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An Essay on service, Understanding the Mind. Several conjectures by purdue, A. Service! S. Research In Business! Iberall on life and mind are used as a backdrop to sketch a theory of editorial mental activity that respects both the integrity, contents of service thought and the dynamics of thinking. The dynamics, in this case, refers fundamentally to animated, meaningfully coupled self-organizing processes (coordination dynamics) and exhibit multistability, switching, and, because of symmetry breaking, metastability. The interplay of 2 simultaneously acting forces underlies the belief essay, metastable mind: the tendency for the coordinating elements to couple together (integration) and the tendency for the elements to editorial express their individual autonomy (segregation). Metrics for metastability are introduced that enable these cooperative and competitive tendencies to be quantified. Whereas bistability is the basis for purdue owl, polarized, either/or thinking, the metastable r#x000e9;gime#x02014;which contains neither stable nor unstable states, no states at all, in editorial service, fact#x02014;gives rise to a far more fluid, complementary mode of operation in literature review, which it is possible for apparent contraries to coexist in editorial service, the mind at the same time. By way of reminiscence, and grading, apropos the topic of this contribution, the photograph in Figure 1 was taken at a symposium on Nonlinearities in Brain Function, organized by Eugene Yates and Arnold Mandell, held at editorial, the Kroc Ranch in grading, Santa Ynez, California, from March 1 through March 5, 1982.

As remarked upon previously (Kelso, 1995, p. 50), this was an event way ahead of its time, organized by visionaries and supported by service, enlightened philanthropy. Grading Sat Essays! A quarter of a century ago there were no Centers or Institutes for Complex Systems and the like yet, and no one was talking about service, #x0201c;brain dynamics,#x0201d; a field of research that very much stirs the air of contemporary neuroscience. The organizers of this remarkable meeting, Yates and Mandell, sensed the potential and the power of transdisciplinary science and were doing something about it. The man we honor in literature review purdue, these lectures was living testament to that. Arthur Iberall (#x0201c;Ibby#x0201d;) was the editorial, centerpiece of the Kroc symposium, holding court every evening, laying out his homeokinetics manifesto in a unique and irrepressible way. Only once can I remember him being told to shut up. Integrity Essay! Ibby was both generalist and specialist, theorist and experimenter, scientist and engineer, physicist and editorial, biologist, swimmer and poet-and much, much more.

Was it Georges Braque who said, #x0201c;Le conformisme commence #x000e0; la definition#x0201d;? Iberall was no conformist so there is no point in trying to classify him. The usual categories fail and words are not the army value integrity essay, thing. Nevertheless, he was a great man and friend, the editorial service, likes of which one is not likely to meet, as they say where I grew up, in writers block, a month of Sundays. For students with an interest in the history of editorial service science and especially #x0201c;the sciences of complexity#x0201d; who also want to get a sense of the man and review purdue, the range of his intellect in one swift glimpse, consider Iberall's (1994) short article in Physics Today , where he chastises a Nobel laureate for, shall we say, pontificating with blinders on.

For those in the know, the reply is revealing enough. What did Iberall have to say about nature, life, and mind? Quite a lot, as it turns out, initially with Warren McCulloch (see Kelso, 1995, pp. 114#x02013;115). On the occasion of service his 80th birthday, he and his colleague of 60 years, Harry Soodak, provided a primer that contains his principles of homeokinetics along with a number of conjectures about their application to matters of nature, life, mind, brain and humankind (Iberall #x00026; Soodak, 1998). Among those pertinent to the present concerns (words italicized to value convey effect) are: (1) the notion of a homeokinetic oscillator , a unit of some generality that underlies nature's self-organization of forms and functions, even complex ones; (2) said unit consists of an energy storing nonlinear element and is conceived of as bistable; (3) the energy to snap the editorial, element in a direction from one #x02018;stable#x02019; position to another is very small (the quotation marks around #x02018;stable#x02019; are theirs); (4) the human is conceived as a nonlinear marginally stable storage device who can #x02018;self-urge#x02019; (Ibby's words) onboard sources in any number of directions (Ibby loved telling the story of a young boy's bar mitzvah; when asked by his father what he was today, he replied, #x0201c;Today I am a fountain pen#x0201d; ). The idea is research that people snap into editorial service, a direction by . . . #x0201c;always taking a binary decision mind set , e.g., to trade or to rob, to persuade or to essay lord rape, to buy or to sell, to service be or not to be, to kill or not to kill, to dissertation writers block eat or not to eat, to scratch or not to scratch a body itch#x0201d; (p. 29); (5) complexity develops from interacting or synergetic engine processes; (6) by virtue of very weak interactions #x0201c;whose complex character we do not quite understand yet,#x0201d; a kind of mutual entrainment is possible, which may leave a memory after the interaction is over (for a recent example of editorial social memory following entrainment, see Oullier, DeGuzman, Jantzen, Lagarde, #x00026; Kelso, 2008); (7) a direction of common agreement often emerges, a higher order chemistry or command-control system typical of any complex system; (8) the laws and literature, rules for command-control (a term that Ibby liked despite its linguistic similarity to discredited #x02018;commands to muscles#x02019; schemes for service, motor control; see, e.g., Turvey, Fitch #x00026; Tuller, 1982) lie in a homeokinetic spectrum in the person's body, brain, and mind; this ushered in and grounded the field of biospectroscopy (see Yates, this issue, and for an application Goodman #x00026; Kelso, 1983); (9) the army essay, human mind operates, as does nature, by editorial, a #x0201c;peculiar fumbling mode#x0201d; identified as #x0201c;reverie,#x0201d; suggesting that thought has its own typical space and time scale ; and writers block, (10) consonant with 3 and 4, command-control is editorial catalytic, chemically based linguistic signals causing low energy switching among action modes . It is a tribute to Iberall's powers of divination that empirical traces of many of his proposals continue to permeate the literature and will be touched upon as we proceed. The foregoing list is presented here principally as a backdrop for where this article is headed, which is to belief sketch a theory of thoughts and editorial, thinking that attempts to: (1) accommodate both the belief, content of thoughts and the dynamics of thinking and (2) narrow the gap between the language and science of molecules and cellular machinery (genetics, neuroscience) and the language and science of editorial service mind and behavior (cognitive science, neurology, psychiatry). How the dissertation writers block, molecular biological level relates to mind, brain, and behavioral function is editorial service far from transparent. As Kandel (2006) has recently concluded, a conceptual shift is needed from belief systems essay, studying elementary processes such as single proteins, genes, and cells to studying complex systems of editorial nerve cells, the functioning of whole organisms, and the interactions of organisms. #x0201c;Biology,#x0201d; says Kandel (2006), #x0201c;will have to focus more on human beings as the model system of choice#x0201d; (p.

423). He kids not. Ultimately (and there is no point in beating about the bush) we need a language and science of essay symbols flies experience, of editorial everything we human beings take for granted#x02014;as Virginia Wolf would say, #x0201c;an ordinary mind on an ordinary day#x0201d;#x02014;that connects to a language and science of body#x0223c;brain activity. The central thesis of this article can be stated bluntly: Minds, brains, and sat essays, bodies, yours and mine, immersed as they are in their own worlds, both outside and inside, share a common underlying dynamics. They are cut fundamentally, as Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (2004) says, from the same dynamic cloth. The dynamics here refers to equations of motion for key coordination variables or order parameters that characterize patterns of behavior on editorial, multiple levels of description: patterns of lord flies brain activity, patterns of cognition and editorial service, emotion, patterns of essay flies human interaction, patterns of the mind. The dynamics are not of a system described by states parameterized or forced by environmental signals, though they may be conceived as such (cf.

Rosen, 1991). Editorial! The dynamics refer to both environment and animal in a way that ordinary physics does not (Kelso, 1994a). The dynamics deal with coordination, not (or not only) with matter and research in business, motion: coordination dynamics . Service! Coordination dynamics deals specifically with informationally coupled, self-organizing systems, where information is meaningful and specific to coordination tasks and functions: functional information (for the sat essays, origins of the notion of information as form, see references and service, discussion in Kugler, Kelso, #x00026; Turvey, 1980, 1982). Coordination dynamics stresses, in the words of the late James Gibson (1979/1986), himself a genius, that the organism and the environment are complementary . Indeed, as we shall see, coordination dynamics shows how many apparently contradictory aspects such as whole versus part, integration versus segregation, individual versus collective, cooperation versus competition, stability versus instability, and so on, are complementary. In doing so, coordination dynamics opens up a path to reconciling contradictions, dualisms, binary oppositions, and the like in all walks of life, illuminating thereby the complementary nature (Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006; see also Kelso, 2005). Literature Purdue Owl! 1. TOWARD A COMPLEMENTARY SCIENCE OF BODY, BRAIN, MIND, AND BEHAVIOR. It is worth noting that up until the time of Bohr, Heisenberg, and Pauli, physics debated over whether light, sound, and atomic scale processes were more basically particle-like or wave-like in character.

Philosophy spoke of thesis and service, antithesis, of dialectic tension, of self and not self, of the qualitative and the quantitative, the objective and paper on ethics in business, the subjective, as if they were either/or divisions. This tendency to dichotomize, to divide the world into opposing categories (the binary decision mind-set , see 3 earlier) appears to be a #x02018;built in#x02019; property of human beings, perhaps arising very early in development and independent of cultural background (Spelke, 2006). For Bohr, Pauli, and Heisenberg, three of the chief architects of quantum mechanics, it became abundantly clear that sharp dichotomies and contrarieties must be replaced with far more subtle and sophisticated complementarities, for all of nature, human nature (and human brains) included. Service! Probably Pauli (1994) expressed it best: To us the only acceptable point of view appears to be one that recognizes both sides of reality#x02014;the quantitative and the qualitative, the physical and the psychical#x02014;as compatible with each other.

It would be most satisfactory of all if physics and psyche could be seen as complementary aspects of the same reality. Sat Essays! (p. 260) The remarkable developments of quantum mechanics demonstrating the editorial, essential complementarity of review purdue both light and matter should have ushered in not just a novel epistemology but a generalized complementary science. However, they did not. Service! Thinking in terms of contraries and the either/or seems to come much more easily to lord flies the human mind. Editorial! As in traditional logic, the mind is in one state or another but not both at the same time. Belief Systems Essay! Much harder to grasp is the editorial service, notion that contraries are complementary: Contraria sunt complementa , as Bohr's famous coat of army integrity essay arms says. Editorial Service! That mind-set might change, however, if complementary aspects and their dynamics were found not just at the remote level of the subatomic processes dealt with by quantum mechanics but also at lord, the level of editorial human beings, human brains, and human behavior. Essay Symbols Lord Flies! In particular, over the last 25 years or so, due to editorial the efforts of people working in essay, and across many fields, a multilevel, interdisciplinary science of coordination has emerged called coordination dynamics . A broad range of coordinative phenomena have been studied and explained using the editorial service, concepts, methods, and tools of coordination dynamics (Fuchs #x00026; Jirsa, 2008; Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2004; Kelso, 1995; Tschacher #x00026; Dauwalder, 2003, for reviews). Research On Ethics In Business! Because coordination dynamics deals in the currency of meaningful information, it's to coordination dynamics where we might look for insights into understanding mind. COORDINATION DYNAMICS: MULTISTABILITY, PHASE TRANSITIONS, AND METASTABILITY.

New empirical and theoretical developments in the science of coordination suggest that the reason the service, mind fragments the in business, world into dichotomies (and more important, how opposing tendencies may be reconciled) is deeply connected to the way the human brain works, in editorial service, particular its multi- and metastable dynamics (Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Fingelkurts #x00026; Fingelkurts, 2004; Friston, 1997; Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2004; Kelso, 1995; Oullier #x00026; Kelso, 2006; Tschacher #x00026; Dauwalder, 2003; Velazquez, 2005, for reviews). Etymologically, #x0201c;metastability#x0201d; comes from the Latin meta (beyond) and stabilis (able to stand). In coordination dynamics, metastability corresponds to a regime near a saddle-node or tangent bifurcation in writers block, which stable coordination states no longer exist (e.g., inphase synchronization where the relative phase between oscillating components lingers at zero), but attraction remains to where those fixed points used to be (#x0201c;remnants of attractor repellors#x0201d;; see Figure 2 ). This gives rise to a dynamical flow consisting of both phase trapping and phase scattering. Editorial! Metastability is thus the simultaneous realization of two competing tendencies: the tendency of the systems, components to editorial service couple together and the tendency for the components to express their intrinsic independent behavior. Writers! According to a recent review (Fingelkurts #x00026; Fingelkurts, 2004), Metastability is an entirely new conception of brain functioning where the individual parts of the service, brain exhibit tendencies to function autonomously at the same time as they exhibit tendencies for coordinated activity. (Kelso, 1991, 1992, 1995; Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; see also Bressler, 2003) A number of neuroscientists have embraced metastability as playing a role in various cognitive functions, including consciousness (e.g., Edelman, 2004; Edelman #x00026; Tononi, 2000; Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Friston, 1997; Koch, 2005; Sporns, 2004; Varela, Lachaux, Rodriguez, #x00026; Martinerie, 2001; see Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007, for review). Metastability's significance lies not in the word itself but in what it means for research paper on ethics, understanding informationally coupled, self-organizing dynamical systems like the brain and its complementary relation to service mind. In coordination dynamics, metastability is not a concept or an idea but a result of the broken symmetry of a system of (nonlinearly) coupled (nonlinear) oscillators.

The latter design is motivated by empirical evidence that the structural units of the brain that support sensory, motor, and cognitive processes express themselves as oscillations with well-defined spectral properties. At least 12 different rhythms from the review owl, infraslow (less than 1 Hz) to the ultrafast (more than 100 Hz) have been identified, all connected to various behavioral and service, cognitive functions (e.g., Chen, Ding, #x00026; Kelso, 2003a). Indeed, brain oscillations are considered one of the most important phenotypes for studying the genetics of integrity essay complex (non-Mendelian) disorders (Begleiter #x00026; Porjesz, 2006). The mechanisms that give rise to rhythms and synchrony exist on different levels of organization: single neurons oscillate due to voltage-gated ion channels depolarizing and editorial, hyperpolarizing the membrane; network oscillations, for example, in hippocampus and neocortex, strongly depend on the activity of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons in the central nervous system (so-called inhibition-based rhythms; see, e.g., Whittington, Traub, Kopell, Ermentrout, #x00026; Buhl, 2000); neuronal groups or assemblies form as transient coalitions of discharging neurons with mutual interaction. Neuronal communication occurs by means of synapses and essay lord, glia. Synaptic connections between areas may be weak but research shows that synchrony among different inputs strengthens them, thereby enhancing communication between neurons (for one of many recent examples, see Womelsdorf et al., 2007). Editorial! Phase coupling, for symbols flies, example, allows groups of neurons in distant and disparate regions of the brain to synchronize together (e.g., Canolty et al., 2006).

According to coordination dynamics, nonlinear coupling among oscillatory processes that possess different intrinsic frequencies is editorial necessary to generate the broad range of behaviors observed, including pattern formation, multistability, phase transitions, switching (sans #x0201c;switches#x0201d;), hysteresis, and sat essays, so forth. Although the editorial, mechanisms of coupling multiple oscillations within and between levels of organization are manifold, the principle is clear enough: patterns of behavior arise as an emergent consequence of self-organized interactions among neurons and neuronal populations and this self-organization is a fundamental source of integrity cognitive, affective, behavioral and social function (Ba#x0015f;ar, 2004; Buzs#x000e1;ki, 2006; Kelso, 1995; Oullier et al., 2008; Schmidt #x00026; Richardson, 2008; Van Orden, Holden, #x00026; Turvey, 2005). Metastability was originally discovered when experimental observations of sensorimotor coordination (Kelso, DelColle, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1990) made it necessary to editorial service extend the elementary HKB coordination law (Haken, Kelso, #x00026; Bunz, 1985; Sch#x000f6;ner, Haken, #x00026; Kelso, 1986) to essay handle the interaction of editorial service oscillatory components with different intrinsic properties 2 (Kelso et al., 1990; Kelso, 1995, chap. 4). This breaks the symmetry of the in business, original HKB equation, which describes changes of the order parameter relative phase over time ( #x003d5; . Service! ): where #x003d5; is the relative phase between two interacting components, a and b are parameters p setting the strength of attracting regions in the system's dynamical landscape, Q #x003be; t is a (delta-correlated) noise term of strength Q , and army value essay, #x003b4;#x003c9; is a symmetry breaking term expressing the fact that each coordinating element possesses its own intrinsic behavior (Kelso et al., 1990; see Park #x00026; Turvey, 2008, for further discussion). The introduction of the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; in Eq. 1 changes the entire coordination dynamics (layout of the fixed points, bifurcation structure) of the original HKB system. This is important to realize because it is the subtle interplay between the coupling ( k = b/a ) and the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; in editorial, Equation 1 that gives rise to metastability 3 (see Kelso, 2002, for further discussion). where X 1 and army value essay, X 2 are the individual components, the dots are their time derivatives and #x003b1; and #x003b2; are coupling parameters (Haken, Kelso #x00026; Bunz, 1985). Service! A nontrivial aspect of HKB is that it derives patterns of coordination from the individual components and their nonlinear interaction (see Kelso, 2007b for steps and rationale). Equation 1 is review owl weird.

Even though it is an order parameter equation of motion that is designed to describe collective behavior (in words, phi dot is a function of phi), it includes also a parameter that arises as a result of differences among the individual components . Eq. 1 is thus a strange mixture of the service, whole and the parts, the global and the local, the sat essays, cooperative and the competitive, the collective and the individual. Were the components identical, #x003b4;#x003c9; would be zero and we would not see component differences affecting the behavior of the whole. Eq. 1 would simply reflect the behavior of the collective untarnished by component properties, a purely emergent interaction#x02014;the HKB equation. It is the fact that both the components and their (nonlinear) interaction appear at the same level of editorial service description that gives rise to the array of coexisting tendencies characteristic of metastability.

Eq. 1 is a basic representation of a synergy : a low dimensional dynamic of a metastable organization in army value integrity, which the tendency of the parts to act together coexists with a tendency of the parts to do their own thing (Kelso, 1995, chap. Service! 4; for sat essays, more on synergies, see Kelso, 2007a, 2000b, in press). It is metastability that endows the synergy with robustness and flexibility, enabling the same parts to participate in service, multiple functions. If the synergy is a unit of life, then it is metastability that brings it alive. The flow of the coordination dynamics across a range of #x003b4;#x003c9; values is shown in Figure 2 for a fixed value of the coupling parameter, k = b/a = 1, where a = 1 and b = 1). Stable fixed points (attractors) are presented as filled circles and unstable fixed points (repellors) as open circles. Note these fixed points refer to the coordination variable or order parameter and are not known in advance but have to be experimentally identified (see Kelso, 2000, for writers, a full discussion).

Here, fortuitously for the brain, fixed points of the coordination variable #x003c6; represent the phase and frequency relationship between oscillatory processes. The surface shown in Figure 2 defines three regions under the service, influence of the symmetry breaking term #x003b4;#x003c9; . Army Value Essay! In the first region, present in the lower part of the surface, the system is multistable: two stable attracting fixed points (filled circles) represent possible alternative states. Editorial Service! Which one the system settles in depends on research paper on ethics, initial conditions and the size of the basin of attraction. In an intermediate region, following the line labeled 2 from left to right, the weakest attractor near antiphase (right side) disappears after it collides with its associated repellor somewhere near #x003b4;#x003c9; = 1.3, but the strongest attractor (left side) is still present as well as its repellor partner. Finally, in service, the third region, in the upper part of the surface, the dynamics become metastable. Following the line labeled 3 from left to right, no fixed points exist anymore: this part of the surface no longer intersects the isoplane #x003d5; . = 0 where the fixed points are located. Strictly speaking, coordination states qua frequency- and phase-synchrony no longer exist in research on ethics in business, the metastable regime of the coordination dynamics. What does individual and coordination behavior look like in the metastable regime and how might their relationship be quantified? A unique flow now exists in which the dynamics may be characterized by places where the editorial service, trajectory of the coordination variable relative phase converges and pauses around the horizontal and places where the trajectory drifts or diverges from the horizontal. Army Value Integrity! Let us define the former as a dwell time and the latter as an editorial service escape time . In Figure 3c we show two locations for the dwell times: one that lingers a long time before escaping (e.g., Figure 3c , annotation 1), slightly above the review, more stable inphase pattern near 0 rad (modulo 2 #x003c0; ), and the other that lingers only briefly (e.g., Figure 3c , annotation 2), slightly above #x003c0; (modulo 2 #x003c0; ). Editorial Service! These inflections recur over and over again as long as the system self-organizes in the metastable regime, that is, as long as it does not undergo a phase transition to a locked or unlocked state.

Despite the complete absence of phase-locked attractors, the coordinating elements in the metastable regime do not behave totally independently. Rather, their interdependence takes the block, form of dwellings (phase gathering) near the remnants of the fixed points (cf. Figure 2 ) and may be nicely expressed by concentrations in the histogram of the relative phase (see Kelso, 1995, chap. Editorial! 4). METRICS FOR METASTABILITY: A START.

In the following some potential measures of metastable coordination dynamics are introduced. Value! Notice that all the usual measures used previously in coordination dynamics to measure and editorial, quantify stability and belief systems, loss of editorial stability such as local and global relaxation times, switching times, fluctuations, and so on, no longer apply in the metastable regime (see Kelso, Sch#x000f6;ner, Scholz, #x00026; Haken, 1987; Sch#x000f6;ner #x00026; Kelso, 1988, for reviews of theory and experiments establishing the essay flies, utility of these quantities). The reason of course is that in the metastable regime, all fixed point states have vanished leaving only traces of coordination, #x0201c;ghosts#x0201d; or #x0201c;remnants#x0201d; of where the fixed points once were. Once the fixed points go, so also all the methods and techniques of linear stability analysis. 4 This means we have to be creative about finding new ways to capture metastable coordination. A dwell time may be defined by how long a collective or coordinative tendency persists in editorial, a system or data set; an escape time is how long the coordinating elements express their individual autonomy in research on ethics in business, a system or data set. 5 Consider first the pure cases. For reasons of generality that may become apparent later, let's refer to them as complementary aspects ca1 and ca2. Service! An example of a pure case is illustrated in Figure 3d : there is no coupling and the oscillators are completely independent (ca1). Examples of another pure case are illustrated in Figures 3a and 3b . Whether in grading, the mono- or bistable regimes, the oscillators are locked together, coupled in phase- and frequency-locked states (ca2), which constitute asymptotically stable states of the editorial, coordination dynamics.

The metastable regime is in-between the two pure cases and is a blend of two tendencies: one for the elements to bind together and the other for the elements to belief essay behave independently. Such coexisting tendencies may be denoted as a complementary pair, ca1#x0223c;ca2. Notice that the transition from a metastable regime to a mono- or multistable regime constitutes the creation of service functional information (Kelso, 1994a, 2002; Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006). That is, the system moves from a place where there are no states to a place where the coordinated state is grading well defined and vice versa. Notice also that in the metastable regime near the saddle-node bifurcation, information in the classical Shannonian sense (and presumably #x0201c;information processing#x0201d;) is at a maximum. The two pure cases, fully coupled and totally uncoupled, represent a minimum of service information. Essay Lord! They are what they are forever. For Iberall, the editorial, creation and stability of new forms requires two or more force systems. The physical intuition is value integrity essay of a generalized Reynolds number. If the energy sweeping into editorial, a field of paper in business atomisms can be absorbed, nothing much happens.

If it cannot, the field becomes unstable and service, some new inhomogeneous patterning emerges. The generalized Reynolds number is dimensionless and expresses a competition between a global, convective process and a local diffusive transport or propagative process. The resulting form or pattern is a collective, cooperative effect. Note again how the complementary pairs competition#x0223c;cooperation and local#x0223c;global come into play. Formally, the generalized Reynolds number (Re) can be written as follows: with unity (Re critical = 1) reflecting the critical value at which the transition to new forms occurs. Grading Sat Essays! With apologies for belaboring the fact, criticality conditions have to be worked out in editorial service, each case (for an interesting example, see Warren, 1984). Along the same lines of reasoning, a k number may be defined as follows: The dimensionless k number appears to provide a measure of the quality of metastability . The mathematical expression is trivial: In words, as the escape time (e) approaches zero, the dwell time (d) relative to (e) gets larger and larger. This means that there is a stronger and stronger tendency for the individual elements to bind together than to stay apart. Likewise,

In words, as the escape time (e) gets larger and larger, the dwell time (d) relative to (e) gets smaller and smaller. This means that the individual elements tend to express their autonomy more and more, approaching total independence. In analogy to the generalized Reynolds number, a critical k number expresses when the tendency to coordinate overcomes the tendency to stay apart, and vice-versa. Literature Owl! The k number might be expected to service scale with the distance from the asymptotically stable locked state. But how? This will again depend on the details of the system. Belief! Were this process analogous to editorial service so-called Type-1 intermittency, the distribution of dwell times should scale as the distance #x02212;1/2 from the critical surface where the parameterized function (Eq. 1) lifts off the belief essay, origin. Experimentally, this would require pinpointing the bifurcation point and manipulating control parameters very precisely. 6 More generally, comparing k numbers, the ratio of dwell and escape times, across a range of levels of observation of the same and different systems may even reveal scale-free properties (for examples, see Billock, DeGuzman, #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Chen, Ding, #x00026; Kelso, 1997, 2003b; Eguiluz, Chialvo, Cecchi, Baliki, #x00026; Apkarian, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2005).

METASTABLE COORDINATION DYNAMICS OF THE BRAIN. This brief introduction to editorial measures of metastability once again highlights the belief, complementary nature. Only together, as a complementary pair, do apparently contrasting phenomena, such as individual #x0223c; collective, integration #x0223c; segregation, local #x0223c; global, cooperation#x0223c;competition, attraction#x0223c;repulsion, convergence#x0223c;divergence, dwell#x0223c;escape, and so on, exhaust the knowledge necessary for understanding. We are reminded once again of editorial Von Holst's (1939/1973) classic analysis of value coordination: Both the editorial, #x0201c;magnet effect#x0201d; and the #x0201c;maintenance tendency#x0201d; are needed for a complete description of coordination in review purdue, all its forms (see also Turvey #x00026; Schmidt, 1994). The metastable regime of the coordination law (Eq. 1) shows how this is so: both tendencies arise as the result of the dynamic interplay between nonlinear coupling and individual intrinsic dynamics. How might the brain make use of metastability? For a fuller discussion of editorial service this question, including #x0201c;The Freeman-Kelso Dialogue,#x0201d; the reader is referred to Kelso #x00026; Tognoli (2007).

As the value integrity essay, Fingelkurtses (2004) remark, metastability is an entirely new conception of brain organization, not merely a blend of the old. Individualist tendencies for the diverse regions of the editorial service, brain to sat essays express their independence coexist with coordinative tendencies to couple and cooperate as a whole. As we have seen, in the metastable brain local segregative and global integrative processes coexist as a complementary pair, not as conflicting theories. Editorial Service! Metastability, by reducing the strong hierarchical coupling between the parts of a complex system while allowing them to retain their individuality, leads to systems essay a looser, more secure, more flexible form of functioning that promotes the service, creation of information. Sat Essays! Too much autonomy of the component parts means no chance of their coordinating and communicating together. On the other hand, too much interdependence and the system gets stuck; global flexibility is editorial lost. In comparison with theories of large-scale neural organization through linear phase-coupling (e.g., Eckhorn et al., 1988; Gray, K#x000f6;nig, Engel, #x00026; Singer, 1989; Varela et al., 2001) the ability of metastable dynamics to coordinate or compute without attractors opens a large set of sat essays possibilities. 7 The classical view of phase-locked coordination prescribes that each recruited element loses its intrinsic behavior and obeys the dictates of the assembly. When such situations arise, from the functional point of view, individual areas cease to service exert an on ethics influence for the duration of the synchronized state, and the pertinent spatial level of description becomes the synchronous assembly itself. However, it appears that phylogenesis also promoted specialized activity of local populations of neurons (e.g., Chklovskii, Schikorski, #x00026; Stevens, 2002; Ebbesson, 1984). In theories of large-scale integration through phase synchronization, the expression of local activity can exist only when the area is not enslaved into an assembly, whereas in the metastable regime, the tendency for editorial, individual activity is continually preserved (see also Friston, 1997).

As exemplified explicitly in the elementary coordination law (Eq. 1), a delicate balance between integration (coordination between individual areas) and segregation (expression of research paper in business individual behavior) is achieved in the metastable regime. Service! Studies of interareal connectivity both at the anatomical and functional level (Friston, 1997; Tononi, Sporns, #x00026; Edelman, 1998) support the notion that the region between complete integration and complete segregation is the most favorable for cognition: measures of complexity reach a maximum when there is a balance between segregative and belief, integrative forces. Note, however, that such measures are based upon stationarity assumptions whereas metastability in coordination dynamics is editorial service a #x0201c;stationary transient.#x0201d; Although the holding and on ethics, releasing of the relative phase over time appears to be of editorial a transient nature, it is actually quite stationary. What are the implications of metastable coordination dynamics for review purdue, understanding the mind? Like nature and nurture, the contents of the mind and the dynamics of the mind are inextricably connected. Thoughts are not static: like the editorial service, flow of a river, they emerge and disappear as patterns in a constantly shifting dynamic system (Kelso, 1995). Pretty though this metaphor is, science demands we go beyond it to seek description and explanation.

As in other, more mature fields it is crucial to have a theory or at least a conceptual framework of what one is trying to understand. The aim of the present approach is not a detailed model of neurons or neuronal connectivity that will underlie all forms of thought and thinking. Writers Block! Nor is editorial service this the forum to present a comprehensive account of the supporting neurophysiological and behavioral evidence. Rather, in literature purdue owl, the spirit of the editorial service, person we honor here, the purpose is to stimulate insight into research paper on ethics, how mind, brain, and behavior might be connected in a unified way. Figure 4 is editorial intended to convey the gist of the story. On the left side of the middle panel, two areas of the brain (for the sake of simplicity) are shown to be active. This acknowledges a simple fact#x02014;or at least a dominant assumption in contemporary neuroscience: The contents of thoughts depend on the neural structures activated. Reciprocally, the neural structures activated influence#x02014;directly or indirectly#x02014;the contents of thoughts. If one is imagining producing a pattern of sensorimotor coordination, such as syncopating to a rhythmic stimulus, fMRI studies show that the same neural structures are active as would normally be engaged in the act of syncopation itself (Oullier, Jantzen, Steinberg, #x00026; Kelso, 2005).

If one is research expecting a reward as a result of an editorial service economic transaction, the so-called reward centers in the subcortical nuclei of the limbic system (e.g., nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area) and associated pathways are activated (e.g., Knutson, Adams, Fong, #x00026; Hommer, 2001). If one perceives a new face or recognizes an old one, structures in the fusiform gyrus and the inferotemporal visual cortex appear to be activated, and so forth (e.g., Haxby et al., 1996). Thoughts crop up from within, contemporaneous with the activation of neural structures associated with memory and emotion such as the hippocampus and amygdala, and they can be triggered from without by a familiar sound, touch, sight, or smell. Occasionally insightful thoughts arise too. Though much remains to be learned about what exactly constitutes the contents of thought#x02014;which are inherently context-dependent#x02014;thoughts appear to have neural correlates. 8 However, identifying thought-specific structures and circuitry using brain mapping, important though it may be, is hardly sufficient to tell us how thinking works. Unlike real estate, thoughts, consciousness, and mind are not only about location. The overuse and abuse of the terminology of #x0201c;states#x0201d;#x02014;mental states, psychological states, physiological states, emotional states, and so on#x02014;muffles any sense of dynamics. Active, dynamic processes like #x0201c;perceiving,#x0201d; #x0201c;attending,#x0201d; #x0201c;remembering,#x0201d; and #x0201c;deciding#x0201d; that are associated with the word thinking are not restricted to particular brain locations but rather emerge as patterns of interaction among widely distributed neural ensembles and in general between human beings and their worlds. One of the great riddles of contemporary neuroscience is how the value integrity, multiple, diverse, and service, specialized areas of the brain are coordinated to give rise to thinking and coherent goal-directed behavior. A key primitive of the present theory is that neuronal assemblies in different parts of the brain oscillate at different frequencies.

Such oscillatory activity is a prime example of self-organization in the brain. But oscillation, though necessary, is not sufficient. It is the fact that oscillations are coupled or bound together into a coherent network when people attend to a stimulus, perceive, remember, decide, and act (e.g., Ba#x0015f;ar, 2004; Bressler #x00026; Kelso, 2001; Buzs#x000e1;ki, 2006; Kelso, 1995; Singer, 2005; Varela et al., 2001, for dissertation writers, reviews). This is a dynamic, self-assembling process, parts of the brain engaging and disengaging in time, as in a proverbial country square dance in rural Connecticut. In the simplest case shown in the left column of Figure 4 , oscillations in different brain regions can lock #x0201c;inphase,#x0201d; brain activities rising and falling together, or #x0201c;antiphase,#x0201d; one oscillatory brain activity reaching its peak as another hits its trough and vice versa. Service! Inphase and dissertation writers block, antiphase are just two out of many possible multistable, phase synchronized states that can exist between multiple, different, specialized brain areas depending on their respective intrinsic properties and functional connectivity.

More broadly, as Iberall intuited, the organism and its environment are embedded in a nested frame of rhythms ranging from rest activity and sleep cycles to service circadian and seasonal rhythms that both modify and are modified by behavior, development, and aging. Coming back to the brain, different aspects of a moving scene, separate remembered parts of symbols flies a significant experience, even different ideas that arise in a conversation may be bound together into coherent forms by synaptic coupling of (oscillatory) neural populations. Service! The key proposal, conveyed in the top panel of Figure 4 , is that thoughts (figuratively shown as balloons) are #x0201c;coded#x0201d; as relative phases between oscillating brain areas. Relative phase is a natural quantity for coordinating different things and is a long established order parameter in coordination dynamics. 9 Phase is writers also the means by which excitatory and inhibitory neurons communicate with each other in so-called central pattern generators (e.g., Grillner, 1985).

If nature operates with ancient themes, as Ibby often reminded us, it is reasonable to propose that the same pattern generating principles typical of spinal circuitry are exploited at the level of cortical circuitry also (Kelso, 1995, chap. 8; Ikegaya et al., 2004). In coordination dynamics, phase relationships carry meaningful information with multiple attractors (the fixed points shown in left top part of editorial Figure 4 ) setting alternatives for complementary aspects to enter the belief essay, mind. Editorial Service! The top left part of Figure 4 conveys the on ethics in business, essential bistable nature of physical and social reality. Two states are possible for identical parameter values: which state one enters depends on initial and boundary conditions. Baldly put, bistability is the basis of polarization and the either/or.

Note that this does not necessarily imply any judgment of good or bad. Polarization, for example, may be seen as the driving tension behind scientific progress in the sense of Thomas Kuhn (1962), and bistability may be exploited for solving ill-defined problems where the consideration of multiple interpretations of data is an advantage. Bistable, and in general multistable coordination dynamics confers many advantages on editorial, living things, in particular multifunctionality (see, e.g., Kelso, 1991). Why is it that some thoughts seem to persist longer than others? Coordination dynamics suggests that the persistence of belief systems essay a thought depends on the stability of the brain's relative phase dynamics.

Some thoughts persist longer than others because the phase relations underlying them are more stable. In Figure 4 (top left), the negative slope through the ordinate near inphase (#x0201c;thought 1#x0201d;) is greater, hence more stable, than its antiphase counterpart (#x0201c;thought 2#x0201d;). This proposition is editorial service supported by experiments and specific neurally based modeling, which shows that different patterns of spatiotemporal brain activity are differentially stable (Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Jirsa, Fuchs, #x00026; Kelso, 1998; Kelso et al., 1992; Meyer-Lindenberg, Ziemann, Hajak, Cohen, #x00026; Berman, 2002). For example, applying transient perturbations to grading Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) and lateral premotor cortex using Transcranial Magnetic stimulation induces transitions from antiphase to inphase coordination but not vice versa (Meyer-Lindenberg, et al., 2002). Even more tellingly, recent fMRI work shows that increases in BOLD amplitude in a network of service brain areas that includes pre-SMA, premotor cortex, cerebellum, and insula increases linearly as pattern stability decreases (Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Jantzen, Steinberg, #x00026; Kelso, under review). 10 Such evidence suggests that disruption of a distributed network of brain areas#x02014;in contrast to a discrete switch in a particular locus#x02014;results in the destabilization and eventual dismantling of a less stable coordination pattern in favor of a more stable one. So what makes thoughts switch? When it comes to the nervous system, it is always tempting to ask, as does Abbott (2006), #x0201c;Where are the switches in this thing?#x0201d; (see also Martin, 2006).

But merely because there is switching does not necessarily mean there are switches (Kelso, 1984). The middle column of Figure 4 offers a different mechanism: dynamic instability. Multistability and grading, spontaneous switching in perception as in the alternating vase or faces in ambiguous Rubin figures, Necker cubes, the continuous wagon wheel illusion, and so forth, continue to be a subject of much fascination in cognitive psychology and neuroscience (e.g., Billock #x00026; Tsou, 2007; Van Rullen et al., 2004; for review, see Kelso, 1995, chap. 7 and articles in Kruse #x00026; Stadler, 1995). The picture shown in editorial, Figure 4 (middle column) is belief essay based on considerable experimental evidence demonstrating that switching in both brain and editorial, behavior is a self-organized process that takes the form of a nonequilibrium phase transition (e.g., Daffertshofer, Peper, #x00026; Beek, 2000; Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Fuchs, Deecke, #x00026; Kelso, 2000; Fuchs, Kelso, #x00026; Haken, 1992; Fuchs, Mayville, et al., 2000; Kelso, 1984; Kelso et al., 1990; Kelso, Scholz, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1986; Kelso et al., 1992; Mayville, Bressler, Fuchs, #x00026; Kelso, 1999; Wallenstein, Kelso, #x00026; Bressler, 1995). Fluctuations play a key role, testing the stability of states and enabling the system to belief systems discover new states.

In coordination dynamics, once the system settles into an attractor, a certain amount of noise or a perturbation is required to switch it to another attractor. Or, if internal or external conditions change when the system is near instability, a bifurcation or phase transition may occur, causing the system to switch from being multistable to monostable or vice versa (see Ditzinger #x00026; Haken, 1989, 1990, for excellent examples of such modeling). Thinking in this view involves the active destabilization of one stable thought pattern into another. A different view emerges from the flow of the relative phase dynamics in the metastable regime ( Figure 4 , right). Editorial Service! Instead of thoughts corresponding to grading sat essays rigid, phase synchronized states that must be destabilized if switching is to editorial service occur, metastability consists of a more subtle dwell and escape dynamic in which a thought is never quite stable and grading sat essays, merely expresses a joint tendency for neural areas to synchronize together and to oscillate independently. Fluid thinking, in this view, is when the brain's oscillations are neither completely synchronized nor desynchronized (see also Fig. 3c ). In the service, metastable regime, successive visits to the remnants of the fixed points are intrinsic to the time course of the system and do not require any external source of integrity input. Switching occurs, of course, but continuously and editorial, without the need for additive noise or changes in parameters. From the perspective of coordination dynamics, the time the system dwells in each remnant depends on a subtle blend of the asymmetry of the rhythmic elements (longer dwelling for smaller asymmetry) and the strength of the coupling (longer dwelling for lord, larger values of a and b in editorial, Eq. 1). The metastable regime offers scientific grounds for Iberall's intuition of #x0201c;reverie#x0201d;: thoughts come and dissertation writers block, go fluidly as the editorial, oscillatory units of the brain express both an interactive integrative dynamic and an individualistic segregative dynamic.

Metastable coordination dynamics also rationalizes William James's (1890) beautiful metaphor of the stream of consciousness as the flight of a bird whose life journey consists of #x0201c;perchings#x0201d; (viewed here as phase gathering, integrative tendencies) and #x0201c;flights#x0201d; (phase scattering, segregative tendencies). Both tendencies appear to be crucial: the former to summon and create thoughts, the latter to release individual brain areas to participate in other acts of cognition, emotion, and action. In some traditions, it is value integrity not the contents of thoughts that matter but their #x0201c;stickiness.#x0201d; In the metastable regime of the coordination dynamics, the #x0201c;stickiness#x0201d; of thoughts depends on editorial, how close the essay lord flies, neural system is to editorial service the fixed points of the relative phase dynamics. Sticky thoughts have long dwell times and belief, a high probability density of near perfect phase synchrony between the brain's oscillations. Passing thoughts, as the name suggests, have short dwell times and editorial service, low probability density. Stickiness means that the coupling interaction between neural populations is stronger than the tendency of these populations to express their individual autonomy and/or to disengage from one neural coalition to participate in sat essays, others. Very sticky thoughts correspond to service phase trapping between the brain's oscillations and may be pathological. Literature Review Purdue! Well-known manifestations of too much synchronization in the brain are diseases like Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. On the other hand, it appears that certain diseases such as schizophrenia appear to be characterized by a reduction in oscillatory brain activity and a relative absence of service long range phase synchrony (Uhlhaas #x00026; Singer, 2006). Like order and chaos, it seems the boundary between health and disease is a fine one.

A few further remarks may be in order. One, hinted at earlier, is that environmental, intentional, attentional, emotional, learning, and memory processes are all capable of both stabilizing and army integrity essay, destabilizing the coordination dynamics. A recently proposed dynamical mechanism is parametric (de)stabilization by functional information (e.g., Fink et al., 2000; Jirsa et al., 2000; Kelso et al., 2001; see also Kay #x00026; Warren, 2001). The neural mechanisms of parametric stabilization by intention are beginning to be uncovered (Jantzen, Bertollo, deLuca, Comani, #x00026; Kelso, 2007; Kelso, Scholz, #x00026; Sch#x000f6;ner, 1988; Scholz #x00026; Kelso, 1990). A full accounting of this work, though highly relevant, would take us too far afield. We remark that to the extent these influences may be said to control the mind, this is the mind controlling itself. Second, certain views on meditation view the mind (pardon the pun)#x02014;with its beliefs, biases, and prejudices based on past experience and memory#x02014;as an obstacle to being truly aware, to seeing what is . Awareness is where the mind stops wandering and editorial, thinking is the army value essay, pause between two thoughts, where the brain is not trapped in a coherent state. Here we may say that for thought not to interfere, there should be no #x0201c;binding#x0201d; among brain areas; all the parts of the brain should be in service, a default state poised, as it were, to respond to any input. Metastabilty resolves, nay embraces, any paradox between #x0201c;content full#x0201d; thought and dissertation, #x0201c;content less#x0201d; awareness: the flow of the dynamics allows both. Third, notice in Figure 4 and editorial, throughout this discussion that the linkage between events at different levels, from neural to psychological and experiential, is by virtue of shared pattern or coordination dynamics, not because any single level is owl any more or less fundamental than any other. Thus, psychological terms like #x0201c;stickiness#x0201d; or #x0201c;unhooking#x0201d; or #x0201c;trapping#x0201d; or even #x0201c;task difficulty#x0201d; have explicit meaning in terms of meta- and editorial service, multistable coordination dynamics.

This amounts to dissertation block transcendence if not translation. Thought is service matter and thinking is matter in motion#x02014;coordinated motion. Lord! Thought arises as a low-dimensional, coherent pattern in an extremely high-dimensional system called the human being coupled to its world. Editorial! The slightest fluctuation can trigger a thought. Context matters. The coordination dynamics of thinking is essentially nonlinear and contains multistability and switching#x02014;which may be debilitating when it leads to polarization. Coordination dynamics differs from other theories of self-organization, including Iberall's homeokinetics, because it deals primarily in grading sat essays, the currency of functional information : the two #x0201c;forces#x0201d; that drive coordination dynamics deal fundamentally with meaningful information exchange in living things. One force is the strength of coupling between the elements; this allows information to be distributed to all participating elements and is a key to integrative, collective action. Editorial! The other is the ability of individual elements to express their autonomy and thereby minimize the influence of others. Self-organization in the metastable regime is the interplay of both. This is the paper in business, architecture of mind#x02014;metastable mind.

This article is a written version of the Arthur S. Iberall Distinguished Lecture on Life and the Sciences of Complexity, Storrs, CT, December 2005. A similar lecture was delivered as the service, F. J. McGuigan Prize Lecture for Understanding the Human Mind at the American Psychological Association convention in Washington, DC, August 2005. The author would like to owl thank Professors Michael Turvey and Claudia Carello along with many friends and colleagues at The University of editorial service Connecticut for their wonderful hospitality during my visit to dissertation present this lecture. The title is intended to convey the problem that all of us share. Editorial Service! It is an #x0201c;essay#x0201d; in the sense of the French word essai , a try. #x0201c;Mind#x0201d; as used here is paper in business multifunctional: we pay attention, we see, we hear, we remember, we feel, we act, we experience, and so on. These are activities that rely at least in part on the workings of a physical organ called the service, brain. Essay! Like structure and function, organism and environment, affordance and editorial service, effectivity, mind and dissertation writers block, brain are complementary. The author is also in the departments of Psychology, Biological Science, and Biomedical Sciences. The writing of this article was supported by a National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH) Innovations Award (MH 42900), National Institute for Neurological and Communicative (NINDS) Grant NS48220, and the U.S.

Office of Naval Research. The comments of editorial service Drs. Emmanuelle Tognoli, Gonzalo DeGuzman, and Maxine Sheets-Johnstone are much appreciated as are the helpful reviews by William Mace and Michael Turvey. Publisher's Disclaimer: Full terms and conditions of paper use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article maybe used for editorial, research, teaching and essay symbols, private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in service, any form to anyone is essay expressly forbidden.

The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. Editorial! The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the purdue, use of this material. We note that we are never faced by more than a small number of interacting levels. The overseer always seems to be faced only by king and by peasant.

That is our key notion. (Iberall #x00026; Soodak, 1978, p. 22) This is the second paper in editorial, the series, #x0201c;Life and the Sciences of Complexity: Essays in Honor of Arthur S. Iberall.#x0201d; 1 The symbol of the complementary nature relating contrarieties, opposites and their kin is the tilde or squiggle (#x0223c;). If you see things like yin and yang, organism and environment, nature and paper, nurture, mind and body, friend and enemy, living and dying, creation and service, annihilation as mutually related and literature, inextricably connected, you are exercising your squiggle sense. If you see them as contraries, us versus them, nature versus nurture, mind versus body, or if you overemphasize one extreme over the other, you are not using your squiggle sense. Integration#x0223c;segregation, local#x0223c;global, individual#x0223c;collective, part#x0223c;whole, competition#x0223c;cooperation, creation#x0223c;annihilation, convergence#x0223c;divergence, dwell#x0223c;escape, states#x0223c;tendencies, symmetry#x0223c;dynamics, form#x0223c;function and so forth are some of the complementary pairs that constitute the base set of complementary pairs of coordination dynamics.

Note the squiggle is editorial not a bridge: it doesn't stand for essay, glue holding complementary aspects together or mediating between them. It is a way to write and think about complementary aspects in a way that emphasizes their relational and dynamic character. The squiggle exposes a basic truth: both complementary aspects are required for an exhaustive understanding of phenomena. 2 Research has established that the oscillators are self-sustaining and contain Rayleigh and van der Pol terms (e.g. Beek, et al., 1996; 1997; Haken, et al., 1985; Kay et al., 1987). More than the functional form of the oscillator, per editorial service se, the symbols lord flies, key to emergent coordination is the nonlinear coupling. The simplest, perhaps most fundamental coupling that guarantees multistability, switching and primitive memory (hysteresis) is:

3 Sometimes in the literature Eq. Editorial Service! 1 is referred to collectively as the Haken-Kelso-Bunz equation. Though convenient, this is technically incorrect and fails to review purdue recognize both the intellectual contributions to its extension and the conceptual consequences thereof. Editorial! For reasons of grading sat essays symmetry and editorial, simplicity, the original HKB equation did not contain the grading, symmetry breaking term, #x003b4;#x003c9; (Kelso, et al., 1990) nor did it treat fluctuations explicitly (Schoner, Haken #x00026; Kelso, 1986) both of which are crucial for capturing the broad range of editorial phenomena observed and testing further predictions. Integrity Essay! In particular, without #x003b4;#x003c9; there is: a) no fixed point shift, a sign of editorial adaptation to army essay changing circumstances, see Fig.

1 ; b) the bifurcation is a saddle node not, as in service, the original HKB equation a pitchfork. Essay Flies! These are different normal forms, see Kelso (1994b); and 3) most important of service all, the original HKB equation does not and cannot exhibit metastability which is the belief systems, key to understanding the service, complementary relationship between the synergic tendency of the oscillators to dissertation couple (integration) and at the same time to express their individual differences (segregation). The oscillators in service, the original HKB formulation were identical thereby excluding metastability. For these reasons, it seems wise to refer to Eq. 1 as the extended HKB equation. 4 We remark, however, how helpful these techniques have been in establishing the presence of writers block self-organization (phase transitions) in human brain and editorial service, behavior, and for testing predicted effects, such as critical slowing down, fluctuation enhancement, switching time distributions, and so forth that are hallmarks of dynamic instability. Note that all these measures require detailed investigation and have to be established in each particular case. Essay Symbols Lord! Note also that they are valid only editorial, before the transition and the associated breakdown of timescales occur (see Kelso, et al., 1987 for details). 5 Of course, in experiments these times need to be operationally defined, similar say to the operations used to determine the onsets and integrity, offsets of other physiological measures such as EEG and EMG (see Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007, for a start). 6 Such experiments are nontrivial. Nevertheless, very clear hints are available in behavioral studies that have systematically detuned, in small steps, a two-frequency system coordinating near 2 W 1 (DeGuzman #x00026; Kelso, 1991; Kelso #x00026; DeGuzman, 1988).

7 In fact, it can be proven that only dynamical systems whose basins of attraction are poised on the boundaries of elementary attractors are capable of universal computation (see Velupillai, 2007). 8 For a sobering analysis of service some of the pitfalls in the methods and interpretation of brain imaging data, see van Orden #x00026; Paap (1997) and Uttal (2003). 9 An argument can be made that spatial patterns of on ethics amplitude in high density EEG recordings of olfactory cortex also constitute an order parameter (e.g., Freeman #x00026; Holmes, 2005; Kelso #x00026; Tognoli, 2007). In coordination dynamics, following theories of self-organization (Haken, 1977; Nicolis #x00026; Prigogine, 1977) coordination variables or order parameters and control parameters may be identified by studying dynamic instabilities or phase transitions (Kelso, 1990). The former change qualitatively at editorial, transitions and purdue owl, the latter#x02013;when systematically varied#x02013;lead the system through transitions. Order parameters and control parameters are thus co-implicative and complementary in the framework of coordination dynamics (Kelso, 1995; Kelso #x00026; Engstr#x000f8;m, 2006).

Recent empirical and theoretical research contacts Freeman's work in service, that it shows that phase transitions can also arise through the amplitudes of oscillation (Assisi, Jirsa #x00026; Kelso, 2005). Both routes are possible depending on the situation, e.g. amplitude drops across the transition, the relative phase changes abruptly. 10 Stable thoughts, like stable gaits it seems, correspond to minimum energy configurations among participating neural ensembles. Paper On Ethics! Analogous to gaits, research shows that oxygen utilization (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent effect) increases as the pattern loses stability, suggesting that the demands on neural resources to sustain a given pattern stable also increase. Pattern stability, which can be precisely measured in terms of variability appears to be an (as yet unheralded) determiner of brain activity (number and intensity level of voxels, see Jantzen #x00026; Kelso, 2007, Figs. 3 and #x200B; and4 4 ). Abbott LF.

Where are the switches on this thing? In: van Hemmen JL, Sejnowski TJ, editors. 23 problems in systems neuroscience. Oxford University Press; Oxford, UK: 2006. pp. 423–431. Editorial! Assisi CG, Jirsa VK, Kelso JAS. Dynamics of multifrequency coordination using parametric driving: Theory and experiment. Biological Cybernetics. 2005; 93 :6–21. [PubMed] Ba#x0015f;ar E. Memory and brain dynamics: Oscillations integrating attention, perception, learning, and memory.

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Also, eliminate sections that are irrelevant! Suggestion: Don’t just buy one from an online bookstore. Editorial Service. Take the time go through a table of belief, contents and service thumb through. Examples available from Barnes Noble: Alpha Teach Yourself - Business Plans in 24 Hours by Michael Miller Successful Business Planning in sat essays 30 Days TM, 3/ed, Peter Patsula.

General Components of a Complete Plan The Executive Summary Analysis of Your Market Description of editorial, Your Firm Finance Competitors Your Marketing Strategy. No set formula for a successful practice. Before developing a plan for writers, a lawyer, answer the editorial service, following: Identify your practice niche(s) What skills and sat essays experience you bring to editorial your practice What legal structure to use: sole proprietorship, PC, partnership, LLP, etc. What clients you currently have and might potentially acquire What clients you want What business and social contacts you have What other attorneys you can call upon to fill in practice gaps How your firm’s records will be kept What equipment and supplies will be needed What library and belief systems essay other information sources will be needed What insurance will be needed What other resources will be needed How you will compensate yourself Review your current finances re assets, current cash flow, expenses What financing may be needed What financial assets do you have What banking accounts will be needed Review your current non non-financial resources Identify your market Describe your startup plans Where will your office be located What will the editorial service, name of literature purdue, your firm be. For some businesses this is the editorial, most important part of the business plan because it summarizes what the company does, where it is going and symbols how to get there. Therefore, it must describe the editorial, company, the “product” and the market opportunities concisely. It is written after the plan is complete but is the paper on ethics, first and, sometimes, most important part read by investors. How important this is for a legal business plan depends on editorial service your long and short term goals, e.g., whether they are to grow a partnership, join a firm, build up a practice that is enticing for in business, acquisition by a larger firm, etc.

In order to provide that summary, go through a number of exercises: Company overview Mission statement the firm’s purpose and what it will do Major goals Objectives/milestones needed to achieve those goals Vision statement where you want to editorial go and what you want your firm to become, not just 20 years down the grading, road but where you want to editorial service be three or five years from now Business environment List what is out of your control e.g., nature of the law business, direction of the marketplace, competition, mergers and acquisitions among clients, and competitors, attorneys and dissertation block firms already in place Analyze opportunities to face and threats Firm description List your firm’s specific capabilities and whatever you believe you can offer that is unique If you are not a solo practitioner, who is the management What is the legal organization What technology will you be capitalizing on editorial service What is the integrity, marketing potential Firm strategy Describe your basic strategies based on editorial service the information you have learned about the legal business, your competition and grading applicable markets within your field. Provide the service, basis for why you believe your strategy is the right one for your firm. Grading. What markers will you use to change direction Outline what your firm needs to service make that strategy succeed Financial review Financial projections Back up of grading, those projections with assumptions (so that they can be adjusted as necessary) Summary of revenues by month for at least three years Balance sheet Cash flow statement Action plan What actions you’re going to take to editorial carry out the plan What changes will be needed or skills acquired to belief put the plan to work. 3 Analysis of Your Market: The Legal “Business” that Affects You. Purpose: an accurate understanding of editorial, trends affecting law practice in general and your specializations, client demographics, client universe. Keep track of in business, impact factors, obstacles, opportunities and threats to better forecast and build the editorial, strategies. Analysis of the Legal business you’re in grading sat essays or want to enter Identify who and what firms dominate and where they are What new technologies have already and may yet change the way your practice is editorial service done What laws and regulations have and may yet change your practice Describe the overall demand for your specialties What else besides price affects your client decisions to grading sat essays use your services What clients (people or companies) can influence your areas of practice Competition List all major competitors you are aware of and can find out about Large firms, mid size, boutiques, solo practitioners In-house attorneys Government attorneys Divide into primary, secondary and, if necessary, tertiary levels Is there substitution, e.g., do it yourself or outsourcing to India New Technology List what is available and how it affects your practice Describe how technology is affecting your kind of practice Describe who controls the editorial service, technologies that affect Describe how you keep up with new technology Entry Barriers/Exit/Transitional Barriers List all the research in business, things that will make it difficult for you to practice in your expertise and locale List the things that will make your exit from editorial you area of expertise or your transition to a different one difficult Relationships What can relationships with suppliers do for you Could a supplier become a competitor, e.g.; for articles you write What other relationships can be of importance to you: Colleagues and competitors Family Professional associations Community associations Social and business organizations Current and sat essays former clients Former employment colleagues Pro bono colleagues Current Client Relationships What ways improve your position with clients Does pricing affect What else affects your relationship Potential Client Relationships What kind of editorial, follow up do you do after meeting someone who may be a potential client or who can introduce you Writing articles Giving speeches How can you use your other relationships Finance What are the overall costs that affect your hourly, daily or matter rates? Profit margins What do suppliers of dissertation, your technology, research, information, etc. offer by way of pricing, discounts Are there long term agreements that can be to your advantage/disadvantage Elasticity of editorial, demand for the rates you charge If on essay a regular retainer, are you realizing 100% of service, your hourly rate, or more/less Cost Trends and Profit Margins Identify where the army value integrity, biggest costs of your practice come from Identify fixed and variable costs How to gain economies of scale Identify where you can lower costs Is the editorial, profit margin you’re working with the army essay, right one for editorial service, your practice Market Size and systems Growth Potential Describe the size of your primary market List the service, niche markets that can use your expertise Is your kind of practice a growing or shrinking market Legal Industry Opportunities Identify new growth opportunities in your areas of research paper in business, expertise Legal Industry Threats Economic slowdowns Changing statutes, regulations and decisions Social pressures Potential Clients By product, industry, size, geography Membership lists of trade organizations List of conference attendees By referral of current clients By referral of colleagues, bar association, etc. By referral from competitors with conflicts What untapped market is there What underserved market is there Trade associations made of small companies in the same field Part time general counsel for small companies Trade associations you can join and committees you can volunteer for. 4 Describing and Analyzing Your Own Firm.

It’s not just a law firm. Service. What’s the general history When was it formed and why What is your mission What are your goals What direct experience do you have? Your partners? How relevant is your experience to value essay the current world? How often do you talk to prospective clients What do you current clients feel about you What is the maximum amount of business you can handle yourself without farming it out To whom can you farm Who is your backup when you are too busy, traveling on business, on vacation, sick What is unique about service you or your practice Describe the areas you focus on and want to focus on symbols lord What are the ancillary areas of editorial, law that often or usually involved or triggered by your focus area What need does your expertise serve What are the advantages and disadvantages of paper on ethics, your areas of expertise Identify your own strengths and service weaknesses Who are your clients Who among your clients makes the writers block, decisions to use your services What stage of business development are your clients in editorial service How sophisticated/knowledgeable are your clients Are your clients street smart and/or business savvy Do they use more than one lawyer at a time Your Strategy Outline Long term objectives Short term objectives What problems do you face What problems do your clients face What do you consider milestones How will the future affect your firm What are the legal (statutory, regulatory case law) trends that will affect it What are the literature owl, technological trends that will affect it What are the economic trends that will affect it What potential risks and opportunities to editorial be faced? What “edge” does your firm have?

Do you use innovative technology Do you offer superior client care/service Is your hourly, daily, or matter pricing lower than the “norm” Is there a small group of firms or attorneys who offer the army value essay, same expertise or specialization Are you well known for editorial, a book, a speech, an article, news coverage, etc. Review Owl. Are you a trade association or bar association director or active participan Do a SWOT Analysis Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats. Strengths Weaknesses are vis à vis your competitors, rather than your own history. Focus on current competition and potential competition. Strengths Are there advantages to your expertise areas What do you enjoy doing What resources to you have access to editorial What do others see as your strengths Weaknesses What can you improve What don’t you do well What should you avoid Do others perceive a weakness you don’t agree with Are your competitors doing better than you Opportunities How can you meet a potential client What are the good opportunities are they new areas, new statutes regulations, etc. Army Value Integrity. How can changes in editorial service technology help you How can changes (or no changes) in on ethics in business government policy affect your area of expertise Are there changes in social patterns or lifestyle that can help What opportunities can open if a weakness is eliminated Threats What obstacles do you face from editorial Family/emotional/physical challenges Technological challenges Experience Expertise What is army value your competition doing you are not How can technological changes threaten you. 5 Competitive Analysis and Target Market. Summarize Your Market List law firm/solo practice trends List direct competition List indirect competition Describe the service, extent of the unserved market for your kind of essay symbols, legal services Who is your client/customer What is your price Profile your primary customer Traits: geographics, demographics, psychograhics List client needs Describe how your fill those needs Competitive Analysis Worksheet List primary, secondary and editorial tertiary competitors What services do they offer in addition to yours What do they charge How do competitor firms sell their services What are the belief systems, competitor strengths What are the editorial, competitor weaknesses What size competes with you What other specialties do they offer Who are they representing What is their pricing What are their operational strengths and belief weaknesses Are they adequately financed How do your competitors advertise or promote themselves What are their conflicts How does your competition market itself Identify Competitor Trends Competitive Identification Direct competitor offers the same benefit Indirect competitor services the editorial, client can get instead of yours Visit and read competitor websites and their advertising, including separate websites by individual partners Subscribe to competitor law firm online or other newsletters What “edge” does your competition have? Does it use innovative technology Does it offer superior client care/service Is its hourly, daily, or matter pricing lower than the “norm” Is there a small group of value, firms or attorneys who offer the same expertise or specialization Are they well known for editorial, a book, a speech, an article, news coverage, etc. Are they trade association or bar association directors or active participants.

Generate similar info for potential clients to help identify the target that will be most interested in you. A marketing plan must have a detailed description of the target market for your services, an analysis of the systems essay, trends and editorial service conditions of that marketplace and how the trends affect that marketplace. Overall Market Total size of targeted market Historical current and research on ethics projected growth rates What social, economic political changes could affect it and your services Describe recent developments in the law that affect your areas of editorial, expertise Are there identifiable niches What or will be your clients’ needs and wants How will potential customers find out about you What kind of marketing, if any, are your clients and lord potential clients receptive to What do existing clients like best about your services Are your target clients consumers, businesses or both Client Worksheet Demographics, psychographics, legal service purchasing habits When and service how does the belief systems essay, client decide to use a lawyer find a lawyer Does your potential client use the Internet, bar association, trade association, business referral, family referral, friend referral, etc. to editorial service find a lawyer What is belief essay your client’s level of education and editorial service occupation Are they Fortune 1000,500, 100, mid size or smaller Is your client industry specialized and paper on ethics do you know that industry Does the client use more than one lawyer or law firm How long does the client take to decide to editorial use a lawyer Does more than one person at the client make the decisions to use a lawyer, and if so who are they Is the person who decides who is going to essay provide legal services the one who is going to receive those services What influences your client’s decision to retain a lawyer Is using a lawyer optional, a necessity or a luxury Is a lawyer needed all year round, seasonal or ad hoc How and how well do your clients market themselves. Once you analyze your client needs you can build a comprehensive marketing strategy, Create a Set of service, Marketing Strategy Goals What is it you intend to accomplish What is the amount of essay, increase in clients and/or billing that you want to achieve Make each goal measurable and editorial explain each one specifically Set each goal to a planned schedule Be able and dissertation prepared to assess all components to revise when necessary Compare these goals to editorial what you believe your competitors’ goals to be Marketing Plan = your long term plan of tactical objectives to flies achieve the strategic goals Tactical objectives = measurable tasks Overall objectives Create client value Name recognition among your clients and service potential clients Client retention Attracting partners or merging into a bigger firm Marketing Plan Development Create a timeline for the objectives or events Determine the writers block, time frame for the plan, e.g., every six months, every year, etc.

Create your “USP” (unique selling proposition, a sentence, phrase or slogan that sounds like a benefit your clients will obtain from your services; can be exclusive or not, and/or preemptive) Describe the editorial, need for your services from the client’s POV Define the impact on the client of sat essays, your services Ask whether your clients currently obtain this service more cost-effectively than you can provide it Describe what would compel clients to change from the editorial service, lawyers they are using to you or to add you to their lawyer rosters Action Plan Create the grading, list of tactics that will get you to your strategic goal E.g., how you will use that list of relationships Timeline Marketing Mix Networking, Advertising, Promotion, PR Media (*NB: remember CAN SPAM, and Telemarketing and Telecommunications Act limitations) Inserts in papers Stuffers Email* Postcards POP Billboards Bus, taxi, etc. ads Space in professional and trade publications Street banners New resident welcome kits Trade and trade association show directories and handouts Trade and trade association show sponsorships Internet* Coupon mailers Press releases Sponsorship CRM (customer relationship marketing) Develop your pricing strategy CF standard pricing: Cost based = cost plus profit margin Cost plus profit = cost plus fixed percentage markup Market based = use the market norm and add or subtract Ask what the service, highest price your target market can bear Determine the price elasticity for your kind of legal services Should you offer an introductory rate Marketing Budget Factors Age of literature owl, business Premises/location Clients Competition Cost to acquire a client. 2017 Association of the Bar of the City of service, New York. 42 West 44th Street, New York, NY 10036 | 212.382.6600.

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42 Resume Dos and Don#39;ts Every Job Seeker Should Know. If things are supposed to get easier over editorial time, why hasn’t the belief, task of service resume-writing gotten simpler? Actually, it feels like we’re heading in the opposite on ethics in business, direction—every month, we learn about a fresh resume commandment, like “Thou shalt not use a resume objective statement” or “Thou shalt not send a traditional resume to a creative company.” It’s enough to editorial service, make any professional a little frustrated. Fortunately, we’ve rounded up the ultimate list of resume dos and don’ts, from the traditional rules to the brand-spanking-new ones. Take a look, then pull up your resume and make sure it’s recruiter-ready.

1. Do Highlight Your Most Relevant Experiences. Rule #1 of resume writing is that you should be turning in a different version for each role you apply to, tailored and targeted to the position. After all, your resume should demonstrate you have the writers, specific set of skills, experience, and accomplishments necessary to do the editorial, job—not just a set. Make it easy for writers block the hiring manager to see why you’re the right fit. 2. Don’t Freak Out if You Have No Relevant Experience. Whether you’re fresh out of college or switching to a brand-new industry, you can help bolster your lack of service relevant work experience by listing your transferable skills, related side projects, and relevant coursework. Read more about how to do this here.

3. Do Optimize for Applicant Tracking Systems. Flies? Many large organizations (and even some smaller ones) use applicant tracking systems to weed out unqualified applicants. The systems scan your resume for contextual keywords and editorial service, phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance and sending only the most qualified ones through for human review. As you can guess, this strategy isn’t perfect. To ensure your resume makes it past the ATS and into essay the hands of a human, keep your formatting simple, include the editorial, right keywords (but don’t go overboard), and belief, quadruple check for spelling mistakes. (More on how to do it right, here.) 4. Editorial Service? Don’t Steal the on ethics in business, Job Description’s Exact Wording. Editorial Service? That said, you shouldn’t take exact phrases straight from the sat essays, job description. If a company says it’s looking for editorial candidates who “learn rapidly” and army value integrity essay, “have a diverse knowledge of editorial service programming languages,” your skills section shouldn’t read “learns rapidly” and “has a diverse knowledge of symbols lord programming languages.” Instead, find a different way of saying the same thing—maybe devote a resume bullet to editorial service, a software you learned in two weeks, or list the seven different programming languages you’re familiar with.

You’ve probably heard that recruiters love reading resume bullets with numbers, like “Increased sales in Northern region by 300%.” And they do! So use them whenever possible. Oh, and don’t worry if your job doesn’t really involve numbers—with our guide, you can quantify any accomplishment. 6. Don’t Include Anything Confidential. Seems like a no-brainer—but Google’s Head of HR says he sees confidential info on resumes all the time. When deciding whether to belief systems essay, leave something on your resume, use the New York Times test.

In other words, if you wouldn’t want it published next to editorial, your name on the front page of a major national newspaper, take it out. Value? The “quantifiable accomplishments” technique also works for soft skills. Make sure each bullet point describes a skill the hiring manager is looking for, then use facts and figures to show—not tell—just what a “skilled manager” or “effective communicator” you are. Check it out: “Developed and independently initiated new mentorship program to alleviate high turnover of new staff members, resulting in the matching of 23 mentor-mentee pairs and editorial service, a significant reduction in staff turnover.” Sounds like a “skilled manager” to us! Because everyone assumes you know how to sat essays, use Microsoft Word. And the internet. Use your valuable resume space to highlight skills that actually make you stand out. 9. Do Consider Volunteer or Other Non-Work Experience. Editorial Service? Although it’s nontraditional, if volunteer work has taken up a significant chunk of your time or taught you skills applicable to the job you’re applying for, think about putting it on your resume. Grading Sat Essays? Side projects, pro service, bono work, or temp gigs can also be a unique way to bolster your resume and show off other skills.

10. Don’t Include Work With Controversial Organizations. Sat Essays? Maybe that volunteer work was fundraising for editorial service a politician, or answering the literature purdue owl, phone at a LGBT-resource organization. Some experiences are pretty divisive, so read our tips on whether or not you should put them on editorial service your resume. 11.

Do Include Personal Accomplishments. If you’ve done something cool in your personal life that either shows off your soft skills or engages your technical skills in a new way, you should definitely include it. Maybe you’ve run a couple marathons, demonstrating your adventurous spirit, strong work ethic, and desire to challenge yourself. Or you’ve won some poker tournaments, which shows you’re a quick thinker and grading sat essays, good with numbers. Learn more here on how to include these in editorial service, the right way. 12.

Don’t Include Random, Unrelated, or Off-Putting Hobbies. That said, remember that hiring managers probably don’t care if you love basketball, are active in your book club, or are a member of a Dungeons and Dragons group. Eliminate anything that’s not totally transferable to work-related skills (or a really, really epic conversation starter). 13. Do Think of New Ways to Frame Your Accomplishments. Don’t have the exact experience for the job you’re applying to? You can actually tweak how you frame your accomplishments to literature review purdue owl, show off vastly different things. Career expert Lily Zhang explains with examples here.

Meaning: Don’t oversell your high school babysitting experience. In fact, anything from high school should probably go. 15. Do Show How You Moved Up (or Around) at Past Companies. It can be tempting (and more simple) to combine multiple roles at one company, but you should actually be highlighting your different job titles.

After all, it says a lot about you if you were promoted within an organization or were able to transition your role. Learn how to show this off without making your resume look disorganized here. Editorial? 16. Don’t Use an Objective Statement. There’s only one situation in which you need an objective statement: when you’re making a huge career change.

Making the dissertation writers, leap from, say, business development to marketing means your resume could definitely use a clear explanation that you’re transitioning roles and have the necessary transferable skills. But if you’re a PR rep applying to a PR firm, an editorial, objective statement will just waste valuable space. Writers Block? 17. Do Consider a Summary Statement. A summary statement, which consists of a couple lines at the beginning of editorial service your resume that give potential employers a broad outline of flies your skills and experience, is the service, most ideal if you have years of experience you need to tie together with a common theme. They’re also good if you have a bunch of army value disparate skills and want to service, make it clear how they fit together. Here’s more on literature review purdue when you need one and how to put it together. While it’s okay to glaze over gaps a little (for example, by just using years to show dates of employments instead of months and years), you should never outright lie about them. Instead, be honest and confident when explaining unemployment periods. Editorial Service? Whatever you did while you weren’t working—traveling, running a household, helping your community—it’s almost certain you picked up some skills that would help you in symbols lord flies, the job for which you’re applying.

So mention them! For obvious reasons, anything that’s not 100% true doesn’t belong on editorial service your resume. Because hiring managers are really, really tired of grading seeing descriptions like hard worker, team player, or detail-oriented on resumes. You should also be careful about any industry or role-specific jargon you use. In many companies, if you want to your resume to editorial, land on the hiring manager’s desk, you’ve got to get it past HR first—which means putting everything in terms a layperson can understand.

Using unnecessarily big words doesn’t make you sound more intelligent or capable. Not only are hiring managers totally aware of what you’re trying (and failing) to do, but “resume speak” can obscure your real experience. So, instead of “utilized innovative social media technique to boost readership and engagement among core demographic” say, “posted on Twitter three times a day and brought follower count from sat essays, 1,000 to editorial, 3,000.” You should also be careful of research on ethics in business using words with negative connotations—even if you’re using them in a positive light. Saying “met aggressive sales goals” or “fixed widespread communication problem ” will subconsciously make recruiters think less of editorial service you. Instead, write “delivered on ambitious number of dissertation writers sales” or “proposed and implemented solution to make company communication easier and more efficient.” Skip the tired and all-too-frequently used “led,” “handled,” and “managed,” and go for verbs like “charted,” “administered,” “consolidated,” or “maximized,” which make you look both confident and competent. We’ve compiled 181 options of unique verbs to use, so no matter what you do, you can find the editorial service, right word. Army Value? 24.

Don’t Include “References Upon Request” It takes up room you could otherwise use for experience and service, skills. And, um, it looks presumptuous. Pretty basic, but you’d be surprised how many job seekers put together an amazing resume—and then don’t include enough “here’s where to find me” info. This section should have your name, email address, phone number, address (or just city), LinkedIn URL, and personal website, if you have one. Also, make sure you’re using your personal contact info, rather than your work. Because that’s a recipe for disaster.

26. Don’t Include Anything That Could Be Discriminated Against. While it’s illegal to discriminate against a job candidate because of his or her age, marital status, gender, religion, race, color, or national origin, it doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen subconsciously. Don’t give recruiters the literature review purdue owl, chance, and just leave these details off. Recruiters read a lot of resumes, so they don’t want to have to spend a ton of time looking over yours. Service? Cut it down to the most relevant information and keep it short and army value integrity essay, succinct. Laszlo Bock, Google’s senior vice president of people operations, recommends one page of editorial service resume for every 10 years of work experience as a good rule of thumb. That being said, don’t try to squeeze as much information as possible into that one page.

If you manage to pack in more information—but in a size 8 font and with no white space on the page—you might as well have not added that information at all. Cut it down to an amount of army value integrity information you can comfortably fit on the page, in a readable font and with enough white space to make it easy on editorial service the eyes. 29. Do Consider a Creative or Digital Resume. Resumes that look like infographics, data visualizations, or even videos or multimedia presentations can be a great way to stand out from the crowd. If you think this might be the right route for literature review purdue owl you, check out some great options here. (Note: This is service, generally a better option when you’re applying to smaller, more creative shops—traditional companies will still likely want traditional resumes.) 30.

Don’t Spend All Your Time on the Design. While making your resume look nice is important, recruiters say job seekers spend far too much time worrying about it (that is, unless you’re working in a design field). Focus on the content, make sure the right information is highlighted, and belief systems, just make sure it looks nice enough to make the editorial service, information easy to digest. Dissertation Writers Block? Want your resume to look well designed—without the extra time? We’ve found 41 of the best resume templates ever. They’ll make formatting a breeze. Editorial Service? And really, it’s best to stick to one basic font. Unless you’re a designer and know a lot about typography, it’s easy to value, choose fonts that clash or are distracting. Service? 33. Do Make Sure Your Job Titles or Companies Stand Out.

Of course, you want to make sure the most important information stands out and is easy to army value essay, skim. Instead of using a different font to do this, use bold or italic text, a slightly larger font, or your layout to help make sure this information is findable. 34. Don’t Go Overboard With Text Effects. If every other word is bolded , italicized , or in ALL CAPS, at service, best, your resume will be distracting—at worst, annoying.

Use emphasis sparingly, for grading sat essays your most important info. 35. Do Align Your Dates and Locations to the Right. This small change will make your resume way easier on service the eyes. You should be able to make a “column” of dates and essay lord, locations for each job by creating a right tab. Editorial Service? 36. Don’t Use More Than Two Lines Per Bullet. This strategy will make your resume easier to skim (which is good, because most hiring managers will spend less than 20 seconds reading it). Again, cut it down to literature review, the most important information. Editorial? Because 4 and essay, 22% take less time to read than “four” and service, “twenty-two percent.” Plus, using digits saves you space.

38. Don’t Send it as a Word Document. Sending your resume off as a .doc file will most likely result in all of this careful formatting getting messed up when the recruiter opens the file. Grading? Save your final version as a PDF to make sure everything stays just as is. 39. Do Swap Resumes With Colleagues. Look at how they describe their duties and the company. Editorial? Chances are, you’ll get some inspiration for value integrity your own descriptions. Plus, having some fresh eyes look at editorial service, your resume is always beneficial.

Ask a few friends what about your resume makes an impact and what is boring, confusing, or too vague. If the same things keep popping up, it’s probably time to edit. And proofread. Multiple times. For help, check out this editor’s guide to perfecting your resume. Remember rule number one on tailoring your resume? Well, creating a master resume that includes every position you’ve ever held will make that task much quicker. Essay Symbols Lord Flies? You’ll never send your master resume to anyone, so it doesn’t matter how long it is.

Just write out each and every job experience you’ve ever had. With all of the possible corresponding bullet points. Then, when it comes time to apply to editorial, a job, you can copy and paste the essay, relevant sections of editorial service your master resume into a new document. Want to make sure you’re spending enough time on the right things in army integrity essay, your resume? Run your resume through a word cloud generator like TagCrowd. This will create an image representing the editorial service, most frequent words, with the research on ethics, most common ones showing up larger and darker.

With a quick glance, you’ll be able to see what terms employers will most associate with you—and whether you need to editorial, do some adjusting to have the value integrity essay, right message shine through. Photo of typewriter courtesy of Shutterstock. Editorial Service? Aja Frost is a freelance writer specializing in business, tech, career advice, and army, productivity. Check out her website or say hi on editorial service Twitter. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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We support our client from every step. Service? We have an experience team to work with you to ease your academic tasks, with several ideas. We Ensure perfection, Delivered your work before deadline, Guaranteed plagiarism free references. OUR FIRST PRIORITY IS TO SATISFY OUR CUSTOMER AND FOR THAT WE HAVE 24/7 ONLINE CUSTOMER CARE REPRESENTATIVE TO HELP OUR CUSTOMERS. UK Study Help have created a fully transparent refund policy as we believe that honesty is the best policy. Belief? Customers are entitled to claim a full or partial refund if they are not satisfied with the work provided by our expert editors. Customers can request a refund within 7 days after the order delivery under following situations only: If the customer requested the first revision on the paper which came to be not satisfactory than he is entitled to request a 50% refund of the amount paid for the order. Editorial Service? If the customer requested Second revision on the paper and he is symbols lord flies still not satisfied with the editorial delivered product than he is entitled to request a 30% of the sat essays amount paid for the order.

If the customer requested Third revision on the paper and still find’s the editorial service delivered product to be not satisfactory than he is army value entitled to request a 15% of the amount paid for editorial, the order. Customer would be required to provide valid reason and explanation for requesting a refund and also proof of dissatisfaction. UK Study Help will provide 100% refund incase delivered order by editor was plagiarized. (Proof of plagiarism will be required) UK Study Helpevaluate each refund requests carefully as there are usually unique reasons as to systems essay why a refund request is made by the customers. Please note that if you request a refund, we may request documented proof that the quality of your order is low (e.g., scan copy of your instructor’s feedback, plagiarism report, etc.). After an evaluation done by our Quality Assurance team by comparing their findings with the reasons for dissatisfaction, the service necessary corrective actions will be taken.

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‘Agreement’ refers to these Terms of Service. ‘Company’ means the entity that provides independent research and writing services to Customers according to the defined terms laid out in this Agreement. ‘Advisor’, is the person, who has agreed to service work with the Company (UK Study Help) on set out their limitations by the corporation to stipulate advisory services not above than the block Company’s Regulations. ‘Editor/Expert’ is the service person, who has agreed to grading work with the Company on service, a freelance basis to provide research and writing services under the Company’s terms. ‘Customer’ is the person who places an Order with the Company to obtain the Product according to his or her requirements and governed by sat essays, the defined terms and conditions laid out in this Agreement. Service? ‘Product’ is a document in an electronic format that is the research in business final result of Order completion. Editorial Service? ‘Quality’ Assurance Department’ signifies the essay symbols lord flies part of the Company’s organizational structure with the mission to service guard and evaluate the belief systems essay quality of Product and service provided. Agreement to Act as UK Study Help Agent for editorial service, You. UK Study Help acts as an belief systems agent for qualified Assignment Editing Experts to sell original work to editorial service their customers The Customer appoints UK Study Help to locate an Assignment Editing Expert to carry out research and/or assessment services to the Customer during the army essay term of the agreement in accordance with these provisions The UK Study Help is entitled to refuse any order at their discretion and in such cases, will refund any payment made by the Customer in respect of that order. Editorial? The prices and delivery times quoted on essay lord, the UK Study Help’s website are illustrative. If an alternative price and/or delivery time offered to the Customer is unacceptable, the editorial service UK Study Help will refund any payment made by the Customer in respect of that order. In the event that the Customer is not satisfied that the Work meets the quality standard they have ordered, the Customer will have the essay remedies available to them as set out in this agreement The Customer is not permitted to editorial make direct contact with the Assignment Editing Expert — the UK Study Help will act as an owl intermediary between the Customer and editorial service, the Assignment Editing Expert. The agreement between the review owl Customer and the UK Study Help shall commence once the editorial UK Study Help have both confirmed that a suitable Assignment Editing Expert is available to undertake the Customer’s order and have obtained payment from the Customer The Agreement will continue between the Parties until the time period allowed for amendments has expired, notwithstanding the subsisting clauses stated below, unless terminated sooner by either party in accordance with these provisions. In order to provide research and/or assessment services to fulfil the Customer’s Order, the UK Study Help will allocate a suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert which it deems to hold appropriate levels of qualification and experience to undertake the essay symbols lord flies Customer’s Order The UK Study Help undertakes to editorial service exercise all reasonable skill and judgment in allocating a suitable Assignment Editing Expert, having regard to the available Assignment Editing Experts’ qualifications, experience and quality record with us, and to any available information the UK Study Help has about the Customer’s degree or course Once the UK Study Help has located a suitable Assignment Editing Expert and obtained payment from the Customer, the Customer acknowledges that the Order is binding and no refund will be issued.

The Customer will give the UK Study Help clear briefings and ensure that all the facts given about the grading Order are accurate The UK Study Help will co-operate fully with the Customer and use reasonable care and skill to make the service Order provided as successful as is to be expected from a competent UK Study Help. Grading Sat Essays? The Customer will help the UK Study Help do this by making available to the UK Study Help all relevant information at the beginning of the transaction and co-operating with the UK Study Help throughout the transaction should the Assignment Editing Expert require any further information or guidance The Customer acknowledges that failure to editorial provide such information or guidance during the course of the transaction may delay the belief essay delivery of their Work, and that the UK Study Help will not be held responsible for any loss or damage caused as a result of such delay. In such cases the ‘Completion on Time Guarantee’ will not apply. Where the Assignment Editing Expert or the UK Study Help requires confirmation of any detail they will contact the Customer using the service email address or telephone number provided by the Customer The Customer acknowledges that the writers UK Study Help may accept instructions received using these modes of contact and editorial, may reasonably assume that those instructions are generated from the sat essays Customer. Delivery – “Completion on editorial service, Time Guarantee” The UK Study Help agrees to facilitate delivery of all Work before midnight on the due date, unless the due date falls on a Sunday, Bank Holiday, Christmas Day, or New Year’s Day (“a Non-Working Day”), in which case the Work will be delivered the following day before midnight The UK Study Help undertakes that all Work will be completed by the Assignment Editing Expert on time or they will refund the Customer’s money in full and army value essay, deliver their Work for free The relevant due date for the purposes of editorial service, this guarantee is the due date that is set when the order is allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert . Where a variation to the relevant due date is agreed between the UK Study Help and the Customer, a refund is not due The UK Study Help will not be held liable under this guarantee for any lateness due to sat essays technical problems that may arise due to service third parties or otherwise, including, but not limited to issues caused by writers, Internet Service Providers, Mail Account Providers, Database Software, Incompatible Formats and Hosting Providers. The UK Study Help undertakes that if such technical problems occur with a system that they are directly responsible for or that third party contractors provide them with, that they will on request provide reasonable proof of editorial, these technical problems, so far as such proof is available, or will otherwise honor its Completion On Time Guarantee in full. The UK Study Help will have no obligations whatsoever in systems essay, relation to the Completion on service, Time Guarantee if the delay in the delivery of the Work is as a result of the belief systems essay Customer’s actions – including but not limited to where the editorial Customer has failed to sat essays pay an service outstanding balance due in relation to the Order, sent in extra information after the order has started or changed any elements of the order instructions. Delays on the part of the Customer may result in the relevant due date being changed according to the extent of the delay without activating the Completion On Time Guarantee.

Where the Customer has agreed for ‘staggered delivery’ with the Assignment Editing Expert , the Completion on Time Guarantee relates to the final delivery date of the literature owl Work and editorial, not to the delivery of individual components of the writers Work. The Customer agrees that the details provided at the time of placing their Order and making payment may be stored on the UK Study Help’s secure database, on the understanding that these details will not be shared with any third party The UK Study Help agrees that they will not disclose any personal information provided by the Customer other than as required to do so by any lawful authority, and/or to pursue any fraudulent transactions The UK Study Help operates a privacy policy which complies fully with the requirements of the Data Protection Act. The UK Study Help’s privacy policy is service available on the UK Study Help’s websites and a copy can be provided on request. The Customer may not request amendments to their Order specification after payment has been made or a deposit has been taken and the Order has been assigned to an Assignment Editing Expert The Customer may provide the Assignment Editing Expert with additional supporting information shortly after full payment or a deposit has been taken, provided that this does not add to or conflict with the details contained in their original Order specification If the Customer provides additional information after full payment or a deposit has been taken and this does substantially conflict with the purdue owl details contained in the original Order specification, the UK Study Help may at editorial, their discretion either obtain a quote for the changed specification or reallocate the review purdue Order, as soon as is reasonable, to a different Assignment Editing Expert without consulting the Customer. The Customer understands that this may result in a delay in the delivery of editorial service, their Work for which the UK Study Help will not be held responsible. Under these circumstances, the ‘Completion on Time’ Guarantee will not be payable. The UK Study Help agrees that if the Customer believes that their completed Work does not follow their exact instructions and/or the guarantees of the research paper Assignment Editing Expert as set out on the UK Study Help website, the Customer may request amendments to the Work within 7 days of the service delivery date, or longer if they have specifically paid to extend the army value integrity amendments period. Such amendments will be made free of charge to the Customer The Customer is editorial service permitted to make one request, containing all details of the required amendments. This will be sent to essay lord flies the Assignment Editing Expert for comment. If the request is reasonable, the Assignment Editing Expert will amend the Work and return it to the Customer within twenty-four hours.

The Assignment Editing Expert may request additional time to editorial service complete the amendments and this may be granted at the discretion of the paper in business Customer. If the UK Study Help agrees to refund the Customer in full or part, this refund will be made using the credit or debit card that the Customer used to make their payment initially. If no such card was used (for example, where the Customer deposited the fee directly into the UK Study Help’s bank account) the editorial service UK Study Help will offer the Customer a choice of refund via bank transfer or credit towards a future order. All refunds are made at the discretion of the UK Study Help. Unless payment is taken at the time of placing an grading sat essays order, once the UK Study Help has found a suitably qualified and editorial service, experienced Assignment Editing Expert to army value essay undertake the Customer’s order, they will contact the Customer by email to take payment. If, at their discretion, the UK Study Help accepts a deposit rather than the full value of the Order, the Customer acknowledges that the full balance will remain outstanding at all times and will be paid to the UK Study Help before the delivery date for the Work. Service? The Customer agrees that once an Order is paid for then the Assignment Editing Expert allocated by dissertation writers, the UK Study Help begins work on that Order, and that the Order may not be cancelled or refunded.

Until payment or a deposit has been made and the Order has been allocated to an Assignment Editing Expert , the Customer may choose to continue with the Order or to cancel the Order at any time The Customer agrees to be bound by editorial, the UK Study Help’s refund policies and acknowledges that due to grading sat essays the highly specialized and editorial, individual nature of the services that full refunds will only on ethics, be given in the circumstances outlined in these terms, or other circumstances that occur, in which event any refund or discount is given at the discretion of the UK Study Help. UK Study Help provides well written, customer Assignment and Essay papers to service the students. Papers provided are only for the reference purposes to assist the buyer by providing a guideline and the product provided is intended to be used for research or study purposes. Belief? The Customer acknowledges that it does not obtain the copyright to the Work supplied through the UK Study Help’s services The Customer acknowledges that the UK Study Help, its employees and the Assignment Editing Expert s on its books do not support or condone plagiarism, and that the UK Study Help reserves the right to refuse supply of services to those suspected of such behavior. The Customer accepts that the UK Study Help offers a service that locates suitably qualified Assignment Editing Expert s for the provision of service, independent personalized research services in order to belief help students learn and advance educational standards, and that no Work supplied through the UK Study Help may be passed off as the Customer’s own or as anyone else’s, nor be handed in as the service Customer’s own work, either in on ethics in business, whole or in part. In addition, the Customer undertakes not to service carry out any unauthorized distribution, display, or resale of the Work and the Customer agrees to handle the Work in writers block, a way that fully respects the fact that the Customer does not hold the copyright to the Work. The Customer acknowledges that if the UK Study Help suspects that any essays or materials are being used in violation of the above rules that the UK Study Help has the right to refuse to carry out any further work for the person or organization involved and that the UK Study Help bears no liability for any such undetected and/or unauthorized use The UK Study Help agrees that all Work supplied through its service will not be resold, or distributed, for editorial service, remuneration or otherwise after its completion. The UK Study Help also undertakes that Work will not be placed on dissertation writers block, any website or essay bank after it has been completed.

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