorganizacion de la gestion de las tierras publicas y al auge del comercio en el golfo. Cuadno Hamurabi subio al trono de Babilonia se revelo como un rival de Rim-Sin. Stopping By Woods On A Evening Critical Essay! Hamurabi dedico su atencion al frente sur y le arrebato Isin y Uruk, que quedaron subordinados a Babilonia. Find Shoping! Rim-Sin paso a ser su aliado y subordinado. Snowy Essay! Luego Hamurabi en cinco anos conquista y se anexa Larsa, Eshnunna y derrota a Mari y la destruye luego a raiz de una rebelion. La unificacion de Mesopotamia tuvo una duracion muy corta. Lumiere Resume! Hamurabi logro sus objetivos solo al final del reinado, lo cual se debilito con sus sucesores.

La unificacion fue eficaz a la hora de eliminar definitivamente la iniciativa politica de las ciudades estado. By Woods Evening Essay! Las ciudades pasaron a ser capitales provinciales, centros administrativos locales de un pais politicamente unitario. Find And Essay! Con Hamurabi se formo el concepto de un pais de Babilonia. 2.LA ORGANIZACION SOCIOPOLITICA. Los reinados de Rim-Sin en Larsa y Hamurabi en Babilonia suponen una consolidacion de la posicion del estado a causa de la atencion especial dedicadas ala organizacion del reino y de su capacidad para influir en el orden de la sociedad.

La centralizacion del palacio se ahce en perjuicio de la esfera familiar. By Woods Essay! El comercio se vuelve a centralizar bajo el control real. Essays Against! La administracion de la justicia es ejercida por los jueces del rey. La creciente actividad belica y las importantes conquistas de Hamurabi conllevan a un volumen considerable de asignaciones de tierras a soldados y veteranos en las provincias conquistadas. Stopping By Woods Snowy Evening Critical! Esto freno el proceso de empobrecimiento y esclavizacion y proporciono mano de obra mas dispuesta a trabajar en el campo, donde habia dificultades debido al abandono, saturacion y decadencia. La crisis agricola que sobreviene en la ultima fase del periodo paleobabilonico se debe a los viejos problemas de lainizacion, el exceso de irrigacion y explotacion, y la competicion por el uso del agua entre regiones situadas aguas arriba y aguas abajo. Al tiempo que surgen dificultades economicas se produce una reestructuracion de las relaciones sociales. Eckerd Admissions Essay! Hay dos tendencias fundamentales, una hacia la independencia economica de los grupos privilegiados y otra hacia la servidumbre de los grupos mas vulnerables. Las grandes organizaciones del templo y el palacio ya no se basan tanto en la prestacion de servicios por parte de sus miembros especialistas, sino mas bien en un mecanismo en el que la centralizacion es fisacl mas que laboral. By Woods On A! Por otro lado aparecen nuevas clases dependientes del rey, proletarios ex libres desposeidos de sus tierras, que se dirigen al estado para desempenar funciones de mano de obra generica, como soldados y guardias, pescadores, pastores, etc. El famoso codigo nos da una vision global de la sociedad bajo el reinado de Hamurabi.

Su original se encontraba en una estela de diorita erigida en el temlpo de Samash, en Sippar. Lumiere Resume! En el codigo aparecen tres clases o condiciones sociales: la de hombre libre, la de dependiente del rey, y la de esclavo. Critical Essay! Los esclavos se caracterizan por pertenecer a otra persona, que posee sobre ellos un derecho casi absoluto. Romeo And Juliet! Los esclavos se adquieren como botin de guerra o se compran en paises extranjeros. Stopping On A Critical! Los hombres libres tienen autonomia economica. Life Experience Essay! Los dependientes del rey, dependen del estado para su sustento, de modo que son semilibres, pero no en el sentido juridico, sino mas bien en el sentido economico, ya que no poseen medios de produccion. En los contenidos el codigo da una vision bastante sistematica de los pleitos mas corrientes de la epoca. By Woods On A Evening Essay! En el campo penal se ha resaltado mucho la paricion de la ley del talion, es decir, una reglamentacion de las penas corporales como forma atenuada y cuantificada de la venganza, y se ah atribuido esta practica a la llegada de los amorritas. Eckerd College! En el campo civil el codigo supone la consagracion definitiva de la importancia que han alcanzado en la vida economica del pais las tendencias a la privatizacion. El codigo pretende ser un punto de referencia para todos, la estela se dirijia al ciudadano opriomido y al rey futuro, pero no a los juecesm que seguiran basandose en las costumbres locales. Se produce una completa reestructuracion del panteon qu tiene a situar en el vertice al dios de Babilonia, Marduk.

Se trata de una divinidad meramente local que encaja mal en las viejas teologias. 4.LA DISGREGACION DEL IMPERIO. Ni Larsa ni Eshnunna aceptaron la pneridad de su independencia, y el sucesor de Hamurabi, Samsu-iluna, tuvo que emplearse a fondo con las rebeliones de los primeros anos de su reinado. Stopping On A Snowy Essay! Samsu-iluna pudo sofocar facilmente y de raiz la primera de las rebeliones, pero en el sur estallo una nueva sublevacion en el sur que corto a a Babilonia el acceso al mar. Abortion Against! A los reyes de Babilonia. LOS EQUIDOS Y LOS CARROS. Desde tiempos del neolitico, algunos tipos de equidos ya formaban parte de la variedad de animales que iban siendo domesticados por el hombre. Stopping By Woods On A Evening Essay! El asno era la bestia de carga por excelencia, y su variedad salvaje, el onagro, se utilizo despues para tirar de los carros de cuatro ruedas por ser mas robusto. Essay Science! En cuanto a los caballos, cabe destacar que las dificultades de su domesticacion hicieran que hasta ahora, hasta finales del Bronce Medio – inicios del Bronce Final no se utilizara de forma habitual. Snowy Essay! Y digo de forma habitual porque es cierto que desde mucho antes de este sub fase ya se han encontrado restos paleozoologicos de caballos en yacimientos arqueologicos, pero estos son solo casos aislados.

Otra prueba que demuestra la poca importancia del caballo hasta este momento es que en sumerio se le llamaba anse kurra, que significa “burro de montana”, ya que se los consideraba una variante exotica y mas salvaje de los burros. Lumiere Resume! Como ya digo, no fue hasta estos mediados del II milenio a.C. On A Critical Essay! cuando el caballo hizo su entrada definitiva en la Historia del Oriente Proximo antiguo, propagandose su uso rapidamente por todo el area, incluido Egipto. And Essay On Going Shoping! Se usaba para tirar de un carro ligero con dos ruedas de radios, por lo que su poco peso permitia que un par de caballos atados tirasen del carro y de dos personas que viajaban en el, y yendo a una velocidad nada desdenable. El carro tambien tiene una Historia larga y documentada. Snowy Evening! Los primeros carros tenian cuatro ruedas macizas para el transporte de mercancias, pero claro, no era muy funcional debido a su peso. Lumiere Resume! Mas tarde aparecio un soporte de dos ruedas tirado por onagros en el que un combatiente se sentaba en el a horcajadas, pero claro, al tener que conducir y combatir al mismo tiempo, no era un vehiculo de guerra muy eficaz. Stopping By Woods Snowy Critical! El origen del carro de dos ruedas y el caballo domado que tira de el lo tenemos que buscar en torno a lo que hoy es Iran, debido a que los testimonios mas antiguos de este tienen frases y terminos indoiranias que aparecen textos acadios o hititas. Romeo! Sin embargo, aunque el invento fue de los indoiranios de la meseta, lo cierto es que su entrada en todo lo que es Mesopotamia, la peninsula de Anatolia o Siria se caracterizo por una serie de adaptaciones y mejoras tecnologicas y sociopoliticas. On A Snowy Evening Essay! Los caballos y los carros ligeros se usaron tambien para la caza, aunque su principal aplicacion, como todos sabemos, fue la guerra, revolucionando por completo las tecnicas de combate.

EL CARRO DE GUERRA Y LOS EJERCITOS. Las guerras del III y primera mitad del II se libraban en batallas campales de grandes ejercitos de infanteria. Abortion Against! En los combates cuerpo a cuerpo se utilizaban armas cortas, pero antes de que chocaran las infanterias podia haber lanzamiento de jabalinas o flechas. Stopping Evening Essay! Sin embargo, lo mas frecuente eran los asedios a las ciudades amuralladas, con el uso de maquinas de asedio cada vez mas eficaces que obligaban a realizar mejoras en las fortificaciones. Abortion Against! Si esto era lo tipico en ese tiempo, podemos decir que la batalla tipica desde mediados del II milenio a.C. By Woods Snowy Evening Critical! hasta finales de la Edad del Bronce alcanzaba su climax cuando se producia la carga de unos carros de guerra contra otros, o contra la formacion de infanteria. Abortion Against! En estos tiempos, el ejercito constaba de dos cuerpos separados: infanteria y carros, de tal manera que la primera era la mas numerosa mientras que la segunda era la mas eficaz y agil. El carro ahora tenia multiples usos: como plataforma movil para lanzar flechas, como fuerza de choque contra la infanteria, o como medio para perseguir a los enemigos que intentaran huir. On A Evening Critical Essay! Aunque algunos historiadores niegan la segunda de estas funciones, lo cierto es que la iconografia y los textos del Bronce Final revelan que esta funcion era bastante habitual y eficaz, ya que las filas de las infanteria no eran tan apretadas como para suponer un obstaculo, y claro, el miedo a ser aplastados por un carro de guerra y sus caballos hacia que la infanteria rompiera su formacion. Lumiere Resume! De este modo, si tuvieramos que resumir una batalla del Bronce final, podriamos hablar de varios pasos o fases: en primer lugar estaria la carga de los carros del ejercito atacante contra las filas de la infanteria enemiga en posicion defensiva, seguidos de la infanteria propia al ataque aprovechando las brechas abiertas antes por los carros. Stopping By Woods On A Evening! Al mismo tiempo, los carros enemigos se dedicarian a intentar rodear y no dejar escapar a esta infanteria que venia a atacar por las brechas abiertas. Hay otras importantes innovaciones tecnicas en el mundo militar que senalan el paso hacia la ultima sub fase de la Edad del Bronce.

En primer lugar podemos mencionar la difusion de las corazas de escamas metalicas, que protegian a hombres y caballos como una primera especie de armadura. Eckerd Essay! La existencia de esta defensa personal esta probada gracias al hallazgo de ejemplares de estas corazas en las excavaciones arqueologicas, asi como su aparicion en la iconografia y los textos del momento. Stopping By Woods Snowy Essay! El motivo del origen no esta claro, aunque se cree que habria surgido como respuesta a los avances tecnologicos de los arqueros, que habrian pasado del arco simple al arco compuesto, teniendo pues una nivel de mortalidad mucho mas elevado. 4. Romeo And Juliet On Fate! LAS INNOVACIONES TECNOLOGICAS Y LA ORDENACION TERRITORIAL. El paso de la Edad del Bronce a la del Hierro se caracterizo por algunas innovaciones tecnologicas que tuvieron importantes consecuencias en la ordenacion territorial, la sociedad, la economia y la politica del Oriente Proximo antiguo. Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Critical Essay! Hay que aclarar que no son aportaciones que vengan del exterior (como se podria pensar teniendo en cuenta los flujos migratorios de esta epoca), sino que fueron desarrolladas internamente. Romeo Essay! Para explicar esto, hay que remontarse a la ya estudiada gran crisis del 1200 a.C., ya que la fractura de este periodo habria dado rienda suelta a la difusion de unas innovaciones tecnologicas que antes se ignoraban o desconocian porque no hacia falta investigarlas. By Woods On A Evening Critical! En otras palabras, la destruccion de muchos centros urbanos, con sus respectivos palacios reales, talleres, escuelas de escribas, centros religiosos y comerciales, etc, fue un estimulo para que surgieran alternativas al modelo socioeconomico que habia imperado hasta el momento.

Por lo tanto, la cultura de la Edad del Hierro no va a estar tan centrada en los palacios reales como la de la Edad del Bronce, sino que se encuentra mas disgregada y accesible por todo el territorio. Science Fiction! Por otro lado, como la crisis del 1200 a.C. By Woods On A Snowy Essay! y las innovaciones tecnologicas que vinieron con ella afectaron en diferentes escalas a los pueblos al este y al oeste del rio Eufrates, el resultado fue que el Oriente Proximo antiguo quedo dividido de una forma bastante precisa entre una mitad oriental, mas conservadora, y una mitad occidental, mas avanzada y abierta al nuevo mundo que se abria camino. Como es logico, la innovacion tecnologica fundamental que se ha estudiado tradicionalmente como el paso decisivo hacia una nueva era, la Edad del Hierro, es la metalurgia de dicho metal. Essays! La hipotesis de que el hierro fue llevado desde Occidente por los ya estudiados “pueblos del mar” ya se ha desmontado totalmente al demostrarse que fue justo al reves, que la tecnologia del hierro se fue difundiendo de forma lenta y progresiva desde Oriente Proximo hacia Europa. Stopping By Woods Snowy Critical! Fue en reinos como Mitanni, Kizzuwatna o Siria donde, durante el Bronce Tardio, se empezo a experimentar la elaboracion del hierro, no tratandose unicamente del hierro meteoritico, es decir, el puro y facil de trabajar, sino tambien el hierro de fusion, el extraido del mineral ferrico y que requeria unos conocimientos tecnicos mas avanzados.

En este mundo de finales de la Edad del Bronce, la metalurgia de dicho metal era totalmente predominante, de tal modo que las escasas armas eran objetos curiosos y de gran valor. Por este motivo, cuando la crisis del comercio y de los talleres palatinos provoco una gran escasez de los objetos y armas de bronce, la metalurgia del hierro se aprovecho del vacio economico surgido para difundirse, teniendo una gran cantidad de ventajas: los yacimientos de mineral de hierro abundaban sin grandes concentraciones en Oriente Proximo, de modo que no habia grandes centros nucleares de produccion, sino muchos pequenos centros productivos repartidos por toda la geografia proximo oriental. Lumiere Resume! Como consecuencia de esto, se inicio una intensa actividad de prospeccion minera, explotando lugares que antes no se habian tenido en cuenta. Stopping On A Critical Essay! Otra ventaja del hierro sobre el bronce es que las instalaciones necesarias para la fusion y elaboracion del hierro (una vez conocidos los procedimientos de refinado, carburacion y temple), eran mucho mas sencillos que los utilizados para la elaboracion del bronce, por lo que estaban al alcance de pequenos artesanos aldeanos o ambulantes, y no solo al alcance de los talleres del palacio. Against! Y aparte de esto, la evidente ventaja de que las armas de hierro son mucho mas duraderas que las de bronce.

5- EL FACTOR GENTILICIO Y EL ESTADO “NACIONAL” Entre las repercusiones que la metalurgia del hierro y su difusion tuvieron en el Proximo Oriente, sin duda, el impacto territorial promovido por las novedades tecnicas genero un nuevo panorama internacional, en el cual comenzaron a tener un papel tribus y pueblos del norte de Arabia, Transjordania, Neguev y el Sinai que habian permanecido aislados de la estructura predominante en los estados territoriales.Y si bien su integracion en el contexto politico y cultural supuso la evolucion hacia formas y presupuestos estatales, el peso de la tradicion bien arraigada y favorecida por el ancestral aislamiento condujo al mantenimiento de ciertas premisas aun en el proceso de estatalizacion, particularmente en la zona siriopalestina. By Woods On A Critical! De este modo, el codigo reinante es un codigo de parentesco, segun el cual todos los miembros del estado se reconocen como tales en tanto en cuanto son descendientes de un antepasado eponimo. Fiction! Y en este sentido, la carta fundacional del estado gentilicio es la genealogia que relaciona al patriarca mitico con los actuales miembros de la tribu, en virtud de unas relaciones de filiacion y parentesco. Stopping By Woods Evening Essay! Esta organizacion se aprecia en la propia titulatura, al denominar al estado como Casa del eponimo y a sus miembros como Hijos del eponimo. Las consecuencias de este tipo de organizacion, donde prima el factor gentilicio y el estado nacional, en sus conflictos con otros estados, especialmente aquellos de caracter territorial, con subditos de diferentes origenes, lengua, creencias y tradiciones culturales, que se ven movilizados por una leva obligatoria y dirigida por la jerarquia, seran incalculables, pues dichos estados a priori mas debiles ofreceran por su conciencia nacional la conviccion y oposicion de todo un pueblo en armas. On Fate! El poder de estas peculiaridades explica, sin duda, su consciente mantenimiento a ultranza, mientras que la pervivencia de este fenomeno en algunos de estos pueblos contribuye a entender la conflictiva historia del Proximo Oriente en el transcurso de los siglos siguientes. 1-EL PROBLEMA DE LOS ORIGENES. El caso de Israel es unico, ya que a diferencia de otros pueblos del antiguo oriente , sus tradiciones historiograficas se han conservado siempre en el ambito judio y cristiano. By Woods On A Snowy Evening! De no ser por el antiguo testamento seria muy dificil hacer la reconstruccion de la palestina preclasica. And Juliet Essay! El hecho de que se haya conservado este “libro sagrado” para el judaismo y el cristianismo, ha creado dificultades para el uso critico de los documentos.

A menudo, se ha recurrido a comparar las historias del antiguo testamento con las evidencias de la arqueologia y los textos extrabiblicos , en una busqueda generalmente arbitraria de confirmaciones, o contradicciones. Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening! Estas contradicciones entre relatos “verdaderos” y evidencia arqueologica “real” pueden llevar a un callejon sin salida, aunque los relatos biblicos pueden ser posteriores a los hechos narrados. Essays Abortion Against! En cambio, el material extrabiblico puede tener u uso mas imediato, al ser contemporaneo de los hechos y tener unas motivaciones mas obvias. Estas dificultades son mas evidetes cuando aparece el problema de los origenes, los relatos biblicos se escribieron en epocas muy lejanas de los tiempos que se reconstruyen, y las fuentes extrabiblicas son poco explicitas para esta edad en que la documentacion escrita escasea debido a las revueltas sociopoliticas. Stopping Snowy Essay! En cuanto al relato biblico, el afan de identificacion nacional, promocion politica y justificacion religiosa se centra sobre todo en la cuestion de los origenes, deformado mas de lo habitual su relacion con la realidad historica. Basadose en las fuentes biblicas posteriores, es posible que hubiera coaliciones de tribus, y que se firmaran acuerdos entre tribus y ciudades para regular derechos de pastoreo, matrimonio y comercio, o es posible que las tribus de las tierras altas cisjordanas tuvieran un sentimiento precoz de unidad nacional. Esta epoca premonarquica en la que se forma la entidad etnopolitica “Israel”, aqui es donde su tradicion historiografica situa todas las historias que posee un valor “ fundador”, ante todo, se forma el arbol genealogico que sirve de “carta fundacioal” de las relaciones intertribales. Otro elemento claramente fechado es el periodo de jueces en los que o habia rey y por lo tanto cada quien hacia lo que le perecia. La identidad etnopolitica de Israel, segun el Antiguo Testamento, se inicio en el periodo de los Jueces, consolidandose como una coalicion de tribus que luchaba contra la opresion de las ciudades – Estado cananeas, dando lugar con el paso del tiempo a una monarquia con algunos elementos del periodo palatino de la Edad del Bronce, con Saul como su primer rey. Lumiere Resume! Su sucesor David logro la unificacion del reino de Israel al estilo del estado territorial, con dos diferencias: el tamano del territorio y la perma-nencia del caracter nacional. Essay! Sus campanas militares lograron ensanchar el territorio israelita, anexio-nar reinos fronterizos y someter a tributo a otros, ademas de mantener a raya a filisteos y arameos, y el esplendor de su reino se encontro en ascenso con su hijo Salomon en el trono.

Florecieron el comer-cio, las relaciones diplomaticas y se iniciaron obras publicas importantes. Romeo And Juliet! No obstante, el regimen de contribuciones al que estaban sujetos campesinos y ciudadanos fue rechazado por algunas tribus, que mediante rebeliones lograron destruir la division entre Juda e Israel. Stopping On A Snowy Essay! Juda permanecio fiel a la casa de David, mientras que el norte se independizo instaurando una monarquia muy peculiar, sin capital fija, ni dinastias, ni aparato fiscal y burocratico. Entre los siglos X y VIII a.C., el mosaico politico de Israel se estabilizo en seis partes principales: la pentapolis filistea, el reino de Israel, el reino de Juda, Moab, Edom y los amonitas. Frankenstein Essay Fiction! De estos, los filisteos se distinguian del resto por ser continuadores del modelo de ciudades – Estado originado en el Bronce tardio. Snowy! Juda, por su parte, mantuvo la formacion estatal de David y Salomon, hasta que en los siglos IX y VIII a.C. Unique Life Experience Essay! su realidad politica y economica cambio rotundamente, quedandose sin salida al Mediterraneo y sin establecer contactos con las rutas de las caravanas transjordanas.

Israel poseia el territorio mas extenso, con salida al mar y acceso a las caravanas transjordanas, y una gran hegemonia sobre Palestina no exenta de problemas internos, siendo uno de ellos, el conflicto entre las lineas “moderna” y “tradicional”, el que destruya la dinastia reinante, con el agravante de que el peligro de una invasion asiria puso al reino en el dilema de resistir o someterse a los asirios. By Woods Snowy Critical Essay! Los demas reinos, Amon, Moab y Edom, no poseian demasiada influencia politica, pero su base economica comun los hacia mas prosperos de lo que se suponia, dadas las condiciones de su territorio. College! Todo el territorio palestino no se diferenciaba mucho de otros en el aspecto politico, pero si en otros aspectos, como el religioso y el linguistico. EL IMPACTO DE LOS IMPERIOS. Algunas alianzas entre reinos distintos en lengua, religion o cultura suponian la llegada de idiomas, dioses, modas y productos extranjeros, lo que generaba reacciones por parte del pueblo, canalizadas a traves de los profetas. Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Essay! Las guerras pasaron a tener un tinte religioso, atribuyendo las derrotas militares a pecados graves de los derrotados. Unique Life Essay! En este contexto, la invasion asiria fue tomando fuerza, y en apenas veinticinco anos logro destruir varios reinos palestinos y anexionarlos a su territorio.

La conquista de Palestina por parte de los asirios afecto profundamente sus aspectos politico, economico, militar y demografico, convirtiendola en una terminal de la centralizacion de recursos para el desarrollo del imperio invasor. Stopping On A Evening Critical! Algunos reyes israelitas implementaron la reforma del culto a Yahveh para reivindicar su independencia con connotaciones religiosas, como Ezequias o Josias. Essays Abortion Against! Pero todo se vino abajo con la muerte de Josias en lucha con los egipcios, y Nabucodonosor, rey babilonio, logra conquistar Jerusalen desterrando a la clase dirigente a Babilonia. By Woods On A Snowy Critical Essay! Los campos palestinos fueron repoblados por inmigrantes y campesinos residuales en el norte, mientras que el sur permanecio casi vacio. Life! De hecho, entre los siglos VIII y VI a.C., la poblacion palestina descendio dramaticamente. Stopping! De a poco, los territorios del sur de Palestina fueron poblados por edomitas y tribus de camelleros, mientras que en el norte se poblo con grupos de lengua aramea, originarios de Siria, Caldea y la Alta Mesopotamia. Against! Mientras, los hebreos desterrados mantuvieron sus costumbres, lengua y religion, para volver a reimplantarlos a su vuelta a Palestina en la primera epoca persa. LA ORIGINALIDAD RELIGIOSA. Uno de estos elementos, su religion monoteista, es una de las principales herencias de la cultura israe-lita, y aun persiste en la actualidad. Stopping Snowy Critical Essay! Su origen puede ubicarse en la figura de Moises y sus tablas de la Ley otorgadas por Yahveh. Find On Going! Aunque se trataba de una religion monoteista, en varias ciudades se adora-ba a otras divinidades.

Con la unificacion del territorio con David y Salomon, se construyo un nuevo templo a Yahveh para acentuar la unificacion nacional, pero la situacion no vario, dado que aun se rendia culto a otros dioses. Stopping Evening! Este hecho fue la principal razon a la que se atribuyo, anos mas tarde, la caida del reino por parte de los asirios primero y los babilonios despues. Essays Abortion Against! Con las reformas religiosas de Ezequias y Josias se pretendio revertir la situacion previa a la invasion babilonica, que finalmente acabo con el templo en Jerusalen y desterro a gran parte de los hebreos, que mantuvieron su religion intacta en el exilio babilonico. By Woods Snowy Essay! A su regreso, tras la autorizacion de su partida por el rey persa Artajerjes, instauraron nuevamente el culto a Yahveh construyendo un nuevo templo, aplicando la Ley de Dios en el ambito civil y prohibiendo cualquier manifestacion religiosa ajena al culto a Yahveh. Lumiere Resume! Esta ultima medida dio lugar a luchas religiosas, racismo y persecuciones, hasta la invasion romana en 70 d.C.

LA REFUNDACION HISTORIOGRAFICA. No existen muchos datos historiograficos que proporcionen informacion sobre la cultura israelita ante-rior al exilio babilonico. By Woods On A Snowy Evening Critical Essay! Muchas investigaciones se han hecho en territorio palestino, proporcionando valiosos datos en relacion a la cultura material, como la evolucion de la ceramica, las plantas de las casas y las tecnicas de construccion. A pesar de la escasez de textos y monumentos oficiales palestinos, el Antiguo Testamento es una fuen-te valiosisima de informacion sobre la historia religiosa, politica, institucional y literaria de Israel. Lumiere Resume! Por ser una coleccion de textos muy distintos y distantes temporalmente de los hechos narrados, usarlos para reconstruir la epoca en que se los escribio y los problemas que indujeron a escribirlos es la estra-tegia correcta para abordarlos, aunque mas dificil de aplicar. Stopping By Woods Evening! Aunque varios textos parecen demostrar una reescritura de la historia en funcion del presente, no se los puede invalidar por documentar la fase final de la historia israelita y por ser textos que pueden refecharse y reutilizarse. Find And Essay On Going Shoping! Ademas de los docu-mentos historicos que relatan los origenes y la cronologia de los reyes de Israel, existe un segundo gru-po de documentos, los escritos profeticos, que en su mayoria son mensajes del ambito politico, tanto interior como exterior. Snowy Evening Critical Essay! Predominan las opiniones discrepantes con las cronicas oficiales. Eckerd Essay! La mencion de los argumentos defendidos tanto por filoegipcios como por filobabilonios da cuenta del ambiente politico que se vivia en la epoca.

La literatura antigua hebrea, de la que el Antiguo Testamento forma parte, recibio un gran estimulo con la agresion de los babilonios, el exilio y el posterior regreso a Palestina de los exiliados. By Woods Critical Essay! Su originalidad reside en el resultado de sus vicisitudes finales, la disgregacion politica y el nacimiento del judaismo. 1. And Juliet! CIUDADES INDEPENDIENTES. Establecidos en la region desde la Edad del Bronce, desde el 1200 a.C. Stopping By Woods Evening Critical! los fenicios empiezan a distin-guirse etnoculturalmente de los demas pueblos circundantes; mientras estos ultimos iniciaban una nueva forma de organizacion politica, los fenicios mantuvieron la linea cultural de sus antecesores. Romeo On Fate! Desde la invasion de los “pueblos del mar”, el interior del pais y las ciudades costeras tuvieron formas de organizacion diferentes.

Dentro de los pueblos habitantes de Palestina, se destacaron los fenicios, habitantes de una larga fran-ja de territorio que discurria entre las montanas y el mar. By Woods On A Snowy Critical! Llamados asi por los griegos, se llamaban a si mismos cananeos, y tambien eran conocidos como sidonios, por una de sus principales ciudades, Sidon. Abortion Against! Ademas de esta ultima, tambien se destacaron Tiro, Biblos y Arwad, con otras menos destaca-das como Sarepta, Beirut, Sumura y otras, todas ellas capitales de pequenos reinos autonomos, lo que pone en evidencia su ausencia de unidad politica. Snowy Evening Essay! Su territorio estaba cubierto de bosques de coniferas y matorrales en la zona de montanas, lo que daba impulso a una pujante industria maderera, y en las colinas y llanuras del litoral predominaba la agricultura intensiva, con cereales, vinas, olivares, frutales y huertas. Segun los datos mas fiables que existen de la historia fenicia, los egipcios fueron los primeros en esta-blecer relaciones comerciales con los fenicios, aproximadamente a partir del siglo XII a.C.

Con el correr de los anos, israelitas y asirios tambien hicieron lo mismo. Frankenstein Essay! De la historia fenicia que transcurre desde el siglo X, existen muy pocos datos, mayormente concentrados en el Antiguo Testamento, los anales asirios y los textos de Flavio Josefo. Stopping By Woods On A Critical Essay! El Antiguo Testamento detalla los lazos del rey de Tiro con la casa real samaritana y la influencia cultural, comercial y religiosa de aquella ciudad sobre Israel. Romeo And Juliet On Fate! Para el siglo IX empezaron las primeras incursiones asirias en el territorio fenicio, primero comerciales y luego expansionistas; muchas ciudades prefirieron pagar tributos para evitar guerras y desastres, aunque algunas ciudades del norte trataron de resistir por las armas. Stopping By Woods Evening Essay! Para mediados del siglo VIII, Tiglat – pileser III anexiono Fenicia como una provincia asiria, aprovechando la rivalidad entre Tiro y Sidon, y en 671 una rebelion de Tiro con apoyo egipcio fue sofocada por los invasores, que confinaron a la ciudad a una pequena isla, desde la que resistio con otras ciudades la invasion. Eckerd Admissions! En 612 a.C., con la caida del imperio asirio, el territorio fenicio estaba dividido en las provincias de Samura en el norte, Sidon en el centro y Ushu en el sur, con Arwad, Biblos y Tiro como ciudades independientes, aunque tributarias. Stopping By Woods Snowy! Para el ano 573 a.C., despues de un largo asedio, Tiro capitulo ante los babilonios, pero conservando una dinastia real propia. Experience! Anos mas tarde, toda la region cayo en manos de los persas, todavia conservando cada ciudad su dinastia, aunque bajo control del emperador aquemenida, como durante el dominio babilonico. La economia fenicia se basaba en la elaboracion y comercializacion de productos importados de otras zonas, aprovechando su estrategica posicion. Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Essay! Con la crisis de los palacios el comercio se reorganizo, focalizando el interes de los mercaderes en otros puntos de comercio mas desperdigados y menos ofi-ciales, las actividades comerciales se volvieron mas arriesgadas al no existir la proteccion oficial sobre el comercio y los horizontes para los comerciantes fenicios se volvieron mas amplios.

Las flotas comer-ciales sirofenicias eran numerosas, y estaban en manos privadas con proteccion politica; la competen-cia, las represalias y la pirateria eran cosa de todos los dias. Eckerd Admissions! En los relatos de Wen – Ammun se mues-tran varios elementos del clima politico y comercial de la Edad del Hierro conviviendo con procedi-mientos juridicos del Bronce Tardio, situados geograficamente en la zona comprendida entre Chipre, la costa fenicia y el delta del Nilo, aunque es probable que el comercio fenicio abarcara mayor territorio. By Woods Snowy Evening Critical Essay! Una prueba es la campana llevada en conjunto por el rey Hiram, de Tiro, y Salomon, para llegar a las tierras de Ofir en busca de oro. Abortion! Ademas, existen evidencias de contactos comerciales de los fenicios en territorios tan lejanos como el sur de Espana y Cerdena, ya en el siglo XI a.C., en lugares que los griegos llamaban colonias, aunque dicha institucion no existia en aquel tiempo. By Woods On A Snowy Essay! Estos lugares, junto con Chipre (zona rica en yacimientos de cobre), Tunez y Sicilia, eran los mas frecuentados por los fenicios en sus rutas comerciales, y mas tarde fundaron colonias en aquellos sitios. Eckerd College! La competencia principal la ofrecian etruscos y griegos. Stopping On A Evening Essay! Los principales productos de exportacion fenicios eran objetos de bronce, tallas de marfil, telas bordadas y tenidas y objetos de vidrio, que con su difusion por el Mediterraneo dieron inicio a una moda “orientalizante” que llego incluso al imperio asirio.

Segun el profeta Ezequiel, Tiro comerciaba intensamente con cuatro zonas especificas: productos agricolas con Juda, Israel y Damasco; animales y lana con el Alto Eufrates y Arabia septentrional; artesanias y esclavos con Grecia, Anatolia, Alta Mesopotamia y Asiria, Edom y Arabia; y productos exoticos y metales con Tarshish (Tartessos para los griegos, en el sur de Espana) y el sur de Arabia, puntos extremos de sus rutas comerciales. Fuente: El contenido del post es de mi autoria, y/o, es un recopilacion de distintas fuentes.

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The following HTML is lumiere resume a simple example of the minimum HTML document. Using indentation can greatly improve the on a evening critical essay, looks of your HTML, make it easier to read, and make it much easier to maintain. Although indentation is not required, you should always use it to improve your HTML. The benefits greatly outweigh the extra time it takes to write your HTML. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the essays, indentation will not be visible when the stopping by woods evening essay, document is viewed using a HTML browser. Here is the previous example written using indentation to on going shoping make it easier to read. ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY.

The use of additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the appearance of your resume. HTML contains numerous tags to use, in addition many new tags will be added in the future. I could not possibly cover every tag here. However, I will briefly describe some of the stopping evening critical, commonly used and and juliet on fate, most useful tags. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the latest HTML reference manual.

This manual can be found on the world wide web at http://www.sandia.gov/sci_compute/html_ref.html. The following table contains many of the most common and stopping by woods evening essay, most useful HTML tags. You can use any of these tags by simply placing the begin tag, the text to against format, and the end tag directly in your HTML document. You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes. See step 9 for instructions on how to view your current HTML document. By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the tags. In order to ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the .html or .htm extension. To do this choose save as from the stopping on a snowy evening essay, file menu. Next you should choose the text or ASCII text format from the available format list. Finally, type your filename in on fate, the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the name you wish to call your file (e.g. resume.html).

CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming. There are many tools available to stopping by woods essay help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint. For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. Romeo And Juliet On Fate. An alternative to creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on critical, the world wide web and copy it. Essays Against. One method of stopping by woods evening critical essay, locating useful and free images is to on going shoping view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Clipart. Another method of by woods on a snowy critical essay, locating useful images is to use the unique life experience essay, Yahoo search engine and search for the image.

To do this simply type image:keyword in the Yahoo's search box and click on the search button. This type of stopping by woods on a snowy essay, searching is very time consuming and often does not result in any useful images. If you are unable to create or locate the eckerd college admissions, image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to create the image for you. Although images can improve the appearance of your resume, you should use them sparingly. Often the stopping on a evening critical, quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an increase in the number of images you add. Any graphics you use (except for unique life experience essay a background) should be relatively small in size. Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from stopping by woods on a snowy critical, your page.

In addition, you should keep the content of your images on a professional level unless the image directly relates to unique life experience your job qualification. For example it is acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to snowy evening essay it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an image into your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to romeo and juliet essay specify the location and filename of by woods, your image. For example, to display an image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in romeo on fate, size, use the stopping on a snowy critical essay, following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. Frankenstein Essay Science. All images should be in the .GIF or .JPG file format.

If you see a gray box with three small dots in stopping snowy, it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to load your image. Possible causes of this problem are: you used an incompatible file format, the image does not exist, you did not specify the correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to 770. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by essay science fiction typing its execution command at the command prompt. There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and on a snowy evening critical, ICOMM. Unique Experience. Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by clicking on the Open File option on the File menu. Next, type the filename you choose earlier in the filename input box or using the browse feature to locate the file, then click on stopping by woods on a evening critical essay, the ok button. Frankenstein Fiction. Your resume should be displayed in the browser window.

Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an excellent way to ensure the content of your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in on a snowy evening critical, an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes. Once you are familiar with the process of creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in any order. You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on romeo and juliet essay, each of the links you've created using your HTML browser.

Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Broken links are highly unprofessional and will affect the impression a potential employer has on your resume. Stopping On A Snowy. Broken links are usually the result of a typographical error or a link to a web site that no longer exists. Because the web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to the rest of the world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the resources for students to install their resumes. Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information. You can often locate the Webmaster through an shoping email address on the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and all of the images you have used to stopping evening critical the directory your web provider specifies. After installing your HTML resume you should always test it. Visit the URL your web provider supplies to essay fiction insure it was installed properly.

You should always respond to potential employers that contact you as soon as possible. In addition you should always mail a paper copy of your resume to any potential employers. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the snowy evening critical essay, Java environment.

Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and lumiere resume, delivering interactive content across the Web. On A Evening Essay. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and essay fiction, corporate issues to bring the reader a broader range of information. In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an excellent job of stopping by woods on a snowy critical essay, explaining to essay the reader how to create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to a small course. The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code. I strongly agree with Mr.

Meese's confidant statement by the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to develop a Java application. An entire section of Java Report is devoted to Product Review. By Woods On A Evening Critical Essay. In this section the authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. This information was the shoping, equivalent of a Consumer Reports article. This section is evening a great source of information about individual products. In general, Java Report is lumiere resume a great source of information relating to on a critical essay the use and development of Java applications for any software developer. Find And Essay On Going. However, some of the by woods snowy evening, technical articles may be beyond the scope of the average reader. Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt.

The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec. C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an HTML resume. The article, which appeared in romeo and juliet on fate, The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. Some of the topics Mr. Stopping Evening. Rampe discusses includes the searchability of essay fiction, HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and the dehumanization of the process. Mr.

Rampe also discusses the by woods on a evening essay, importance of college essay, writing your HTML resume in the proper fashion, to the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to address your resume to on a essay 'Dear Computer. ' and just ignore the experience essay, dehumanization of it all. In addition, the article provides the on a evening, URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the reader get started. Each of the unique experience, sources listed are excellent sources of information and should be reviewed by anyone who decides to create and stopping, HTML resume. Find. Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Rampe provides an by woods on a snowy evening critical ample amount of information and eckerd admissions essay, resources necessary to create an HTML resume. Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an stopping by woods on a snowy evening essay HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to college admissions essay decide the necessity of an HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories.

HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in on a evening essay, my opinion, the most complete and useful source of HTML information. Although the manual is frankenstein fiction currently over a year old, the information it contains is accurate, precise and very helpful. The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions. By Woods On A. Next the authors validate the document's content by discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the importance of and essay shoping, Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements. Next the on a evening, authors discuss the general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Finally, the authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and variations. In addition the document contains an easy to find on going shoping use index which allows the reader to jump directly to any element of stopping snowy evening critical, interest.

The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available. In addition it is well written, well organized and very easy to use. This document is an excellent source of information for both the novice and and essay on going shoping, expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by their respective owners.

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Modern, clean, but yet flexible design based on Bootstrap. Vita / Resume / CV InDesign Template. Unique Experience! A free resume template in indesign format. Minimalistic Resume PSD Set (PSD, AI, EPS) A beautiful resume template to bring you guys another awesome minimalism resume template.

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Hello, how can I suggest a resume template to on a critical essay, this collection, is there any submission form at romeo essay on fate, DesignsCrazed? check out hloom.com that website has a warehouse of downloadable cv#8217;s. This #8220;Free Minimalistic Clean Resume | PS AI#8221; is actually mine. Could you change that #8220;Download#8221; to stopping by woods on a snowy evening critical, #8220;Source Link#8221; and refer to this page: Thanks in and essay shoping advance. I might have to change that download link anytime, but that Behance site will be always running. This way you won#8217;t end up getting dead links. Thanks you very much for referring to my awesome freebie, Very innovative collection of stopping by woods evening critical essay, PSD Web Design which is very useful to me. Lumiere Resume! i am PSD Designer and i am looking to refer this blog for great modern web design ideas. Stopping By Woods On A Essay! Super! The more we read positive information, the more we recieve good tips that help us to and juliet on fate, be proficient in the future. We would like to share our freshly made FREE resume template with you.

It was inspired by wireframing kits design. Everything is carefully layered, so it#8217;s super easy to edit and use. The download link is on our Behance page https://www.behance.net/gallery/28935295/FREE-Resume-Template. These are amazing! I would also suggest checking out resumator.qwilr.com. wow#8230;. I’m feeling proud that three of those best CV are from Bangladesh. A small country with a huge talents ! :) So sweet. Yes have seen many talents from Bangladesh and stopping on a snowy essay, worked with them as well. Looks like your website has been rethemed. Nice.

Such a brilliant website you have there. I have seen you guys from lumiere resume old times when there was psdgraphics, freepsdfiles like that. Good times. I had one too. But doesnt matter now. :) The link for stopping by woods evening #8216;Freebie Resume cover letter (PSD)#8217; is currently dead. Can you fix it ? Hi! Do you mind sharing your Etsy template with me?

Thanks in advance! Finally! A site with working INDD download links and nice layouts. And Juliet Essay On Fate! Thank you! hmm, i thought INDD was most suitable for magazine like designs. Time to find and make more. Would be great if all the Dropbox designs can be reuploaded to a file transfer service without limits. You might want to by woods evening critical, try MediaFire or Google Drive. Life! true.. dropbox is getting bad. Mentioned link is not working. (Dropbox 429 error). can you please help me with this file. By Woods Evening Critical Essay! thankyou for marketing your website, but no thanks really, cause the cv designs there lack creativity, are very bland and are paid. thanks for providing such an ideas introducing me to and juliet essay on fate, a new world of snowy critical essay, presentation. Frankenstein Essay Science! Excellent Publication Allie Kingsley, I#8217;m happy that i came across it. ;) thnk you so much. Stopping On A Snowy Evening Essay! :) Wow! all templates is awesome! thanks for life share. Glad to know you like the collection. :)

Great posting about free template. hmm it is. Let me see what can be done. Thank you from Colombia!! Thanks for sharing. Stopping By Woods Evening Essay! I was wondering if you would want to add another model. I#8217;ve just created a pretty different design from essays abortion against what is listed on this page. :)

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Point/Counterpoint: Paying College Athletes. The notion of paying college football players has been an ongoing debate since the early 1900’s. With current television revenue resulting from stopping on a snowy NCAA football bowl games and March Madness in basketball, there is now a clamoring for compensating both football and basketball players beyond that of an athletic scholarship. This article takes a point/counterpoint approach to essays, the topic of paying athletes and may have potential implications/consequences for college administrators, athletes, and coaches. Dr. John Acquaviva defends the current system in which colleges provide an athletic scholarship that provides a “free college education” in return for playing on the university team. Dr.

Dennis Johnson follows with a counterpoint making the case that athletes in these sports should receive compensation beyond that of stopping on a essay, a college scholarship and forwards five proposals to pay the athletes. Key words: pay for play, athletic scholarships. Introduction: History of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) The idea of paying college athletes to compete dates back to what is college admissions considered to by woods on a essay, be the first intercollegiate competition. In a regatta between Harvard and Yale Universities, Harvard used a coxswain who was not even a student enrolled at frankenstein science fiction the Ivy League school (5). Much like today’s universities whose appetites for appearances in stopping snowy evening critical essay corporate-sponsored “big money” football bowl events; Harvard may have used the non-student to please regatta sponsor Elkins Railroad (23). In the late 1800’s, football played by college teams was a brutal sport but enjoyed by many fans. Abortion Against. However, from 1900 to stopping on a snowy critical essay, 1905, there were 45 players who died playing the sport (22).

This prompted President Theodore Roosevelt to summon the presidents of Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, and threaten them with a ban unless the sport was modified. As a result of that meeting, a group of 62 university presidents convened to form the Intercollegiate Athletic Association in 1906. This group evolved into the NCAA in 1910, but as a group it only possessed supervisory power (22). College football became even more popular in the period of 1920-1940. This was a time when commercialism in the educational system was being questioned on a variety of levels. One such fundamental question was posed in 1929 by Howard Savage, a staff member of the Carnegie Foundation. He raised a question in an article entitled Athletics in lumiere resume American College (originally published in 1930 but reprinted in by woods on a snowy essay 1999) “whether an institution in the social order whose primary purpose is the development of the intellectual life can at the same time serve an agency to promote business, industry, journalism, and organized athletics on an extensive commercial basis? More importantly, the report asked “can it (the university) concentrate its attention on securing teams that win, without impairing the sincerity and vigor of its intellectual purpose” (9, p.495)?

Savage also states that “alumni devices for recruiting winning teams constitutes the most disgraceful phase of recent intercollegiate athletics” (9, p. 495). In sum, the original 1929 report claimed that “big time” college sports were not educational, but were entirely financial and commercial. Athletes during the early and mid-1900’s were routinely recruited and paid to against, play; and there were several instances where individuals representing the stopping on a evening critical, schools were not enrolled as students. For example, there is one report of a Midwestern university using seven members of and essay shoping, its team that included the town blacksmith, a lawyer, a livery man, and four railroad employees (5). Other athletes at colleges were given high paying jobs for stopping by woods on a essay which they did little or no work. In 1948, the NCAA adopted a “Sanity Code” that limited financial aid for athletes to tuition and fees, and required that aid otherwise be given based on need (5). In the early 1950’s, with the threat of lumiere resume, several southern schools bolting from the NCAA, the code was revised to allow athletic scholarships to cover tuition, fees, and a living stipend. However, by stopping on a essay, the mid-1950’s many schools were still struggling with the issue of offering athletic scholarships.

Some university presidents ultimately decided to find and essay, maintain the principles of amateurism and further serve the mission of higher education. Those were presidents of universities that today make up the Ivy League. They concluded that it was not in the best interest of their universities to stopping by woods on a snowy critical essay, award athletic scholarships, and have remained steadfast even today. After passing Title IX in the mid 1970’s, the NCAA absorbed the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) and began to govern women’s sport at the collegiate level. Over the lumiere resume, past 50 years, the NCAA has also expanded into three divisions with a multitude of championship events on a yearly basis (20). There are more than 1,300 member institutions that represent an estimated 400,000 student athletes who participate in by woods snowy critical essay sport (21). Essay Science Fiction. The result of this growth and development are enormous increases in revenue. Evening Critical. NCAA President Mark Emmert reports the NCAA revenues for the 2010-11 fiscal year is projected at and juliet $757 million, of which $452.2 million will go to Division I members (14). While seemingly operating in a purely capitalistic/professional atmosphere, the stopping by woods snowy critical, NCAA continues to endorse an amateurism concept in college athletics.

These competing, and often contradictory, values lead some college athletes in big time football and basketball programs to question the status quo of the on fate, present system through their words and actions. Stopping On A Evening Critical. For example, many athletes are still attempting to get their “piece of the pie,” albeit under the table. And Essay. And so it leads to our point-counterpoint. Point: College Athletes Should Not Be Paid. The intensity of the stopping by woods on a snowy evening critical essay, argument to pay college athletes has escalated in the past few years. Perhaps it’s because of the current economic climate and everyone, including amateur athletes is looking for ways to make money? Or maybe it’s because many higher learning institutions have given the public access to their annual budget and readers focus on essays abortion against the profit of snowy critical essay, select athletic programs? Or maybe it is due to the absurd coaches’ salaries and and essay shoping the money that colleges make from football bowl games and basketball tournaments? Regardless, this has magnified the on a snowy, fact that the athletes see none of these profits and thus begs the simple question: “Where’s my share?” Perhaps a fair question, but to unique experience essay, understand this argument better, a healthy debate is needed.

So, here are some points to consider. Colleges and snowy universities provide an invaluable and vital service to our communities: education. A now-famous bumper sticker once read: “If you think education is expensive, try ignorance.” To address that very slogan, the U.S. census bureau, as reported by Cheesman-Day and Newberger (7), expressed this best when they reported that the lifetime earnings for those with a college degree are over $1 million dollars more than non-graduates. Despite such a statistic, essays and op-ed columns continue to science fiction, pour in from those who favor paying student-athletes while simultaneously refusing to by woods on a snowy evening essay, acknowledge or accept the value of a college education. Is a college education priceless or not? A sports-journalist in and juliet essay on fate a recent national radio interview proposed that any argument against paying college athletes based on the sole reason that education is the prize is by woods evening “antiquated”. But what seems antiquated and and essay on going even shortsighted is the belief that paying a college athlete some (or even a lot of) money will solve all or even some of by woods evening essay, student’s long-term issues.

The fear of the NCAA, as it should be, is that the mere notion of paying college athletes undermines the and juliet essay, university’s primary purpose – education, something far more valuable than a modest annual stipend proposed by many. If it currently appears that the by woods on a evening, universities “don’t really care” about the athlete, paying them would intensify that belief, not dissolve it. The irony in this dispute is college admissions essay that student-athletes do cost the university a substantial amount of money each year. For example, a full scholarship over four years can range between $30,000 and $200,000 depending if the institution is public or private (29). But let’s address this main point head on: There is an stopping by woods on a snowy critical obvious lack of appreciation of frankenstein science fiction, a college degree from those in favor of by woods snowy evening essay, paying athletes, and until a genuine gratitude for this concept develops, this argument will probably continue to linger. Point #2: There Are Problems with Payment. Despite the and essay, well-documented scandals and corruption in stopping on a snowy college athletics (30), many would probably agree that paying athletes would exponentially increase the on going, need for intense NCAA oversight – an enormous task by stopping on a, all accounts. Plus, there are the practical issues to consider. For example, how much should the athletes get paid and will payments be based on and juliet performance? What if the athlete gets hurt?

What if the by woods on a, athlete is a bust and despite remaining on the team, doesn’t start or even play at all? – Issues that seem to raise far more questions than answers. But perhaps most important – What will happen to the non-revenue sports at the colleges who lose money from all of their sports programs – including football and unique essay basketball? It has been shown that only a fraction of Division I football and men’s basketball programs turn a profit (24, 20). The other Division I football and by woods snowy essay basketball programs as well as sports such as baseball, softball, golf, hockey, women’s basketball (minus a couple of notable programs), and eckerd college admissions just about by woods critical essay all Division II sports not only fail to make money, but actually drain their athletic budgets. The outcome here would be inevitable: Forcing athletic departments to pay its football and basketball players would result in essays abortion the eventual elimination of stopping by woods snowy evening critical, most, if not all, of the non-revenue sports. Is that what we want? We cannot afford to be myopic on lumiere resume this issue. That is, there are only a limited number of programs that make big money, but yet there are hundreds of stopping on a snowy essay, schools who absorb big losses at the cost of providing athletes a place to compete and earn a degree. Unique Essay. The purpose of the NCAA, along with Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), Little League, and dozens of other organized forms of amateur sport is to provide a venue to play these sports – something we should not take for on a snowy evening critical granted. And Juliet Essay On Fate. The problem is that some have shifted in on a snowy thinking that playing an organized sport is a right, whereas it still stands as a privilege. Point #3: The University Offers More Than an Education.

Concerts, lecture series by prominent people, on-stage productions, movies, intramural sports, fitness facilities, and a variety of clubs are all part of the typical university experience. Most students agree that colleges are self-contained acres of learning and socializing, all which takes place in a safe environment. It’s common for schools to subsidize the above-mentioned on-campus activities by adding fees to the tuition – which means that it’s free to a full-scholarship athlete. Other benefits to the athlete include the regular use of find and essay shoping, pristine gyms, well-manicured fields, athlete-only (and often team-only) workout facilities, sports medicine care, the opportunity to travel via away games, specialized meal plans and free foot gear and athletic attire. In addition, athletes are improving their trade from the on a snowy, best coaching minds in the sport; not to mention having access to experience essay, some of the best nutrition and strength/conditioning personnel. And perhaps the most overlooked benefits are that the school provides the player with high-profile name recognition, a dedicated fan base, media exposure, and a competitive atmosphere with proven rivals, all of by woods snowy evening essay, which took decades, effort and money for each institution to establish. Point #4: The Athletic Department Has Its Role. Keep in college admissions essay mind that student-athletes are not employees of the university, rather they are students first and athletes second. The university can indeed make money from the sports programs; however, for those that do, the money simply goes back into the athletic program to stopping evening, fund the and essay on going, non-revenue sports (24). In fact, every year the NCAA sponsors over 80 national championships in by woods on a evening critical three divisions, demonstrating the abortion against, range and depth of their organization (20).

While it is true that the champion in football and men’s basketball (and most other sports for that matter) seem to stopping by woods on a, come from a relatively small pool of universities, it might be safe to assume that paying athletes would create an even bigger disparity since so few universities actually make money. Let’s face it, we are an underdog-loving country, and paying athletes would all but ensure that teams like Butler University, who made it to the Final Four in consecutive tournaments (2010 and 2011), will never do it again. From the moment the full-scholarship papers are signed, each participant’s role is very clear: Schools accept the responsibility of the student’s tuition, meal plan, and boarding, while the athlete is provided with the opportunity to earn a degree, engage in against college life and play their favorite sport in a well-organized, and often high profile fashion. By Woods Snowy. The document signed by each student-athlete describes this agreement in an unmistakable manner. Although wordy and at times complex – a necessity due to the nature of the agreement – there’s no vagueness in the general arrangement or a hidden agenda from either party (10). A failure to honor the basic premise of any such contract would cause all forms of business – big or small – to crumble. If for some reason the lumiere resume, university could be held liable for entrapment or some other form of dishonesty, then their athlete’s argument would stand on firmer ground. But frankly, the details of this agreement are well known by all involved, and rather strangely, no one seems to mind when signing them.

In conclusion, it should be noted that any NCAA improprieties or blatant corruption may have a carry-over effect into stopping snowy evening essay, empathizing with the position given here. College Admissions. While corruption and other related-concerns are legitimate and need investigation, paying college athletes still remains a separate debate. By Woods On A Snowy. It is vital to this process to view each NCAA issue independently and avoid making judgments on them as a whole. The position here is that, like many organizations, the NCAA should not be dismissed or discredited on one issue due to the mishandling of others. Life Experience. Further, if the stopping by woods on a critical essay, contention is that many student athletes enter college unprepared or that athletics takes up too much time to life, excel (or even earn a degree), those are separate, but much needed arguments, and are not related to the issue of stopping on a snowy evening critical, paying athletes. Now more than ever, we live in an era of romeo and juliet, entitlement. At one time our country viewed the chance at higher education as a priceless commodity. However, it now seems that a college education is not held in the same esteem and worse yet, some see it as simply an opportunity to earn money.

Although it is now evident that there has been a failure to convince much of the public of the stopping by woods on a evening, true value of an education, keeping college athletes as pure amateurs remains the experience, right thing to by woods on a snowy critical essay, do. Counter Point: Athletes in “Big-Time” Sports Should Be Paid. The argument that a college athletic scholarship is an equal quid pro lumiere resume, quo for a college education has been utilized since athletic scholarships were approved by the NCAA in 1950’s. My colleague makes one point that is totally accurate – a college graduate can in fact make a great deal more money over a lifetime when compared to non-graduates. However, the remainder of the author’s points are half-truths and in reality just plain falsehoods.

For instance, a “full athletic scholarships” do not provide a “free” education (as it does not cover all costs incurred from matriculation to graduation. In many cases, the evening critical, university does not live up to its end of the bargain of eckerd college admissions, providing an education; as evidenced by the dismal number in the graduation rates, especially among African Americans. Stopping By Woods Snowy Essay. Furthermore, the athletic scholarship is only a one-year (renewable) agreement that can be terminated by the coach or university in any given year for any reason. In debating the pay-for-play issue in college athletics, the history of the governing body (i.e., currently the essays abortion, NCAA), their mission and view of stopping on a snowy critical, amateurism, the find and essay, past history of college athletes benefitting financially, and the degree to stopping on a critical essay, which athletes benefit from the university experience must all be examined. The counter point section of this paper addresses each point made by my colleague. Using the Eitzen (12) analogy comparing the NCAA and big-time athletic programs to the old southern plantation system will be the underpinning wellspring for the subject of athlete exploitation and essay science the financial benefits enjoyed by the university derived from that plantation-like exploitation. Evening. An economic viewpoint will be presented to demonstrate the cartel-like atmosphere held by lumiere resume, the NCAA while maintaining the illusion of amateurism. Finally, five proposals that outline means to promote pay-for-play in stopping by woods essay NCAA Division I football and men’s basketball will be presented. Frankenstein Science Fiction. The arguments that follow are specifically tailored for those two sports at schools who receive bonus money from the NCAA, as those universities and their coaches enjoy considerable revenue from TV contracts and sponsorships generated by bowl games and “March Madness” appearances.

Point #1: Athletic Scholarships Provide a “Free Education” is not correct. As mentioned, in the 1950’s the NCAA approved adding living stipends to athletic scholarships that previously included only snowy critical tuition and fees. Abortion Against. Today, the “full ride” scholarship can only include tuition, fees, room, board, and books. And as mentioned in the previous section, in stopping on a evening critical essay some cases, depending on the school attended, that scholarship can be worth anywhere from $30,000 to lumiere resume, $200,000, although the figures $20,000 to $100,000 over a four year period might be more accurate. In any case, that still does not cover the full cost of attending college. The Collegiate Athletes Coalition (CAC) estimates that NCAA scholarships are worth about $2000 less than the cost of attending a university, as it does not account for expenses such as travel and sundries. Former Nebraska head football coach and United States Congressman, Tom Osborne (R-NE), calculates the by woods essay, gap between scholarship funding and life essay the actual cost of attendance to be closer to $3,000. Even former NCAA President, Myles Brand, indicated that he favored increasing scholarship limits: “Ideally, the value of an stopping by woods on a snowy athletically related scholarship would be increased to cover the full-cost of find and essay on going shoping, attendance, calculated at between $2,000 to $3000 more per year than is currently provided, I favor this approach of providing the full cost of attendance” (23, p.232).

So yes, the scholarship can be seen as pay for play, or at stopping by woods on a evening essay the very least, a quid pro quo for services rendered during a four year period. However, even with a full scholarship, an lumiere resume athlete will have to pay somewhere between $8,000 and $12,000 out of pocket to bridge the cost-of-living gap. Therefore, the full athletic scholarship does not provide a “free” education. Thus question remains: is the full scholarship a fair and equitable deal for the athlete? Athlete Exploitation-The Plantation System. Eitzen (12) among others (27) makes the by woods on a evening critical essay, analogy that the NCAA operates like the “plantation system” of the old south. Romeo On Fate. The coaches are the overseers who get work from the stopping on a, laborers (players) who provide riches for the masters (universities) while receiving little for their efforts. Perhaps slightly over-stated (obviously the athlete is not a slave, but maybe an indentured servant), the lumiere resume, student–athlete is dominated, managed, and controlled, and on a snowy essay they don’t receive a wage commensurate to their contribution as expressed in lumiere resume dollars earned by by woods critical, the university. Eitzen notes that athletes are sometimes mistreated physically and mentally and are often denied the rights and freedoms of other citizens.

Ultimately, they have no real democratic recourse in an unjust system. There are other similarities to the plantation analogy. Find And Essay. Slaves were not free to leave the plantation much like an stopping on a snowy evening critical essay athlete cannot get out of a letter of intent (without penalty) and/or transfer without the penalty of sitting out a year. Much like the slaves who had no right to privacy, athletes are subject to mandatory drug testing (even though their coaches/masters are not tested), room checks, and limits on where they can and cannot go in essays abortion the community. The athletes can be prohibited from political protests and the right to assemble. And finally, they can be subjected to mental cruelty and physical abuse (e.g., early morning torture sessions), all in order to create obedient slaves; student athletes. Furthermore, collegiate athletics is often the only game in by woods snowy evening essay town for many of these athletes.

For instance, football players must be in their third year of college or over lumiere resume the age of stopping on a snowy, 21 to enter the National Football League (NFL). Basketball players, on the other hand, must attend college for one year or ultimately sit out a year before they can enter the National Basketball Association (NBA). Thus, the essay, college game has become a “feeder system” similar to a minor professional league and stopping snowy evening essay it is in reality, “the only game in town.” Point #2: Athletes Don’t Know the “Real” Deal. My colleague is partially correct in that most student athletes know that they are getting a scholarship that will allow them to go to fiction, school and play a sport. However, many don’t know the “real deal” as they generally have very little understanding they are about to evening essay, enter a “plantation-like” system in which their scholarship in not guaranteed (i.e., renewable yearly) and can be terminated at any time. Student-athletes are also a led to believe that they will play and receive a college degree while possibly picking up a few fringe benefits along the way.

Take, for example, the essay, recent stories regarding players like Reggie Bush, Cam Newton, or the players at Ohio State who received money and/or other benefits as a result of playing football. Even though student athletes know they will not get directly paid for playing, many desire and even expect some form of compensation. On A Essay. Slack (25) surveyed 3,500 current and retired football players in admissions 1989 only to find that 31% had received under the table money during their college careers and 48% knew of others who had received payments. This seems to imply that while many recruits may indeed know “the deal”, they display their discontent by accepting payments or other benefits not currently allowed by the NCAA. In reality, the statement “athletes know the deal” with regard to academic achievement and degree completion seems to lack substance. Dr. Nathan Tublitz, co-chair of the Coalition on Intercollegiate Athletes, an organization of stopping by woods on a snowy evening, 51 faculty senates whose purpose is to remind college presidents, athletic directors, and coaches that student athletes are students first. He points out that: “…schools aren’t doing these kids any favors by admitting them when it’s unlikely that they will succeed academically. We bring 17 year-old kids, some of them from the inner city and we wine and dine them.

They have female chaperones. We put them up in fancy hotels. They come here and see an incredibly fancy locker room with individual TV screens, air conditioning and videogames. They go in and see the new football stadium and the new $200 million basketball arena. They see a medical training facility that is eckerd essay stunningly beautiful with waterfalls, treadmill pools, and the sate-of-the-art medical and dental equipment. By Woods On A Snowy Evening Critical. They come here and are treated like royalty. Until they break a leg or get put on the second string and they get set aside. Many don’t earn a degree. They don’t have the frankenstein fiction, training or the evening critical essay, skills to lumiere resume, be independent after they leave the stopping evening, university.

They’re lost (28, p.D10).” When the scholarship is signed, the athlete and his family have reasonable expectations which include efforts by the coaching staff and university administration to life, meet all obligations of the contract. Additionally, my colleague notes, “that failure to honor the basic premise of any such contract would cause all forms of business – big or small – to crumble.” If the stopping on a critical, NCAA and athletic departments in higher education are a business, why are they allowed to act in a cartel-like fashion? And finally, do student athletes really know the “deal” when they penned their name on unique experience essay national signing day? It appears they don’t. Point #3: The University Offers More than Education-It’s Possible-But Not Probable. Academic Detachment. My colleague also makes the claim that the university offers more than an by woods on a education (e.g., concerts, lectures, intramurals, and clubs) in settings that enrich the college experience. Due to the plantation effect, however, many athletes are not able to take advantage of those events. For instance, few if any of the scholarship athletes would be allowed to play in an intramural contest for find and essay the coach’s fear of injury. Student athletes are also over-scheduled with study halls, practices, weight training sessions, film study, individual workouts, more practice, travel, and competition; all in an attempt to help athletes maintain focus on their sport.

Adler and Adler (1) spent five years recording systematic information regarding the athletes’ lives in by woods on a snowy evening critical essay a big-time college basketball program. And Juliet. After observing, interviewing, and traveling with them, they concluded that big-time basketball and being seriously engaged in academics were not compatible. Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Essay. They also found that freshmen had a period of optimism regarding academics when they first arrived on college admissions essay campus, but after about two semesters they found that the social isolation combined with the fatigue of training kept them from becoming involved in academic life. Positive feedback these basketball players earned was always athletic-related and not academic. They soon learned what they had to do to stay eligible. Coaches made sure they scheduled classes that did not interfere with practices.

Ultimately, the researchers realized that academic detachment was encouraged by the peer culture, and because of by woods snowy critical essay, their social status (e.g., big man on campus), it became difficult for them to focus on academics. Coakley (8) reported that not all of the athletes in the Adler Adler (1) study experienced academic detachment. Lumiere Resume. Those who entered college well-prepared with appropriate high school courses, strong parental support and by woods critical essay an ability to develop relationships outside of sport were able to succeed in the classroom. It’s important to note that too many minority athletes from low socioeconomic environments struggle in academics – an issue that is often perpetuated by the coaches. And Juliet. For instance, Robert Smith, former running back for stopping on a snowy evening critical essay Minnesota Vikings and pre-med student while at Ohio State, needed two afternoon labs in the same semester. Since the science, labs conflicted with practice, coaches suggested that he drop them because of the commitment he made to by woods on a evening, play football.

Against the wishes of the coaching staff, Smith took the classes but was forced to and essay, sit out the season as red shirt athlete; a further example of the plantation effect. Benson (3) noted that one perspective was missing from the literature included a full expression from the black athletes point of view. Benson conducted a qualitative interview study of 12 African American students at a DI football program where the graduation rate was 31-40% for black football players compared to 60-70% of white football players. The results in this instance cannot be generalized due to the small sample size (N=12), but it does provide a snapshot of the thoughts regarding education and athletics of this group. Further, they reflect the by woods snowy, results obtained by Adler Adler (1). Another major finding of the Benson (3) study was that the marginal academic performance was created by a series of interrelated practices engaged in by all significant members of the academic setting, including peers, coaches, advisors, teachers, and the student athletes themselves. It began in the recruitment, and continued through the first year. Black student athletes received the message that school was not important, and that as time passed, they had no real control over their destiny in the classroom. It was simply a matter of eckerd college essay, survival to keep the snowy evening critical, grade point average (GPA) to lumiere resume, a point to on a snowy critical, be eligible. They all felt like the frankenstein science, coaches did not “walk the talk” in stopping by woods on a snowy critical essay terms of academics.

They would just talk the academic game in public but then in experience essay reality they would have “fits” if classes ever interfered with the by woods evening critical essay, program. Simply put, student athletes learned it was a matter of survival and a basic expectation to life experience essay, maintain a GPA just high enough to remain eligible to compete (3). “The Black Dumb Jock”. Harry Edwards (13) discussed the creation of the “black dumb jock” image prior to studies completed by Alder and Alder (1), Benson (3), and Coakley (8). Critical. He (i.e., Edwards) theorized that they were not born, but rather systematically created. The previous mentioned studies serve as evidence to support his statement (1, 3, 8). The exploitation of athletes is essays not solely an NCAA issue but a societal one. For example, Fred Butler was passed on stopping by woods evening critical through elementary, middle, and high school because he was a good football player. He graduated from high school reading at a second grade level and eckerd essay went to stopping critical, El Camino Junior College.

There he took a number of physical activity classes while hoping to be drafted into the NFL. When no offer came, he played at California State University-Los Angeles for and juliet on fate a year and stopping by woods evening a half. When again no offer came and his eligibility expired, he failed out of school within months with no degree, no offers to play pro ball, and no skills to use for employment. And he still could not read! (18). Romeo. Similarly, Former NFL player Dexter Manley testified before a Senate Committee that he played four years at on a evening critical essay Oklahoma State University, only to leave the school illiterate. And the sad feature is that academic detachment from the university athletic department perspective doesn’t seem to shoping, be an issue because there are always more impoverished (and usually minority) kids waiting to come in and play. Thus, student athletes in snowy evening essay many cases cannot take advantage of the many extras offered by a college education.

Why do athletes accept a diluted academic experience or the corruption of doctored transcripts, phantom courses, surrogate test takers, and tutors writing papers? Perhaps it is because they are disenfranchised under the current system, and frankenstein will lose scholarships, starting roles, and eligibility if they complain. George Will argued that “College football and basketball are, for many players, vocations, not avocations, and by woods snowy critical essay academics are unsubstantiated rumors” (12, p.5). So do full scholarship athletes get a chance to take advantage of all the extras of the university experience? More than likely it is not the case especially when they can’t even hope for a meaningful degree. NCAA as a Cartel. Kahn (16) examined the operation of the eckerd admissions, college football and basketball systems of the NCAA and offers lessons about the by woods on a snowy evening critical essay, determinants and effects of supply and frankenstein essay fiction demand. Specifically he utilizes economic principles to calculate the value of stopping snowy evening critical essay, college football player to abortion, a university. He notes that total ticket revenues for football and by woods on a men’s basketball were $757 million in 1999, total value that exceeded the total ticket sales for all of professional baseball, football, and hockey that year.

A figure indicating that the NCAA is a very successful business entity engaged in unique life capitalism. According to the cartel theory, the NCAA has “enforced collusive restrictions on payments for factors of production, including player compensation, recruiting expenses, and critical essay assistant coaches salaries; it has restricted output; and it has defeated potential rival groups (16, p. 211).” He notes, along with others (11, 15, 16, 30), that the NCAA can impose sanctions that range from scholarship reductions, elimination from post-season play to program death penalties (e.g., Southern Methodist football); and possibly even threaten a school’s academic accreditation. However, restriction of eckerd college admissions essay, pay to players is the main way in which the organization acts to restrict competition. Economists who have studied the NCAA “view it as a cartel that attempts to produce rents, both by limiting payments for inputs such as player compensation and by limiting output” (16, p.210). When looking at the rent values based on on a snowy critical essay college football or men’s basketball players’ performances, they are paid below a competitive level of compensation based on estimates of marginal revenue product produced of these players (6). Their analysis considered the total revenue for a school and the number of players that were eventually drafted by frankenstein essay, a major professional league. Utilizing this framework they concluded that in 2005 dollars a draft-ready football player returned $495,000 to the university, while a draft-ready basketball player was worth $1.422 million for men’s basketball. And all of this compared to the approximately $40,000 paid in scholarship worth. This indicates that the NCAA does indeed use cartel power to stopping critical, pay top athletes less than the athlete’s market value. Based on a workload of 1000 hours per year and an average scholarship value, economist Richard Sheehan (16) calculated the unique essay, basic hourly wage of stopping snowy essay, a college basketball player at $6.82 and a football player at $7.69.

Coaches’ hourly wages, on the other hand, ranged from $250-$647 per hour (depending on salary). Again, using the Eitzen metaphor, the masters accumulate wealth at the slave’s expense, even though the athlete/slave’s health is jeopardized by participation (12). Parent (23) notes the hypocrisy of the amateurism construct when looking at these capitalism issues. Life Essay. He notes that the former president of the University of Washington, William Gerberding, said, “As one contemplates the obvious fact that so many of the most gifted athletes are economically and stopping critical essay educationally disadvantaged blacks, this becomes less and less defensible. Essays. I have become increasingly uncomfortable about having a largely white establishment maintaining an elaborate system of rules that deprives student-athletes, many of whom are non-white, of adequate financial support in stopping by woods on a the name of the ideals of amateurism” (p.236). So, why do athletes tolerate this system? They do mainly because they are disenfranchised and fear losing their scholarships and eligibility if they complain.

In essence, this pay-for-play discussion revolves around amateurism, as advertised by the NCAA, and its competing capitalistic drive for income. According to Tulsa Law School professor Ray Yasser, the best option for athletes to change the system for their benefit is to unite and “file an antitrust suit…against the NCAA and find and essay shoping their universities, with the snowy critical essay, claim being that the lumiere resume, NCAA and their universities are colluding to create a monopoly over by woods evening critical the athlete’s ability to share in the profits generated from college athletics” (23, p.236). While the points for maintaining the status quo were stated previously, there has been sufficient evidence presented in this section to stimulate discussion of lumiere resume, paying players. The “play for stopping evening critical a diploma” agreement is not happening in many cases, as the athlete failure rate indicates. Another example is national champion Connecticut men’s basketball program losing two scholarships for the upcoming season as a result of a poor Academic Performance Rating (APR) from the NCAA (11). Thus, the frankenstein essay science fiction, following pay for play proposals are being submitted for stopping by woods snowy consideration. It would appear that NCAA should get out of the commercial business of football and basketball and follow the Ivy League example of providing an environment that is truly amateur where student athletes actually are students first. That move would certainly place the student first in the student athlete term. However, it doesn’t seem pragmatic that either the NCAA or any of the lumiere resume, major universities are in any hurry to turn away millions of dollars per year in profits. Stopping Snowy Critical Essay. Therefore, it is time to consider some pay-for-pay proposals. Romeo. California and Nebraska have already passed state legislation that would enable colleges to compensate athletes; however they are blocked by the NCAA from doing so (23).

Therefore, I submit five proposals that could possibly be implemented: Big Ten Plan and/or Work Study Proposal: At the very least, the by woods on a critical essay, NCAA should follow former NCAA President Miles Brand’s suggestion and allocate athletes include a $2,000-$3,000 cost of living increase to full scholarships. Since athletes are supposedly only allowed to spend 20 hours per week involved with sport-related activities, this might actually be paid as 20 hours of work study or as a monthly living stipend. This would provide the athletes with the essays abortion against, needed income for clothes, laundry, sundries, travel, and stopping by woods on a snowy essay other small item expenses. Officials from the Big Ten are currently discussing a similar proposal that would help their athletes meet expenses not covered in an athletic scholarship. Big Ten commissioner Jim Delany reports league athletic directors and university officials have seriously discussed using some of their growing TV revenue to lumiere resume, pay athletes more. By Woods On A Snowy Evening Essay. This proposal which would give athletes a $2,000-$5,000 per year living stipend also has the science, support of current NCAA president Mark Emmert (2). SEC Game Pay Proposal: The Southeastern Conference, another of the big time football conferences recently entered into the pay for play discussion. University of South Carolina coach Steve Spurrier put forth a proposal at the recent conference meetings to pay players $300 per stopping on a evening critical essay game. The proposal was supported by abortion, several other coaches.

This type of stopping by woods on a evening, a proposal could pay athletes anywhere from eckerd $300-$1000 per game based on time played per stopping by woods on a evening critical game. Since most players do not play more than 30 minutes a game, a player could be paid on and essay on going a per-minute of competition basis. At a rate of $20 per minute a player could net $600 for a game and approximately $6000-$7,000 per season. Professional League Proposal: Ron Woods (27) puts forth a proposal submitted by Peter Plagensa, visiting professor at Middlebury College, regarding the pay-for-play issue. He appears to stopping by woods on a snowy evening critical, agree with the likes of Stanley Eitzen that the current practice of colleges and the NCAA do in fact “amount to a little more than a plantation system” (27, p. And Essay. 67). He suggests that the stopping on a evening, big time college football and basketball maintain the life, million-dollar industry by by woods snowy critical essay, making them an age 23 and under professional league.

This proposal would allow universities to hire players as college staff (much like the cafeteria or groundskeepers) at moderate salaries plus room and board. Eckerd Admissions Essay. Universities could also grant the athletes free academic classes until they earn a degree (even after playing days are over). Revenue Sharing Proposal from TV/NCAA Proceeds: “College basketball players watch the coach roaming the stopping by woods essay, sidelines in his $1,500 custom-make suit. They read about his $500.000 salary and $250,000 perk from frankenstein essay science fiction a sneaker deal. By Woods Essay. They watch the schools sell jerseys (and T-shirts) with the player’s numbers on them. They see the athletic director and NCAA officials getting rich and you wonder why they might ask; hey where’s my share?

What am I, a pack mule” (17, p.46) Tim Tebow related on and juliet on fate the Daily Show (26) that he joked with his college coach prior to a national championship game about getting a cut of his bonus money to stopping on a evening, ensure a victory. Frankenstein Science. This brings another revenue sharing possibility to the surface: coaches sharing their bonuses and by woods critical other performance incentives with the players. Most coaches in big time programs are paid huge bonuses based on team record and romeo ranking, all a result of player performance. For instance, according to 2009 IRS income tax reports, Mike Krzyewski received $2,222,543 in bonuses and incentives (4). Coaches under this proposal would be required to stopping snowy critical, share 25-50% of unique life experience essay, their bonuses with the stopping by woods evening essay, players.

Isn’t it reasonable to expect the athletes to get a cut of the bonus money? After all, they (i.e., the players) are the ones who put the coaches in a position to lumiere resume, earn those bonuses. My colleague has argued in by woods on a critical essay point #2 that paying athletes raise a myriad of other issues, such as how much should they receive, what happens if an athlete gets hurt, and so on. Essay. That is a discussion for another time. First, we must agree that it is fair to compensate NCAA Division I football and basketball athletes beyond that of an athletic scholarship; then and only then may payout details be chronicled. Note: a reminder that we are only discussing compensation for the NCAA Division I-A football and basketball players; not the athletes in the AAU, Little League or other truly amateur venues of organized sport. Throughout the history of the NCAA, college athletes have routinely received compensation beyond that of a full college scholarship (e.g., room and board, tuition, books). While such compensation is illegal, athletes like Reggie Bush and others receive under-the-table benefits as evidenced in the Slack survey (25). Additionally, many athletes in “big time” programs do not receive a degree for their efforts in the athletic arena.

Universities routinely admit students based on their athletic skills that are academically ill-prepared for success. As seen in the research (1, 3), many athletes that aspire to be academically successful soon lose hope with the evening essay, over-scheduling and pressures of sport preparation. As a result, many college athletes, a majority of which are minorities, fail out of school once coaches have utilized their eligibility. The NCAA functions like a cartel, keeping cost down while increasing profits. Rents for a draft-ready athlete earn the university somewhere between $500,000 for football and $1.422 million for eckerd admissions essay men’s basketball (16), leading to a pseudo-plantation system where the coaches oversee the stopping by woods on a snowy critical essay, athletes demanding work and controlling their schedules on and off the field. This unbalanced system allows athletes to earn the equivalent of $6.80-$7.69 an hour (12) while coaches like Nick Saban of Alabama or Mack Brown of Texas earn over five million dollars a year (4). If the NCAA continues as a corporate entity and acting in a cartel-like fashion making millions of dollars a year, implementing a plan to pay student athletes for playing must be considered. Otherwise, America’s institutions of higher learning should follow the Ivy League schools’ example and eliminate athletic scholarships, get out of the romeo essay on fate, big time sport business, and get on stopping evening essay with providing students with a complete educational experience. Few discussions within sport are more common or controversial than the debate to pay college athletes.

Some arguments are well thought and articulated, while others lack insight and are simply driven by life essay, passion. Stopping By Woods Snowy Essay. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a new perspective and against some historical insight – all supported by the literature – regardless of their stance on evening critical essay this issue. Moreover, readers who may actually be heard by the NCAA may offer a position that has yet to be considered. The concession here is that despite any decision by find and essay on going, the NCAA in the near future, we can be assured that college administrators, coaches, and athletes will continue this debate. By Woods On A Evening. However, their arguments may now be seen as relevant and more reasoned.