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any essay life We write papers to make our customers pleased. Choose from a wide range of academic writing tasks and get the one you need. One of the most popular essay topic among students is #8220;Essay about Life#8221; where every student tries to describe his/her life, problems, priorities and outlooks. To write a good essay about life one should be able to reflect a little, to release his/her mind from other thoughts and to start writing an essay on life. Here#8217;s a sample essay about mla term paper outline, life written by one of our professional essay writers: #8220;Life is beautiful and to face communication, yet life is paper outline, not a bed of roses. And Contrast Poem Essay! Though it is full of paper, ups and downs it has many facets of blessings and successes. To some people, life is hard, cruel and merciless. These set of people see life as punishment throughout their entire lives. They therefore resigned themselves to fate, believing all is finished. Essays On Ted! To them, nothing that they do can ever be good. They take delight in committing crimes and maiming others to avenge their ill-fortune.
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Mla term paper outline
How the JCA Might Be Used in a SSL/TLS Implementation. Assume that this SSL/TLS implementation will be made available as a JSSE provider. A concrete implementation of the Provider class is first written that will eventually be registered in mla term paper outline, the Security class' list of providers. This provider mainly provides a mapping from essay population, algorithm names to actual implementation classes. (that is: SSLContext.TLS-com.foo.TLSImpl) When an application requests an TLS instance (via SSLContext.getInstance(TLS) , the paper provider's list is consulted for resume outline, the requested algorithm, and mla term an appropriate instance is created. Before discussing details of the essays actual handshake, a quick review of some of the JSSE's architecture is needed. The heart of the JSSE architecture is the SSLContext . The context eventually creates end objects ( SSLSocket and SSLEngine ) which actually implement the SSL/TLS protocol. SSLContext s are initialized with two callback classes, KeyManager and TrustManager , which allow applications to first select authentication material to send and second to verify credentials sent by a peer.
A JSSE KeyManager is responsible for choosing which credentials to present to a peer. Many algorithms are possible, but a common strategy is to mla term paper, maintain a RSA or DSA public/private key pair along with a X509Certificate in a KeyStore backed by a disk file. When a KeyStore object is initialized and loaded from the file, the file's raw bytes are converted into PublicKey and PrivateKey objects using a KeyFactory , and say no to tobacco essay a certificate chain's bytes are converted using a CertificateFactory . When a credential is needed, the paper outline KeyManager simply consults this KeyStore object and determines which credentials to present. A KeyStore 's contents might have originally been created using a utility such as keytool . Resume Outline? keytool creates a RSA or DSA KeyPairGenerator and initializes it with an appropriate keysize. This generator is then used to create a KeyPair which keytool would store along with the newly-created certificate in the KeyStore , which is eventually written to disk. A JSSE TrustManager is responsible for outline, verifying the credentials received from say no essay, a peer. There are many ways to verify credentials: one of them is to create a CertPath object, and let the paper JDK's built-in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) framework handle the validation. Of Argumentative? Internally, the CertPath implementation might create a Signature object, and use that to verify that the each of the signatures in the certificate chain. With this basic understanding of the mla term outline architecture, we can look at comparison some of the steps in the SSL/TLS handshake. The client begins by mla term paper, sending a ClientHello message to the server.
The server selects a ciphersuite to use, and sends that back in a ServerHello message, and begins creating JCA objects based on the suite selection. We'll use server-only authentication in to face communication, the following examples. In the first example, the server tries to use a RSA-based ciphersuite such as TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA. Paper? The server's KeyManager is persuasive essay, queried, and returns an mla term outline, appropriate RSA entry. The server's credentials (that is: certificate/public key) are sent in the server's Certificate message. The client's TrustManager verifies the comparison essay server's certificate, and if accepted, the client generates some random bytes using a SecureRandom object. This is then encrypted using an outline, encrypting asymmetric RSA Cipher object that has been initialized with the PublicKey found in the server's certificate. This encrypted data is to face, sent in paper outline, a Client Key Exchange message. The server would use its corresponding PrivateKey to recover the bytes using a similar Cipher in decrypt mode.
These bytes are then used to establish the actual encryption keys. In a different example, an ephemeral Diffie-Hellman key agreement algorithm along with the DSA signature algorithm is chosen, such as TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA. The two sides must each establish a new temporary DH public/private keypair using a KeyPairGenerator . Each generator creates DH keys which can then be further converted into resume outline, pieces using the KeyFactory and DHPublicKeySpec classes. Each side then creates a KeyAgreement object and mla term outline initializes it with their respective DH PrivateKey s. The server sends its public key pieces in a ServerKeyExchange message (protected by the DSA signature algorithm, and poem essay the client sends its public key in a ClientKeyExchange message. Paper Outline? When the public keys are reassembled using another KeyFactory , they are fed into the agreement objects. The KeyAgreement objects then generate agreed-upon bytes that are then used to establish the actual encryption keys. Once the actual encryption keys have been established, the secret key is used to initialize a symmetric Cipher object, and this cipher is used to resume outline, protect all data in transit.
To help determine if the data has been modified, a MessageDigest is created and receives a copy of the data destined for the network. When the packet is complete, the digest (hash) is appended to data, and the entire packet is encrypted by outline, the Cipher . If a block cipher such as AES is used, the data must be padded to make a complete block. On the remote side, the elements of argumentative essays steps are simply reversed. Again, this is vastly simplified, but gives one an idea of how these classes might be combined to create a higher level protocol. How to mla term, Make Applications Exempt from Cryptographic Restrictions. The JCA framework includes an ability to enforce restrictions regarding the cryptographic algorithms and maximum cryptographic strengths available to applets/applications in different jurisdiction contexts (locations). Any such restrictions are specified in jurisdiction policy files. Due to import control restrictions by essay, the governments of a few countries, the jurisdiction policy files shipped with the paper Java SE Development Kit 6 specify that strong but limited cryptography may be used. An unlimited strength version of these files indicating no restrictions on cryptographic strengths is available for those living in eligible countries (which is most countries). But only the strong version can be imported into comparison and contrast, those countries whose governments mandate restrictions.
The JCA framework will enforce the restrictions specified in the installed jurisdiction policy files. It is possible that the governments of some or all such countries may allow certain applications to become exempt from some or all cryptographic restrictions. For example, they may consider certain types of paper outline, applications as special and thus exempt. Or they may exempt any application that utilizes an exemption mechanism, such as key recovery. Applications deemed to be exempt could get access to stronger cryptography than that allowed for non-exempt applications in such countries. In order for an application to be recognized as exempt at runtime, it must meet the say no following conditions: It must have a permission policy file bundled with it in paper, a JAR file. The permission policy file specifies what cryptography-related permissions the comparison poem application has, and under what conditions (if any). The JAR file containing the application and mla term outline the permission policy file must have been signed using a code-signing certificate issued after the application was accepted as exempt. Below are sample steps required in order to make an essays, application exempt from some or all cryptographic restrictions. This is paper, a basic outline that includes information about what is required by JCA in order to recognize and say no essay treat applications as being exempt.
You will need to mla term paper outline, know the exemption requirements of the particular country or countries in which you would like your application to be able to elements of argumentative essays, be run but whose governments require cryptographic restrictions. You will also need to know the requirements of a JCA framework vendor that has a process in mla term outline, place for handling exempt applications. Consult such a vendor for further information. (NOTE: The SunJCE provider does not supply an implementation of the ExemptionMechanismSpi class.) Step 1: Write and Compile Your Application Code Step 2: Create a Permission Policy File Granting Appropriate Cryptographic Permissions Step 3: Prepare for Testing Step 3a: Apply for Government Approval From the Government Mandating Restrictions. Step 3b: Get a Code-Signing Certificate Step 3c: Bundle the essay population Application and Permission Policy File into mla term, a JAR file Step 3d: Sign the JAR file Step 3e: Set Up Your Environment Like That of a User in a Restricted Country Step 3f: (only for applications using exemption mechanisms) Install a Provider Implementing the Exemption Mechanism Specified by the entry in the Permission Policy File Step 4: Test Your Application Step 5: Apply for resume outline, U.S. Government Export Approval If Required Step 6: Deploy Your Application. Special Code Requirements for Applications that Use Exemption Mechanisms. When an application has a permission policy file associated with it (in the mla term same JAR file) and critical that permission policy file specifies an exemption mechanism, then when the Cipher getInstance method is called to instantiate a Cipher, the JCA code searches the installed providers for mla term paper outline, one that implements the specified exemption mechanism. If it finds such a provider, JCA instantiates an ExemptionMechanism API object associated with the provider's implementation, and then associates the elements essays ExemptionMechanism object with the Cipher returned by getInstance . After instantiating a Cipher, and prior to initializing it (via a call to paper, the Cipher init method), your code must call the following Cipher method:
This call returns the ExemptionMechanism object associated with the Cipher. You must then initialize the persuasive growth exemption mechanism implementation by calling the following method on the returned ExemptionMechanism: The argument you supply should be the paper outline same as the argument of the same types that you will subsequently supply to a Cipher init method. Once you have initialized the resume outline ExemptionMechanism, you can proceed as usual to initialize and use the Cipher. In order for an application to be recognized at runtime as being exempt from some or all cryptographic restrictions, it must have a permission policy file bundled with it in a JAR file. The permission policy file specifies what cryptography-related permissions the mla term paper application has, and essay about population under what conditions (if any).
NOTE: The permission policy file bundled with an application must be named cryptoPerms . The format of paper, a permission entry in a permission policy file that accompanies an exempt application is the same as the critical on ted hughes format for a jurisdiction policy file downloaded with the paper JDK, which is: See Appendix B for more information about the jurisdiction policy file format. Permission Policy Files for Exempt Applications. Some applications may be allowed to comparison poem essay, be completely unrestricted. Thus, the mla term paper outline permission policy file that accompanies such an elements essays, application usually just needs to contain the following: If an application just uses a single algorithm (or several specific algorithms), then the permission policy file could simply mention that algorithm (or algorithms) explicitly, rather than granting CryptoAllPermission. For example, if an application just uses the Blowfish algorithm, the permission policy file doesn't have to grant CryptoAllPermission to all algorithms. It could just specify that there is no cryptographic restriction if the mla term Blowfish algorithm is and contrast poem, used. In order to do this, the permission policy file would look like the following: Permission Policy Files for Applications Exempt Due to Exemption Mechanisms. If an application is considered exempt if an exemption mechanism is enforced, then the paper permission policy file that accompanies the resume outline application must specify one or more exemption mechanisms.
At runtime, the application will be considered exempt if any of those exemption mechanisms is enforced. Each exemption mechanism must be specified in a permission entry that looks like the following: where ExemptionMechanismName specifies the name of an exemption mechanism. The list of possible exemption mechanism names includes: KeyRecovery KeyEscrow KeyWeakening As an example, suppose your application is outline, exempt if either key recovery or key escrow is enforced. Essays? Then your permission policy file should contain the following:
NOTE: Permission entries that specify exemption mechanisms should not also specify maximum key sizes. The allowed key sizes are actually determined from the installed exempt jurisdiction policy files, as described in the next section. How Bundled Permission Policy Files Affect Cryptographic Permissions. At runtime, when an application instantiates a Cipher (via a call to its getInstance method) and that application has an associated permission policy file, JCA checks to see whether the permission policy file has an entry that applies to the algorithm specified in the getInstance call. If it does, and paper outline the entry grants CryptoAllPermission or does not specify that an exemption mechanism must be enforced, it means there is to tobacco, no cryptographic restriction for mla term paper, this particular algorithm. If the permission policy file has an entry that applies to the algorithm specified in the getInstance call and the entry does specify that an exemption mechanism must be enforced, then the exempt jurisdiction policy file(s) are examined. If the exempt permissions include an critical hughes, entry for the relevant algorithm and exemption mechanism, and that entry is implied by mla term paper outline, the permissions in the permission policy file bundled with the application, and if there is an implementation of the specified exemption mechanism available from one of the registered providers, then the maximum key size and essays on ted algorithm parameter values for the Cipher are determined from the exempt permission entry.
If there is outline, no exempt permission entry implied by and contrast poem essay, the relevant entry in the permission policy file bundled with the application, or if there is paper outline, no implementation of the about growth specified exemption mechanism available from any of the registered providers, then the application is only allowed the standard default cryptographic permissions. First create the message digest object, as in the following example: This call assigns a properly initialized message digest object to the sha variable. Outline? The implementation implements the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1), as defined in resume outline, the National Institute for Standards and mla term paper Technology's (NIST) FIPS 180-2 document. Communication? See Appendix A for outline, a complete discussion of standard names and algorithms. Next, suppose we have three byte arrays, i1 , i2 and say no i3 , which form the total input whose message digest we want to compute.
This digest (or hash) could be calculated via the following calls: An equivalent alternative series of calls would be: After the message digest has been calculated, the message digest object is mla term, automatically reset and ready to receive new data and essay face to face communication calculate its digest. All former state (i.e., the data supplied to update calls) is lost. Some hash implementations may support intermediate hashes through cloning. Suppose we want to calculate separate hashes for:
A way to do it is: This code works only if the SHA-1 implementation is cloneable. Mla Term Paper Outline? While some implementations of elements essays, message digests are cloneable, others are not. To determine whether or not cloning is possible, attempt to clone the mla term MessageDigest object and of argumentative catch the potential exception as follows: If a message digest is not cloneable, the other, less elegant way to compute intermediate digests is to create several digests. In this case, the number of paper outline, intermediate digests to be computed must be known in advance: In this example we will generate a public-private key pair for the algorithm named DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm), and elements of argumentative use this keypair in future examples. We will generate keys with a 1024-bit modulus. We don't care which provider supplies the mla term paper algorithm implementation. The first step is to get a key pair generator object for poem essay, generating keys for the DSA algorithm: Initializing the Key Pair Generator. Algorithm-Independent Initialization.
All key pair generators share the concepts of outline, a keysize and a source of randomness. About Growth? The KeyPairGenerator class initialization methods at a minimum needs a keysize. If the source of mla term paper outline, randomness is essay to face communication, not explicitly provided, a SecureRandom implementation of the highest-priority installed provider will be used. Thus to generate keys with a keysize of 1024, simply call: The following code illustrates how to use a specific, additionally seeded SecureRandom object: Since no other parameters are specified when you call the paper above algorithm-independent initialize method, it is up to the provider what to do about the algorithm-specific parameters (if any) to be associated with each of the keys.
The provider may use precomputed parameter values or may generate new values. For situations where a set of essay population, algorithm-specific parameters already exists (such as community parameters in DSA), there are two initialize methods that have an paper, AlgorithmParameterSpec argument. Suppose your key pair generator is for the DSA algorithm, and you have a set of DSA-specific parameters, p , q , and g , that you would like to use to generate your key pair. You could execute the resume outline following code to initialize your key pair generator (recall that DSAParameterSpec is an AlgorithmParameterSpec): NOTE: The parameter named p is a prime number whose length is the mla term modulus length (size). Essays? Therefore, you don't need to call any other method to specify the modulus length. Generating and Verifying a Signature Using Generated Keys. The following signature generation and verification examples use the KeyPair generated in the key pair example above. We first create a signature object: Next, using the key pair generated in the key pair example, we initialize the object with the private key, then sign a byte array called data . Generating/Verifying Signatures Using Key Specifications and KeyFactory.
Further suppose you want to use your private key to digitally sign some data, which is in a byte array named someData . You would do the following steps, which also illustrate creating a key specification and using a key factory to obtain a PrivateKey from the key specification ( initSign requires a PrivateKey ): Suppose Alice wants to use the data you signed. In order for her to do so, and to verify your signature, you need to send her three things: the data, the signature, and the public key corresponding to the private key you used to sign the data. You can store the someData bytes in one file, and the signature bytes in another, and send those to outline, Alice. For the public key, assume, as in the signing example above, you have the components of the DSA public key corresponding to the DSA private key used to resume outline, sign the data. Mla Term Outline? Then you can create a DSAPublicKeySpec from those components: You still need to extract the key bytes so that you can put them in a file. To do so, you can first call the generatePublic method on the DSA key factory already created in the example above: Then you can extract the (encoded) key bytes via the following: You can now store these bytes in a file, and send it to Alice along with the files containing the data and the signature.
Now, assume Alice has received these files, and she copied the data bytes from the data file to a byte array named data , the essay face to face communication signature bytes from the signature file to paper outline, a byte array named signature , and the encoded public key bytes from the essays on ted hughes public key file to a byte array named encodedPubKey . Alice can now execute the following code to verify the mla term paper outline signature. The code also illustrates how to use a key factory in order to essays hughes, instantiate a DSA public key from its encoding ( initVerify requires a PublicKey ). NOTE: In the above, Alice needed to generate a PublicKey from the encoded key bits, since initVerify requires a PublicKey . Once she has a PublicKey , she could also use the KeyFactory getKeySpec method to mla term paper outline, convert it to a DSAPublicKeySpec so that she can access the essays components, if desired, as in: Now she can access the DSA public key components y , p , q , and g through the mla term paper outline corresponding get methods on the DSAPublicKeySpec class ( getY , getP , getQ , and getG ). Determining If Two Keys Are Equal. In many cases you would like to know if two keys are equal; however, the default method java.lang.Object.equals may not give the on ted hughes desired result.
The most provider-independent approach is to compare the encoded keys. If this comparison isn't appropriate (for example, when comparing an mla term, RSAPrivateKey and essay about population an RSAPrivateCrtKey ), you should compare each component. Paper Outline? The following code demonstrates this idea: Reading Base64-Encoded Certificates. The following example reads a file with Base64-encoded certificates, which are each bounded at the beginning by. and at persuasive about population growth the end by We convert the mla term FileInputStream (which does not support mark and reset ) to a ByteArrayInputStream (which supports those methods), so that each call to generateCertificate consumes only one certificate, and the read position of the input stream is positioned to the next certificate in the file:
The following example parses a PKCS7-formatted certificate reply stored in a file and extracts all the certificates from it: This section takes the user through the essays process of generating a key, creating and initializing a cipher object, encrypting a file, and then decrypting it. Throughout this example, we use the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). To create an AES key, we have to instantiate a KeyGenerator for mla term, AES. We do not specify a provider, because we do not care about a particular AES key generation implementation.
Since we do not initialize the elements of argumentative essays KeyGenerator, a system-provided source of randomness and a default keysize will be used to create the AES key: After the mla term outline key has been generated, the same KeyGenerator object can be re-used to create further keys. The next step is to create a Cipher instance. To do this, we use one of the getInstance factory methods of the Cipher class. We must specify the name of the to face requested transformation, which includes the following components, separated by slashes (/): the algorithm name the mla term mode (optional) the padding scheme (optional) In this example, we create an AES cipher in Electronic Codebook mode, with PKCS5-style padding.
We do not specify a provider, because we do not care about a particular implementation of the requested transformation. The standard algorithm name for resume outline, AES is AES, the standard name for the Electronic Codebook mode is ECB, and the standard name for PKCS5-style padding is PKCS5Padding: We use the mla term generated aesKey from above to initialize the Cipher object for encryption: cleartext and cleartext1 are identical. In this example, we prompt the user for communication, a password from mla term, which we derive an essay population, encryption key. It would seem logical to mla term paper outline, collect and store the password in an object of comparison and contrast poem, type java.lang.String . Mla Term Outline? However, here's the caveat: Objects of type String are immutable, i.e., there are no methods defined that allow you to change (overwrite) or zero out the contents of a String after usage. This feature makes String objects unsuitable for storing security sensitive information such as user passwords. You should always collect and store security sensitive information in comparison and contrast, a char array instead. For that reason, the paper javax.crypto.spec.PBEKeySpec class takes (and returns) a password as a char array. Poem? See the ReadPassword class in the sample code in Appendix D for one possible way of mla term, reading character array passwords from an input stream. In order to use Password-Based Encryption (PBE) as defined in PKCS5, we have to resume outline, specify a salt and an iteration count . The same salt and iteration count that are used for encryption must be used for decryption:
Please refer to Appendix D for sample programs exercising the Diffie-Hellman key exchange between 2 and 3 parties. The JDK Security API requires and uses a set of standard names for algorithms, certificate and keystore types. The specification names previously found here in Appendix A and in mla term, the other security specifications (JSSE/CertPath/etc.) have been combined in the Standard Names document. This document also contains more information about the algorithm specifications. Specific provider information can be found in the Sun Provider Documentation. Cryptographic implementations in the JDK are distributed through several different providers primarily for historical reasons ( Sun , SunJSSE , SunJCE , SunRsaSign ). Note these providers may not be available on all JDK implementations, and therefore, truly portable applications should call getInstance() without specifying specific providers.
Applications specifying a particular provider may not be able to take advantage of native providers tuned for an underlying operating environment (such as PKCS or Microsoft's CAPI). The SunPKCS11 provider itself does not contain any cryptographic algorithms, but instead, directs requests into an underlying PKCS11 implementation. The PKCS11 Reference Guide and the underlying PKCS11 implementation should be consulted to determine if a desired algorithm will be available through the persuasive essay about PKCS11 provider. Likewise, on Windows systems, the SunMSCAPI provider does not provide any cryptographic functionality, but instead routes requests to mla term paper outline, the underlying Operating System for handling. Appendix B: Jurisdiction Policy File Format. JCA represents its jurisdiction policy files as Java style policy files with corresponding permission statements. As described in Default Policy Implementation and Policy File Syntax, a Java policy file specifies what permissions are allowed for code from specified code sources. A permission represents access to a system resource.
In the case of say no essay, JCA, the resources are cryptography algorithms, and mla term outline code sources do not need to be specified, because the cryptographic restrictions apply to all code. A jurisdiction policy file consists of elements of argumentative essays, a very basic grant entry containing one or more permission entries. The format of a permission entry in a jurisdiction policy file is: A sample jurisdiction policy file that includes restricting the Blowfish algorithm to maximum key sizes of 64 bits is: A permission entry must begin with the word permission . Paper Outline? The crypto permission class name in the template above would actually be a specific permission class name, such as javax.crypto.CryptoPermission . A crypto permission class reflects the ability of an application/applet to use certain algorithms with certain key sizes in certain environments. Poem Essay? There are two crypto permission classes: CryptoPermission and CryptoAllPermission . The special CryptoAllPermission class implies all cryptography-related permissions, that is, it specifies that there are no cryptography-related restrictions. The alg_name, when utilized, is a quoted string specifying the standard name (see Appendix A) of a cryptography algorithm, such as DES or RSA. The exemption mechanism name, when specified, is a quoted string indicating an exemption mechanism which, if enforced, enables a reduction in outline, cryptographic restrictions. Exemption mechanism names that can be used include KeyRecovery KeyEscrow, and comparison essay KeyWeakening. maxKeySize is an integer specifying the mla term paper outline maximum key size (in bits) allowed for the specified algorithm.
For some algorithms it may not be sufficient to specify the elements algorithm strength in terms of just a key size. For example, in the case of the RC5 algorithm, the paper outline number of resume outline, rounds must also be considered. For algorithms whose strength needs to be expressed as more than a key size, the permission entry should also specify an AlgorithmParameterSpec class name (such as javax.crypto.spec.RC5ParameterSpec ) and a list of parameters for constructing the specified AlgorithmParameterSpec object. Items that appear in a permission entry must appear in the specified order. Mla Term Outline? An entry is terminated with a semicolon. Case is unimportant for elements, the identifiers ( grant , permission ) but is significant for paper outline, the crypto permission class name or for any string that is essays, passed in as a value. NOTE: An * can be used as a wildcard for any permission entry option. For example, an mla term paper, * (without the quotes) for an alg_name option means all algorithms. Appendix C: Maximum Key Sizes Allowed by Strong Jurisdiction Policy Files.
Due to import control restrictions, the jurisdiction policy files shipped with the Java SE Development Kit allow strong but limited cryptography to be used. For more info, please see Import Limits on Cryptographic Algorithms.
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Before sharing this great news get clear about what kind of job you#39;re looking for. This way you#39;re prepared to answer questions about your job search. Reconnect With Your Professional Contacts. If you left work on a good note it#39;s a great idea to keep in touch with your former boss and co-workers. Of Argumentative Essays! Periodically invite them to lunch or give them a call to catch up. If you haven#39;t stayed in mla term outline, touch it#39;s never too late to reach out. Are you unsure what to talk about? Besides sharing what you have been up to take the elements of argumentative essays opportunity to catch up on the company#39;s latest news, changes in the industry, or what former clients are doing. When you keep these relationships fresh they will be better resources and references when you are ready to return to mla term, work. Find Ways to persuasive about population, Fill Your Professional Gap.
Returning to work won#39;t happen instantaneously. It takes some time to find the paper right job! You could use this time performing a contract job or freelance work to help fill your gap. Essays! In today#39;s economy, many companies are open to the idea of contract workers, especially for big projects or to help launch new initiatives. Paper! This way of working allows you to keep your skills fresh or it could help you learn a new skill set to be used in a new career! Also, you could use volunteer work to elements essays, help fill your professional gap. To do so keep a detailed list of the projects you have worked on with your school#39;s PTA, school fundraisers, or charitable organizations. Make a special note if you were in a leadership role like a large event or project. How to Manage the outline Gap on Your Resume. Even though you don#39;t want to hide the period of time you were out of the workforce, you don#39;t want to highlight it either.
Err on the side of caution and face to face, avoid addressing your mom duties with cute descriptions like #34;domestic goddess#34; or #34;Smith Family CEO.#34; Instead, organize your resume by work experience and related skills instead of including a chronological listing of your work history. This way you can highlight activities and mla term, skills from your time away from work including volunteer work, fundraising efforts, continuing education, and comparison essay, contract or freelance work. While these skills are pertinent and paper outline, certainly transferable to the workplace, remember that you are applying for a job. Growth! The majority of your resume should focus on mla term paper outline, specific work experience, achievements, and successes. Submit a Cover Letter That Shows You Did Your Homework. Your cover letter is designed to grab the reader#39;s attention and entice them to read your resume. It#39;s also super critical to resume outline, moms looking to return to work because it gives you the opportunity to share your story. You want to share why you#39;re interested in their company, what skills you have that would make their company more successful, and your specific accomplishments. Be sure your cover letter is mla term paper outline top notch. Check all grammar (use the app, Grammarly!!) and spelling.
Also, try to find the about name of the company#39;s recruiter or HR manager to personalize the letter. It shows you made an effort to get to know the company and checked out mla term their company on LinkedIn. Bridge the Gap in Person or On Paper. Here#39;s how to address your professional gap in your cover letter. Persuasive Essay! The recruiter may be curious so be honest and to the point about mla term outline, your gap in employment. You can say something like you left the essay population growth workforce to care for family and since they are older now you are eager to return to the workforce. During phone interviews and face-to-face interviews, acknowledge your gap in employment in a matter of mla term paper outline, fact way.
You could say something like, #34;You may have noticed a gap on my resume. After the poem essay birth of my second child, I made the decision to stay home with my children. I#39;m the type of person who puts 150 percent into everything I do. At that point, I felt that those efforts were best focused on my family. Now that my children are older, I#39;m at a point where I#39;m once again able to commit 150 percent to an employer. I#39;d like to discuss some of my past successes and achievements, both from my previous work history and my time out mla term paper outline of the workforce.#34; Be confident when making these statements and the interviewer will have confidence in you as well. After all, what#39;s really important to the interviewer is whether you are the right person for the position and are willing to put the appropriate time and effort into making it a success.
The most important to thing about of argumentative essays, returning to the workforce is the excitement! Your life is about to change for the better. But with change comes uncertainty and anxiety. If you start to feel discouraged go search Pinterest for new outfit ideas. Mla Term Outline! Dream about what life will be like when you are at work.
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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and when to paper use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and resume outline how to mla term outline reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the ability to communicate your ideas in writing clearly and effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and paraphrase the work of other writers, the development of essay face to face arguments and mla term conclusions, and the effective use of evidence to support a case. Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at essays on ted helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of evidence, and writing strong, critical and paper clear arguments.
In most History subjects, you will be asked to elements essays produce different kinds of writing. Mla Term Paper? Short tutorial and persuasive about growth document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects. Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. In general, the paper, functions of an elements essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to tackle; to develop and defend that argument or contention by discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by paper outline critically assessing the interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions.
They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for face to face communication good essay writing. Paper Outline? As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to essay communication effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in outline, their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and resume outline greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the mla term outline, philosophy and practice of comparison poem history. The desired outcomes of essays in mla term paper outline, second-year subjects include developing skills in and contrast poem essay, the use of bibliographies and paper outline other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by other historians. The desired outcomes of essay essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the mla term paper outline, conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of resume outline representations of the past; familiarity with the mla term, different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors.
For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Writing is essay face, easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to mla term paper outline convince of something, a person who wants to persuasive essay about population know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to mla term paper outline tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing.
3. Resume Outline? Choosing and mla term paper comprehending the critical essays, question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and much more enjoyable to develop and mla term paper defend a strong argument on something which interests and intrigues you than on critical hughes, something you find boring or simple. Writing is not the outcome or the finished product of mla term paper outline learning: it is a vital part of learning. It is essays hughes, a way of mla term paper sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an issue. Think about the question or topic in comparison and contrast essay, these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the mla term paper, ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is resume outline, my first reaction to outline the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and comparison and contrast essay issues can I explore by answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is asking me to do? Have I interpreted the mla term paper, question correctly?
If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the approach you are taking does address the comparison essay, question, talk to mla term your tutor. Essays? Essay topics are designed to draw on mla term outline, the subject content developed in lectures and tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the elements of argumentative essays, works of other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on the importance or the meaning of events of evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to challenge and amend prior interpretations. They will take different approaches to mla term paper outline the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an issue, be it gender relations in medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union or the say no to tobacco, impact of mla term paper outline colonial rule in India. What you will see, however, is to face, that all of paper these writers state a position. They address a problem.
They answer a real or implied question. You should trace their strategies for essays on ted developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem. Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the evidence and from your critical review of other historians work.
You’ve read the mla term paper outline, books and articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. You’ve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the essay face, question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and mla term paper outline addressed the topic. Hughes? You’ve collected some evidence from mla term paper a range of different sources and about population growth you’ve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. You’ve looked again at the major themes of the subject and thought about how you might address them in this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion. Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of mla term paper Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form.
No, it is difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on essays, this issue, as the paper, evidence suggests that different groups of resume outline Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and paper outline research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and say no to tobacco essay defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the mla term paper outline, argument changes and elements of argumentative essays develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the paper, task of writing down and persuasive population growth defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an emerging point. However, the basic thrust and content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to paper allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Elements Of Argumentative Essays? Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out your argument, for instance in point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and supporting arguments.
introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on paper, previous century to show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and say no to tobacco usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the outline, garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the say no to tobacco, evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of mla term paper natural environments. In the short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to essays develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the mla term paper, argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in persuasive essay about growth, the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . Mla Term Outline? You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points. If you have decided to critical essays hughes adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion.
Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by paper outline critically reviewing the work of other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. A good way of essay face to face thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Mla Term Outline? Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is resume outline, introduced and described, and then its place in mla term paper outline, the whole structure is shown. Block 1: stage of the argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures.
If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the elements of argumentative essays, threats posed by civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the mla term paper outline, argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation.
Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. Even mining sites appeared in face communication, nature paintings, and the work of Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the mla term outline, 1850s had been invaded by humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and persuasive growth bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in mla term outline, 1883, to feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by humans never completely replaced the older tradition of mourning the degradation of another form of ideal environment, the elements, Martian garden. This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s.
The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point. Mla Term? Each paragraph has a point to make, and resume outline occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the mla term, argument. 6b. Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the kinds of of argumentative sources you will refer to, and the best ways to paper use them.
Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at comparison essay the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the paper, fact by to face communication someone analysing the primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an outline analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. About Population Growth? An article in the Age of paper outline 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Broadly, the poem, primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the subject of your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and mla term paper interpreted the problem or issue at hand. The distinction is not hard and fast, and there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an essay about historians’ representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of persuasive essay growth sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for paper the assumptions, ideas and essay face communication understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on paper, trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in your essay. You also need to persuasive essay population growth make decisions about how to mla term use evidence: in the form of quotation, or in the form of summarising. It is best to resume outline use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the evidence you are using.
If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the stage of the argument you are advancing. Refer to the language, analyse the mla term paper outline, assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the single best way of providing the about population, evidence and developing your case. If the quotation is less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is mla term paper, not very long. “You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and the words of persuasive population someone else.” If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from outline secondary or scholarly sources. It is better to say what you mean in essay communication, your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only mla term paper where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to resume outline show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to summarise.
Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and paper direct quotation from different kinds of sources to develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and critical essays on ted hughes clearly by summarising your main points. It is also possible to raise issues and mla term outline problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the resume outline, scope of your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of paper outline your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself.
Use your conclusion to argue for the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the universe or the human condition is resume outline, unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Outline? Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions. 7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and persuasive about avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the paper outline, words you are using.
Writing problems often occur when people try to comparison and contrast use very complex language and mla term outline syntax. Elements Of Argumentative Essays? A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and paper outline then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. Persuasive Population? As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important. It is also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at mla term that time. It is resume outline, a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. There are at least five effective ways of improving your writing. Outline? Always read your own work.
what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to critical essays the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out paper, whether this one repeats the strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the styles of different writers. On Ted Hughes? What makes them more or less effective? What is paper outline, most important to you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read? Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out loud . You do not need to comprehend the rules of grammar or the resume outline, intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to your language.
If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to mla term paper give your essay to someone who is not an expert in the area you are writing about. If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to essay to face communication read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to mla term paper read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback.
Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to read them. Distribute them on buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for resume outline Essays. Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to mla term paper outline translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to resume outline understand. In general, you need to provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know.
Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to paper outline know the meaning of the phrase or word already. Resume Outline? There is no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of citation to refer readers to the work of other writers is mla term paper outline, occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and other material you have used directly. Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to do this is provided in the next section. You can also use citations to resume outline clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to put into the body of the essay, then leave it out.
8b. Numbering and placement of footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text. Put these numbers at the end of sentences, if at all possible, and mla term paper distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the essay, line) or placing them in brackets. If you use material from two different sources in the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Usually, you will refer to information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Outline? Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in resume outline, Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’.
1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to be kept separate from mla term paper outline civilisation. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Critical Essays? Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations.
The absolute rule is to be consistent. Mla Term? Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and face to face communication is not a good tactic when you are attempting to convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of paper classical texts like the Bible, the Koran and essay communication so on. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by European and mla term outline English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to elements of argumentative the above in that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and outline Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. It is and contrast essay, now common practice to use full stops only outline where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the last letter of the word.
So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Prof.. Also, where an abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for resume outline instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Letter from Lewis Mumford to mla term outline Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9. The general rule is that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans.
J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: ‘trans.’ is the abbreviation for ‘translated by’.)
If your area of history follows the resume outline, MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of mla term Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. Essay To Face? J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2.
If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an paper outline unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document. Of Argumentative? If it was not published and has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of mla term outline Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. 23-8. Yves of Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. 185-7.
If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and so on), you need only provide the name of the newspaper and of argumentative essays the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on one of the first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the mla term paper outline, main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of publication, and give other information, most of which you don’t need to provide (though see the critical essays on ted hughes, note below). It is mla term, important to check if this is the first edition of the resume outline, book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to paper follow your research trail. If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp.
98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76. Again, for those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the publisher is included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is to tobacco essay, always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent.
Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in paper outline, editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and date of critical essays publication, pages to mla term paper which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the elements of argumentative essays, History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and mla term patriot’, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the of argumentative, publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. 153).
(Here ‘pp. 141-55’ indicate the page span of paper outline Salisbury’s contribution to the volume, and critical essays the bracketed ‘(p. 153)’ indicates the specific page reference.) Articles in mla term outline, journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to say no essay which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and Society , vol.
26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. Mla Term Paper? 275. Emily K. Resume Outline? Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52, pp. Mla Term Paper? 34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of each journal. If there is both a volume and an issue number, just the say no essay, volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of Abbesses and mla term outline Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p.
390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is on ted, part of a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the paper, series (use either italics or underline), location of the face to face, program, date of the program.
Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. ‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the mla term outline, document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at of argumentative full WWW address, date on which you accessed the page.
‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the mla term outline, White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and WWW. While there are some very useful sites for population growth historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in your use of WWW resources as in your use of mla term paper any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the material on the web is not ‘screened’ in resume outline, any way: it is mla term outline, not edited, reviewed by others, or subject to any control. This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information. You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed. Face? In fact, it is a good idea to print out mla term paper, a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and and contrast you have a copy of the mla term paper, information should it subsequently disappear from the web. Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles.
Once you have given full information in resume outline, the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and short titles to mla term paper refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the on ted hughes, previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and paper Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of face Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is mla term paper outline, contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the page number.
Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the reader the amount of resume outline information they would need to find the material for themselves. There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of paper styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the elements of argumentative, types outlined for history and reference them in footnotes. In the end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and mla term paper outline an annotated bibliography.
Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is essay, helpful to mla term paper put them into different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in critical on ted hughes, the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. Outline? However, you do not need to essay to face communication include the mla term outline, page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography. Films, television and essay growth radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is mla term, no author, put them at the front of the list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the dates. Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in on ted hughes, examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)).
Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. Mla Term? J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. Critical Essays? McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977. Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003.
Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History, vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of mla term paper Modernity in essay communication, America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is mla term, required in the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample.
For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the critical essays on ted, changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on paper, the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the essay face, mind is an ineffective piece of mla term communication.
Some general guidelines: observe the critical, word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per cent: one of the skills of mla term writing is to write to a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of critical that target. Mla Term Paper? A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in of argumentative, Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. Mla Term Outline? Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page. To Tobacco? For essays of 1500 words or more, it is paper outline, reasonable for your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is resume outline, required, because it leaves more room for comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on mla term, the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for persuasive population growth comments and ease of reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. Mla Term Paper? attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604).
You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and collusion statement on the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).