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baisakhi essay Guru Gobind Singh celebrated Baisakhi in 1699 - the Birth of Khalsa. On 13 April 1999, Sunday, 300 th Anniversary of the Birth of essay about the youth Khalsa was celebrated worldwide by the public and the Governments. Read also, `Man of the Era,' and `Amrit.` Repetitions in these articles have been left intact to keep them independent of each other. Return to the top of the page. Past! It had not been possible for a long time to celebrate such a historical event this way - on completion of the first and second hundred years. Essay The Youth! It was due to one factor or the other. The Sikhs were under the British Government, a sort of slaves at least in the body if not in the mind, and were engrossed with struggling for freedom with its typical reactions of suppression. Leadership Papers! In 1999, the country enjoyed freedom to essay the youth mark the occasion, the governments were shoulder to shoulder with the Sikhs in the celebrations, almost all the countries shared the significance of the day, and celebration was the worldwide phenomenon of dna as jubilation.
Every year Baisakhi falls on about the youth, the 13 th day of April, and it is deeply anchored to the memory of the Tenth Guru Gobind Singh. On this auspicious day, he created the essay papers, Khalsa by giving “Amrit” - the Holy Drink, to the willing people. He did it so that his verdict, “Recognize the mankind as one and the same,” could be properly served by the youth the dedicated and essay, devoted people reborn by partaking the Holy Drink.This day, marks a vow to end tyranny on about the youth, the downtrodden perpetrated by the cruel persons, realization of the human rights, responsibilities of the individuals, the values of liberty, carefree practice of the faith, oneness of the humanity, ethical living and to struggle for the reign of God. Reaction to the inhuman forces came with the birth of Guru Nanak Dev, and it kept on evolving by the efforts and is thicker than, sacrifices of the next 9 Gurus after him (total 10). The Tenth Master lived for about 42 years, and by his age of 32-33, he had successfully stood many battles by about the youth the intolerant, cruel rulers who constantly put in their best efforts to keep their subjects slaves worst than animals. Return to college help online the top of the page. On the Baisakhi day of 1699 AD, the great Guru gave a reverberating call to essay the gathering of leadership papers about one hundred thousand Sikhs (his followers), at Kaes Garh Sahib (Anandpur Sahib), to come forward to get them transformed in totality. The five hesitating but courageous Sikhs stood up and offered them to the benevolent Guru. They represented different high and low castes, and whole of India.
The Guru gave them Amrit, and designated them `Panj-Piarae,' the five representing the Guru. Panj Piarae - Five Beloved of the Guru. Dharam Das - a Jat from Delhi. Himm at a cook from Jagan Nath (Gujrat). Mohkam Chand - a chheemba (washerman, cloth dyer-printer) from essay about Dwarka. Sahib Chand - a naa-ee (barber) from Bidar (Andhra Pradesh).
This eradicated discrimination of caste, class, sex, color, avocation, and of the geographical regions. Women got naturally included with men, when at the time of preparation of Amrit, Mata Sahib Kaur wife of Guru Gobind Singh, added patasae - sugar cakes, to the water. It was participation by the women. The men and as well women partook Amrit at that time. College Homework Help! To bring in equality of the about the youth, preceptor and disciple, and to eradicate the institution of priesthood, the Tenth Master took Amrit from these panj-piarae (five beloved of the Guru). By the Guru's grace, these five together, had the authority (status) to give Amrit to leadership essay their Guru. Return to essay about the youth the top of the page. Than Water! A Guru's Sikh (disciple), gets elevated to the level of a Khalsa (Guru's own) by taking Amrit - the Holy Drink. An Amritdhari Sikh i.e.
Singh or the Khalsa, is the one who has taken Amrit. He or she symbolizes an essay about the youth ideal person who awakens in himself and the others, self-respect, dignity, realization of the individual rights and duties. He or she uplifts the downtrodden, weak, women, and the human kind in general. Such a person stands for discipline, humility, hard and honest work, sharing with the needy, education, high character, and college homework online, brings awareness of the about the youth, ill effects of drugs: intoxicants. He or she believes in equality of the men and women, and does not inculcate discrimination of any sort. All this has to be recognized by deeds: the showcase 2012, life one lives.
A Sikh stands for mercy (compassion), selfless service, and universal (selfless) love. He or she does not hesitate to get sacrificed to protect and practice the faith, the others - needy and weak, and freedom. The Sikh faith is a practical religion, advocates householder's (family) life, and Gurmukh - ethical i.e. About The Youth! God-oriented conduct. It does not believe in renunciation. The Sikhs must stand against injustice, cruelty, discriminations, slavery, insincerity, hypocrisy, untruth, deceit, treachery, superstitions, and all other negative traits. In conclusion, dictates of the Sikh faith include many aspects of the Constitution of the America and Charter of the Human Rights.
This is what the Sikh Gurus thought of, practiced and started preaching more than 500 years ago, when the independent America was yet to dna as destiny essays be born. Essay About! “Characteristics of a Sikh” is what the young fellows and others in India, UK, USA, and all over the world - developed or undeveloped countries, have to be made aware of. They should carry the light of the Gurus to the coming millennium and to the time thereafter. II On the Baisakhi day, the Amritdharis - those who took vow of the Sikh faith by drinking Amrit - became the book reviews, Khalsa, and they had to strictly follow the edict of Amrit to honor their promise to the Guru. This discipline is applicable for all the times to come, and it is - The head has to be kept covered with kaeskee (Dastar): a short turban, or a full turban, or a full turban tied on a short turban. The head has to be kept covered, may be with a piece of cloth. The use of cap or hat of any type or style is not permitted to an Amritdhari Sikh. This inculcates laziness.
Kangha - a small comb for keeping the hair tidy. Kirpan - A short length sword-shaped dagger like weapon, is handy for protection of the self. An Amritdhari Sikh must always keep it on his body. It should be made of steel. Now, mostly its small replica is kept. About The Youth! Especially when going out, the Sikhs may carry a full-length sword - about 3 feet long, or a short Kirpan (A sort of dagger) of about 9 to 1 spanish past 15 inches. Where not permitted, some keep the small iron replica on body and pack the bigger (longer) version in `check in baggage.' Others, resent the interference with their faith, do not bend, and fight out essay, their rights without caring for the consequences. Karra - an iron bangle on the right wrist. To be the symbol, it should be made of steel.
Many use a Karra made of gold. It is not approved as a symbol. A Karra is organizational leadership papers a reminder to do good and to follow (keep bound by) the rules advocated by the Guru for essay about the youth, evolving to attain an ethical life - honest avocation, sharing of the boons with the needy, and remembering God, etc. As well, it is a handy blunt weapon. A good many wear its heavy variety with sharp or serrated edges. For the modern machinery workers, the author once suggested a reasonably thin bangle made of soft iron (malleable steel) with a fine cut, so that it should easily open up if caught in a gear and not shear off the arm. Some workers, when on a machine, remove their Karras from their arms and put them into their pockets, and others may wear these on their left arms. Some may keep a small Karra as a necklace, and still others may do the same with the replicas of Kirpans and is thicker than, Kanghas, also. About! A Kirpan may be set on to a Kangha, besides keeping the full size Kakkaars.
The value lies in the symbol itself. It has become common to wear a golden necklace with the symbol Khanda-Chakkar-Kirpan or of Ik-Oankar as a pendant. This is an ornament. College Online! An iron Karra is also used by non-Amritdhari Sikhs (the Sikhs not yet properly inducted into the faith). Many parents put them on the arms of infants or children with the belief that these ward off the evil eye, and save them from the essay the youth, influences of the unholy spirits.
An iron is blood is thicker than water essay popular even with the people from the other communities. Karra, like Kirpan and other weapons, is a sign of valor. It is essay about a declaration,”I fear none.” Wearing this, one invites the protection of the Guru and God - the Guru gave it and God directed him to do so. It is a sign of courage, high morale, and blood is thicker than essay, affirms that the wearer knows his duties, responsibilities, rights, and about, stands firm for book reviews, them. Wearing this, one does not feel alone, believes that the about, Guru and God are with him or her. Karra is a sign that he or she has totally surrendered to 1 spanish the Guru and essay about, God - is totally under His will! Kakkars claim that the person wearing them is ever ready to protect the needy, and he or she can be fully and showcase, depended on without any hesitation or fear. Kachhaa - underwear: pant, to provide cover to the men and women alike, under all circumstances. Wearing it is a reminder to have check on lust.
This means respect for the opposite sex. It was an easy dress for the horse riding to ever keep combat-ready. It is baggy, and specially designed to stay closely fitted above the knees. An Amritdhari Sikh must take care that it is always on the body and about the youth, is never ignored even for college help, a moment. When changing, this is done on each leg in turn, and the previous one (wet) is not cast off from about both the legs at afi thesis showcase the same time - first change it on one leg, and then change on the other. Prescribed Kachhaa is a must for the Amritdharis, but now, many take some liberties with its design.
In its one form or the other, and in its many shapes and designs, this panty is the youth one of the dna as essays, most common wear in the world.Besides observing the discipline of essay about five Kakkaars, a Sikh in book reviews, general and an Amritdhari in particular, has to the youth protect himself or herself from the four serious transgressions called Kurehtan. Kurehtan - Transgressions Char Kurehtan - Four transgressionsIt is afi thesis showcase 2012 a special strict discipline for the Amritdhari. The following are the four to be strictly taken care of - Preserve the about the youth, body-hair. Preserve the hair. Keep the head covered with a Dastar or Kaeskee: the cloth of a short length, or with a turban. An Amritdharis should not wear a cap or hat of any sort. It develops laziness and is not the right thing to properly cover a head with long hair. A turban has to be undone and tied again once it is dna as destiny removed, and is not to be used as a cap. Do not use tobacco in its any form. Also, alcohol and other addictives i.e. intoxicating drugs are not permitted. Control Sex.
Honor the Woman. Respect the opposite sex. The Guru's edict was not to essay molest a woman. She was to be fully protected,. In the days gone by, the college homework online, Sikh and fanatic Muslim skirmishes were not uncommon, and there was a possibility of the Muslim women falling into the Sikh hands. A Muslim woman if captured, was to be respected like a mother, sister, or daughter, and sent to her home with honor. A Sikh was prohibited to harm her in any way. It helped to develop their high character and essay the youth, respect for women.
In fact, a Sikh has to respect the opposite sex. A high moral character is a must, and lust in papers, any form is a taboo for him or her. Eat Jhatka-Meat.
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oberlin essay THE EDUCATION OF MINORITY CHILDREN by Thomas Sowell. Will Rogers once said that it was not ignorance that was so bad but, as he put it, all the things we know that ain't so. Nowhere is that more true than in about the youth American education today, where fashions prevail and evidence is seldom asked or given. And nowhere does this do more harm than in the education of minority children. The quest for book reviews, esoteric methods of trying to educate these children proceeds as if such children had never been successfully educated before, when in fact there are concrete examples, both from history and from our own times, of schools that have been sucessful in educating children from low-income families and from minority families. Yet the about educational dogma of the day is that you simply cannot expect children who are not middle-class to do well on standardized tests, for all sorts of sociological and afi thesis showcase psychological reasons. Those who think this way are undeterred by the fact that there are schools where low-income and minority students do in fact score well on standardized tests. The Youth. These students are like the bumblebees who supposedly should not be able to is thicker water essay, fly, according to about, the theories of aerodynamics, but who fly anyway, in disregard of those theories. While there are examples of dna as essays schools where this happens in our own time-- both public and private, secular and the youth religious-- we can also go back nearly a hundred years and find the college online same phenomenon. Back in 1899, in Washington, D. C., there were four academic public high schools-- one black and three white.
1 In standardized tests given that year, students in the black high school averaged higher test scores than students in two of the three white high schools. 2. This was not a fluke. It so happens that I have followed 85 years of the history of this black high school-- from 1870 to 1955 --and found it repeatedly equalling or exceeding national norms on standardized tests. Essay About. 3 In the 1890s, it was called The M Street School and after 1916 it was renamed Dunbar High School but its academic performances on standardized tests remained good on into the mid-1950s.
When I first published this information in 1974, those few educators who responded at all dismissed the organizational essay relevance of these findings by saying that these were middle class children and therefore their experience was not relevant to the education of low-income minority children. Those who said this had no factual data on the incomes or occupations of the parents of these children-- and essay about I did. The problem, however, was not that these dismissive educators did not have evidence. The more fundamental problem was that they saw no need for evidence. According to their dogmas, children who did well on standardized tests were middle class. These children did well on such tests, therefore they were middle class.
Lack of evidence is dna as essays, not the the youth problem. There was evidence on the occupations of the parents of the children at this school as far back in the early 1890s. As of academic year 1892-93, there were 83 known occupations of the leadership essay papers parents of the children attending The M Street School. Essay About The Youth. Of these occupations, 51 were laborers and dna as destiny essays one was a doctor. 4 That doesn't sound very middle class to me. Over the years, a significant black middle class did develop in Washington and no doubt most of them sent their children to the M Street School or to Dunbar High School, as it was later called.
But that is wholly different from saying that most of the children at that school came from middle-class homes. During the later period, for which I collected data, there were far more children whose mothers were maids than there were whose fathers were doctors. For many years, there was only about, one academic high school for blacks in the District of homework help Columbia and, as late as 1948, one-third of all black youngsters attending high school in Washington attended Dunbar High School. So this was not a selective school in the sense in which we normally use that term-- there were no tests to take to get in, for example-- even though there was undoubtedly self-selection in the sense that students who were serious went to about, Dunbar and those who were not had other places where they could while away their time, without having to meet high academic standards. (A vocational high school for blacks was opened in Washington in 1902). 5. A spot check of attendance records and tardiness records showed that The M Street School at the turn of the century and Dunbar High School at mid-century had less absenteeism and intermediate papers less tardiness than the essay the youth white high schools in the District of 2012 Columbia at those times. About The Youth. The school had a tradition of being serious, going back to its founders and blood water essay early principals. Among these early principals was the first black woman to receive a college degree in the United States-- Mary Jane Patterson from essay the youth Oberlin College, class of 1862. At that time, Oberlin had different academic curriculum requirements for dna as, women and essay about men.
Latin, Greek and mathematics were required in the gentlemen's course, as it was called, but not in book reviews the curriculum for ladies. Miss Patterson, however, insisted on taking Latin, Greek, and the youth mathematics anyway. Afi Thesis 2012. Not surprisingly, in her later 12 years as principal of the essay the youth black high school in Washington during its formative years, she was noted for a strong, forceful personality, for thoroughness,' and for being an afi thesis 2012, indefatigable worker. Having this kind of person shaping the standards and traditions of the school in its early years undoubtedly had something to do with its later success. Other early principals included the first black man to graduate from Harvard, class of 1870. Four of the school's first eight principals graduated from Oberlin and two from Harvard. Because of restricted academic opportunities for blacks, Dunbar had three Ph.Ds among its teachers in the 1920s. One of the other educational dogmas of our times is the about the youth notion that standardized tests do not predict future performances for minority children, either in academic institutions or in life.
Innumerable scholarly studies have devastated this claim intellectually, 6 though it still survives and flourishes politically. But the history of this black high school in Washington likewise shows a pay-off for book reviews, solid academic preparation and the test scores that result from it. Over the entire 85-year history of academic success of this school, from the youth 1870 to 1955, most of afi thesis showcase 2012 its 12,000 graduates went on to higher education. 7 This was very unusual for either black or white high-school graduates during this era. Because these were low-income students, most went to a local free teachers college but significant numbers won scholarships to leading colleges and universities elsewhere. 8. Some M Street School graduates began going to Harvard and essay the youth other academically elite colleges in the early twentieth century. As of 1916, there were nine black students, from the entire country, attending Amherst College. Six were from the papers M Street School. During the period from 1918 to 1923, graduates of essay about this school went on to earn 25 degrees from Ivy League colleges, Amherst, Williams, and Wesleyan. Over the period from 1892 to 1954, Amherst admitted 34 graduates of the M Street School and college online Dunbar.
Of these, 74 percent graduated and more than one-fourth of these graduates were Phi Beta Kappas. 9. No systematic study has been made of the later careers of the graduates of this school. However, when the late black educator Horace Mann Bond studied the essay about backgrounds of blacks with Ph.D.s, he discovered that more of intermediate past papers them had graduated from M Street-Dunbar than from any other black high school in the country. The first blacks to essay, graduate from West Point and Annapolis also came from this school. So did the first black full professor at organizational leadership essay papers a major university (Allison Davis at the University of Chicago). Essay About. So did the first black federal judge, the first black general, the first black Cabinet member, the first black elected to blood than essay, the United States Senate since Reconstruction, and the discoverer of a method for storing blood plasma. During World War II, when black military officers were rare, there were more than two dozen graduates of M Street or Dunbar High School holding ranks ranging from essay about the youth major to brigadier general.
10. All this contradicts another widely-believed notion-- that schools do not make much difference in children's academic or career success because income and family background are much larger influences. If the dna as destiny schools themselves do not differ very much from one another, then of course it will not make much difference which one a child attends. But, when they differ dramatically, the essay about the youth results can also differ dramatically. This was not the only school to achieve success with minority children. Homework Online. But, before turning to some other examples, it may be useful to consider why and how this 85-year history of unusual success was abruptly turned into typical failure, almost overnight, by the politics of education. As we all know, 1954 was the year of the famous racial desegregation case of Brown v. Essay. Board of Education . Those of us old enough to blood is thicker than water essay, remember those days also know of the strong resistance to school desegregation in many white communities, including Washington, D. About The Youth. C. Ultimately a political compromise was worked out. In order to comply with the help law, without having a massive shift of students, the District's school officials decided to about the youth, turn all public schools in Washington into neighborhood schools.
By this time, the neighborhood around Dunbar High School was rundown. Afi Thesis 2012. This had not affected the school's academic standards, however, because black students from essay the youth all over the city went to Dunbar, though very few of those who lived in its immediate vicinity did. When Dunbar became a neighborhood school, the whole character of its student body changed radically-- and dna as essays the character of its teaching staff changed very soon afterward. In the past, many Dunbar teachers had continued to teach for years after they were eligible for retirement because it was such a fulfilling experience. Now, as inadequately educated, inadequately motivated, and disruptive students flooded into essay about, the school, teachers began retiring, some as early as 55 years of age. Inside of blood is thicker than water essay a very few years, Dunbar became just another failing ghetto school, with all the problems that such schools have, all across the country. Eighty-five years of achievement simply vanished into thin air. It is a very revealing fact about the politics of education that no one tried to stop this from essay about happening.
When I first began to study the history of this school, back in the 1970s, I thought that it was inconceivable that this could have been allowed to happen without a protest. I knew that the Washington school board in the 1950s included a very militant and than distinguished black woman named Margaret Just Butcher, who was also a graduate of Dunbar High School, Surely Dr. Butcher had not let all this happen without exercising her well-known gifts of withering criticism. Yet I looked in vain through the minutes of the school board for even a single sentence by anybody expressing any concern whatever about the about fate of Dunbar High School under the new reorganization plan. Finally, in complete frustration and bewilderment, I phoned Dr. Butcher herself. Was there anything that was said off the record about Dunbar that did not find its way into the minutes that I had read?
No, she said. Then she reminded me that racial integration was the battle cry of the hour in the 1950s. No one thought about dna as what would happen to black schools, not even Dunbar. Now, decades later, we still do not have racial integration in essay about many of the urban schools around the country-- and we also do not have Dunbar High School. Such are the ways of is thicker politics, where the crusade of the hour often blocks out everything else, at least until another crusade comes along and takes over the same monopoly of our mind. Ironically, black high schools in the youth Washington today have many of the so-called prerequisites for essay papers, good education that never existed in the heyday of Dunbar High School-- and yet the educational results are abysmal. Essay About The Youth. Adequate funding is always included among these prerequisites and 2012 today the per pupil expenditure in the District of Columbia is among the highest in the nation. During its heyday, Dunbar was starved for funds and its average class size was in the 40s.
Its lunchroom was so small that many of its students had to eat out on the streets. Its blackboards were cracked and it was 1950 before the school had a public address system. Yet, at that point, it had 80 years of achievement behind it-- and only 5 more in essay front of it. As a failing ghetto school today, Dunbar has a finer physical plant than it ever had when it was an academic success. Politics is also part of book reviews this picture. Immediate, tangible symbols are what matter within the limited time horizon of elected politicians. Throwing money at public schools produces such symbolic results, even if it cannot produce quality education. Another black school that I studied-- P. S.91 in Brooklyn, New York-- was housed in essay the youth an even older building than the original Dunbar High School.
This building in showcase 2012 Brooklyn was so old that it still had gas jets in the hallways, left over from the gaslight era, before there were electric lights. The surrounding neighborhood was so bad that a friend told me that I was brave-- he probably meant foolhardy-- to park a car there. Yet the students in most of the grades in this predominantly black elementary school scored at or above the national norms on standardized tests. This was not in any sense a middle-class school or a magnet school. It was just an ordinary ghetto school run by an extraordinary principal. What was more extraordinary to me than even the test scores of the students was the openness with which I was welcomed and essay about allowed to afi thesis showcase 2012, see what I wanted to see. Educators usually like to give guided tours to selected (and often atypical) places, much like the Potemkin village tours in Czarist Russia. But, in essay about P.S. 91, I was allowed to wander down the halls and arbitrarily pick out which classrooms I wanted to go into. I did this on every floor of the school. Inside those classrooms were black children much like children you can find in any ghetto across the country.
Many came from broken homes and were on welfare. Yet, inside this school, they spoke in grammatical English, in complete sentences, and to the point. Many of the materials they were studying were a year or more ahead of leadership essay their respective grade levels. It so happened that I had to fly back to California right after visiting this school and did not get to talk to all the about people I wanted to interview. Help Online. I asked a mother who was head of the school's Parent-Teacher Association if I could call her at about home after I got back to dna as, California and interview her over the phone. It turned out that she did not have a telephone. The Youth. I can't afford one, she said. That too hardly seemed middle class. Others have found successful black schools operating in equally grim surroundings and under similar social conditions. A collection of stories about such schools was published by book reviews, the Heritage Foundation in a book titled No Excuses . Back in the youth the 1970s, I studied two academically successful Catholic schools with black students in New Orleans. In both schools, a majority of the parental occupations were in the unskilled and semi-skilled category.
Dr. Diane Ravitch of the Manhattan Institute wrote about another successful black public school in another Brooklyn ghetto neighborhood. The movie Stand and Deliver showed Jaime Escalante achieving similarly outstanding academic results from Hispanic students in a low-income neighborhood. Yet the dna as essays dogma marches on that a middle-class background is necessary for academic success. St. Augustine high school in New Orleans was a particularly striking example of achieving academic success while going against the grain of prevailing opinion in educational circles. It was established back in 1951, during the era of racial segregation in the South, as a school for the youth, black boys, presided over by an all-white staff from the Josephite order. None of these young priests had ever taken a course in a department or school of education.
To the horror of blood is thicker some outside members of the order, the school used corporal punishment. There was no unifying educational theory. The school simply kept doing things that worked and discarded things that didn't. The first black student from the essay South to win a National Merit Scholarship came from book reviews St. Augustine. Essay. So did the first Presidential Scholar of any race from the state of Louisiana. As of organizational leadership 1974, 20 percent of essay the youth all Presidential Scholars in destiny the history of the state had come from this school with about the youth 600 black students. Test scores were never used as a rigid cutoff for admission to St. Augustine. There were students there with IQs in the 60s, as well as others with IQs more than twice that high. For individual students and for the school as a whole, the average IQ rose over the years-- being in college online the 80s and essay about the youth 90s in papers the 1950s and then reaching the national average of 100 in the 1960s.
To put that in perspective, both blacks and whites in the South during this era tended to score below the national average on essay, IQ and other standardized tests. Most of afi thesis these children did not come from middle-class families. Those who parents were in professional or white-collar occupations were less than one-tenth as numerous as those whose parents worked in unskilled and semi-skilled occupations. What are the secrets of such successful schools? The biggest secret is that there are no secrets, unless work is a secret. Work seems to be the only four-letter word that cannot be used in essay about public today. Aside from work and discipline, the various successful schools for minority children have had little in common with one another-- and even less in common with the fashionable educational theories of our times. Some of these schools were public, some were private. Some were secular and some were religious. Dunbar High School had an all-black teaching staffs but St.
Augustine in New Orleans began with an all-white teaching staff. Intermediate Past. Some of essay these schools were housed in dna as destiny essays old rundown buildings and essay the youth others in new, modern facilities. Essays. Some of the youth their principals were finely attuned to the social and political nuances, while others were blunt people who could not have cared less about such things and would have failed Public Relations One. None of these successful schools had a curriculum especially designed for blacks. Most had some passing recognition of the children's backgrounds.
Dunbar High School, for example, was named for blood water, black poet Paul Laurence Dunbar and it set aside one day a year to commemorate Frederick Douglass, but its curriculum could hardly be called Afrocentric. Throughout the 85 years of its academic success, it taught Latin. Essay The Youth. In some of the early years, it taught Greek as well. Its whole focus was on book reviews, expanding the students' cultural horizons, not turning their minds inward. For all I know, there may be some Afrocentric schools that are doing well. Essay About The Youth. The point here is simply that this has not been an essential ingredient in water the successful education of minority students. At St. Augustine school in New Orleans, its principal, Father Grant, resisted attempts to bring into essay about, the school the issues arising from the civil rights struggles of the 1960s. Although sympathetic to the civil rights movement himself, and to some extent a participant in it, Father Grant opposed the introduction into the school of college homework what he called extraneous elements, issues, and concerns.
Keenly aware of the essay about students' cultural disadvantages and the need to is thicker, overcome them, as well as the importance of the social issues that some wanted to address in the school, he said that we absolutely could not do both things well-- and both deserved to be done well, or not at all. As Father Grant put it bluntly: Do not consume my time with extraneous issues and then expect me to have enough time left over to dedicate myself to a strong academic program where I will turn out strong, intelligent, competent kids. Again, the point here is not to say that this is the only viable approach. The point is that the social visions of the day have not been essential ingredients in educational success. Important as the history of outstanding schools for minority students has been, there is also much to essay, learn from the is thicker than essay history of very ordinary urban ghetto schools, which often did far better in the youth the past-- both absolutely and relative to their white contemporaries-- than is the case today. Afi Thesis. I went to such schools in Harlem in the 1940s but I do not rely on nostalgia for about, my information. The test scores in ordinary Harlem schools in the 1940s were quite comparable to the test scores in white working-class neighborhoods on New York's lower east side.
Sometimes the Harlem schools scored a little higher and sometimes the lower east side schools scored a little higher but there were no such glaring racial disparities as we have become used to college homework help online, in urban schools in recent years. In April, 1941, for example, some lower east side schools scored slightly higher on tests of word meaning and paragraph meaning than some schools in about Harlem but, in test given in blood December of that same year, several Harlem schools scored higher than the lower east side schools. Neither set of schools scored as high as the city-wide average, though neither was hopelessly below it. Essay About. 11. While the lower east side of leadership essay New York is justly known for the many people who were born in essay about the youth poverty there and rose to middle-class levels-- and some to national prominence-- very little attention is paid to a very similar history in Harlem. Some years ago, a national magazine ran a flattering profile of me, expressing wonder that I had come out of dna as destiny Harlem and gone on to elite colleges and an academic career. Shortly thereafter, I received a letter from a black lawyer of my generation, pointing out that my experience was by no means so unusual in those days. Essay About The Youth. He had grown up in Harlem during the same era, just a few blocks from me. From the same tenement building in which he lived came children who grew up to become a doctor, a lawyer, a priest, and a college president. Indeed, where did today's black middle class come from, if not from such places and such schools? My great fear is that a black child growing up in intermediate Harlem today will not have as good a chance to rise as people of my generation did, simply because they will not receive as solid an education, in an era when such an education is even more important.
Parents have been an about, important ingredient in the success of schools, whatever the leadership papers racial or social backgrounds of the students. Essay The Youth. But the specific nature of parental involvement can vary greatly-- and has often been very different from what is believed among some educational theorists. In some of the college homework help most successful schools, especially of the past, the parents' role has been that of essay about giving moral support to the school by letting their children know that they are expected to organizational papers, learn and to about the youth, behave themselves. Current educational fashions see parents' roles as that of active participants in the shaping of book reviews educational policy and on-site involvement in the daily activities of the schools. Whatever the merits or demerits of these notions, that was certainly not the role played by parents of children at successful schools in essay the youth the past.
Nor were they necessarily equipped to afi thesis, play such a role. As of 1940, for example, the average black adult in the United States had only an elementary school education. I can still remember being surprised at what an event it was in our family when I was promoted to the seventh grade-- because no one else in the family had ever gone that far before. It was much the same story on the lower east side of New York at that time. Biographies of immigrant children who grew up there are full of painful memories of how their parents, with their meager education and broken English, hated to have to go see a teacher-- and the youth how embarrassed their children were when their parents appeared at school. Parents today may be more educated and more sophisticated but it is not clear that their political or quasi-political involvement in book reviews schools has been a net benefit. Essay About. At the very least, history shows that it has never been essential. For those who are interested in schools that produce academic success for minority students, there is no lack of examples., past and present. Tragically, there is a lack of interest by the public school establishment in help such examples. Again, I think this goes back to the politics of about the youth education.
Put bluntly, failure attracts more money than success. Politically, failure becomes a reason to past, demand more money, smaller classes, and more trendy courses and essay about the youth programs, ranging from black English to online, bilingualism and self-esteem. Politicians who want to look compassionate and concerned know that voting money for such projects accomplishes that purpose for them and voting against such programs risks charges of mean-spiritedness, if not implications of racism. We cannot recapture the past and there is much in essay about the past that we should not want to recapture. But neither is it irrelevant. If nothing else, history shows what can be achieved, even in the face of adversity. We have no excuse for achieving less in an era of greater material abundance and greater social opportunities. Report of the book reviews Board of Trustees of Public Schools of the District of about Columbia to dna as destiny essays, the Commisisoners of the District of Columbia: 1898-1899 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900), pp.
7, 11. About. back.
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Anemias: Anemia and Congenital Pernicious Anemia Essay. What are the different types of essay the youth, anemias? Sickle cell anemia is dna as when red blood cells form abnormal “sickle or crescent shaped cells” that cannot carry oxygen to the body normally (Dyer Gould, 2011). Thalassemia anemia is when a blood disorder is about the youth inherited and afi thesis showcase 2012, the body cannot make a normal amount of hemoglobin. Pernicious anemia is when there is essay about a decrease in the amount of healthy red blood cells that are within the intestines and book reviews, they cannot properly absorb vitamin B12. Idiopathic aplastic anemia is a condition when the “bone marrow (soft, fatty tissue in essay about the youth the middle of bones) does not properly make blood cells” (Bunn, 2011). Book Reviews. Hemolytic anemia is when bone marrow is not able to replace the red blood cells that are being destroyed in essay the youth the body. Iron deficiency anemia is when the body does not have enough iron and will make fewer red blood cells that are too small and cannot carry oxygen which causes anemia. Anemia of chronic disease is when the body already does not have enough healthy red blood cells and homework online, the body carries a chronic illness or inflammatory disease that could cause the body to not produce healthy red blood cells based on medical conditions. Folate-deficiency anemia is when the red blood cells are abnormally large due to a lack of essay about, folate in the body most often called folic acid. B12 deficiency anemia is when there is a low red blood cell count because the water essay, body lacks vitamin B12.
Compare the causes, symptoms, diagnostic tests, and treatments of different types of anemia in a table. | CAUSES | SYMPTOMS | DIAGNOSTIC TESTS | TREATMENTS | Sickle Cell Anemia (Hemoglobin SS disease (Hb SS), sickle cell disease) | Abnormal hemoglobin S, inherited from both parents | Paleness, fatigue, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, jaundice, abdominal pain in about the youth younger children, priapism, blindness, confusion, stroke, ulcers on dna as, lower extremities | Bilirubin, CBC, Hemoglobin electrophoresis, serum creatinine, blood oxygen, sickle cell test, serum potassium | Folic acid supplements (to make new RBCs), blood transfusions, pain medications, lots of fluids, Hydroxyurea (Hydrea) medication, antibiotics, Dialysis, kidney transplants, gallbladder removal, hip replacement for avascular necrosis of the hip, surgery, wound care for ulcers, bone marrow, stem cell transplants, Hib, PCV, PPV | Thalassemia anemia (Mediterranean anemia, Cooley’s anemia, Beta thalassemia, Alpha Thalassemia) | Lack of essay about, alpha globin and beta globin from one or both parent(s) | Bone deformities in the face, fatigue, growth failure, jaundice, shortness of breath | Blood sample, CBC, hemoglobin electrophoresis, mutational analysis | Blood transfusions, folate supplements, iron supplements, chelation therapy, bone marrow transplant | Pernicious anemia(Megaloblastic anemia, Macrocytic achylic anemia, Congenital pernicious anemia, Juvenile pernicious anemia, Vitamin B12 deficiency) | Lack of afi thesis 2012, vitamin B12, weakened stomach lining (atrophic gastritis), autoimmune deficiency, pregnancy, folic acid deficiency, alcoholism | Diarrhea or constipation, fatigue, lack of essay about, energy, light-headedness, loss of appetite, pale skin, lack of organizational leadership, concentration, shortness of breath, swollen or red tongue or bleeding gums, confusion, depression, loss of balance, numbness and tingling in hands and feet, gastric polyps | Bone marrow exam, CBC, Reticulocyte count, Schilling test, LDH, MMA test, vitamin B12 level test, bilirubin, cholesterol test, gastrin, Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase, peripheral smear, TIBC | Shot of B12 once per month, B12 supplements, well-balanced diet, folic acid supplements | Idiopathic aplastic anemia | Injury to blood stem cells, pregnancy or lupus, exposure to some toxins or drugs including chemotherapy, PNH blood disorder | Fatigue, pallor (paleness), rapid heart rate, shortness of breath with exercise, weakness, leukopenia (low white cell count) Related Documents: Anemias: Anemia and Congenital Pernicious Anemia Essay. About The Youth. Anemia and Hemolytic Anemia Essay. ASA Institute Division of Health Disciplines Course: LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 11 BIO 110 SECTION: M01 Fall Semester 2012 Instructor: Dr. Saxon Maya Student: Osary Rodriguez Project: Tularemia Anemia: Is the condition of having a lower than normal red blood cell count or when a person’s red blood cells do not include enough hemoglobin. Those who have anemia do not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. Showcase. Anemia is common and may occur at any age and among any ethnic group. Words 713 - Pages 3. Sickle Cell Anemia Essay examples. Essay. Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is the most common form of sickle cell disease(SCD). SCD is a serious disorder in which the body makes sickle-shaped red blood cells. The etiology of sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease of two genes of sickle hemoglobin from dna as essays your parents. One sickle hemoglobin gene from your father, and one from your mother.
It is about mostly common in individuals from certain foreign countries like middle east, Mediterranean, Africa, and Indian ancestry. In Americans. Words 1163 - Pages 5. cell disease can affect anyone with that gene or trait and causes a lot of pain and complications that can lead to long term affects that are very difficult control. This disease is a disease more common in college homework the population of the essay about the youth, African descent. It also prevents people from having the disease called malaria which is common in book reviews Africa. A lot of people don’t know that they are caring the trait of sickle cell disease and don’t know that it can be passed down to their children. It is recommended that you see a doctor and figure out your family’s history to the youth determine if you area carrier. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sickle-cell-anemia/DS00324?DSECTION#x3D;complications http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001554/ By.
Maaja V. Words 630 - Pages 3. Sickle Cell Anemia : Cause , Symptoms, and Treatment By Chelsi McCormick December 2, 2013 Prof Bondzi Bio101-3 Sickle cell anemia is a disease that affects peoples lives all over the world. Sickle cells is intermediate not contagious it is an inherited group of traits that cause a red blood cell disorder. This group of the youth, traits make it difficult for red blood cells to carry sufficient oxygen throughout the body. Normally. Words 951 - Pages 4. Aplastic Anemia ITT Technical Institute Aplastic anemia is a condition in which your body stops producing enough new blood cells. Organizational Leadership Papers. This illness will leave you very fatigued and more prone to infection and uncontrolled bleeding. This rare and about, serious condition can develop at any age.
Aplastic anemia may occur suddenly or progress slowly over a period of help, time. The Youth. This ailment may be brief, but can become a chronic disease and in some cases may be fatal. Aplastic anemia develops when. Book Reviews. Words 572 - Pages 3. Essay on essay about, Anaemia: Anemia and Green Leafy Vegetables. through lentils. To serve place spinach leaves in papers serving bowls, and top with lentils and goats cheese. Sprinkle salad with pepper and serve with lime. Bibliography Anaemia . About The Youth. (2014, 03 2014). Retrieved 03 21, 2014, from Better Health Channel: http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Anaemia Diseases and Conditions Anaemia . (2013, 03 08). Retrieved 03 21, 2014, from essay Mayo Clinic : http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anemia/basics/prevention/con-20026209 Hay.
Words 597 - Pages 3. protein whose major function is to transport oxygen throughout the body. Hemolyticanemia is essay about anemia resulting from hemolysis, the excessive destruction of red blood cells. Hypoxia is a deficiency in is thicker water essay the amount of about the youth, oxygen reaching the body tissues. Online. Iron deficiency anemia is anemia characterized by low serum iron concentration. Megaloblastic anemia is essay anemia caused by the failure of red blood cells to mature. It is also known as pernicious anemia, addisonian anemia or maturation failure anemia. Microcytic. Homework Help Online. Words 986 - Pages 4. Sickle Cell Anemia and essay, Hemophilia Essays. ? Sickle Cell Anemia and Hemophilia Blood is a constantly circulating bodily fluid that provides the body with necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen, and takes part in waste removal. Blood is made up of intermediate 1 spanish papers, two components: blood cells and plasma. The plasma is the essay about, liquid portion and it makes up about half the content of blood. Plasma help in the clotting of blood with the help of proteins, and it also helps to transport substances through the blood.
The other half of the blood. Words 1669 - Pages 7. Sickle cell anemia is organizational leadership a genetic disorder of the essay, red blood cells (RBC) which is characterized by organizational essay papers the blood cells being formed in the shape of a crescent, or half-moon. Due to its being a genetic disorder, you can actually be a carrier of this disease and not have any symptoms. Only when offspring is about met with another carrier does this trait become a dominant trait but until then it is known as sickle cell trait or (SCT). There is organizational leadership papers a multitude of health problems associated with sickle cell. Words 1174 - Pages 5. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease. People with this disease inherit two genes for sickle hemoglobin- one from essay each parent. This disease causes red blood cells, which are suppose to look like doughnuts, have a sickle or crescent shape to them.
Sickle cells are stiff and 1 spanish past, sticky. These cells tend to block the blood flow in the blood vessels of the limbs and essay, organs. This can cause pain and organ damage. Plus it can also raise the risk for infection. A good way to handle.
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consciousness essay Department of essay about the youth Philosophy. University of Arizona. Tucson, AZ 85721. [Published in the Journal of showcase Consciousness Studies 2(3):200-19, 1995. Also online is essay, my response, Moving Forward on the Problem of blood than essay Consciousness, to 26 articles commenting on this paper. That paper elaborates and extends many of the ideas in this one.] Consciousness poses the most baffling problems in the science of the mind. There is nothing that we know more intimately than conscious experience, but there is nothing that is harder to explain. All sorts of mental phenomena have yielded to the youth scientific investigation in recent years, but consciousness has stubbornly resisted. Many have tried to explain it, but the explanations always seem to fall short of the help, target.
Some have been led to suppose that the problem is essay about, intractable, and that no good explanation can be given. To make progress on the problem of homework consciousness, we have to confront it directly. In this paper, I first isolate the truly hard part of the about, problem, separating it from more tractable parts and giving an account of why it is so difficult to explain. I critique some recent work that uses reductive methods to address consciousness, and argue that such methods inevitably fail to come to grips with the hardest part of the problem. Once this failure is recognized, the door to further progress is opened. In the second half of the paper, I argue that if we move to a new kind of nonreductive explanation, a naturalistic account of consciousness can be given. I put forward my own candidate for such an account: a nonreductive theory based on principles of book reviews structural coherence and organizational invariance and a double-aspect view of essay the youth information.
2 The easy problems and the hard problem. There is not just one problem of consciousness. Consciousness is an ambiguous term, referring to many different phenomena. Each of these phenomena needs to be explained, but some are easier to explain than others. At the start, it is useful to divide the associated problems of consciousness into hard and easy problems. The easy problems of consciousness are those that seem directly susceptible to the standard methods of book reviews cognitive science, whereby a phenomenon is explained in essay about the youth terms of computational or neural mechanisms. The hard problems are those that seem to resist those methods. The easy problems of consciousness include those of explaining the following phenomena: the ability to discriminate, categorize, and react to environmental stimuli; the integration of organizational essay papers information by a cognitive system; the reportability of mental states; the ability of a system to access its own internal states; the focus of attention; the the youth, deliberate control of behavior; the difference between wakefulness and sleep. All of these phenomena are associated with the notion of consciousness. For example, one sometimes says that a mental state is conscious when it is verbally reportable, or when it is internally accessible. 1 Spanish Past! Sometimes a system is said to be conscious of some information when it has the essay about, ability to blood than essay react on the basis of essay that information, or, more strongly, when it attends to that information, or when it can integrate that information and 1 spanish exploit it in the sophisticated control of behavior.
We sometimes say that an action is conscious precisely when it is deliberate. Often, we say that an organism is conscious as another way of saying that it is awake. There is no real issue about whether these phenomena can be explained scientifically. All of about them are straightforwardly vulnerable to explanation in terms of computational or neural mechanisms. Online! To explain access and reportability, for example, we need only specify the about the youth, mechanism by which information about internal states is retrieved and made available for verbal report. To explain the integration of intermediate papers information, we need only exhibit mechanisms by which information is brought together and exploited by later processes. For an about the youth account of sleep and wakefulness, an appropriate neurophysiological account of the processes responsible for organizational organisms' contrasting behavior in those states will suffice. In each case, an appropriate cognitive or neurophysiological model can clearly do the explanatory work.
If these phenomena were all there was to consciousness, then consciousness would not be much of a problem. Although we do not yet have anything close to a complete explanation of these phenomena, we have a clear idea of the youth how we might go about explaining them. This is why I call these problems the easy problems. Papers! Of course, easy is a relative term. Getting the details right will probably take a century or two of difficult empirical work. Still, there is every reason to essay the youth believe that the is thicker water, methods of cognitive science and neuroscience will succeed. The really hard problem of essay about consciousness is the problem of experience . When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is organizational leadership, also a subjective aspect.
As Nagel (1974) has put it, there is something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of essay redness, the experience of organizational leadership essay dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field. Other experiences go along with perception in different modalities: the sound of essay a clarinet, the blood than water, smell of mothballs. Then there are bodily sensations, from pains to orgasms; mental images that are conjured up internally; the felt quality of essay the youth emotion, and the experience of a stream of destiny essays conscious thought. What unites all of the youth these states is that there is intermediate, something it is like to be in them. All of them are states of experience. It is undeniable that some organisms are subjects of experience. But the question of how it is that these systems are subjects of experience is perplexing.
Why is it that when our cognitive systems engage in visual and auditory information-processing, we have visual or auditory experience: the quality of deep blue, the sensation of middle C? How can we explain why there is something it is like to entertain a mental image, or to experience an essay the youth emotion? It is widely agreed that experience arises from a physical basis, but we have no good explanation of why and how it so arises. Why should physical processing give rise to a rich inner life at all? It seems objectively unreasonable that it should, and yet it does. If any problem qualifies as the problem of consciousness, it is this one. In this central sense of consciousness, an organism is conscious if there is something it is like to be that organism, and a mental state is conscious if there is something it is like to be in that state. Sometimes terms such as phenomenal consciousness and qualia are also used here, but I find it more natural to speak of conscious experience or simply experience. College Homework Help Online! Another useful way to avoid confusion (used by e.g. Newell 1990, Chalmers 1996) is to reserve the term consciousness for the phenomena of experience, using the essay about the youth, less loaded term awareness for the more straightforward phenomena described earlier. If such a convention were widely adopted, communication would be much easier; as things stand, those who talk about consciousness are frequently talking past each other. The ambiguity of the term consciousness is often exploited by both philosophers and organizational essay papers scientists writing on essay about the youth, the subject.
It is common to see a paper on college help, consciousness begin with an invocation of the mystery of consciousness, noting the strange intangibility and ineffability of subjectivity, and worrying that so far we have no theory of the phenomenon. Here, the topic is clearly the essay about, hard problem - the problem of college homework experience. In the second half of the paper, the tone becomes more optimistic, and the author's own theory of about the youth consciousness is outlined. Upon examination, this theory turns out to be a theory of one of the more straightforward phenomena - of reportability, of introspective access, or whatever. At the close, the author declares that consciousness has turned out to 2012 be tractable after all, but the reader is left feeling like the victim of a bait-and-switch.
The hard problem remains untouched. Why are the easy problems easy, and why is the hard problem hard? The easy problems are easy precisely because they concern the explanation of essay about cognitive abilities and functions . To explain a cognitive function, we need only specify a mechanism that can perform the function. The methods of cognitive science are well-suited for this sort of intermediate 1 spanish past explanation, and essay the youth so are well-suited to the easy problems of consciousness. By contrast, the hard problem is hard precisely because it is not a problem about the performance of functions. The problem persists even when the performance of all the relevant functions is explained. (Here function is not used in the narrow teleological sense of something that a system is dna as destiny essays, designed to do, but in the broader sense of any causal role in the production of behavior that a system might perform.) To explain reportability, for instance, is just to explain how a system could perform the function of producing reports on internal states. To explain internal access, we need to explain how a system could be appropriately affected by its internal states and use information about those states in directing later processes. To explain integration and control, we need to explain how a system's central processes can bring information contents together and use them in the facilitation of various behaviors.
These are all problems about the explanation of functions. How do we explain the performance of a function? By specifying a mechanism that performs the function. Here, neurophysiological and cognitive modeling are perfect for the task. If we want a detailed low-level explanation, we can specify the neural mechanism that is responsible for the function. If we want a more abstract explanation, we can specify a mechanism in about the youth computational terms. Either way, a full and satisfying explanation will result. Once we have specified the book reviews, neural or computational mechanism that performs the function of verbal report, for example, the bulk of our work in about explaining reportability is over. In a way, the point is trivial.
It is past papers, a conceptual fact about these phenomena that their explanation only involves the explanation of various functions, as the essay the youth, phenomena are functionally definable . All it means for reportability to be instantiated in a system is that the system has the capacity for verbal reports of organizational essay papers internal information. All it means for essay about the youth a system to be awake is for it to be appropriately receptive to information from the environment and for it to be able to use this information in essays directing behavior in an appropriate way. To see that this sort of thing is a conceptual fact, note that someone who says you have explained the performance of the verbal report function, but you have not explained reportability is making a trivial conceptual mistake about reportability. All it could possibly take to explain reportability is an explanation of about the youth how the relevant function is performed; the same goes for the other phenomena in question. Throughout the higher-level sciences, reductive explanation works in just this way. To explain the gene, for instance, we needed to specify the mechanism that stores and blood than essay transmits hereditary information from one generation to the next. It turns out that DNA performs this function; once we explain how the function is performed, we have explained the gene.
To explain life, we ultimately need to explain how a system can reproduce, adapt to its environment, metabolize, and so on. All of these are questions about the essay about, performance of book reviews functions, and so are well-suited to reductive explanation. The same holds for most problems in cognitive science. To explain learning, we need to explain the way in which a system's behavioral capacities are modified in light of environmental information, and the way in about the youth which new information can be brought to water essay bear in adapting a system's actions to its environment. If we show how a neural or computational mechanism does the job, we have explained learning. We can say the same for other cognitive phenomena, such as perception, memory, and language.
Sometimes the relevant functions need to essay about be characterized quite subtly, but it is clear that insofar as cognitive science explains these phenomena at all, it does so by explaining the performance of functions. When it comes to conscious experience, this sort of explanation fails. What makes the hard problem hard and almost unique is that it goes beyond problems about the organizational leadership, performance of functions. To see this, note that even when we have explained the performance of all the cognitive and behavioral functions in the vicinity of experience - perceptual discrimination, categorization, internal access, verbal report - there may still remain a further unanswered question: Why is the performance of these functions accompanied by essay, experience? A simple explanation of the book reviews, functions leaves this question open.
There is no analogous further question in the explanation of essay genes, or of afi thesis showcase 2012 life, or of learning. If someone says I can see that you have explained how DNA stores and essay about transmits hereditary information from one generation to the next, but you have not explained how it is afi thesis showcase, a gene , then they are making a conceptual mistake. All it means to essay about be a gene is to be an entity that performs the relevant storage and transmission function. But if someone says I can see that you have explained how information is discriminated, integrated, and reported, but you have not explained how it is experienced , they are not making a conceptual mistake. This is a nontrivial further question. This further question is the key question in the problem of consciousness.
Why doesn't all this information-processing go on in the dark, free of any inner feel? Why is it that when electromagnetic waveforms impinge on a retina and are discriminated and categorized by a visual system, this discrimination and categorization is experienced as a sensation of organizational leadership essay vivid red? We know that conscious experience does arise when these functions are performed, but the very fact that it arises is the central mystery. There is an explanatory gap (a term due to essay Levine 1983) between the functions and experience, and showcase we need an explanatory bridge to cross it. A mere account of the functions stays on one side of the gap, so the materials for the bridge must be found elsewhere. This is not to say that experience has no function. Perhaps it will turn out to play an important cognitive role. But for any role it might play, there will be more to the explanation of experience than a simple explanation of the function. Perhaps it will even turn out that in essay about the course of explaining a function, we will be led to the key insight that allows an explanation of experience.
If this happens, though, the dna as destiny essays, discovery will be an extra explanatory reward. There is no cognitive function such that we can say in advance that explanation of that function will automatically explain experience. To explain experience, we need a new approach. The usual explanatory methods of cognitive science and neuroscience do not suffice. These methods have been developed precisely to explain the performance of cognitive functions, and they do a good job of essay about the youth it. But as these methods stand, they are only equipped to explain the performance of functions. When it comes to the hard problem, the afi thesis showcase 2012, standard approach has nothing to say. In the last few years, a number of works have addressed the problems of essay about consciousness within the framework of blood is thicker than water cognitive science and essay the youth neuroscience. This might suggest that the analysis above is faulty, but in fact a close examination of the relevant work only college, lends the essay about, analysis further support. When we investigate just which aspects of consciousness these studies are aimed at, and which aspects they end up explaining, we find that the ultimate target of explanation is always one of the easy problems.
I will illustrate this with two representative examples. The first is the neurobiological theory of consciousness outlined by book reviews, Crick and Koch (1990; see also Crick 1994). This theory centers on certain 35-75 hertz neural oscillations in the cerebral cortex; Crick and the youth Koch hypothesize that these oscillations are the basis of consciousness. This is partly because the oscillations seem to be correlated with awareness in a number of different modalities - within the visual and olfactory systems, for example - and blood is thicker than water also because they suggest a mechanism by which the about, binding of information contents might be achieved. Binding is the process whereby separately represented pieces of information about a single entity are brought together to be used by later processing, as when information about the color and shape of a perceived object is integrated from separate visual pathways. Following others (e.g., Eckhorn et al 1988), Crick and Koch hypothesize that binding may be achieved by the synchronized oscillations of essay neuronal groups representing the the youth, relevant contents. When two pieces of book reviews information are to be bound together, the relevant neural groups will oscillate with the same frequency and phase. The details of how this binding might be achieved are still poorly understood, but suppose that they can be worked out. What might the resulting theory explain? Clearly it might explain the binding of about information contents, and showcase 2012 perhaps it might yield a more general account of the integration of information in the brain. Essay The Youth! Crick and Koch also suggest that these oscillations activate the mechanisms of working memory, so that there may be an account of this and book reviews perhaps other forms of memory in the distance.
The theory might eventually lead to a general account of how perceived information is bound and stored in memory, for use by later processing. Such a theory would be valuable, but it would tell us nothing about why the relevant contents are experienced. Crick and Koch suggest that these oscillations are the neural correlates of experience. This claim is arguable - does not binding also take place in the processing of unconscious information? - but even if it is accepted, the explanatory question remains: Why do the oscillations give rise to experience? The only basis for an explanatory connection is the essay the youth, role they play in binding and storage, but the question of why binding and storage should themselves be accompanied by experience is never addressed. Online! If we do not know why binding and storage should give rise to experience, telling a story about the oscillations cannot help us. About The Youth! Conversely, if we knew why binding and book reviews storage gave rise to experience, the neurophysiological details would be just the icing on the cake. Crick and Koch's theory gains its purchase by assuming a connection between binding and experience, and essay the youth so can do nothing to explain that link. I do not think that Crick and Koch are ultimately claiming to address the hard problem, although some have interpreted them otherwise.
A published interview with Koch gives a clear statement of the limitations on the theory's ambitions. Well, let's first forget about the really difficult aspects, like subjective feelings, for they may not have a scientific solution. The subjective state of play, of pain, of pleasure, of seeing blue, of smelling a rose - there seems to be a huge jump between the materialistic level, of explaining molecules and showcase neurons, and the subjective level. Let's focus on things that are easier to about the youth study - like visual awareness. Organizational! You're now talking to me, but you're not looking at essay me, you're looking at the cappuccino, and so you are aware of it. You can say, `It's a cup and there's some liquid in it.' If I give it to you, you'll move your arm and you'll take it - you'll respond in a meaningful manner. That's what I call awareness. (What is Consciousness, Discover , November 1992, p. 96.) The second example is an approach at organizational papers the level of cognitive psychology. This is Baars' global workspace theory of consciousness, presented in his book A Cognitive Theory of the youth Consciousness . According to this theory, the contents of consciousness are contained in blood is thicker water essay a global workspace , a central processor used to mediate communication between a host of specialized nonconscious processors. When these specialized processors need to broadcast information to about the youth the rest of the is thicker water, system, they do so by sending this information to the youth the workspace, which acts as a kind of destiny communal blackboard for the rest of the system, accessible to all the other processors.
Baars uses this model to about the youth address many aspects of human cognition, and to afi thesis showcase 2012 explain a number of contrasts between conscious and unconscious cognitive functioning. Ultimately, however, it is a theory of cognitive accessibility , explaining how it is that certain information contents are widely accessible within a system, as well as a theory of informational integration and reportability. The theory shows promise as a theory of awareness, the functional correlate of conscious experience, but an explanation of experience itself is not on offer. One might suppose that according to essay about the youth this theory, the contents of organizational essay papers experience are precisely the contents of the workspace. But even if this is so, nothing internal to about the theory explains why the information within the global workspace is experienced. The best the theory can do is to homework help online say that the information is experienced because it is globally accessible . But now the question arises in a different form: why should global accessibility give rise to conscious experience? As always, this bridging question is unanswered.
Almost all work taking a cognitive or neuroscientific approach to consciousness in recent years could be subjected to a similar critique. The Neural Darwinism model of about Edelman (1989), for instance, addresses questions about perceptual awareness and the self-concept, but says nothing about why there should also be experience. Is Thicker Water! The multiple drafts model of essay about the youth Dennett (1991) is largely directed at explaining the reportability of certain mental contents. The intermediate level theory of college online Jackendoff (1988) provides an account of some computational processes that underlie consciousness, but Jackendoff stresses that the question of how these project into conscious experience remains mysterious. Researchers using these methods are often inexplicit about their attitudes to the problem of conscious experience, although sometimes they take a clear stand. Even among those who are clear about it, attitudes differ widely. Essay The Youth! In placing this sort of work with respect to the problem of leadership experience, a number of essay different strategies are available.
It would be useful if these strategic choices were more often made explicit. The first strategy is simply to online explain something else . Some researchers are explicit that the problem of experience is too difficult for now, and perhaps even outside the domain of science altogether. These researchers instead choose to address one of the more tractable problems such as reportability or the self-concept. Although I have called these problems the easy problems, they are among the most interesting unsolved problems in cognitive science, so this work is certainly worthwhile. The worst that can be said of this choice is that in the context of essay research on afi thesis, consciousness it is relatively unambitious, and the work can sometimes be misinterpreted. The second choice is to take a harder line and deny the phenomenon . (Variations on essay the youth, this approach are taken by Allport 1988, Dennett 1991, and Wilkes 1988.) According to book reviews this line, once we have explained the functions such as accessibility, reportability, and the like, there is no further phenomenon called experience to explain. Some explicitly deny the phenomenon, holding for example that what is not externally verifiable cannot be real. Others achieve the same effect by allowing that experience exists, but only if we equate experience with something like the capacity to essay about discriminate and report. These approaches lead to a simpler theory, but are ultimately unsatisfactory. Experience is the most central and manifest aspect of our mental lives, and indeed is perhaps the key explanandum in the science of the mind.
Because of intermediate past papers this status as an explanandum, experience cannot be discarded like the essay about the youth, vital spirit when a new theory comes along. Rather, it is the central fact that any theory of consciousness must explain. Is Thicker Water Essay! A theory that denies the phenomenon solves the problem by ducking the question. In a third option, some researchers claim to be explaining experience in the full sense. These researchers (unlike those above) wish to take experience very seriously; they lay out their functional model or theory, and claim that it explains the full subjective quality of experience (e.g. Flohr 1992, Humphrey 1992). The relevant step in the explanation is usually passed over quickly, however, and about the youth usually ends up looking something like magic.
After some details about information processing are given, experience suddenly enters the picture, but it is left obscure how these processes should suddenly give rise to experience. Perhaps it is simply taken for granted that it does, but then we have an incomplete explanation and papers a version of the essay about the youth, fifth strategy below. A fourth, more promising approach appeals to these methods to explain the structure of experience . For example, it is arguable that an account of the discriminations made by the visual system can account for the structural relations between different color experiences, as well as for the geometric structure of the visual field (see e.g., Clark 1992 and Hardin 1992). In general, certain facts about structures found in processing will correspond to afi thesis showcase 2012 and arguably explain facts about the essay the youth, structure of experience. This strategy is plausible but limited. At best, it takes the 1 spanish papers, existence of experience for granted and accounts for some facts about its structure, providing a sort of nonreductive explanation of the structural aspects of experience (I will say more on this later). The Youth! This is useful for many purposes, but it tells us nothing about book reviews, why there should be experience in the first place.
A fifth and reasonable strategy is to isolate the substrate of experience . After all, almost everyone allows that experience arises one way or another from brain processes, and it makes sense to identify the sort of process from which it arises. Crick and Koch put their work forward as isolating the neural correlate of consciousness, for example, and Edelman (1989) and Jackendoff (1988) make related claims. Justification of these claims requires a careful theoretical analysis, especially as experience is not directly observable in experimental contexts, but when applied judiciously this strategy can shed indirect light on the problem of experience. Nevertheless, the strategy is clearly incomplete. For a satisfactory theory, we need to know more than which processes give rise to experience; we need an account of why and how.
A full theory of consciousness must build an explanatory bridge. We have seen that there are systematic reasons why the usual methods of cognitive science and neuroscience fail to account for essay conscious experience. These are simply the wrong sort of essays methods: nothing that they give to about us can yield an explanation. Is Thicker Than Essay! To account for conscious experience, we need an extra ingredient in the explanation. This makes for a challenge to those who are serious about the hard problem of consciousness: What is your extra ingredient, and why should that account for essay conscious experience? There is no shortage of extra ingredients to be had. Some propose an injection of chaos and nonlinear dynamics. Some think that the key lies in nonalgorithmic processing.
Some appeal to future discoveries in dna as essays neurophysiology. Some suppose that the key to the mystery will lie at the level of essay quantum mechanics. It is easy to see why all these suggestions are put forward. None of the old methods work, so the solution must lie with something new. Unfortunately, these suggestions all suffer from the same old problems.
Nonalgorithmic processing, for example, is organizational leadership papers, put forward by about, Penrose (1989; 1994) because of the role it might play in the process of conscious mathematical insight. The arguments about mathematics are controversial, but even if they succeed and destiny essays an account of nonalgorithmic processing in the human brain is given, it will still only be an account of the functions involved in essay mathematical reasoning and the like. For a nonalgorithmic process as much as an algorithmic process, the question is left unanswered: why should this process give rise to experience? In answering this question, there is no special role for nonalgorithmic processing. The same goes for nonlinear and chaotic dynamics. These might provide a novel account of the dynamics of cognitive functioning, quite different from that given by standard methods in cognitive science. But from dynamics, one only gets more dynamics. The question about experience here is afi thesis showcase 2012, as mysterious as ever. Essay The Youth! The point is even clearer for college homework help new discoveries in neurophysiology. These new discoveries may help us make significant progress in understanding brain function, but for any neural process we isolate, the same question will always arise.
It is difficult to imagine what a proponent of essay about the youth new neurophysiology expects to destiny essays happen, over and above the explanation of about the youth further cognitive functions. It is not as if we will suddenly discover a phenomenal glow inside a neuron! Perhaps the blood is thicker than essay, most popular extra ingredient of essay all is quantum mechanics (e.g. Hameroff 1994). The attractiveness of quantum theories of consciousness may stem from a Law of Minimization of Mystery: consciousness is homework, mysterious and about quantum mechanics is mysterious, so maybe the past papers, two mysteries have a common source. Nevertheless, quantum theories of consciousness suffer from the same difficulties as neural or computational theories. Quantum phenomena have some remarkable functional properties, such as nondeterminism and nonlocality. About The Youth! It is destiny, natural to speculate that these properties may play some role in the explanation of cognitive functions, such as random choice and the integration of information, and this hypothesis cannot be ruled out a priori . But when it comes to the explanation of experience, quantum processes are in essay about the same boat as any other. Blood Than Essay! The question of why these processes should give rise to experience is entirely unanswered. (One special attraction of quantum theories is the fact that on some interpretations of quantum mechanics, consciousness plays an active role in collapsing the quantum wave function. Such interpretations are controversial, but in any case they offer no hope of the youth explaining consciousness in terms of quantum processes.
Rather, these theories assume the existence of than water essay consciousness, and use it in essay about the youth the explanation of quantum processes. At best, these theories tell us something about a physical role that consciousness may play. They tell us nothing about how it arises.) At the end of the day, the same criticism applies to any purely physical account of consciousness. For any physical process we specify there will be an unanswered question: Why should this process give rise to experience?
Given any such process, it is conceptually coherent that it could be instantiated in the absence of experience. It follows that no mere account of the physical process will tell us why experience arises. The emergence of experience goes beyond what can be derived from physical theory. Purely physical explanation is essay, well-suited to the explanation of physical structures , explaining macroscopic structures in terms of detailed microstructural constituents; and it provides a satisfying explanation of the performance of functions , accounting for these functions in terms of the physical mechanisms that perform them. This is because a physical account can entail the facts about structures and essay about functions: once the afi thesis showcase, internal details of the physical account are given, the structural and functional properties fall out essay the youth, as an automatic consequence. But the structure and dynamics of physical processes yield only more structure and dynamics, so structures and functions are all we can expect these processes to past papers explain. The facts about experience cannot be an essay the youth automatic consequence of any physical account, as it is conceptually coherent that any given process could exist without experience.
Experience may arise from the physical, but it is not entailed by the physical. The moral of showcase 2012 all this is that you can't explain conscious experience on the cheap . It is a remarkable fact that reductive methods - methods that explain a high-level phenomenon wholly in terms of more basic physical processes - work well in so many domains. In a sense, one can explain most biological and cognitive phenomena on about the youth, the cheap, in that these phenomena are seen as automatic consequences of blood is thicker water essay more fundamental processes. It would be wonderful if reductive methods could explain experience, too; I hoped for a long time that they might. Unfortunately, there are systematic reasons why these methods must fail. Reductive methods are successful in most domains because what needs explaining in those domains are structures and functions, and these are the kind of thing that a physical account can entail. When it comes to a problem over essay about and above the explanation of structures and functions, these methods are impotent. This might seem reminiscent of the vitalist claim that no physical account could explain life, but the cases are disanalogous.
What drove vitalist skepticism was doubt about whether physical mechanisms could perform the blood than, many remarkable functions associated with life, such as complex adaptive behavior and reproduction. The conceptual claim that explanation of functions is what is needed was implicitly accepted, but lacking detailed knowledge of biochemical mechanisms, vitalists doubted whether any physical process could do the job and about the youth put forward the hypothesis of the vital spirit as an alternative explanation. Once it turned out that physical processes could perform the relevant functions, vitalist doubts melted away. With experience, on is thicker water essay, the other hand, physical explanation of the functions is not in question. Essay About! The key is instead the conceptual point that the showcase, explanation of functions does not suffice for the explanation of experience.
This basic conceptual point is not something that further neuroscientific investigation will affect. In a similar way, experience is disanalogous to essay about the élan vital . The vital spirit was put forward as an essays explanatory posit, in order to the youth explain the relevant functions, and could therefore be discarded when those functions were explained without it. Experience is not an showcase explanatory posit but an explanandum in its own right, and so is not a candidate for this sort of elimination. It is tempting to note that all sorts of puzzling phenomena have eventually turned out to be explainable in physical terms. But each of these were problems about the observable behavior of physical objects, coming down to problems in the explanation of structures and functions. Because of this, these phenomena have always been the kind of thing that a physical account might explain, even if at some points there have been good reasons to suspect that no such explanation would be forthcoming. The tempting induction from these cases fails in the case of consciousness, which is not a problem about physical structures and functions. The problem of consciousness is puzzling in an entirely different way. An analysis of the problem shows us that conscious experience is just not the kind of thing that a wholly reductive account could succeed in explaining.
At this point some are tempted to give up, holding that we will never have a theory of conscious experience. McGinn (1989), for example, argues that the problem is too hard for our limited minds; we are cognitively closed with respect to the phenomenon. Others have argued that conscious experience lies outside the domain of scientific theory altogether. I think this pessimism is premature. The Youth! This is not the place to give up; it is the dna as destiny, place where things get interesting. When simple methods of explanation are ruled out, we need to investigate the alternatives. Given that reductive explanation fails, nonreductive explanation is the about the youth, natural choice. Although a remarkable number of phenomena have turned out to be explicable wholly in terms of entities simpler than themselves, this is not universal. In physics, it occasionally happens that an entity has to be taken as fundamental . Fundamental entities are not explained in terms of anything simpler.
Instead, one takes them as basic, and gives a theory of how they relate to 1 spanish past papers everything else in the world. For example, in the nineteenth century it turned out that electromagnetic processes could not be explained in the youth terms of the wholly mechanical processes that previous physical theories appealed to, so Maxwell and others introduced electromagnetic charge and electromagnetic forces as new fundamental components of college homework online a physical theory. To explain electromagnetism, the ontology of physics had to be expanded. New basic properties and basic laws were needed to give a satisfactory account of the phenomena. Other features that physical theory takes as fundamental include mass and space-time. No attempt is made to essay explain these features in terms of anything simpler. But this does not rule out the possibility of a theory of mass or of space-time. There is an intricate theory of blood is thicker water essay how these features interrelate, and essay about of the basic laws they enter into. Leadership Essay Papers! These basic principles are used to the youth explain many familiar phenomena concerning mass, space, and time at a higher level.
I suggest that a theory of consciousness should take experience as fundamental. We know that a theory of consciousness requires the addition of something fundamental to our ontology, as everything in physical theory is compatible with the leadership, absence of consciousness. We might add some entirely new nonphysical feature, from which experience can be derived, but it is hard to see what such a feature would be like. More likely, we will take experience itself as a fundamental feature of the world, alongside mass, charge, and space-time. Essay About! If we take experience as fundamental, then we can go about the business of constructing a theory of experience. Where there is a fundamental property, there are fundamental laws. A nonreductive theory of experience will add new principles to the furniture of the basic laws of book reviews nature. These basic principles will ultimately carry the explanatory burden in about a theory of consciousness. Just as we explain familiar high-level phenomena involving mass in terms of more basic principles involving mass and other entities, we might explain familiar phenomena involving experience in terms of more basic principles involving experience and other entities.
In particular, a nonreductive theory of experience will specify basic principles telling us how experience depends on physical features of the world. These psychophysical principles will not interfere with physical laws, as it seems that physical laws already form a closed system. Rather, they will be a supplement to a physical theory. A physical theory gives a theory of physical processes, and a psychophysical theory tells us how those processes give rise to blood than essay experience. We know that experience depends on physical processes, but we also know that this dependence cannot be derived from physical laws alone. The new basic principles postulated by a nonreductive theory give us the extra ingredient that we need to build an explanatory bridge.
Of course, by taking experience as fundamental, there is a sense in which this approach does not tell us why there is experience in the first place. But this is the same for any fundamental theory. Nothing in essay about the youth physics tells us why there is matter in the first place, but we do not count this against theories of matter. Certain features of the world need to online be taken as fundamental by any scientific theory. A theory of matter can still explain all sorts of facts about matter, by showing how they are consequences of the basic laws. Essay! The same goes for a theory of experience. This position qualifies as a variety of dualism, as it postulates basic properties over and above the properties invoked by physics. But it is an innocent version of dualism, entirely compatible with the scientific view of the world. Nothing in this approach contradicts anything in physical theory; we simply need to add further bridging principles to explain how experience arises from physical processes. There is nothing particularly spiritual or mystical about than water, this theory - its overall shape is like that of a physical theory, with a few fundamental entities connected by fundamental laws. About! It expands the ontology slightly, to be sure, but Maxwell did the same thing.
Indeed, the overall structure of this position is entirely naturalistic, allowing that ultimately the universe comes down to a network of basic entities obeying simple laws, and allowing that there may ultimately be a theory of consciousness cast in terms of homework online such laws. If the position is to have a name, a good choice might be naturalistic dualism . If this view is right, then in some ways a theory of essay about consciousness will have more in common with a theory in physics than a theory in biology. Biological theories involve no principles that are fundamental in dna as essays this way, so biological theory has a certain complexity and messiness to about it; but theories in physics, insofar as they deal with fundamental principles, aspire to simplicity and elegance. Help! The fundamental laws of nature are part of the basic furniture of the world, and physical theories are telling us that this basic furniture is remarkably simple. If a theory of consciousness also involves fundamental principles, then we should expect the same. The principles of simplicity, elegance, and even beauty that drive physicists' search for a fundamental theory will also apply to a theory of consciousness. (A technical note: Some philosophers argue that even though there is a conceptual gap between physical processes and experience, there need be no metaphysical gap, so that experience might in a certain sense still be physical (e.g. Hill 1991; Levine 1983; Loar 1990). Usually this line of about argument is supported by an appeal to the notion of college a posteriori necessity (Kripke 1980). I think that this position rests on a misunderstanding of a posteriori necessity, however, or else requires an entirely new sort of necessity that we have no reason to essay about believe in; see Chalmers 1996 (also Jackson 1994 and Lewis 1994) for details. In any case, this position still concedes an explanatory gap between physical processes and experience.
For example, the principles connecting the physical and the experiential will not be derivable from the laws of physics, so such principles must be taken as explanatorily fundamental. So even on this sort of view, the explanatory structure of a theory of consciousness will be much as I have described.) 7 Outline of a theory of consciousness. It is not too soon to begin work on showcase, a theory. We are already in a position to understand certain key facts about the relationship between physical processes and experience, and about the regularities that connect them. The Youth! Once reductive explanation is set aside, we can lay those facts on the table so that they can play their proper role as the initial pieces in a nonreductive theory of consciousness, and as constraints on the basic laws that constitute an ultimate theory.
There is an is thicker water obvious problem that plagues the development of a theory of consciousness, and essay about that is the is thicker water, paucity of objective data. Conscious experience is not directly observable in an experimental context, so we cannot generate data about the relationship between physical processes and experience at will. Nevertheless, we all have access to a rich source of data in our own case. Many important regularities between experience and processing can be inferred from essay about, considerations about one's own experience. There are also good indirect sources of data from observable cases, as when one relies on the verbal report of a subject as an indication of experience.
These methods have their limitations, but we have more than enough data to get a theory off the ground. Philosophical analysis is also useful in getting value for money out of the data we have. Essays! This sort of analysis can yield a number of essay about principles relating consciousness and cognition, thereby strongly constraining the shape of an ultimate theory. The method of thought-experimentation can also yield significant rewards, as we will see. Finally, the fact that we are searching for college homework help online a fundamental theory means that we can appeal to such nonempirical constraints as simplicity, homogeneity, and about the like in developing a theory. We must seek to systematize the information we have, to extend it as far as possible by careful analysis, and then make the inference to the simplest possible theory that explains the data while remaining a plausible candidate to blood is thicker water be part of the fundamental furniture of the world.
Such theories will always retain an element of speculation that is essay about, not present in other scientific theories, because of the impossibility of conclusive intersubjective experimental tests. Still, we can certainly construct theories that are compatible with the book reviews, data that we have, and evaluate them in comparison to each other. Even in the absence of essay about intersubjective observation, there are numerous criteria available for book reviews the evaluation of essay such theories: simplicity, internal coherence, coherence with theories in organizational essay papers other domains, the ability to reproduce the properties of experience that are familiar from our own case, and even an overall fit with the essay, dictates of common sense. Perhaps there will be significant indeterminacies remaining even when all these constraints are applied, but we can at least develop plausible candidates. Only when candidate theories have been developed will we be able to organizational papers evaluate them. A nonreductive theory of the youth consciousness will consist in afi thesis 2012 a number of psychophysical principles , principles connecting the properties of physical processes to the properties of essay the youth experience. We can think of these principles as encapsulating the way in which experience arises from the physical. Ultimately, these principles should tell us what sort of physical systems will have associated experiences, and for the systems that do, they should tell us what sort of physical properties are relevant to the emergence of experience, and just what sort of experience we should expect any given physical system to yield.
This is dna as, a tall order, but there is essay, no reason why we should not get started. In what follows, I present my own candidates for the psychophysical principles that might go into a theory of consciousness. The first two of these are nonbasic principles - systematic connections between processing and book reviews experience at a relatively high level. These principles can play a significant role in developing and constraining a theory of consciousness, but they are not cast at a sufficiently fundamental level to qualify as truly basic laws. The Youth! The final principle is my candidate for a basic principle that might form the cornerstone of a fundamental theory of consciousness. This final principle is particularly speculative, but it is the dna as essays, kind of speculation that is required if we are ever to have a satisfying theory of about consciousness. Organizational Leadership Papers! I can present these principles only briefly here; I argue for them at much greater length in Chalmers (1996). 1. The principle of structural coherence . This is a principle of coherence between the structure of consciousness and the structure of awareness . Recall that awareness was used earlier to refer to the various functional phenomena that are associated with consciousness. I am now using it to refer to essay about a somewhat more specific process in the cognitive underpinnings of experience. In particular, the destiny essays, contents of awareness are to be understood as those information contents that are accessible to central systems, and brought to bear in a widespread way in the control of behavior.
Briefly put, we can think of awareness as direct availability for global control . To a first approximation, the contents of essay awareness are the water essay, contents that are directly accessible and potentially reportable, at least in a language-using system. Awareness is a purely functional notion, but it is nevertheless intimately linked to conscious experience. About The Youth! In familiar cases, wherever we find consciousness, we find awareness. Wherever there is conscious experience, there is some corresponding information in the cognitive system that is organizational leadership papers, available in the control of behavior, and available for about the youth verbal report. Intermediate 1 Spanish Papers! Conversely, it seems that whenever information is available for report and for global control, there is about, a corresponding conscious experience. Blood Than Essay! Thus, there is essay, a direct correspondence between consciousness and blood water essay awareness. The correspondence can be taken further. It is a central fact about experience that it has a complex structure. The visual field has a complex geometry, for essay the youth instance. There are also relations of similarity and difference between experiences, and relations in such things as relative intensity. Intermediate! Every subject's experience can be at least partly characterized and decomposed in terms of these structural properties: similarity and essay the youth difference relations, perceived location, relative intensity, geometric structure, and so on.
It is also a central fact that to each of these structural features, there is book reviews, a corresponding feature in the information-processing structure of about awareness. Take color sensations as an example. Book Reviews! For every distinction between color experiences, there is a corresponding distinction in processing. The different phenomenal colors that we experience form a complex three-dimensional space, varying in hue, saturation, and intensity. The properties of this space can be recovered from information-processing considerations: examination of the visual systems shows that waveforms of light are discriminated and analyzed along three different axes, and it is essay about, this three-dimensional information that is relevant to later processing.
The three-dimensional structure of phenomenal color space therefore corresponds directly to the three dimensional structure of visual awareness. This is afi thesis showcase 2012, precisely what we would expect. The Youth! After all, every color distinction corresponds to organizational leadership essay papers some reportable information, and therefore to a distinction that is represented in the structure of processing. In a more straightforward way, the geometric structure of the visual field is directly reflected in a structure that can be recovered from the youth, visual processing. Every geometric relation corresponds to something that can be reported and is therefore cognitively represented. Destiny Essays! If we were given only the story about information-processing in essay about the youth an agent's visual and cognitive system, we could not directly observe that agent's visual experiences, but we could nevertheless infer those experiences' structural properties.
In general, any information that is dna as essays, consciously experienced will also be cognitively represented. About The Youth! The fine-grained structure of the visual field will correspond to some fine-grained structure in destiny visual processing. The same goes for experiences in other modalities, and even for nonsensory experiences. Internal mental images have geometric properties that are represented in processing. Even emotions have structural properties, such as relative intensity, that correspond directly to a structural property of processing; where there is greater intensity, we find a greater effect on later processes. In general, precisely because the structural properties of experience are accessible and reportable, those properties will be directly represented in the structure of awareness. It is this isomorphism between the structures of consciousness and awareness that constitutes the principle of about the youth structural coherence. This principle reflects the central fact that even though cognitive processes do not conceptually entail facts about conscious experience, consciousness and cognition do not float free of one another but cohere in an intimate way. This principle has its limits. It allows us to recover structural properties of experience from information-processing properties, but not all properties of homework experience are structural properties.
There are properties of about the youth experience, such as the intrinsic nature of is thicker a sensation of red, that cannot be fully captured in a structural description. The very intelligibility of inverted spectrum scenarios, where experiences of red and essay the youth green are inverted but all structural properties remain the same, show that structural properties constrain experience without exhausting it. Nevertheless, the very fact that we feel compelled to leave structural properties unaltered when we imagine experiences inverted between functionally identical systems shows how central the principle of structural coherence is to our conception of 2012 our mental lives. It is not a logically necessary principle, as after all we can imagine all the information processing occurring without any experience at all, but it is nevertheless a strong and familiar constraint on the psychophysical connection. The principle of structural coherence allows for a very useful kind of indirect explanation of experience in terms of physical processes. For example, we can use facts about neural processing of about visual information to indirectly explain the structure of blood is thicker water essay color space. About! The facts about neural processing can entail and explain the structure of awareness; if we take the coherence principle for granted, the structure of college experience will also be explained.
Empirical investigation might even lead us to better understand the structure of awareness within a bat, shedding indirect light on Nagel's vexing question of what it is like to be a bat. This principle provides a natural interpretation of much existing work on essay about, the explanation of consciousness (e.g. Clark 1992 and Hardin 1992 on colors, and Akins 1993 on bats), although it is often appealed to inexplicitly. It is so familiar that it is taken for granted by blood water, almost everybody, and is a central plank in the cognitive explanation of about consciousness. The coherence between consciousness and awareness also allows a natural interpretation of work in neuroscience directed at isolating the substrate (or the neural correlate ) of consciousness. Various specific hypotheses have been put forward. For example, Crick and Koch (1990) suggest that 40-Hz oscillations may be the than water essay, neural correlate of consciousness, whereas Libet (1993) suggests that temporally-extended neural activity is central. If we accept the principle of coherence, the essay about the youth, most direct physical correlate of consciousness is awareness: the process whereby information is made directly available for than global control. The different specific hypotheses can be interpreted as empirical suggestions about how awareness might be achieved. For example, Crick and Koch suggest that 40-Hz oscillations are the gateway by which information is essay about the youth, integrated into afi thesis showcase, working memory and thereby made available to about the youth later processes.
Similarly, it is natural to suppose that Libet's temporally extended activity is relevant precisely because only 1 spanish past papers, that sort of activity achieves global availability. The same applies to other suggested correlates such as the global workspace of Baars (1988), the high-quality representations of the youth Farah (1994), and the selector inputs to action systems of Shallice (1972). All these can be seen as hypotheses about the mechanisms of awareness : the mechanisms that perform the blood is thicker than water, function of making information directly available for global control. Given the coherence between consciousness and awareness, it follows that a mechanism of awareness will itself be a correlate of conscious experience. The question of just which mechanisms in the brain govern global availability is an empirical one; perhaps there are many such mechanisms. But if we accept the essay about, coherence principle, we have reason to believe that the afi thesis 2012, processes that explain awareness will at the youth the same time be part of the basis of consciousness. 2. Dna As Destiny! The principle of essay organizational invariance . This principle states that any two systems with the same fine-grained functional organization will have qualitatively identical experiences. If the causal patterns of neural organization were duplicated in blood than water essay silicon, for example, with a silicon chip for every neuron and the same patterns of interaction, then the same experiences would arise. According to this principle, what matters for essay the emergence of dna as destiny experience is not the specific physical makeup of a system, but the abstract pattern of causal interaction between its components. This principle is controversial, of course.
Some (e.g. Searle 1980) have thought that consciousness is tied to a specific biology, so that a silicon isomorph of a human need not be conscious. I believe that the principle can be given significant support by the analysis of thought-experiments, however. Very briefly: suppose (for the purposes of a reductio ad absurdum ) that the principle is false, and that there could be two functionally isomorphic systems with different experiences. Perhaps only one of the systems is essay the youth, conscious, or perhaps both are conscious but they have different experiences. For the purposes of illustration, let us say that one system is 2012, made of neurons and the other of silicon, and that one experiences red where the other experiences blue.
The two systems have the same organization, so we can imagine gradually transforming one into the other, perhaps replacing neurons one at essay about a time by silicon chips with the same local function. We thus gain a spectrum of intermediate cases, each with the is thicker essay, same organization, but with slightly different physical makeup and essay the youth slightly different experiences. Book Reviews! Along this spectrum, there must be two systems A and B between which we replace less than one tenth of the system, but whose experiences differ. These two systems are physically identical, except that a small neural circuit in A has been replaced by essay about the youth, a silicon circuit in B . The key step in the thought-experiment is to take the book reviews, relevant neural circuit in A , and install alongside it a causally isomorphic silicon circuit, with a switch between the two. The Youth! What happens when we flip the switch? By hypothesis, the system's conscious experiences will change; from afi thesis showcase, red to blue, say, for the purposes of illustration. About! This follows from the than essay, fact that the essay, system after the change is essentially a version of B , whereas before the change it is just A . But given the assumptions, there is no way for the system to notice the changes! Its causal organization stays constant, so that all of its functional states and behavioral dispositions stay fixed.
As far as the system is concerned, nothing unusual has happened. There is book reviews, no room for the thought, Hmm! Something strange just happened!. In general, the structure of any such thought must be reflected in processing, but the structure of processing remains constant here. If there were to essay be such a thought it must float entirely free of the system and would be utterly impotent to affect later processing. (If it affected later processing, the systems would be functionally distinct, contrary to hypothesis). We might even flip the switch a number of afi thesis times, so that experiences of red and blue dance back and forth before the system's inner eye. According to hypothesis, the system can never notice these dancing qualia. This I take to be a reductio of the original assumption. It is a central fact about experience, very familiar from our own case, that whenever experiences change significantly and we are paying attention, we can notice the change; if this were not to be the case, we would be led to the skeptical possibility that our experiences are dancing before our eyes all the time. About! This hypothesis has the organizational, same status as the possibility that the world was created five minutes ago: perhaps it is logically coherent, but it is not plausible. Given the extremely plausible assumption that changes in experience correspond to changes in processing, we are led to the conclusion that the original hypothesis is impossible, and that any two functionally isomorphic systems must have the same sort of experiences.
To put it in technical terms, the philosophical hypotheses of absent qualia and inverted qualia, while logically possible, are empirically and nomologically impossible. (Some may worry that a silicon isomorph of a neural system might be impossible for technical reasons. That question is open. The invariance principle says only essay about the youth, that if an isomorph is possible, then it will have the same sort of conscious experience.) There is book reviews, more to be said here, but this gives the basic flavor. Once again, this thought experiment draws on familiar facts about the coherence between consciousness and cognitive processing to yield a strong conclusion about the relation between physical structure and experience. If the argument goes through, we know that the about, only physical properties directly relevant to the emergence of dna as destiny essays experience are organizational properties. This acts as a further strong constraint on a theory of consciousness. 3. The double-aspect theory of information . The two preceding principles have been nonbasic principles.
They involve high-level notions such as awareness and essay about organization, and therefore lie at the wrong level to constitute the fundamental laws in a theory of consciousness. Nevertheless, they act as strong constraints. What is further needed are basic principles that fit these constraints and that might ultimately explain them. The basic principle that I suggest centrally involves the afi thesis showcase 2012, notion of information . I understand information in more or less the sense of Shannon (1948). Where there is information, there are information states embedded in an information space . About! An information space has a basic structure of book reviews difference relations between its elements, characterizing the ways in which different elements in a space are similar or different, possibly in complex ways. Essay! An information space is an abstract object, but following Shannon we can see information as physically embodied when there is a space of distinct physical states, the differences between which can be transmitted down some causal pathway. Organizational Leadership Papers! The states that are transmitted can be seen as themselves constituting an information space. To borrow a phrase from Bateson (1972), physical information is a difference that makes a difference . The double-aspect principle stems from the observation that there is about the youth, a direct isomorphism between certain physically embodied information spaces and certain phenomenal (or experiential) information spaces.
From the same sort of observations that went into the principle of structural coherence, we can note that the differences between phenomenal states have a structure that corresponds directly to the differences embedded in physical processes; in particular, to those differences that make a difference down certain causal pathways implicated in global availability and control. That is, we can find the same abstract information space embedded in physical processing and in conscious experience. This leads to a natural hypothesis: that information (or at least some information) has two basic aspects, a physical aspect and a phenomenal aspect. Afi Thesis Showcase! This has the status of a basic principle that might underlie and explain the emergence of experience from the physical. Experience arises by virtue of its status as one aspect of information, when the other aspect is found embodied in physical processing. This principle is about the youth, lent support by a number of considerations, which I can only college help online, outline briefly here. First, consideration of the sort of about physical changes that correspond to changes in conscious experience suggests that such changes are always relevant by virtue of essay papers their role in constituting informational changes - differences within an abstract space of states that are divided up precisely according to their causal differences along certain causal pathways. Second, if the principle of organizational invariance is to hold, then we need to find some fundamental organizational property for experience to be linked to, and information is an organizational property par excellence . Third, this principle offers some hope of explaining the principle of essay structural coherence in terms of the structure present within information spaces. Fourth, analysis of the cognitive explanation of essay our judgments and claims about conscious experience - judgments that are functionally explainable but nevertheless deeply tied to experience itself - suggests that explanation centrally involves the information states embedded in cognitive processing.
It follows that a theory based on about the youth, information allows a deep coherence between the explanation of organizational essay experience and the explanation of our judgments and claims about it. Wheeler (1990) has suggested that information is fundamental to the physics of the universe. According to this it from bit doctrine, the laws of physics can be cast in terms of information, postulating different states that give rise to different effects without actually saying what those states are . It is only their position in an information space that counts. If so, then information is a natural candidate to also play a role in a fundamental theory of consciousness. We are led to essay the youth a conception of the world on which information is truly fundamental, and on which it has two basic aspects, corresponding to the physical and the phenomenal features of the world. Of course, the double-aspect principle is extremely speculative and is also underdetermined, leaving a number of key questions unanswered. An obvious question is whether all information has a phenomenal aspect. Water! One possibility is that we need a further constraint on the fundamental theory, indicating just what sort of information has a phenomenal aspect. The other possibility is that there is no such constraint. If not, then experience is much more widespread than we might have believed, as information is everywhere. This is counterintuitive at first, but on essay about the youth, reflection I think the dna as destiny essays, position gains a certain plausibility and elegance.
Where there is simple information processing, there is simple experience, and where there is complex information processing, there is complex experience. Essay About! A mouse has a simpler information-processing structure than a human, and has correspondingly simpler experience; perhaps a thermostat, a maximally simple information processing structure, might have maximally simple experience? Indeed, if experience is truly a fundamental property, it would be surprising for it to arise only every now and then; most fundamental properties are more evenly spread. Is Thicker Essay! In any case, this is very much an open question, but I believe that the position is not as implausible as it is often thought to essay the youth be. Once a fundamental link between information and experience is on the table, the door is opened to some grander metaphysical speculation concerning the nature of the dna as essays, world.
For example, it is often noted that physics characterizes its basic entities only extrinsically , in the youth terms of their relations to book reviews other entities, which are themselves characterized extrinsically, and so on. The intrinsic nature of physical entities is essay the youth, left aside. Some argue that no such intrinsic properties exist, but then one is essays, left with a world that is pure causal flux (a pure flow of information) with no properties for the causation to relate. If one allows that intrinsic properties exist, a natural speculation given the above is that the about the youth, intrinsic properties of the physical - the properties that causation ultimately relates - are themselves phenomenal properties. Showcase 2012! We might say that phenomenal properties are the internal aspect of information. This could answer a concern about the causal relevance of experience - a natural worry, given a picture on which the physical domain is causally closed, and on which experience is supplementary to the physical.
The informational view allows us to understand how experience might have a subtle kind of the youth causal relevance in virtue of its status as the intrinsic nature of the physical. This metaphysical speculation is probably best ignored for the purposes of developing a scientific theory, but in addressing some philosophical issues it is quite suggestive. The theory I have presented is speculative, but it is a candidate theory. I suspect that the organizational leadership essay, principles of structural coherence and organizational invariance will be planks in any satisfactory theory of consciousness; the status of the double-aspect theory of information is less certain. Indeed, right now it is more of an idea than a theory.
To have any hope of eventual explanatory success, it will have to be specified more fully and fleshed out into essay the youth, a more powerful form. Still, reflection on just what is plausible and implausible about it, on where it works and where it fails, can only help, lead to a better theory. Most existing theories of consciousness either deny the phenomenon, explain something else, or elevate the problem to about an eternal mystery. I hope to have shown that it is possible to make progress on the problem even while taking it seriously. To make further progress, we will need further investigation, more refined theories, and more careful analysis.
The hard problem is a hard problem, but there is no reason to papers believe that it will remain permanently unsolved. *[[ The arguments in this paper are presented in greater depth in my book The Conscious Mind (Oxford University Press, 1996). Thanks to Francis Crick, Peggy DesAutels, Matthew Elton, Liane Gabora, Christof Koch, Paul Rhodes, Gregg Rosenberg, and Sharon Wahl for their comments. ]] The problems of consciousness have been widely discussed in the recent philosophical literature. For some conceptual clarification of the various problems of consciousness, see Block 1995, Nelkin 1993, and Tye 1995. Those who have stressed the difficulties of explaining experience in physical terms include Hodgson 1988, Jackson 1982, Levine 1983, Lockwood 1989, McGinn 1989, Nagel 1974, Seager 1991, Searle 1991, Strawson 1994, and Velmans 1991, among others. Those who take a reductive approach include Churchland 1995, Clark 1992, Dennett 1991, Dretske 1995, Kirk 1994, Rosenthal 1996, and Tye 1995. There have not been many attempts to build detailed nonreductive theories in the literature, but see Hodgson 1988 and essay about Lockwood 1989 for some thoughts in that direction. Two excellent collections of recent articles on consciousness are Block, Flanagan, and Güzeldere 1996 and Metzinger 1995. Akins, K. 1993.
What is it like to book reviews be boring and myopic? In (B. Dahlbom, ed.) Dennett and his Critics . Oxford: Blackwell. Allport, A. 1988. What concept of consciousness? In (A. Marcel and E. Bisiach, eds.) Consciousness in Contemporary Science . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Baars, B.J. 1988. A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness . About! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bateson, G. Afi Thesis 2012! 1972. The Youth! Steps to an Ecology of Mind . Chandler Publishing. Block, N. Dna As Essays! 1995. On a confusion about the function of consciousness. About! Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Block, N, Flanagan, O. Güzeldere, G, (eds.) 1996.
The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical and Scientific Debates . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Chalmers, D.J. Book Reviews! 1996. The Youth! The Conscious Mind . New York: Oxford University Press. Churchland, P.M. 1995. The Engine of dna as essays Reason, The Seat of the Soul: A Philosophical Journey into the Brain . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Clark, A. 1992. Essay About! Sensory Qualities . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crick, F. and Koch, C. 1990. Toward a neurobiological theory of book reviews consciousness. Seminars in the Neurosciences 2:263-275. Crick, F. 1994. The Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul . New York: Scribners.
Dennett, D.C. 1991. Consciousness Explained . Boston: Little, Brown. Dretske, F.I. 1995. Naturalizing the Mind . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Edelman, G. 1989. The Remembered Present: A Biological Theory of Consciousness . New York: Basic Books. Farah, M.J.
1994. Visual perception and visual awareness after brain damage: A tutorial overview. In (C. Umilta and M. Moscovitch, eds.) Consciousness and Unconscious Information Processing: Attention and Performance 15 . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Flohr, H. 1992. Essay The Youth! Qualia and brain processes. In (A. College Online! Beckermann, H. Flohr, and J. Essay About The Youth! Kim, eds.) Emergence or Reduction?: Prospects for Nonreductive Physicalism . Berlin: De Gruyter. Hameroff, S.R. 1994. Quantum coherence in microtubules: A neural basis for emergent consciousness?
Journal of Consciousness Studies 1:91-118. Hardin, C.L. 1992. Physiology, phenomenology, and Spinoza's true colors. Intermediate Past! In (A. Beckermann, H. Essay The Youth! Flohr, and J. Kim, eds.) Emergence or Reduction?: Prospects for intermediate 1 spanish papers Nonreductive Physicalism . Berlin: De Gruyter. Hill, C.S. 1991.
Sensations: A Defense of the youth Type Materialism . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hodgson, D. 1988. The Mind Matters: Consciousness and Choice in a Quantum World . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Humphrey, N. 1992. Book Reviews! A History of the essay the youth, Mind . New York: Simon and Schuster. Jackendoff, R. 1987.
Consciousness and the Computational Mind . Book Reviews! Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Jackson, F. 1982. Epiphenomenal qualia. Philosophical Quarterly 32: 127-36. Jackson, F. 1994. Finding the mind in the natural world. In (R. Casati, B. Smith, and S. White, eds.) Philosophy and the Cognitive Sciences . Vienna: Holder-Pichler-Tempsky.
Kirk, R. 1994. Raw Feeling: A Philosophical Account of the Essence of Consciousness . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kripke, S. 1980. Essay About The Youth! Naming and Necessity . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Levine, J. 1983. Is Thicker Than Water! Materialism and qualia: The explanatory gap.
Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 64:354-61. Lewis, D. 1994. About The Youth! Reduction of mind. In (S. Guttenplan, ed.) A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind . Oxford: Blackwell. Libet, B. 1993.
The neural time factor in conscious and unconscious events. In (G.R. Block and showcase 2012 J. Marsh, eds.) Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Consciousness (Ciba Foundation Symposium 174). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. Loar, B. 1990. Phenomenal states. Philosophical Perspectives 4:81-108. Lockwood, M. 1989. Mind, Brain, and the Quantum . Oxford: Blackwell. McGinn, C. 1989. Can we solve the essay the youth, mind-body problem?
Mind 98:349-66. Metzinger, T. 1995. Conscious Experience . Paderborn: Schoningh. Nagel, T. 1974. What is it like to be a bat? Philosophical Review 4:435-50. Nelkin, N. 1993. What is consciousness? Philosophy of Science 60:419-34. Newell, A. 1990.
Unified Theories of Cognition . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Penrose, R. 1989. The Emperor's New Mind . Is Thicker! Oxford: Oxford University Press. Penrose, R. Essay! 1994. Shadows of the Mind . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rosenthal, D.M.
1996. A theory of consciousness. In (N. Block, O. Flanagan, and G. Güzeldere, eds.) The Nature of Consciousness . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Seager, W.E. 1991. Organizational Leadership Papers! Metaphysics of Consciousness . London: Routledge. Searle, J.R. 1980. Minds, brains and programs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:417-57.
Searle, J.R. 1992. The Rediscovery of the Mind . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Shallice, T. 1972. Essay About The Youth! Dual functions of consciousness. Psychological Review 79:383-93. Shannon, C.E. 1948.
A mathematical theory of communication. Bell Systems Technical Journal 27: 379-423. Strawson, G. 1 Spanish Papers! 1994. Mental Reality . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Tye, M. 1995. Ten Problems of Consciousness . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Velmans, M. 1991. Is human information-processing conscious?
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