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Buhari should resume or resign, Charly Boy insist as pro, anti-Buhari protesters clash. ••Allow the president to recover and fight graft —Group. •Nobody can derail anti-graft war — Presidency. By Johnbosco Agbakwuru Joseph Erunke. Two groups of pro and anti-Buhari protesters, yesterday, hit the lucyk resume streets of Abuja to either support or lash out at the President who is currently on medical leave in London, United Kingdom. President Muhammadu Buhari travelled on medical vacation to London on May 7 and his continued stay there has generated so much controversies in the polity, to the extent that some Nigerians have even called for his removal from office for staying out of the country for too long. The protests were relatively peaceful, as the police kept watch over both groups, contrary to what transpired on Tuesday when security men dispersed the anti-Buhari protesters, operating under the aegis of should be tried essay ‘’Our Mumu Don Do’’ with water canon and teargas.
Members of Centre for Civil Society and Justice and other support Group protesting in robert, support of President Muhammed Buhari at Unity Fountain Abuja. Photo by Gbemiga Olamikan. While the group, ‘’OurMumuDonDo, led by the convener, Deji Adeyanju, and one of its leaders, Charles Oputa, popularly known as Charly Boy, said they were on the streets to asked the university President to resume, either resume work or resign and also make public the cause of his illness, the other group, under the platform of Center for Civil Society and Justice, CCSJ, led by Comrade Prince Goodluck Obi Nelson, said the President should be left alone to structure, recover fully from his ailment and continue his fight against corruption. Although Charly Boy and his group were dispersed by the police on Tuesday, the group continued its protest, yesterday, sitting out at the Unity Fountain. Insisting that the President resigned or resume work. While this group was sitting out at lucyk the Unity Fountain, the pro-Buhari group also stormed the essays berlin ebook same venue to declare their support for the President. Robert! Obi Nelson, who addressed his group, quoted President Buhari popular phrase ‘’if we don’t kill corruption, corruption will kill us.” He said all the President needed was the support of four essays on liberty berlin Nigerians to enable him tackle the robert problem of graft in the country. According to him, Nigeria will not make any progress, if the problem of corruption is not solved. Protection Witness! The pro-Buhari protesters, mostly women and young ladies, were armed with placards bearing several inscriptions, and chanting solidarity songs that conveyed their loyalty and support for the ailing President.
Some of the placards read: ‘’The system is robert lucyk working, no cause for alarm’’; ‘’we repose confidence in President Muhammadu Buhari’’; “our President is recuperating, Nigeria is essay waikato university moving forward.” They also declared their support for the acting President, Prof. Robert Lucyk Resume! Yemi Osinbajo, saying he had done well so far. After some hours at the venue, they continued their protest march through the streets of Abuja to Aso Rock gate, with armed policemen providing cover. Nobody can derail anti-graft war —Presidency. Addressing the data of protesters at the precinct of Aso Rock, Senior Special Assistant to the President on Media and Publicity, Garba Shehu, said no amount of pressure or blackmail would frustrate the lucyk anti-corruption war of the present administration. Members of Centre for analysis of Civil Society and Justice and other support Group protesting in resume, support of President Muhammed Buhari at Unity Fountain Abuja. Photo by Gbemiga Olamikan. He described as illegal, recent protest by the “Our Mumu-don-do” group that called on President Muhammadu Buhari, who is on thesis video medical vacation in London hospital, to resume work or resign, saying the resume protest was designed to scuttle the creeping gnosticism corruption fight. He also praised Nigerians for rising against the resume or resign protesters, dismissing such demands as unlawful.
He dismissed the “return or resign” agitation as an robert resume illegal assembly stealthily organized to essay structure university, deliver a blow to the war against robert corruption. He said: “It might be taken for granted that the essay creeping gnosticism beneficiaries of the old order are fighting back. We have been warned that corruption will fight back. Robert Lucyk Resume! In a country where just one woman for having the opportunity to be tried as adults, serve as minister has N47.2 billion and $487.5 million of public resources in cash and property traced to her by the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, EFCC, you don’t expect the beneficiaries of that order to allow the Buhari administration some peace. Robert Lucyk Resume! “They want to distract us. But what the Acting President wants to assure patriotic citizens is that the government will not bend. “As far as the essay President is concerned, he has done the needful by handing the reins of authority to the Vice President. Robert Resume! Since the law of the country does not give a time limit for the President’s return, it cannot be imposed by a saber-rattling group or individuals.’’ Speaking on behalf of the protesters, the convener, Comrade Goodluck Obi, said his group had absolute faith and trust in President Buhari’s administration, not machinations of corruption and essay structure, destabilization.’’ Charlie Boy on mask during Sit-out protests in Nigeria and London to demand Buhari#8217;s return or resignation. Obi said: “We are saying from today, August 10, 2017, we will be holding a rally/protest march here at Unity Fountain for the next one month and robert, beyond in order to send clear and unambiguous message to agents of chaos and unity, that Nigerians are solidly behind President Muhammadu Buhari’s administration, based on our democratic mandate entrusted to him on data March 28, 2015.” The protest by Charly Boy’s group started on Monday, as the protesters urged the President to either resume work or resign, having stayed away from the country for over 90 days, seeking medical attention in London. It was generally peaceful.
However, the robert protest went violent on Tuesday when the police fired teargas at the protesters, saying the dispersal of the protesters was to stave off a situation where miscreants would hijack it to molest the public. In the thesis video ensuing melee, Charly Boy fainted and was taken to hospital for treatment. Convener of the protest, Deji Adeyanju chided the government for unleashing the police on robert lucyk harmless citizens demanding to know the health status of thesis video their President. Adeyanju contended that the President was not a private person whose health status should be kept away from the citizens. ‘’This government only has a hammer, so everything appears to be a nail. They do not understand that the people have the right to ask about the health status of the President. The President is not a private citizen, he is a public official elected by the people and he is accountable to the people of Nigeria.’’ On his part, Charly Boy insisted that the group would not back down on its call for the President to resume or resign, the attack by the police notwithstanding. Robert! Narrating his ordeal, the entertainer said: “Before we knew it, they started with the water cannon. Then they tear-gassed us and set their dogs against analysis us. Worried, I went to robert, one of the structure waikato policemen who was standing near me and asked him why they resorted to such action.
Instead of responding to me, he suddenly raised the butt of his gun and hit me in the eye.” Buhari has broken no law — Senate. However, the Senate quickly issued a statement to back the President, saying he had broken no law, having constitutionally handed over power to his deputy, Prof, Yemi Osinbajo, as acting President. Reacting to the Senate’s position, Charly Boy said the lawmakers had demonstrated that they are nothing but a rubber stamp of the executive arm of government. President Buhari travelled to London on medical vacation since May 7, and had said repeatedly that he would return to the country as soon as his doctors gave him the signal to robert lucyk resume, do so. Ignore calls for Buhari to resume — Presidency. Sit-out protests in Nigeria and London to witness, demand Buhari#8217;s return or resignation. Meanwhile, the Presidency has urged Nigerians to ignore calls for ailing President Muhammadu Buhari to return to lucyk resume, work or resign his position. Garba Shehu, a presidential spokesperson, said activists who took to the street to protest Mr. University! Buhari’s prolonged absence have a right to do so, but that they “overstepped their bounds” by trying to force the President’s hands. Reacting to the Presidency’s statement that it was disrespectful of the protesters to demand Buhari’s health status, Charly Boy said ‘’it was also disrespectful of the President to leave this country for robert resume 93 days without informing us.#8221; 7 ways to prevent cultural mistakes while on essay creeping gnosticism vacation.
APMT to MWUN: We’re not responsible for empty containers, traffic in Apapa. A Nigerian newspaper and Online version of the Vanguard, a daily publication in Nigeria covering Niger delta, general national news, politics, business, energy, sports, entertainment, fashion,lifestyle human interest stories, etc.
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Quaid E Azam- an robert lucyk resume, Architect of four berlin, Pakistan. Submitted to: Sir Superman Submitted by: James Bond Degree ‘34’ Syndicate ‘CIA’ Date: 21-03-2013 CONTENTS Chapter 1 * Background * Quaid’s early life * Education Chapter 2 * Politics * Membership of Congress * Hindu-Muslim Unity * Devotion to Muslim League * Leadership of Muslims Chapter 3 * Thought of Separate Homeland * Pakistan Resolution * Gandhi-Quaid meetings * Views about Quaid Chapter 4 * Defending Policy of Quaid Chapter 5 * Formation of Federal Cabinet * Constitutional Problems * Establishment of robert, Capital * Provincial Government Establishment of Administrative Headquarters * Foreign Affairs * Education Policy CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES 1) Syed Shamsul Hassan ed. , Correspondence of Quaid-i-Azam M. A. Four Essays? Jinnahand other papers, Shamsul Hassan collection, Organizational Matters, Vol. I (1936-1947) 2) Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and lucyk Islamic Identity, (Karachi: Oxford University press, 1997) 3) Prof. Khurshid Ahmed, Islamic Ideology (Karachi: Karachi university,2002). 4) Quaid’s speech at university stadium Lahore, 30 october 1947 5) Syed Hussain Imam “Sterling qualities of Quaid”. ) Ahmad Khan Yusufi, Speeches, statements and messages of Quaid-e-Azam.
7) Rajmohan Gandhi, Eight Lives: A Study of the Hindu-Muslim Encounter (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1986) 8) Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia. 9) www. national heritage . Berlin Ebook? government. pk 10) “Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah”. Government of Pakistan Website. 11) “Quaid-e-As is Mohammad Ali Jinnah”. The Jinnah Society. 12) “Jinnah: South Asia’s greatest ever leader”. Robert Resume? 13) BBC’s Poll for essay structure university, South Asia’s greatest ever leader. 14) “The Father of robert lucyk, Pakistan”.
The Most Influential Asians of the Century by TIME. 15) “Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Story of Pakistan. 16) “Jinnah’s speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan”. 11 August 1947. 17) “Jinnah’s Thought at a Glance”. Yes Pakistan. com. 18) “Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Harappa. com. 19) “Pictures of Quaid (Album)”.
Urdu Point. 20) “South Asia’s Clarence Darrow”. Creeping Gnosticism? Chow. 21) “I Remember Jinnah”. Daily Dawn (newspaper). 22) “1947 – August”. Chronicles Of Pakistan ACKNOWLEDGE This research paper is dedicated to all those martyres who worked the reation of a separate home land for Muslims.
They helped Quaid-e-As am in this great mission and gave sacrifices for our independence . They face many problems and hardships for the independence of Muslims in the subcontinent. I would like to thank James Bond for assigning this topic to me. It was truly an enlightening experience for me to do research on this topic. Robert Lucyk? I would also like to thank my respected teacher Iron Man for four on liberty, guiding me and providing me with more than enough knowledge on this topic. The research was mainly done using the help of computers and internet therefore the robert resume bibliography section may look a little empty at first. But once one gets to visit these internet sites he is marveled by the amount of data provided on the respective topic. So hats off to all those people who are spending their precious time to run these enlightening websites.
Without these the worth of internet would be much less in the context of knowledge. Four Berlin? The main objective of robert lucyk resume, this research paper is to highlights the efforts of the Quaid-e-As am Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the creation of Pakistan. This modern disease has even spread to those who live in the West but have Pakistani roots. It is however interesting that all these critical people studied in Pakistani schools, travelled on Pakistani passports and have families in that country. Painting a realistic image of Pakistan in thesis video our young people’s minds is the only way they can hope to have a sense of belonging to the country and the elderly generation has a duty to provide a great deal in helping such parents and families living abroad whose roots are still fastened firmly with this land. Coming back to he topic, it is very difficult to add something new or something that is not known about him.
Yet the paradox is that the younger generation has to be reminded of his contribution to the history of Muslims of the Subcontinent What I want to share with you about robert lucyk resume Quaid, is not only the information from four ebook history books, magazines and films, but also what was told to me by lucyk resume, my father and those who saw the Quaid, worked for four berlin, the cause of robert lucyk, Pakistan and saw the creation of Pakistan. Data Analysis Of? Pakistan’s story is so much linked with the life of the Quaid –e-As am that one cannot be told without the other. So who was this great man, who with the help of his type writer and an adoring sister created the robert largest country for Muslims in the world in four on liberty a span of few years. In his biography of titled “Jinnah of Pakistan”, the American historian, Stanley Wilbert, makes the following observation that so accurately describes the legacy of Quaid and his footprint on history: “Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three. During his lifetime, he brought the wisdom to walk in the path of honor, the courage to follow his convictions, and an abiding compassion for others. He enriched us all by the nobility of his spirit. ————————————————- ————————————————- CHAP # 1 Quaid’s Early life Background According to Sarojini Naidu, a famous Congress politician, close friend and robert lucyk resume follower of waikato, Gandhi but also author of lucyk, Quaid’s first biography, Quaid’s ancestors were Hindu Rajput who converted to Islam. Jinnah’s family belonged to the Ismailia Kahoka branch of Shi’a Islam. Early Education He studied at several schools at the Sind Madras a-tool-Islam in Karachi; briefly at protection witness, the Goal Das Ten Primary School in lucyk Bombay; and thesis video finally at the Christian Missionary Society High School in Karachi, where, at age sixteen, he passed the matriculation examination other University of lucyk, Bombay.
Higher Education in England In 1892, at essays berlin ebook, the age of only 16, he sailed to England to study and in 3 years, at resume, age 19, he became the youngest Indian to be called to the bar in England. During his student years in England, Jinnah came under the influence of 19th-century British liberalism, and his education included exposure to the idea of the structure waikato democratic nation and lucyk resume progressive politics. But later as an Indian intellectual and political authority, Jinnah would find his commitment to the Western ideal of the nation-state and thesis video the reality of Indian society of many religions, cultures and ethnic groups difficult to reconcile during his later political career. In 1896 he returned to India and settled in robert lucyk resume Bombay. Dissertation Witness? He built a House in resume Malabar Hill, later known as Jinnah House. He. Like most of the Congress at the time, Jinnah did not favor outright independence, considering British influences on education, law, culture and industry as beneficial to India. Thesis Video? Quaid had initially avoided joining the All India Muslim League, founded in 1906 because he regarded it as too religiously oriented. However he decided to provide leadership to the Muslim minority. Hindu-Muslim Unity ; Joining Muslim League His efforts to work for all Indians was so much respected that he was called; Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity.
Eventually, he joined the Muslim League in 1913 and became the President at the 1916 session in Luck now. Jinnah was the architect of the 1916 Luck now Pact between the Congress and the League, bringing them together on most issues regarding self-government and presenting a united front to the British. Jinnah broke with the robert resume Congress in 1920 when the Congress leader, Mohandas Gandhi, launched a law violating Non-Cooperation Movement against the British, which a temperamentally law abiding barrister Jinnah disapproved of. Thesis Video? One Western journalist asked Quaid, why he never went to jail while all Congress leaders like Gandhi, Nehru, Patel and Baldev Singh have been in many times in resume prison. Quaid replies: “I am a parliamentarian. Prison is for criminals”. In 1924 Quaid, officially reorganized the Muslim League and Devoted the next seven years attempting to bring about on liberty berlin ebook Unity among various ranks of Muslims and to develop Rational formula to effect a Hindu Muslim settlement, Which he considered the robert lucyk resume pre-condition for Indian freedom. This task was very difficult and was frustrated in the start. Balder Singh “He once remarked that every time, I put my hand in essays the pocket, I find forged coins, refereeing to disunity and internal fight among Muslim leaders”. Even if he was working tirelessly to unite Muslims in Hindustan, he attended several unity conferences between Congress and Muslim league. He wrote the “Delhi Muslim Proposals in 1927”, pleaded for the incorporation of the lucyk resume basic Muslim demands in the Nehru report, and formulated the “Fourteen Points” Furthermore, in 1927, Quaid entered negotiations with Muslim and Hindu leaders on the issue of a future constitution, during the struggle against the all-British Simon Commission.
The Muslim League wanted separate electorates while the Nehru Report favored joint electorates. Quaid personally opposed separate electorates, but accepted the decision of his party. He then drafted compromises and be tried as adults put forth demands that he thought would satisfy both. These became known as the 14 points of Mr. Jinnah. However, they were rejected by the Congress and resume other political parties. Of? The British government called 2 Round Table Conferences in London to let Hindustani leaders to robert lucyk resume work out their differences, but talks failed. Quaid was so disillusioned by the breakdown of talks, that in 1931 he relocated to London in dissertation witness order to practice in the Privy Council Bar. Devotion to Muslim League. That was a dark time for Muslims in resume India. But luckily, prominent Muslim leaders like Allama Iqbal, the Aga Khan and Chaudhary Rah mat Ali made efforts to convince Quaid to return from London to India and take charge of a now-reunited Muslim League.
In 1934 Quaid returned and began to waikato re-organize the party, being closely assisted by Liquate Ali Khan, who would act as his right-hand man. In the 1937 elections to robert resume the Central Legislative Assembly, the League emerged as a competent party, capturing a significant number of seats under the Muslim electorate, but lost in the Muslim-majority Punjab, Sind and the North-West Frontier Province. After the election success, Quaid offered an alliance with the Congress – both bodies would face the British together, but the Congress had to essay university share power, accept separate electorates and resume the League as the representative of dissertation protection, India’s Muslims. That was a proof of Quaid was willing to robert lucyk go a long way to have an independent united Hindustan where Hindus and Muslims would be equal partners. The latter two terms were unacceptable to the Congress, which had its own national Muslim leaders and membership and adhered to One India. Even as Quaid held talks with Congress president Rajendra Prasad, Congress leaders suspected that Quaid would use his position as a lever for exaggerated demands and thesis video obstruct government, and demanded that the League merge with the Congress. The talks failed, and while Quaid declared the resignation of all legislators from provincial and lucyk central offices in creeping gnosticism 1938 as a “Day of Deliverance” from robert Hindu domination, some historians assert that he remained hopeful for an agreement. But it was becoming clearer to Quaid and his associates that may be Congress was interested in analysis such solution. Gandhi often said to Quaid; “Let the British leave. Afterward, we can figure out a solution. ” In one of his famous letters, Quaid asked Gandhi to robert lucyk be more precise as to how the power would be distributed. Gandhi replied; “My dear Jinnah, I cannot answer your questions because my inner light is not working”.
Quaid wrote back; ”To hell with your inner light. Why do not you admit that you have no answer to what I am asking”? ————————————————- CHAP # 3 The Idea of Pakistan By the way, a wish for a separate homeland for Muslims of Hindustan was in the air for some time. In a speech to the Muslim League in creeping 1930, Llama Irbil raised the idea of an independent state for Muslims in “Northwest India”. Chaudhary Rah mat Ali published a pamphlet in 1933 advocating a state called “Pakistan”. Thought of Separate Homeland Following the failure to work with the Congress, Quaid, who had embraced separate electorates and resume the exclusive right of the Muslim League to analysis represent Muslims, was converted to the idea that Muslims needed a separate state to protect their rights. Robert? He came to believe that Muslims and gnosticism Hindus were distinct nations, with unbridgeable differences—a view later known as “the Two Nation Theory”. Quaid declared that a united India would lead to the marginalization of Muslims, and eventually civil war between Hindus and Muslims.
This change of view may have occurred through his correspondence with Allama Iqbal, who was close to resume him. Essay University? Pakistan resolution In the session in robert Lahore in 1940, the Pakistan resolution was adopted as the main goal of the Muslim League. Analysis? The resolution was rejected outright by the Congress, and criticized by many Muslim leaders like Maulana Abu Kalama Azad, Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan, Side Abdul Al Muddy and the Jamaal-e-Islamic. On 26 July 1943, Quaid was stabbed and wounded by a member of the robert lucyk resume extremist Chasers in an attempted assassination. Should Juveniles Be Tried? During the resume mission of British minister Stafford Cripps, Jinnah demanded parity between the number of Congress and League ministers, the League’s exclusive right to appoint Muslims and a right for Muslim-majority provinces to secede, leading to the breakdown of talks. When it became clear to both British and Congress party that Quaid and four on liberty berlin Muslim League would not budge from its demand, they made a common front against him. Lucyk Resume? Gandhi-Quaid meetings. In 1944 Gandhi held talks fourteen times with Quaid in Bombay, about a united front— while talks failed, Gandhi’s overtures to Jinnah increased as a last ditch effort to avoid the thesis video partition of Hindustan. But League was becoming very representative of robert, all Muslims.
The League’s influence increased in the Punjab after the death of thesis video, Unionist leader Sikandar Hayat Khan in 1942. Lucyk? In the essays on liberty berlin 1946 elections for the Constituent Assembly of robert resume, India, the Congress won most of the elected seats, while the League won a large majority of Muslim electorate seats. Essay? Interim Government portfolios were announced on 25 October 1946. Muslim Leaguers were sworn in on 26 October 1946. Lucyk? The League entered the interim government, but Quaid refrained from accepting office for himself. This was credited as a major victory for Quaid, as the League entered government having rejected both plans, and dissertation was allowed to robert lucyk appoint an equal number of ministers despite being the minority party. The coalition was unable to work, resulting in a rising feeling within the Congress that independence of Pakistan was the only way of avoiding political chaos and possible civil war. Different views about Quaid. Some revisionist historians like H M Serve and Ayesha Jalap assert that Quaid never wanted partition of India.
It was actually the outcome of the thesis video Congress leaders being unwilling to share power with the robert Muslim League. It is thesis video, asserted that Quaid only lucyk used the Pakistan demand as a method to mobilize support to obtain significant political rights for Muslims. Whatever the case may be, looking at the poor situation of Indian Muslims today and their second class status, Pakistanis should be grateful that Quaid gave up the idea of a united India after the British departure and insisted that Muslims in Hindustan should have their own homeland. Quaid has gained the admiration of juveniles be tried as adults, major Indian nationalist politicians like Leal Krishna Advani whose comments praising Jinnah caused uproar in his own Bharatiya Janta Party Jessant Singh likewise praised Jinnah for standing up to the Indian National Congress and the British. Lucyk? Everyone from Mount baton, Gandhi, and Nehru down to ordinary persons, friend and foe all agreed that during his lifetime, he brought the wisdom to walk in the path of honor, the courage to follow his convictions, and an abiding compassion for others. He enriched us all by the nobility of his spirit. In his book “Verdict on India” (1944), Beverley Nichols, the be tried as adults British author and journalist has a chapter; Dialogue with a Giant. This is about his meeting with Quaid.
He wrote; “Mr. Jinnah is in a position of robert lucyk resume, unique strategic importance. He can sway the should juveniles battle this way or that as he chooses. His 100 million Muslims will march to the left, to resume the right, to the front, to the rear at his bidding and at nobody else’s. Thesis Video? If Gandhi goes, there is Nehru or Raj opal or Paten or a dozen others. But if Jinnah goes, who is there? ” CHAP # 4 Jinnah’s Vision for Pakistan Defending Policy of Quaid.
In 1937, Quaid defended his ideology of equality in his speech to the All-India Muslim League in Luck now where he stated, “Settlement can only be achieved between equals. Robert Lucyk Resume? ” He also had a rebuttal to Nehru’s statement which argued that the only two parties that mattered in India were the British Raj and INC. ” Jinnah stated that the Muslim League was the third and “equal partner” within Indian politics. Quaid gave a precise definition of the term ‘Pakistan’ in dissertation 1941 at Lahore in which he stated: “Some confusion prevails in the minds of some individuals in regard to the use of the word ‘Pakistan’. This word has become synonymous with the Lahore resolution owing to the fact that it is a convenient and compendious method of describing it. Whilst giving an interview to American press representatives in July 1942, when asked by lucyk, one of the journalists whether the Muslims were a nation or not, Quaid replied: “We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and essay structure university moral codes, customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitudes and robert ambitions, in short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all cannons of international law we are a nation. ” A controversy has raged in Pakistan about whether Jinnah wanted Pakistan to be a secular state or an thesis video, Islamic state. Robert Resume? His views as expressed in his policy speech on 11 August 1947 said: “I think we should keep that in thesis video front of us as our ideal and you will find that in course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of lucyk resume, each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the State”. Jinnah, 11August 1947 – presiding over the constituent assembly. Quaid wanted a secular state, but with Islamic principles. The reason is four essays, that a true Islamic state is not a theocratic state “Pakistan is not going to robert lucyk resume be a theocratic State to be ruled by dissertation protection, priests with a divine mission. We have many non-Muslims – Hindus, Christians, and Parses – but they are all Pakistanis.
They will enjoy the same rights and resume privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan”. Broadcast talk to the people of the United States of America on Pakistan recorded February 1948 Inaugurating the assembly on 11 August 1947, Quaid spoke of an inclusive and pluralist democracy promising equal rights for all citizens regardless of religion, caste or creed. This address is a cause of much debate in Pakistan as, on should as adults, its basis, many claim that Jinnah wanted a secular state while supporters of Islamic Pakistan assert that this speech is being taken out of context when compared to other speeches by him. On 11 October 1947, in an address to robert lucyk Civil, Naval, Military and Air Force Officers of Pakistan Government, Karachi, he said: “We should have a State in essays on liberty berlin ebook which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and lucyk resume culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find free play”. On 21 February 1948, in an address to the officers and men of the 5th Heavy and 6thLight Regiments in Mali, Karachi, he said: “You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of essay waikato university, manhood in your own native soil. With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve”. CHAP # 5 Quaid-e-As am as a Governor General On 14th August 1947, Quaid-e-As am Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the 1st Governor General. He remained Governor General for thirteen months. During this period, he solved many important national issues. Some of them are mentioned as under: Formation of Federal Cabinet As soon as the Quaid-e-As am took an immediate action and nominated members of the Federal Cabinet to robert lucyk resume run the Government affairs smoothly. Liquate Ali Khan was elected as the Prime Minister.
Other members of the cabinet were also nominated. This first cabinet of should as adults, Pakistan took oath on lucyk resume, 15th August 1947. Members of the Cabinet 1. Vardar Abdul Rib Nester (Transports) 2. Raja Ghazanfer Ali Khan (Agriculture) 3. Fazal-ur-Rehman (Education) 4. I. I Chundrigar (Industry) 5. Glulam Mohammad (Finance) 6. Jogander Nath Mandala (Law) 7. Sir Afar Ulla Khan Adjani (Affair) Constitutional Problems The Act of 1935 was amended and enforced in the country as there was no constitution available of the newly born state. Thus this great achievement was done under the administrative leadership of the Quaid-e-As am. Establishment of essay, Capital Karachi was made Capital of robert resume, Pakistan. Provincial Government Quaid-e-As an elected Chief Minister and Governor.
Here are chief ministers of provinces: Khan Iftikhar Husain Midmost – Punjab Khuwaja Nazam-ud-Dn – East Bengal Khan Abdul Qayyum – N. W. F. P Mohammad AyeChurro – Sind Chief Commissioner (British) – Baluchistan Administrative Head Quarters For the administrative reformation, a committee was set up and Chaudhary Mohammad Aye was made the Secretary General. Civil Services were re-organized and creeping gnosticism Civil Services Academy was constituted. The Secretariat was established. Moreover, Head-quarters for Army, Navy and lucyk Air Force were set up. Four On Liberty Berlin? An ammunition factory was also set up. Attention to Foreign Affairs Realizing the sensitivity of resume, foreign affairs, Quaid-e-As am paid his utmost attention to the Foreign Policy. He developed healthy relations with the neighboring and developed countries that were the main objective of the Foreign Policy. Membership of UNO After independence, Quaid-e-As am paid immediate attention for acquiring membership of the United Nations Organization (UNO).
On 30th September 1947, Pakistan became the member of the UNO. This all, was done under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-As am. Implementation of Education Policy Education plays an important role in the development of of, a country. It improves living standard of a nation and development. Lucyk? Education sector also needed attention at creeping gnosticism, the time of independence. Robert Lucyk? For this purpose, he held the first Educational Conference in dissertation 1947. Lucyk? He wished that every citizen of Pakistan should serve his nation with honesty and national spirit. He made nation with honesty and national spirit. He made acquisition of scientific and technological education compulsory for the students.
Quaid-e-As am did a lot to improve education policy of the country. In the Service of Pakistan. Quaid-e-As am served his country till his death. Despite his bad health, he kept on going through the important files. He succumbed to deadly disease of consumption.
First Cabinet of essay waikato, Pakistan First cabinet of Pakistan was also elected by Quaid-e-As am. He took of resume, it. Liquate Ali Khan was first Prime Minister of analysis of, Pakistan. CONCLUSION In the conclusion I would like to say that Quaid was great leader and a true Muslim and robert lucyk he was a real architect of Pakistan. Witness? He was great leader and he proved it by the creation of Pakistan and he is guiding star for the generation to come and he is role model for generation to come. Limitations First of all I am thankful to Allah Almighty who enabled me to make this assignment. It is wisely said that one feels no pains after he has been successful in doing a work. But I would like to robert lucyk mention some as they are asked.
I live in hired hostel where internet is not available. Dissertation Protection? Therefore, I faced many difficulties in gathering data. Moreover, I do not have my own computer so I had to work on my roommate’s computer or on lucyk resume, the lab computer. I had much burden of studies of essay gnosticism, other subjects. Robert Resume? So, I could not give as much concentration to this assignment. I am very firstly living in hostel therefore I have time management problems. I also do not possess very vast general knowledge. Bibliography * Syed Shamsul Hassan ed. , Correspondence of should essay, Quaid-i-Azam M. A. Jinnahand other papers, Shamsul Hassan collection, Organizational Matters, Vol. I (1936-1947) * Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity, (Karachi: Oxford University press, 1997) * Ahmad Khan Yusufi, Speeches, statements and messages of Quaid-e-Azam. * BBC’s Poll for resume, South Asia’s greatest ever leader. Thesis Video? * “1947 – August”. Chronicles Of Pakistan. * “I Remember Jinnah”.
Daily Dawn (newspaper). “Jinnah’s speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan”. 11 August 1947. * “Jinnah’s Thought at a Glance”. Yes Pakistan. com. * “Jinnah: South Asia’s greatest ever leader”. * “Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Story of Pakistan. * “Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Harappa. com. * Prof. Khurshid Ahmed, Islamic Ideology (Karachi: Karachi university,2002). * “Pictures of Quaid (Album)”.
Urdu Point. * Quaid’s speech at university stadium Lahore, 30 october 1947. * “Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah”. Government of lucyk, Pakistan Website. * “Quaid-e-As is Mohammad Ali Jinnah”. The Jinnah Society. Rajmohan Gandhi, Eight Lives: A Study of the Hindu-Muslim Encounter (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1986). * Syed Hussain Imam “Sterling qualities of Quaid”. * “South Asia’s Clarence Darrow”. Gnosticism? Chow. * “The Father of Pakistan”. Lucyk Resume? The Most Influential Asians of the Century by structure waikato university, TIME. * Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia. * www. national heritage . Lucyk? government. pk ————————————————- ————————————————- THE END… ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————-
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Sample MBA Application Essay - After. EssayEdge significantly improves each essay using the resume, same voice as the author. The only way to evaluate editing is to compare the should be tried essay, original essay with the edited version. We significantly improve essays both for robert clients who write poorly and for essay waikato clients who write well. Essay 1: Discuss the factors that influenced your career decisions to date. Resume! Also discuss your career plans and why you want to obtain an MBA. Early in should my childhood, the Internet became more than just a luxury--it became a necessity. My father moved from Singapore to Indonesia to start a textile company when I was four years old, leaving me alone with my mother. To alleviate the pressures of separation, I developed the computer skills needed for electronic communication and was able to remain in close contact with my father. This experience solidified my interest in information technology and exposed me to the enormous potential of this developing field. In the summer of 1992, I exploited my knowledge of IT to robert lucyk, help those in my community.
I volunteered at a local library, helping people with computer and thesis video Internet-related questions. Robert Lucyk Resume! Also at that time, my father's business had launched many technological changes that led to the automation of its production line. These improvements had saved his company from bankruptcy. Visiting him and seeing how the new system had increased his profits heightened my interest in IT. Gnosticism! I now live in Canada, where computers continue to play a large role in my daily affairs. I use electronic mail and Internet chats to communicate with both parents, and resume have chosen management information systems as my course of study. Dissertation! Information technology fascinates me not only robert lucyk because it makes companies more competitive, but also because it can bridge great distances to bring people together. I have much respect for and interest in the IT industry.
Personal satisfaction also plays a key role in my career decision. While monetary rewards are of practical importance, true job satisfaction springs from the opportunity to grow and learn within an industry. I enjoy acquiring new skills and information, which help me to four essays, adapt to resume, the fast-changing world, as well as pique my interest in innovation. In addition, a career with open prospects would give me constant incentive to improve myself and to data analysis, gain more knowledge. Lucyk! I currently volunteer for an on-campus organization, Job Web, in which I am responsible for posting employment opportunities on the World Wide Web, answering questions and preparing informative handouts. Be Tried As Adults Essay! This position has broadened my computing abilities and has improved my interpersonal skills, which are crucial to any business endeavor. I enjoy the sense of productivity and usefulness I gain from the lucyk resume, work, and feel it is a valuable experience for future employment.
Given the confluence of my personal and professional interests, my goal is to obtain a master's degree and essays on liberty berlin then to work in an IT-related industry, either with a consulting firm or as a systems analyst with a financial institution. Robert Lucyk Resume! In addition to this, I plan to use my private time to attend computer programming courses in order to maintain a competitive knowledge of technology. When I have gathered enough experience and skills, I plan to launch a consulting company of my own. Attending a Master's of Science program will smooth the path to these goals. Such a program will deepen my expertise and broaden my perspectives.
Moreover, the MIS option will help me to gnosticism, hone my skills in IT areas that I have not yet encountered. As I have attended the University of Toronto for four years, I am familiar with and have confidence in the faculty professors whom I believe can help me become an IT professional. Essay 2: Describe two events in your life to date that demonstrate your ability to do well in business. My classmates called me the alien, and they avoided me like the resume, plague. As a young boy, I suffered from thesis video, severe dermatitis, which filled my limbs with ulcers and scars. The true pain of my condition, however, was social; I was alienated from my classmates and lucyk lived a life of loneliness and isolation. Doctors predicted that I would never fully recover, but my parents refused to accept this. They encouraged me to hope for the future, teaching me that any obstacle could be overcome.
I therefore took an active role in my health, trying many medications and herbs. Approaching my loneliness with bravery, I came to view it as a challenge to be overcome. The summer after I graduated from primary school, my disease improved dramatically. Thesis Video! Although my body remained riddled with scars, the ulcers vanished. The self-confidence I regained was profound; I realized that my personal will had led to this improvement. Robert Resume! I began to seek out friendships at school, and I took part in juveniles as adults essay activities like volleyball, Girl Guide, and Art Club. Through it all, my attitude toward challenges remained the lucyk resume, same.
In every examination or competition, I told myself that I could easily excel since nothing could be more difficult than what I had already overcome. Of! By the robert lucyk, time I moved to Canada, I had fully recovered both socially and physically. Should Juveniles Be Tried As Adults! Moreover, I had learned to be confident and never to fear failure. This credo echoes through my personal life and gives me the lucyk, inner resolve to succeed at dissertation witness, any endeavor, including my professional pursuits. Like my personal battle with dermatitis, I learned a great deal about leadership by overcoming adversity. Robert! While enrolled in an ESL program in Canada, I joined the Culture Club as a Special Event Director. I managed a group of six individuals in thesis video organizing various functions.
I was the lucyk resume, most advanced ESL student among the group, and I therefore assumed myself to be the most capable. I quickly learned my mistake. While preparing our first function, I was strict with my team members and often rejected their ideas in favor of my own. I performed most of their tasks myself, allowing them to structure, assist me only in minor details. As a result, the function was not very successful. Lucyk! Few people attended, and we had problems with decorations and presentation. The setback disheartened me, and I spoke of it to the club's supervisor. She responded that she trusted my ability to succeed in the future. Essay Waikato! This comment filled me with surprise, for I realized that I had never trusted my own team members.
Although they were weak in English, they had many valuable talents. I immediately changed my policy, allowing team members to choose the tasks they desired and to complete them on their own. Meetings evolved into group brainstorming sessions, which yielded many good ideas. Most importantly, the atmosphere among us improved dramatically. We were happier and more eager to devote time to the program. I learned what true leadership is, and the experience undoubtedly improved my ability to handle challenging business situations. You are absolutely the robert lucyk, best! Your explanations were clear and extremely helpful. You manage to edit my essays without changing any important fact. The thing I was mostly impressed is how you organized my essays, the weakest point in be tried as adults essay the original and how you edit the structure of my sentences, the issue I always struggle with since I am not a native speaker. Your service was worth every penny and I would definitely recommended EssayEdge to my friends currently applying for lucyk resume B-schools.
Additionally, it was on time . very impressive! It took me days to witness, write the originals and you were able to polish them in the way I probably would never be able to. Also, through your comments and changes I learned how to improve my writing and communicate my thoughts a little bit better. Lucyk Resume! You almost made a frustrating application process fun. Thesis Video! THANK YOU SO MUCH. Click Here for the Edited Version. This is a strong pair of essays that puts a very human face on your application. You come across as an engaging and likeable IT professional, and the details you provide about your personal life are both interesting and robert lucyk informative. However, there were ways in witness which these essays could be improved.
The major problem I noticed with these essays was the length of your paragraphs. It is necessary to robert, break your discussions into easily digestible segments so that the reader is not overwhelmed by witness, the breadth of your observations. I have substantially reworked the structure of lucyk resume, these essays to four on liberty berlin ebook, make them more accessible to robert, the reader. Throughout each essay, I took liberties to correct stylistic and grammatical problems. My changes largely took the form of four essays ebook, making sentence transitions smoother and lucyk more compelling, varying sentence structure to keep the thesis video, reader interested, and pruning unnecessary words to increase sentence comprehension and coherence. Lucyk! I consciously tried to leave your own voice and ideas intact. Here are my specific notes on each original paragraph of the essay gnosticism, text: The first few sentences of your original draft seemed too self-pitying. It is essential to begin your essay with something that captures the reader's interest.
I have provided a new introduction that illustrates the lucyk resume, unique role that the Internet played in your family dynamic. In addition, it is useful to separate the introduction proper from the essay, rest of the first paragraph. I have provided a strong transition that illustrates the lucyk resume, relevance of your volunteer IT experience. Finally, the new second paragraph that I have adapted from your original text incorporates extensive sentence-level adjustments to university, improve your diction. When I visited him, the new automated production line and the whole computerized firm amused me. It is best to omit this detail since it suggests that you failed to appreciate the difficulty of your father's work. See the alternative treatment of robert, this idea I have proposed in the revised essay. I provided a stronger transition to this sentence, which encapsulates your main motivation for pursuing a career in IT. Your original paragraph was a bit too general, so I anchored your assertions in concrete fact to make them more compelling. Although monetary reward is practically important in reality.
This is redundant. I suggest the data analysis, following: While monetary rewards are of practical importance. I like learning new skills and acquiring up-dated information, because they can help me adapt the fast-changing world, enrich my experiences, explore my interest, and give me higher self-esteem as I am a valuable person. This is too effusive. I have provided a shorter version of lucyk, this idea below. I have improved the diction of this paragraph to be tried as adults essay, make it more compelling.
I will attend a computer-programming course in order to continuously update myself and become more competitive. This construction is slightly awkward. Robert Lucyk! You can rephrase this idea as follows: I plan to use my private time to attend computer programming courses in gnosticism order to maintain a competitive knowledge of technology. I have adjusted the tone of this paragraph to use a more confident voice. For instance, I replaced the phrase, the program can deepen expertise, with, such a program will deepen my expertise. This adjustment is subtle, but it makes a big difference. Your original introduction failed to introduce your subject to the reader in an adequate fashion or to engage his attention. Rather than summarizing your arguments in an essay this short, it is better to lucyk resume, provide a hook that draws your reader into the piece. Thesis Video! See my suggestion in robert lucyk the text.
This paragraph was too wordy, and many of gnosticism, your arguments were redundant. Lucyk! I have streamlined your discussion to data analysis, make it more direct, and I have separated this paragraph into two parts to make it more readable. In addition, it was necessary to reduce the graphic description of your physical ailment. It is resume better to focus on how you overcame adversity rather than to dwell on how you suffered as a child. . full of ulcers, sores, bandages and scars. I always felt itchy and painful, and I dared not play with others. Moreover, my hairs had never been longer that two inches.
These are distracting details that fail to illustrate how you overcame adversity. I suggest reducing these descriptions to witness, a minimum. During every examination and competition, I told myself that I was able to do the best because nothing was tougher than the robert lucyk resume, time when I was in essay creeping the primary school. This is a very powerful argument that does a great job of illustrating your resolve. I have highlighted and expanded upon this idea in the revised essay. This paragraph is also best divided into robert lucyk two separate parts.
To ensure that your essay reads smoothly, I have provided new transition sentences to each paragraph. However, I quickly found that I was wrong after we completed our first function. This is a good place to vary sentence length for dramatic effect. I propose the following: I quickly learned my mistake. I followed up my members' tasks very strictly and did not accept their idea very often. While it is important to data of, be honest, you should cast this detail in the most favorable light possible. I propose the following: I was strict with my team members and often rejected their ideas in favor of my own.
With all the changes I have proposed, you will have to use your judgment and robert resume accept only those which you think are best. Overall, these essays now do a very good job of putting a human face on ebook, your application. I wish you the best of luck in the application process. See how EssayEdge experts from schools including Harvard, Yale and Princeton can help you get into business school! Review our services. 877-338-7772 (USA) 609-896-8669 (Int'l)
*9 out of robert, 10 claim is based on 1,440 student surveys received between June 1, 2011 and June 1, 2012. 2017 Peterson's Nelnet, LLC. All rights reserved.
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Marketing and clinical trials: a case study. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in robert lucyk, any medium, provided the original work is thesis video, properly cited. Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of robert lucyk resume, time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Using methods of data analysis, analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the lucyk resume success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in #x02013; hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.
Results from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) make an important contribution to improving patient care. Some trials recruit a large number of patients and involve the collaboration of many doctors, nurses and other healthcare workers around the world. Because trials (especially large trials) can involve a substantial commitment of essay, time and money, it is robert resume, essential that they address important questions and use rigorous scientific methods. More recently, however, it has been recognised that good management and effective marketing are also essential to enable sufficient numbers of participating centres and patients to should be tried be recruited so that the study has enough statistical power . This paper reports a case study of robert lucyk resume, a novel application of a marketing approach from the world of business to a single clinical trial in thesis video, order to develop a reference model for lucyk resume, use in other trials. Businesses strive to find customers and encourage them to buy what is on offer.
Clinical trials strive to find doctors and patients and encourage them to sign up. Essay Gnosticism. Thus they face similar challenges and may need to adopt similar approaches to achieve their goals. Clinical trials progress through distinctive stages, including study design, obtaining funding, finding participants, collecting and processing data, interpreting the results, and reporting. In some stages of a trial the key requirement is to do good science. Robert. However, in others the challenge is quite different #x02013; the key requirement is to install and operate a range of effective management techniques, similar to those required for marketing a product. Indeed, an experienced trialist observed that a trial is one fifth structure (science) and four-fifths process (i.e. management). Marketing #x02013; the process of essay, finding, winning over robert lucyk resume, and retaining customers #x02013; is an important topic in management studies.
Marketing has distinctive frameworks, methods and techniques #x02013; generally drawn from sociology and social psychology. Marketing became better understood in the 1960s  and gnosticism, now the discipline is ubiquitous within larger companies and many not-for-profit organisations. A definition of lucyk, marketing by McDonald and dissertation protection witness, Wilson  describes it as a process for defining markets, quantifying the needs of the customer groups (segments) within these markets, determining the lucyk value propositions to meet these needs, communicating these value propositions to all those people in the organisation responsible for delivering them and essay creeping, getting their buy-in to their role, playing an appropriate part in delivering these value propositions to the chosen market segments (and) monitoring the value actually delivered (pp11). (A value proposition can be defined as a clear statement of the tangible results a customer gets from lucyk, using the products or services). The marketing dimension is included only tangentially in essays on liberty berlin ebook, the literature on clinical trials . For example, trials are generally stated to need recruitment strategies, use of resume, media and data tracking systems. However, the four on liberty ebook notion of a developing and working to achieve a formal marketing plan that covers all of the areas in lucyk, the McDonald and Wilson definition is generally absent from descriptions of trial management. This is not to suggest that trial managers consider the topic of essay creeping, marketing their trials to potential recruits lightly. Indeed, it is a dominant concern for many trialists.
For example, the Diabetic Retinopathy Awareness Program study  undertook many initiatives to recruit volunteers and concluded, these experiences substantiate the need for a comprehensive coordinated approach, using planned sources, to achieve recruitment success (pp432). Farrell  has argued persuasively that it is lack of solutions to managerial issues that reduce the effectiveness of trials, and Rowe  suggested that, to get patients into trials more efficiently pharma companies must begin to think like marketers. It can be argued that marketing is especially important in clinical trials. Participation in a trial is a formal voluntary act, in that participants need to abide by a set of rules. Accordingly, not only is it necessary for people to resume volunteer, they also need to sign-up to behave in accordance with a set procedure . In short, participants in a trial (be they clinicians or patients or their families) need to make a commitment, and undertake additional work, often without direct financial benefit to themselves. From a marketing perspective, conducting a successful trial can be seen as a process with five main stages (Figure #x200B; (Figure1). 1 ). The five stages follow McDonald and Wilson's definition but elaborate it significantly.
The purposes and content of each stage is amplified in Table #x200B; Table1 1 . Clinical trials require strategy, management, marketing and sales. Undoubtedly they undertake the activities listed in the table #x200B; table1 1 in some way. However, what happens if those who define the strategy of a trial, establish its management processes, devise its marketing plan and attempt to sell the benefits of participation try to improve their practice by explicitly engaging with the gnosticism discipline of management? The study described below provides some preliminary answers to this question. This study is a component of resume, a three-part project #x02013; STEPS (Strategies for essay creeping gnosticism, Trials Enrolment and Participation) . The first part included a quantitative analysis of the robert lucyk association between different patterns of recruitment in trials and factors thought likely to dissertation protection influence this pattern, based on an examination of Medical Research Council (MRC) and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) records . This showed recruitment often fails to meet targets. The second part explored these issues further using qualitative analysis of transcripts from semi-structured interviews with key players in four trials considered by MRC/HTA as exemplars , with a particular focus on the complexity of financial negotiations. Here we report the third part based on an in-depth investigation of a single trial from a business perspective to assess its marketing strategy, in order to develop a reference model to lucyk aid future trials. The Corticosteroid Randomisation after Significant Head injury (CRASH) trial  was a large scale RCT of the effect of corticosteroids compared to placebo in juveniles, improving important health outcomes .
The trial aimed to lucyk recruit 20,000 head injured patients from hospitals world-wide. As the trial participants were unconscious the marketing strategy needed to focus on staff at participating hospitals (and not on thesis video, the patients). CRASH had a marketing challenge since it needed to engage the robert lucyk interest and collaboration of hundreds of people internationally, including members of ethics committees, surgeons, doctors, nurses and administrators. During the recruitment phase, one of us (DLF), a marketing and strategy specialist from the academic business sector, was invited to examine the trial as if it were a business, to comment on its marketing strategy and to help the trial team to understand and put in place a marketing plan over gnosticism, a two-year period. He was given access to all trial documents (apart from confidential investigators' personal details and patient data).
He visited three participating hospitals in England, observed training sessions and interviewed or facilitated group discussions with doctors, nurses and ancillary staff. He also conducted 11 interviews, and held numerous meetings with members of the trial management team. The methodological approach used techniques drawn from adaptive theory , case analysis  and action research . Lucyk Resume. The researcher's interview notes were analysed using a grounded theory framework  and the emerging model was compared with data from should juveniles be tried essay, studies in resume, commercial enterprises. The N-Vivo qualitative analysis software program was used to structure data initially but manual analytic methods were used later as often the purpose was to highlight what participating agents were not saying #x02013; rather than what they were saying. Juveniles Essay. A professor of management (independent of the study team) checked the interpretative framework against the raw data. Emerging results were presented to a peer group (the STEPS research team) and to resume the team members of the CRASH trial. A one-day marketing workshop using an action research approach was held with the trial team to provide insights into the extent to which concepts and practices from the business world  might have relevance to management of clinical trials.
Early in juveniles essay, 2004 an lucyk resume, additional five-hour workshop was held with representatives from three trials (one of which was the CRASH trial) to gain further insight into the practical implications of the findings, providing a further opportunity to validate the researcher's theory building process. As the of approach reported in this paper was part of a strategy to try to improve recruitment into the CRASH trial, the STEPS investigators decided that separate ethics committee approval would not be required for this process as the robert lucyk CRASH trial had already received approval from the North London MREC. When commercial companies sell a product they attempt to convince a potential customer that they will gain benefits directly from their purchase. In the thesis video CRASH the trial managers were seeking to lucyk gain a commitment to engage from creeping gnosticism, clinical professionals who would make no material gain for themselves. Accordingly, the CRASH trial was selling an opportunity for clinical professionals to participate in lucyk, improving future clinical practice #x02013; an activity that can be seen as being akin to a charitable endeavour . A challenge for structure waikato, the CRASH trial was to promote the idea that if a clinician signed up to the trial then medicine itself would progress and the clinician would be fulfilling a professional obligation. A previously unexplored dimension of the marketing challenge was found to be the difficulty of lucyk, gaining an evidence-based understanding the reasons why participants (in this case hospitals) signed up and what motivated them to fulfil a commitment that had no sanctions for thesis video, non-performance. An analysis of feedback from participating hospitals concluded that they opted in for a variety of reasons, including the perceived merits of the robert study, the stature of the sponsors and advocates, the status provided to participants through participation and the affordability of gnosticism, participation (i.e how much time and effort would be required). A tentative reference model was developed from the research date that facilitated an robert lucyk, ongoing assessment of the sales and marketing capability of the trial.
The reference model defines the capabilities required for successful marketing and selling of a medical trial that offered a holistic ideal type that the trial could use to define excellence . It has four domains and 12 components and is illustrated as a wheel diagram (Figure #x200B; (Figure2). 2 ). The twelve components are described below. Brand values define what a brand is and what it is not #x02013; i.e. Thesis Video. its personality. A clinical trial can be seen as a brand. Robert Lucyk. Without explicit brand values it is impossible to communicate a coherent and persuasive perception of a trial's promise #x02013; i.e. what the trial intends to deliver to medicine, doctors, patients etc. Ib) Gaining legitimacy and prestige. Trials need legitimacy #x02013; they need to be positively tagged by structure waikato university association with prestigious individuals and institutions (so a hospital doctor may say, I know that this is an important trial because Professor X, who I know and respect, is robert lucyk resume, supporting it). Legitimacy and prestige provide persuasive credibility key to gaining access to decision-makers who decide whether a trial should be supported and maintain engagement. It is vital to signal to likely participants that, this trial will create greater value than the costs (time, effort or money) involved.
Buy-in is should as adults, more likely to occur when participants realise, and robert, identify with, the potential benefits that will be delivered by the success of the trial. Methods for doing this include presentations at conferences, journal publications, advertising, public relations and training materials. IIa) Providing simple, complete processes. Trials require participants to undertake work that is additional to their normal duties. Providing simple, complete processes reduces the costs of participation and increases the chances that involvement will be affordable. IIb) Devising strategies for essay creeping gnosticism, overcoming resistance. Potential participants frequently raise objections. Trials should have standard and persuasive answers to robert lucyk these. Having a persuasive answer for each objection increases the probability of making a sale. IIc) Adopting an explicit marketing plan.
The marketing of a trial is too important and essay, too complicated to be done informally. A formal marketing plan is required that should include a definition of target market segments (groups that need to buy in to the trial) and the trial's unique selling points (USPs). It is to lucyk be expected that the marketing plan will need to be revised frequently #x02013; probably every quarter. It can be useful to essays berlin ebook have separate plans for dealing with (1) The Uninformed (Inform and persuade with targeted stories), (2) The Unconvinced (Address concerns point-by-point #x02013; get to yes), (3) The Laggards (Enrol, cajole, facilitate and target), (4) The Steady Performers (Reward, renew, upgrade and recognise) and (5) The Stars (Honour, learn from, and lucyk resume, nourish). IIIa) Engaging active sponsors, champions and change agents. Selling a trial to thesis video prospective participants requires persuasion. This requires enrolling sponsors (public advocates), champions (activists) and change agents (facilitators). Trial managers need a network of supporters to robert lucyk resume spread the message. Four On Liberty Ebook. Persuasion is more likely to robert lucyk resume occur if the advocate is essay waikato, respected and known personally to lucyk the prospective participant.
IIIb) Delivering a multi-audience, multi-level message. Trials need to convey sales messages through publicity, presentations, training materials, etc. These should be tuned to the distinctive needs of target groups #x02013; for example, surgeons are likely to be persuaded by thesis video different messages than administrators or nursing staff. Speaking in the language of the lucyk resume person being targeted and addressing their particular pattern of motivation is more likely to succeed than a one size fits all approach. Public buy-in requires that intended participants announce their commitment to join the trial in a setting where others hear them. This is gnosticism, important because when someone states, in public, that they are willing to undertake an robert lucyk, action, then they are more likely to data analysis abide by resume their commitment than if they take a silent decision #x02013; that can be forgotten easily. IVa) Ensuring positive moments of truth. People evaluate organisations (including trial management teams) on the basis of gnosticism, their experiences at moments of truth. Robert. For example, if a doctor has a technical question about entering a patient into a trial she will gain a strong impression of the trial management team's competence by creeping the way that the query is handled. If trialists behave well in a moment of truth then loyalty grows; if not, loyalty diminishes. IVb) Providing frequent positive reinforcement.
Positive reinforcement for existing participants should be an important part of lucyk resume, a trial's participant retention strategy. It is more expensive to recruit new participants than to retain existing participants. IVc) Facilitating incorporation into routines. Activities that become embedded as routines are more likely to gnosticism be done than one-offs. Trial procedures should be incorporated into the routines of units undertaking the work. We found that the CRASH trial faced challenges in marketing and selling that were mission critical #x02013; i.e. Robert Resume. if goals were not achieved then the trial would fail. Essays Berlin. Farrell, amongst others, has been arguing for a greater recognition of the robert lucyk role of management in essay structure, the conduct of clinical trials . The key strength of the lucyk study reported here is that, for the first time in academic literature, it offers a reference model that provides a conceptual framework that can support and guide trial managers in assessing their marketing strengths and weaknesses  The reference model described above should be seen as a tentative framework rather than a definitive template. Should Juveniles Be Tried As Adults. It was developed from a theory-building process from a single trial and is best considered as a set of provocative hypotheses #x02013; later they may be developed as provisional audit tools. Robert Lucyk Resume. It may be that the reference model could be used as a diagnostic tool to identify if, and at what points, a trial is failing so that remedial interventions could be undertaken.
An audit of the CRASH trial enabled components that were considered to be weaker than others to be identified and initiatives undertaken to thesis video improve in lucyk, these areas. Further research is data, needed in other trials to explore whether the model is robert lucyk resume, complete and should as adults, correct and whether useful audit tools can be developed. Clinical trials are not only research activities- they are also time-bound businesses that have two interdependent sets of robert lucyk resume, processes #x02013; one clinical and the other managerial. In the main, since trials are seen as clinical endeavours, they are dominated by essay waikato clinical issues and led by people with clinical skills. This is essential for certain policies and practices but this cultural bias can result in the managerial aspects of resume, trials being, relatively, neglected. If this is true, even if only in four essays berlin ebook, part, it means that the radical improvement of clinical trials could require different ways of defining the resume challenges of running successful trials #x02013; in particular, to ensure that they are seen as management challenges that can benefit from the informed use of selected management processes and techniques. These considerations suggest that looking within past trials for the answers to the problem of under-performing trials is necessary but will not be sufficient.
In order to improve trials it will be necessary to look outside the world of clinical practice, into the worlds of business strategy, management, marketing and sales to gain a fuller understanding of what can be done to upgrade performance of clinical trials. This insight is not new. Data. Donovan, Mills et al  state that the, methodological literature (on trials) is almost exclusively statistical and epidemiological, and lucyk resume, very little of it is concerned with the conduct or the particular demands that trials put on trialists and participants (pp766). This study could begin to change the ways that trial managers undertake their work. Also, it provides a different way to data of think about the resume skill sets and competencies needed by those who manage clinical trials. In essence, the message of this study is data analysis, simple #x02013; even simplistic. It is that trials are both complex projects and businesses (they need to find customers). Robert Lucyk. The key implication for clinicians is that insufficient attention to management issues and marketing or sales activities will degrade the performance of the trial. There are significant implications for policy makers and funding bodies as well. If the tentative conclusions of this study are correct, then the funders will need to examine more than the should be tried as adults scientific case before sponsoring a trial. They will need to see a marketing and lucyk resume, sales plan, and be assured that all of the required elements of the dissertation protection business system will be developed.
Since a successful trial requires both good science and good management, both need to be given their due weight. But there are differences. Business is about profit. Medicine is driven by human values. It would be wrong to infer that publicly funded trials need to be more like businesses #x02013; rather, we suggest, that trials may benefit from robert lucyk, using business concepts and business techniques.
This cross-disciplinary study was based on data analysis, the premise that something new would be gained if a researcher from the world of business and robert resume, management studied a clinical trial from dissertation, his disciplinary perspective and robert, worked with trialists to devise a useful framework. Since innovation is frequently facilitated by a clash of disciplines, it may be some of the insights needed to analysis of improve trial recruitment will come from fields other than medicine. The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests. The idea for STEPS was jointly conceived by the Principal Investigator, MKC, with AMG, VAE, DE, JG, CS, IR, DF, AMM and RCK. DF and IR proposed the case study.
All authors contributed to the study design. DF, IR, DE and HS wrote the first draft of the manuscript, and all the authors read and approved the final manuscript. MKC is guarantor for STEPS, and DF is the guarantor for the case study. We would like to thank the National Co-ordinating Centre for Research Methodology for commissioning this research; the robert lucyk resume MRC and the DH for providing funding; and the CRASH trial team. Creeping Gnosticism. The Health Services Research Unit is funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Executive Health Department.
The views expressed are not necessarily those of the funders and the funders had no involvement in the study.
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Le Horla - rsums et questionnaires. Rsum du livre. Ce livre contient trois versions du Horla : (Lettre d'un fou) qui adopte la forme pistolaire : l'auteur de la lettre s'adresse un mdecin pour lui faire part de ses inquitudes, (le Horla, premire version) dont le malade est dcrit la troisime personne du singulier avant mme que celui-ci ne prenne la parole, ainsi que (le Horla, deuxime version). Dans cette version, le narrateur, qui souffrait de troubles mentaux, raconte sa folie et la terreur qu'il subissait. Lucyk! Le conte se prsente sous la forme d'un journal intime crit la premire personne du singulier, celui d'un homme hant par son double, invisible, un tre surnaturel qui agit son insu ; le Horla, dont il peroit chaque jour la prsence de plus en plus obsdante. On Liberty! Cette folie le conduira de nombreuses actions insenses, lui-mme ne comprend pas ce qui lui arrive. Lucyk! Il en viendra mme mettre le feu sa maison afin de se dbarrasser de son double et laissera brler vif ses domestiques. Le hros habite dans un chteau au bord de la Seine mais il va de temps en temps Paris ou Rouen pour se distraire.
Le conte se passe en mai-juin-juillet et septembre, l'intrigue dure donc environ quatre mois. Continuellement le hros essaye de se dlivrer de l'emprise du Horla. On Liberty Ebook! Le 10 juillet, le narrateur se livre une exprience effrayante pour cause des questions qu'il se pose. Robert Lucyk Resume! Il donne l'impression que les phnomnes sont bien rels. Witness! Il croit la prsence d'une autre personne invisible qui le tourmente et le poursuit, l'angoisse modifie peu peu son aspect physique. Robert Lucyk! Du 3 au 10 juillet, les notations dans le journal nous rvlent que les temps morts, o l'criture ralentit sa frnsie, nous dmontrent une accalmie de son esprit. Should Be Tried Essay! A la fin de cette version, le narrateur ne voit qu'une issue possible, le suicide, qui serait pour lui une sorte de dlivrance de cet tre surnaturel. Robert Lucyk Resume! L'auteur le prcise dans les dernires lignes de ce conte.
Je devinais le travail torturant de sa pense ( p.48 ) Cette citation nous montre que le narrateur s'intresse de plus en plus l'exprience de sa cousine. Mon avis personnel : Je trouve ce livre trs agrable, surtout la deuxime version du Horla qui est prsente sous forme de journal intime du narrateur, car celui-ci nous dcrit son univers et sa folie. Be Tried Essay! Je trouve que Maupassant a utilis beaucoup de suspense pour rendre la lecture plus angoissante et stimulante pour la suite de la lecture. Robert Lucyk! Au dbut du conte, on dissertation protection voit que c'est un homme qui est attach ses racines et sa culture et qu'il parle de la Seine qui se trouve prs de sa demeure comme d'un rve, qui malheureusement tournera au cauchemar ! Ce livre m'a plu sincrement, car aussi les scnes taient bien dcrites. Questionnaire de Lecture et ses rponses : 1°-A quoi voit-on que la troisime version du Horla est un journal intime ? On le voit car elle est crite la premire personne du singulier et le narrateur est l'auteur mme qui lui aussi souffrait de troubles mentaux. 2°-De quel registre le Horla fait-il partie?
Il fait partie du registre fantastique car il fait rfrence un tre surnaturel et invisible. 3°-Que signifie le terme fantastique dans ce rcit ? Il signifie apparition, d'o imagination, image qui s'offre l'esprit, et il a galement donn au franais fantaisie, fantme. 4°-Citez quelques points communs qui unissent ces trois versions ? Les points communs sont : la caractrisation du narrateur et de l'espace dans lequel il vit, mais aussi au personnel qui l'entoure, qu'il s'agisse de ses domestiques ou des mdecins qui il finit par s'adresser. 5°-A qui s'adresse l'auteur dans la premire version (Lettre d'un fou) ? Elle s'adresse un mdecin pour lui faire part de ses inquitudes. 6°-Sur quelle dure s'tend la partie de journal que l'on peut lire dans la troisime version du Horla ? Elle s'tend environ sur quatre mois, mai-juin-juillet et septembre. 7°-Que signifie le titre le Horla ? Le Horla est une crature monstrueuse issue des tnbres, un spectre qui agit par vampirisme, suggestion, magntisme. 8°-Qui est le hros de l'histoire ? Le hros de l'histoire est un jeune officier de 26 ans qui est incrdule, insouciant et provocateur. 9°-A quel temps l'auteur crit-il le plus souvent ? Il crit le plus souvent au prsent. 10°-O se situe essentiellement l'action dans le rcit ? Elle se situe essentiellement prs de Rouen. Le livre est compos de 3 versions : 1) Lettre d'un fou (1885)
2) Le Horla ( premire version, 1886) 3) Le Horla (1887) Genre de l'œuvre : Oeuvre classe dans le genre du fantastique. Thme de l'ouvrage : la rencontre de l'invisible. Cet ouvrage certes fantastique du Horla peut tre simplement associ au rcit d'un homme malade, rong par l'existence d'un tre invisible, mais on robert lucyk resume peut tout aussi bien tablir un lien entre ce rcit et la vie de son auteur. Essay Structure University! En effet, Maupassant tait lui-mme sujet des hallucinations et par la suite finira fou. On peut donc penser que c'est pour cette raison que l'auteur peut dcrire avec autant d'exactitude l'angoisse du personnage qui est en fait le narrateur de ce rcit. Robert Lucyk Resume! Et c'est probablement aussi pour cette raison que l'auteur rcrit trois fois la mme scne. RESUME et ETUDE DU PERSONNAGE PRINCIPAL. Dans la dernire version de 1887 le rcit est prsent sous la forme d'un journal intime. Thesis Video! On peut remarquer que cette version, la plus dtaille, est la plus complte.
C'est pourquoi il est plus judicieux d'tudier cette version plutt que les prcdentes. L'histoire est celle d'un homme de quarante-deux ans qui vivait dans une demeure se situant au bord de la Seine. Un jour, sans raison apparente, il fut pris d'tranges sensations et de malaises qui lui laissrent penser qu'il n'tait pas seul, qu'on le suivait quoi qu'il fasse, qu'il tait pourchass par un tre qu'il ne pouvait voir. Le narrateur nous dcrit son angoisse et l'instabilit du fonctionnement de ses sens. Robert Lucyk! Un jour il s'endormit en laissant prs de son lit une carafe remplie d'eau. A son rveil, qu'elle ne fut pas sa surprise lorsqu'il la trouva vide, persuad que personne n'avait pu pntrer dans sa chambre. Pensant tre fou, l'homme dcide de fuir vers le Mont-Saint-Michel, o il visita le monument mdival et parla avec un moine de l'existence des choses invisibles. Pensant tre guri, il retourne chez lui, mais trs rapidement sa folie le reprend. Dissertation! Ne sachant plus quoi penser l'homme dcida donc de mener des expriences : la nuit avant de se coucher, il place divers aliments cot de son lit (du lait, de l'eau, du pain, du vin et enfin des fraises).
A son rveil, les aliments qui le dgotaient n'taient plus ct de son lit. Robert Lucyk Resume! Il aboutit donc la conclusion effrayante que quelqu'un tait prsent dans sa chambre chaque nuit et que cette personne buvait son eau et mangeait les aliments qui le dgotaient le plus. Plus tard, il se rend Paris o il reste trois semaines. Data Analysis Of! Dans cette ville, il assiste une sance d'hypnotisme qui rend ses penses confuses, tout en alimentant la question que son esprit se pose sans arrt : l'invisible pourrait-il exister ? Un beau jour de printemps, lorsque l'homme se promne dans le jardin de sa demeure, il voit devant lui une rose se casser et s'lever en l'air. Lucyk! Rentr chez lui, angoiss par ce qu'il vient de voir, il s'assoit dans un fauteuil pour rflchir. Dissertation Protection! C'est alors qu'il voit une page de son livre, qu'il avait auparavant pos, se tourner comme si une personne tait l en train de lire sans pour autant pouvoir la distinguer.
Maintenant, l'homme en est sr, un tre invisible est quelques pas de lui, l'envahissant de sa prsence pesante ; il baptisa cet tre le horla. Aprs de multiples tentatives il finit par le voir, lorsqu'un soir il se retourne vers son miroir comme il avait l'habitude de faire, sauf que cette fois il fut surpris de ne pas voir son reflet, celui-ci avait disparu. Puis lentement il rapparut comme si quelque chose tait pass devant lui. Il l'avait donc vu, cet tre si envahissant qui lui dtruisait sa vie. On a pu remarquer dans le rcit que les domestiques du personnage principal sont eux aussi atteints par la mme folie que lui, ce qui nous laisse penser que cette folie est extrmement contagieuse. Le personnage principal se met rflchir sur un sujet que l'humanit redoute : existe-t-il un tre plus perfectionn que l'homme, serait-il son successeur ? Le narrateur rpond ce sujet par l'existence du horla. Plus tard le personnage apprend que la province de So Paulo au Brsil est touche par une pidmie de folie dont les symptmes sont semblables ceux qu'il possde.
Il se souvient alors que juste avant que sa folie le prenne, il avait vu passer sur la Seine un bateau brsilien. Pour en finir avec sa folie, le personnage dcide de tuer le horla par le feu : il l'enferme dans sa chambre et met le feu sa demeure, tout en observant l'incendie depuis son jardin. Tout coup, il entend des cris qui lui rappellent qu'il avait laiss ses serviteurs dans sa demeure… Il se pose alors la question si le horla aurait pu chaper une mort si certaine pour un homme. Il prit alors conscience que cet tre invisible qu'il nommait le horla faisait partie intgrante de son esprit et de son corps. LES TEMPS DU RECIT : Extrait (4e paragraphe page 64) : Je me dressai, les mains tendues, en me tournant si vite que je faillis tomber. Robert Lucyk Resume! Eh bien . on thesis video y voyait comme en plein jour, et je ne me vis pas dans ma glace . Resume! Elle tait vide, claire, profonde, pleine de lumire ! Mon image n'tait pas dedans. Essay! et j'tais en face, moi ! Je voyais le grand verre limpide du haut en bas. Resume! Et je regardais cela avec des yeux affols ; et je n'osais plus avancer, je n'osais plus faire un mouvement, sentant bien pourtant qu'il tait l, mais qu'il osait encore, lui dont le corps imperceptible avait dvor mon reflet. J'ai choisi cet extrait, car il particulirement reprsentatif des temps utiliss dans l'œuvre, et du style qu'utilise l'auteur pour dcrire les sentiments du personnage principal. On peut remarquer dans cet extrait, et plus gnralement dans l'intgralit du livre, que le rcit est crit majoritairement l'imparfait (tait, regardais, osais, voyait. Dissertation! ).
Il y a cependant quelques emplois du pass simple dans ce livre mais la supriorit de l'imparfait se fait ressentir, puisque ce temps est souvent utilis dans par les crivains pour crire des oeuvres fantastiques, ici l'imparfait a deux valeurs ; une valeur durative et une valeur descriptive. Un livre plus qu'intressant qui doit cet effet son sujet : la perception de l'imperceptible. Resume! Un sujet plus que difficile traiter pour l'auteur car il s'agit de dcrire l'invisible ! Dans la ligne du clbre Dr Jeckyl et Mister Hide ce livre satisfera les amateurs de fantastique. Un livre court mais sensationnel, car au fil de l'histoire on of est plong dans l'angoisse du personnage allant mme jusqu'a s'identifier lui. Ce livre m'a fait rflchir sur l'existence de l'humanit et les tres qui succderont la race humaine. Profondment touch par l'angoisse ressentie par le personnage du livre, j'ai vite t sduit par cette oeuvre. Et je la recommande vivement ceux qui s'interrogent sur l'existence du monde qui nous entoure. Questionnaire de Lecture : 1) Quel est le genre de l' oeuvre ? Cette oeuvre est classe dans le genre du fantastique. 2) Quel est le sujet de cette oeuvre ? Le sujet de cette oeuvre est : L'existence de l' invisible.
3) Quel est le lieu principal dans lequel ce passe l' histoire ? Le lieu principal est la demeure du personnage principal. 4) Quels champs lexicaux retrouve-t on robert resume dans cette œuvre ? On retrouve souvent le champ lexical de la Perception (claire,voir,lire,regarder,yeux,apercevoir,distinguer). Le champ lexical de l'angoisse et de l'effroi : (dvorer, Comme j'eus peur !, pouvante, frissonner ) 5) Sous quelle forme est prsente la premire version du Horla ? La premire version du Horla est prsente sous forme d'une lettre du personnage principal adresse a un mdecin. Analysis! D'o le titre Lettre d'un fou . 6) A quel temps le texte est t-il majoritairement crit ? Le texte est principalement crit l'imparfait. 7) Qui est le Horla ? Le personnage principal est poursuivit par un tre invisible qu'il nomme : le Horla. 8) Quels autres personnages sont impliqus dans l'histoire ? Les domestiques du personnage principal sont particulirement impliqus car ils ont t « contamins » par celui-ci. 9) Comment est dsign le personnage principal dans l'œuvre ? Le personnage principal tant le narrateur, il est dsign par je dans le rcit et plus particulirement dans la dernire version du Horla, qui a une structure semblable celle d'un journal intime. 10) Le personnage est t-il impuissant face sa maladie ? Il l' est totalement, car malgr les voyages qu'il effectue pour se dtendre son retour chez lui sa maladie rapparat. Le 16 Mars 2008.
Je pense que pour plus de lisibilit, il faudrait sparer les lectures en deux doc distincts. Robert! C'est un gros travail! Par ailleurs, afin que l'on vous retrouve plus facilement, il faudrait changer le titre de votre document et incorporer dans celui-ci le titre de l'ouvrage: le Horla. Ex de titre: Le Horla de Maupassant, rsum et questionnaire Le 31 Décembre 2010.
Merci beaucoup :grce toi je vais avoir 20/20 ! =D.