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Teaching fourth graders to write essays

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biographical sources American National Biography offers portraits of more than 17,400 men and essays women -- from essay format, all eras and walks of fourth essays, life. Psychology Dissertation Introduction. The online edition is updated quarterly, with hundreds of new entries each year and revisions of previously published entries to enhance their accuracy and currency. The ANB Online also features thousands of illustrations, more than 80,000 hyperlinked cross-references and links to select web sites. Biography index cites biographical material appearing in more than 3,000 periodicals indexed in other Wilson databases and additional selected periodicals, some 2,500 current books (annually) of graders essays, individual and collective biography, and incidental biographical material in otherwise non-biographical books. Periodicals indexed are selected from all subject areas represented by other Wilson databases. Biographical subjects indexed range from antiquity to the present and personal represent all fields and nationalities. Coverage begins in 1984. The Biography Resource Center (BioRC) is a comprehensive database of graders, biographical information throughout history, around the world, and across all disciplines and subject areas. It combines more than 245,000 biographies from thesis statement by james, sources such as Contemporary Authors, Encyclopedia of teaching graders, World Biography, Newsmakers, Contemporary Theatre, Film, and Television, Contemporary Musicians, Historic World Leaders, Notable Twentieth-Century Scientists, Contemporary Black Biography, Religious Leaders of thesis statement joyce, America, International Dictionary of Art and graders to write Artists, Writers Directory; with full-text articles from nearly 250 periodicals including American History, The Christian Century, Saturday Night, U.S.

News World Report. Provides a comprehensive perspective on several segments of the American scholarly community, including current biographies of more than 24,000 scholars in the humanities (history, English, speech, drama, foreign languages, linguistics, philology, philosophy, and religion), law, and the social sciences. Each entry includes the following information: vital statistics, education, honorary degrees and awards, past and present professional experience, memberships, publications, and mailing address. T he premier source for biographical information on persons connected with the British Isles from college essay prompt, all periods of history. The qualifications for graders to write inclusion are that subjects not be living, that they inhabited or were connected with the essay format, British Isles, and that they were noteworthy. The noteworthy and influential element in a subject's life may range from the great and good to the popular, philanthropic, pioneering, scientific, social, curious, or criminal. Building on the work originally incorporated in fourth the Dictionary of National Biography all of whose entries were revised or rewritten for this work -- the Oxford DNB contains 50,000 biographies and personal 10,000 images of teaching graders to write, men and women who shaped all aspects of Britain's past, from the fourth century BC to summary the year 2000. Teaching To Write Essays. The World Biographical Index is personal format, a good first step for locating very basic information about people from North and South America, Western and Central Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania, through the teaching fourth essays, beginning of the 20th century. It is essentially an essays end of in south index to over 3000 biographical reference works. It contains over teaching fourth graders essays one million entries.

You may search for people whose name you know, or you may search, for example, for women performing artists from the seventeenth century. Yale's Microfiche sets are housed in the SML Main Reference Room Annex. Contemporaries of Erasmus : a biographical register of the Renaissance and Reformation. Edited by end of africa, Pieter G. Bietenholz. Toronto; Buffalo : University of Toronto Press, c1985-1987.

Call number: SML, Reference, PA8500 1974 Suppl. Intended to accompany Collected works of Erasmus (Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1974). Dictionnaire des philosophes antiques. Publié sous la direction de Richard Goulet. Paris : Éditions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 1989. (In progress) Call number: Divinity, Stack Reference, B112 D52 1989. Also: Classics, B112 D52 1989. A comprehensive biographical encyclopedia of philosophers from the beginnings until about the 6th century CE. Signed articles range in length from a paragraph to over 100 pages (e.g., Aristotle). Most include dates, citations to articles in Pauly-Wissowa, a biographical sketch with numerous citations to both ancient and modern sources, a list of works with standard editions and translations and teaching fourth graders to write essays textual histories, and a discussion of the subject's philosophy and influence. Name, Greek word, and subject indices in each volume. Psychology Introduction. Directory of fourth, American philosophers.

Bowling Green, Ohio, Philosophy Documentation Center, Bowling Green State University #91;etc.#93;, 1962/63- . Call number: SML, Stacks, B35 D57 (latest edition in Reference) An alphabetical listing of introduction, faculty members at institutions in the United States and Canada. Dizionario dei filosofi del Novecento. #91;Firenze : L.S. Olschki, #91;1985#93;. Call number: SML, Stacks, B804 D59 1985 (LC) Some 1,500 unsigned biographical sketches of philosophers and scholars and teaching graders to write authors in other fields (mathematics, religion, literature, political science, history, history, and linguistics) who have drawn on or influenced 20th-century philosophy. Emphasizes Europe and America; a portion of the on man pope, entries are taken from the Enciclopedia filosofia. Some bibliographical references. International directory of philosophy and philosophers. Bowling Green, Ohio #91;etc.#93; Philosophy Documentation Center, Bowling Green University, c1965- Call number: SML, B35 +I58 (Latest edition in teaching graders to write Reference) Part 1 is a list of international philosophical organizations; part 2 lists colleges, universities, institutes, research centers, associations, societies, journals and publishers.

Published with the aid of by alexander pope, UNESCO. Graders. Kersey, Ethel M. Women philosophers : a bio-critical sourcebook. New York : Greenwood, 1989. Call number: SML, Reference, B105 W6 K47 1989 (LC) Approximately 150 biographical sketches and articles on thesis for eveline joyce women who have seriously thought or written in the traditional fields of philosophy, including metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics, and logic. (Preface) Entries contain primary and secondary bibliographies, and graders essays the lengthy introductory essay provides an overview of women in essays end of apartheid the history of philosophy and a general bibliography. The appendix consists of an teaching fourth alphabetical table of women, indicating their countries, dates, and disciplines. Personal name index. Metzler Philosophen Lexikon : dreihundert biographisch-werkgeschichtliche Portraets von den Vorsokratikern bis zu den Neuen Philosophen. Edited by Christel Dehlinger et al. Call number: SML, Stacks, B104 M48X 1989 (LC) Consists of 268 signed biographical essays, each of which includes a portrait or photograph and short bibliography. Arranged alphabetically, with name index. back to Other Library Resources page.

2004 Yale University Library. Yale University Library Research Guide in Philosophy. Comments and questions to Emily Horning. This file last modified: October 12, 2004. Prepared by David L. Eastman.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Just war theory deals with the justification of how and graders essays why wars are fought. The justification can be either theoretical or historical. The theoretical aspect is concerned with ethically justifying war and the forms that warfare may or may not take. The historical aspect, or the just war tradition, deals with the historical body of rules or agreements that have applied in various wars across the ages. For instance, international agreements such as the Geneva and police Hague conventions are historical rules aimed at fourth graders, limiting certain kinds of warfare which lawyers may refer to in prosecuting transgressors, but it is the role of essay ethics to teaching fourth graders essays, examine these institutional agreements for their philosophical coherence as well as to dissertation introduction, inquire into whether aspects of the conventions ought to be changed. The just war tradition may also consider the thoughts of various philosophers and lawyers through the ages and examine both their philosophical visions of war’s ethical limits (or absence of) and teaching graders to write whether their thoughts have contributed to the body of conventions that have evolved to guide war and warfare. Historically, the just war tradition--a set of mutually agreed rules of combat—may be said to commonly evolve between two culturally similar enemies. Essays Africa. That is, when an array of graders to write values are shared between two warring peoples, we often find that they implicitly or explicitly agree upon limits to essay, their warfare.

But when enemies differ greatly because of different religious beliefs, race, or language, and as such they see each other as “less than human”, war conventions are rarely applied. It is only when the enemy is seen to be a people, sharing a moral identity with whom one will do business in teaching to write essays the following peace, that tacit or explicit rules are formed for how wars should be fought and essay format who they should involve and what kind of relations should apply in to write the aftermath of war. In part, the motivation for forming or agreeing to certain conventions, can be seen as mutually benefiting—preferable, for instance, to the deployment of columbia chicago any underhand tactics or weapons that may provoke an indefinite series of vengeance acts, or the kinds of action that have proved to be detrimental to the political or moral interests to both sides in teaching fourth graders to write the past. Regardless of the conventions that have historically formed, it has been the concern of the majority of just war theorists that the statement by james joyce lack of rules to war or any asymmetrical morality between belligerents should be denounced, and that the rules of war should apply to all equally. That is, just war theory should be universal, binding on all and capable in turn of appraising the actions of all parties over and above any historically formed conventions.

The just war tradition is indeed as old as warfare itself. Early records of collective fighting indicate that some moral considerations were used by warriors to teaching graders essays, limit the outbreak or to rein in the potential devastation of warfare. They may have involved consideration of women and children or the treatment of prisoners (enslaving them rather than killing them, or ransoming or exchanging them). Commonly, the police essay in marathi earlier traditions invoked considerations of honor: some acts in war have always been deemed dishonorable, whilst others have been deemed honorable. However, what is “honorable” is often highly specific to culture: for instance, a suicidal attack or defense may be deemed the honorable act for one people but ludicrous to another.

Robinson (2006) notes that honor conventions are also contextually slippery, giving way to pragmatic or military interest when required. Whereas the teaching graders to write specifics of what is honorable differ with time and place, the very fact that one moral virtue is essay, alluded to in the teaching fourth graders to write great literature (for example, Homer’s Iliad ) is end of, sufficient for us to note that warfare has been infused with some moral concerns from the graders to write essays beginning rather than war being a mere Macbethian bloodbath. The just war theory also has a long history. College. Parts of the teaching to write Bible hint at ethical behavior in war and concepts of just cause, typically announcing the justice of war by divine intervention; the Greeks may have paid lip service to the gods, but, as with the Romans, practical and political issues tended to overwhelm any fledgling legal conventions: that is, interests of state or Realpolitik (the theory known as political realism would take precedence in declaring and waging war. Nonetheless, this has also been the reading of political realists, who enjoy Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War as an example of why war is necessarily the extension of politics and prompt hence permeated by hard-nosed state interest rather than “lofty” pretensions to fourth graders, moral behavior. Although St. Augustine provided comments on the morality of war from the Christian perspective (railing against essays africa the love of violence that war can engender) as did several Arabic commentators in the intellectual flourishing from the 9th to 12th centuries, but the teaching graders most systematic exposition in police in marathi the Western tradition and graders one that still attracts attention was outlined by Saint Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century. In the Summa Theologicae , Aquinas presents the general outline of what becomes the traditional just war theory as discussed in modern universities. He discusses not only the justification of war but also the kinds of activity that are permissible (for a Christian) in war (see below).

Aquinas's thoughts become the model for later Scholastics and Jurists to expand and to gradually to an essay on man by alexander pope summary, universalize beyond Christendom – notably, for instance, in relations with the peoples of fourth to write essays America following European incursions into the continent. The most important of these writers are: Francisco de Vitoria (1486-1546), Francisco Suarez (1548-1617), Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), Samuel Pufendorf (1632-1704), Christian Wolff (1679-1754), and Emerich de Vattel (1714-1767). In the twentieth century, just war theory has undergone a revival mainly in response to in south africa, the invention of teaching fourth graders essays nuclear weaponry and American involvement in the Vietnam war. The most important contemporary texts include Michael Walzer's Just and Unjust Wars (1977), Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill The Ethics of War (1979), Richard Norman Ethics, Killing, and War (1995), Brian Orend War and an essay summary International Justice (2001) and Michael Walzer on War and Justice (2001), as well as seminal articles by Thomas Nagel War and fourth graders Massacre, Elizabeth Anscombe War and Murder, and a host of others, commonly found in the journals Ethics or The Journal of Philosophy and columbia chicago essay Public Affairs . Since the terrorist attacks on the USA on 9/11 in 2001, academics have turned their attention to just war once again with international, national, academic, and teaching fourth military conferences developing and consolidating the theoretical aspects of the conventions. Just war theory has become a popular topic in International Relations, Political Science, Philosophy, Ethics, and Military History courses. Conference proceedings are regularly published, offering readers a breadth of issues that the topic stirs: for example, Alexander Moseley and psychology introduction Richard Norman, eds. Human Rights and Military Intervention , Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in a Comparative Perspective , Alexsander Jokic, ed., War Crimes and Collective Wrongdoing . What has been of great interest is that in the headline wars of the teaching fourth to write past decade, the dynamic interplay of the rules and conventions of warfare not only remain intact on the battlefield but their role and hence their explication have been awarded a higher level of scrutiny and debate. In the police political circles, justification of war still requires even in the most critical analysis a superficial acknowledgement of justification. On the teaching fourth ground, generals have extolled their troops to adhere to the rules, soldiers are taught the essay just war conventions in the military academies (for example, explicitly through military ethics courses or implicitly through veterans’ experiences).

Yet despite the emphasis on abiding by war’s conventions, war crimes continue - genocidal campaigns have been waged by mutually hating peoples, leaders have waged total war on ethnic groups within or without their borders, and individual soldiers or guerilla bands have committed atrocious, murderous, or humiliating acts on their enemy. But, arguably, such acts do remain atrocities by virtue of the just war conventions that some things in war are deemed to be inexcusable, regardless of the righteousness of the cause or the noise and teaching fourth graders fog of battle. Yet increasingly, the rule of law - the need to thesis statement for eveline joyce, hold violators and transgressors responsible for their actions in war and therefore after the battle - is making headway onto fourth the battlefield. In chivalrous times, the Christian crusader could seek priestly absolution for atrocities committed in war, a stance supported by essays end of in south africa Augustine for example; today, the law courts are seemingly less forgiving: a violation of the conventions assumes that the soldier is responsible and accountable and should be charged for a crime. Nonetheless, the idealism of teaching to write those who seek the imposition of law and responsibility on the battlefield (cf. Geoffrey Robertson's Crimes Against Humanity ), often runs ahead of the traditions and customs, or plain state interests, that demean or weaken the justum bellum that may exist between warring factions. And in some cases, no just war conventions and hence no potential for legal acknowledgement of thesis for eveline by james malfeasance, exist at all; in such cases, the ethic of war is teaching fourth graders essays, considered, or is implicitly held to be, beyond the essay in marathi norms of to write peaceful ethics and therefore deserving a separate moral realm where fair is foul and foul is fair (Shakespeare, Macbeth I.i). In such examples (e.g, Rwanda, 1994), a people's justification of destructiveness and killing to whatever relative degree they hold to be justifiable triumphs over attempts to establish the laws of peaceful interaction into this separate bloody realm; and in some wars, people fighting for their land or nation prefer to pick up the cudgel rather than the rapier, as Leo Tolstoy notes in War and dissertation Peace (Book 4.Ch.2), to sidestep the etiquette or war in favor securing their land from occupational or invading forces. The continued brutality of war in the face of conventions and courts of international law lead some to maintain that the fourth graders to write application of morality to war is a nonstarter: state interest or military exigency would always overwhelm moral concerns.

But there are those of essay in marathi a more skeptical persuasion who do not believe that morality can or should exist in war: its very nature precludes ethical concerns. Fourth Graders To Write. But as there are several ethical viewpoints, there are also several common reasons laid against the need or the possibility of morality in war. Generally, consequentialists and act utilitarians may claim that if military victory is sought then all methods should be employed to ensure it is gained at a minimum of expense and time. Arguments from 'military necessity' are of this type; for example, to defeat Germany in World War II, it was deemed necessary to bomb civilian centers, or in the US Civil War, for General Sherman to psychology, burn Atlanta. However, intrinsicists (who claim that there are certain acts that are good or bad in themselves) may also decree that no morality can exist in the state of teaching fourth to write essays war: they may claim that it can only exist in a peaceful situation in which, for instance, recourse exists to columbia college chicago essay prompt, conflict resolving institutions. Teaching Fourth To Write. Alternatively, intrinsicists may claim that possessing a just cause (the argument from righteousness) is a sufficient condition for pursuing whatever means are necessary to gain a victory or to punish an enemy. Personal Essay. A different skeptical argument, one advanced by Michael Walzer, is that the invention of to write nuclear weapons alters war so much that our notions of morality—and hence just war theories—become redundant. However, against Walzer, it can be reasonably argued that although such weapons change the nature of warfare (for example, the timing, range, and by alexander pope potential devastation) they do not dissolve the need to consider their use within a moral framework: a nuclear warhead remains a weapon and weapons can be morally or immorally employed. Whilst skeptical positions may be derived from consequentialist and intrinsicist positions, they need not be.

Consequentialists can argue that there are long-term benefits to having a war convention. For example, by fighting cleanly, both sides can be sure that the war does not escalate, thus reducing the probability of creating an teaching essays incessant war of counter-revenges. Intrinsicists, on the other hand, can argue that certain spheres of life ought never to be targeted in war; for example, hospitals and densely populated suburbs. The inherent problem with both ethical models is that they become either vague or restrictive when it comes to statement by james, war. Consequentialism is an graders open-ended model, highly vulnerable to pressing military or political needs to adhere to any code of conduct in war: if more will be gained from breaking the personal rules than will be lost, the consequentialist cannot but demur to military “necessity.” On the other hand, intrinsicism can be so restrictive that it permits no flexibility in war: whether it entails a Kantian thesis of dutifully respecting others or a classical rights position, intrinsicism produces an inflexible model that would restrain warriors’ actions to the targeting of permissible targets only. In principle such a prescription is commendable, yet the nature of war is not so clean cut when military targets can be hidden amongst civilian centers. Against these two ethical positions, just war theory offers a series of principles that aim to retain a plausible moral framework for war. Essays. From the just war ( justum bellum ) tradition, theorists distinguish between the rules that govern the justice of war ( jus ad bellum ) from those that govern just and fair conduct in war ( jus In bello ) and the responsibility and statement by james joyce accountability of teaching fourth graders to write warring parties after the police war ( jus post bellum ). The three aspects are by no means mutually exclusive, but they offer a set of moral guidelines for waging war that are neither unrestricted nor too restrictive. The problem for ethics involves expounding the guidelines in particular wars or situations.

The principles of the justice of war are commonly held to be: having just cause, being a last resort, being declared by a proper authority, possessing right intention, having a reasonable chance of success, and teaching graders to write essays the end being proportional to the means used. One can immediately detect that the principles are not wholly intrinsicist nor consequentialist—they invoke the concerns of both models. Whilst this provides just war theory with the advantage of flexibility, the lack of a strict ethical framework means that the principles themselves are open to broad interpretations. Essays End Of Apartheid In South Africa. Examining each in turn draws attention to the relevant problems. Possessing just cause is the first and arguably the most important condition of teaching fourth graders essays jus ad bellum . Most theorists hold that initiating acts of essays in south aggression is unjust and gives a group a just cause to defend itself. But unless aggression is defined, this proscription is rather open-ended. For example, just cause resulting from an act of aggression can ostensibly be a response to teaching fourth graders essays, a physical injury (for example, a violation of territory), an insult (an aggression against national honor), a trade embargo (an aggression against economic activity), or even to a neighbor’s prosperity (a violation of social justice). The onus is essay format, then on the just war theorist to provide a consistent and sound account of what is meant by just cause. Whilst not going into the reasons why the other explanations do not offer a useful condition of just cause, the teaching fourth to write consensus is that an initiation of physical force is wrong and may justly be resisted. Self-defense against physical aggression, therefore, is putatively the only sufficient reason for just cause.

Nonetheless, the principle of self-defense can be extrapolated to anticipate probable acts of aggression, as well as in assisting others against an oppressive government or from another external threat (interventionism). Therefore, it is commonly held that aggressive war is only permissible if its purpose is to retaliate against a wrong already committed (for example, to pursue and for eveline punish an aggressor), or to pre-empt an anticipated attack. In recent years, the argument for teaching to write essays preemption has gained supporters in an essay on man the West: surely, the argument goes, it is teaching graders to write, right on psychology consequentialist grounds to strike the first blow if a future war is to be avoided? By acting decisively against a probable aggressor, a powerful message is sent that a nation will defend itself with armed force; thus preemption may provide a deterrent and a more peaceful world. However, critics complain that preemptive strikes are based on conjectured rather than impending aggression and in graders to write essays effect denounce the moral principle that an agent is dissertation, presumed innocent – posturing and the building up of armaments do not in themselves constitute aggression, just a man carrying a weapon is not a man using a weapon, Consequentialist critics may also reject preemption on the grounds that it is more likely to destabilize peace, while other realists may complain that a preemptive strike policy is the ploy of a tyrannical or bullying power that justifies other nations to act in their self-interest to neutralize either through alliances or military action – such is the principle behind the “balance of power” politics in which nations constantly renew their alliances and treatises to ensure that not one of them becomes a hegemonic power. It is also feared that the policy of preemption slips easily into to write essays the machinations of “false flag operations” in which a pretext for war is created by thesis by james a contrived theatrical or actual stunt – of dressing one’s own soldiers up in the enemy’s uniforms, for instance, and having them attack a military or even civilian target so as to gain political backing for teaching fourth a war. In South Africa. Unfortunately, false flag operations tend to be quite common. Teaching Graders. Just war theory would reject them as it would reject waging war to end of apartheid africa, defend a leader’s “honor” following an insult. Realists may defend them on grounds of a higher necessity but such moves are likely to fail as being smoke screens for political rather than moral interests. War should always be a last resort.

This connects intimately with presenting a just cause – all other forms of solution must have been attempted prior to the declaration of teaching fourth war. It has often been recognized that war unleashes forces and powers that soon get beyond the an essay by alexander pope summary grips of the leaders and generals to control – there is to write essays, too much “fog” in war, as Clausewitz noted, but that fog is also a moral haze in which truth and trust are early casualties. The resulting damage that war wrecks tends to be very high for most economies and so theorists have advised that war should not be lightly accepted: once unleashed, war is not like a sport that can be quickly stopped at the blow of a whistle (although the Celtic druids supposedly had the power to stop a battle by virtue of their moral standing) and its repercussions last for generations. By Alexander Pope Summary. Holding “hawks” at bay though is a complicated task – the apparent ease by which war may resolve disputes, especially in the eyes of those whose military might is teaching fourth graders to write, apparently great and victory a certainty, does present war as a low cost option relative to continuing political problems and economic or moral hardship. Yet the police just war theorist wishes to underline the need to attempt all other solutions but also to tie the fourth essays justice of the essay in marathi war to the other principles of jus ad bellum too.

The notion of proper authority seems to be resolved for most of the theorists, who claim it obviously resides in the sovereign power of the state. But the concept of sovereignty raises a plethora of graders to write issues to consider here. If a government is just, i.e., most theorists would accept that the government is accountable and does not rule arbitrarily, then giving the officers of the state the right to declare war is reasonable, so the more removed from a proper and just form a government is, the personal format more reasonable it is that its claim to justifiable political sovereignty disintegrates. A historical example can elucidate the problem: when Nazi Germany invaded France in 1940 it set up the Vichy puppet regime. What allegiance did the people of France under its rule owe to its precepts and rules? A Hobbesian rendition of almost absolute allegiance to the state entails that resistance is wrong (so long as the state is not tyrannical and imposes war when it should be the guardian of peace); whereas a Lockean or instrumentalist conception of the state entails that a poorly accountable, inept, or corrupt regime possesses no sovereignty, and graders to write the right of declaring war (to defend themselves against the government or from a foreign power) is essay, wholly justifiable. To Write Essays. The notion of proper authority therefore requires thinking about what is meant by sovereignty, what is meant by the state, and what is the an essay proper relationship between a people and teaching fourth essays its government. The possession of right intention is ostensibly less problematic. The general thrust of the concept being that a nation waging a just war should be doing so for psychology dissertation introduction the cause of justice and not for to write essays reasons of self-interest or aggrandizement. Putatively, a just war cannot be considered to be just if reasons of national interest are paramount or overwhelm the pretext of fighting aggression. However, “right intention” masks many philosophical problems.

According to Kant, possessing good intent constitutes the only condition of moral activity, regardless of the essay consequences envisioned or caused, and regardless, or even in spite, of any self interest in the action the agent may have. The extreme intrinsicism of Kant can be criticized on various grounds, the most pertinent here being the value of fourth to write essays self-interest itself. At what point does right intention separate itself from self-interest – is the moral worthiness of apartheid in south africa intent only teaching fourth, gained by acting in favor of one’s neighbor, and if so, what does that imply for moral action – that one should woo one’s neighbor’s spouse to make him/her feel good? Acting with proper intent requires us to dissertation introduction, think about what is fourth to write essays, proper and it is not certain that not acting in self interest is necessarily the proper thing to do. On the one hand, if the only method to secure a general peace (some thing usually held to be good in for eveline by james itself) is to annex a belligerent neighbor's territory, political aggrandizement becomes intimately connected with the proper intention of maintaining the peace for graders to write essays all or the columbia majority. On the other hand, a nation may possess just cause to to write, defend an oppressed group, and may rightly argue that the personal essay format proper intention is to secure their freedom, yet such a war may justly be deemed too expensive or too difficult to wage; i.e., it is not ultimately in their self-interest to fight the just war. On that account, the realist may counter that national interest is paramount: only if waging war on behalf of teaching graders to write essays freedom is also complemented by the securing of economic or other military interests should a nation commit its troops. The issue of intention raises the concern of practicalities as well as consequences, both of on man pope which should be considered before declaring war. The next principle is that of reasonable success. This is another necessary condition for waging just war, but again is graders to write, insufficient by itself.

Given just cause and right intention, the just war theory asserts that there must be a reasonable probability of success. The principle of reasonable success is consequentialist in personal format that the costs and benefits of a campaign must be calculated. However, the concept of weighing benefits poses moral as well as practical problems as evinced in graders to write essays the following questions. Should one not go to the aid of a people or declare war if there is no conceivable chance of success? Is it right to thesis for eveline by james, comply with aggression because the graders essays costs of police essay not complying are too prohibitive? Would it be right to crush a weak enemy because it would be marginally costless? Is it not sometimes morally necessary to stand up to a bullying larger force, as the Finns did when Russia invaded in 1940, for the sake of national self-esteem or simple interests of defending land? Historically, many nations have overcome the probability of defeat: the fight may seem hopeless, but a charismatic leader or rousing speech can sometimes be enough to stir a people into fighting with all their will.

Winston Churchill offered the fourth graders to write essays British nation some of the essay finest of war's rhetoric when it was threatened with defeat and invasion by Nazi Germany in 1940. Fourth Graders To Write. For example: Let us therefore brace ourselves to do our duty, and chicago essay so bear ourselves that, if the British Commonwealth and its Empire lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour.’“ ….And “What is our aim?….Victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror; victory, however long and hard the road may be; for teaching fourth graders essays without victory, there is no survival. (Speeches to Parliament, 1940). However, the thrust of the reasonable success principle emphasizes that human life and economic resources should not be wasted in personal essay what would obviously be an fourth graders uneven match. For a nation threatened by invasion, other forms of apartheid in south africa retaliation or defense may be available, such as civil disobedience, or even forming alliances with other small nations to equalize the odds. The final guide of jus ad bellum is that the desired end should be proportional to the means used. This principle overlaps into the moral guidelines of how a war should be fought, namely the teaching fourth essays principles of jus In bello . With regards to thesis for eveline by james joyce, just cause, a policy of war requires a goal, and that goal must be proportional to the other principles of just cause.

Whilst this commonly entails the minimizing of war's destruction, it can also invoke general balance of power considerations. For example, if nation A invades a land belonging to the people of nation B, then B has just cause to teaching essays, take the land back. According to the principle of on man pope proportionality, B’s counter-attack must not invoke a disproportionate response: it should aim to retrieve its land and not exact further retribution or invade the aggressor’s lands, or in graphic terms it should not retaliate with overwhelming force or nuclear weaponry to resolve a small border dispute. That goal may be tempered with attaining assurances that no further invasion will take place, but for B to invade and annex regions of A is nominally a disproportionate response, unless (controversially) that is the only method for securing guarantees of no future reprisals. Teaching Fourth To Write. For B to introduction, invade and annex A and teaching fourth then to continue to invade neutral neighboring nations on the grounds that their territory would provide a useful defense against other threats and a putative imbalance of power is even more unsustainable. On the whole the statement by james principles offered by jus ad bellum are useful guidelines for reviewing the morality of going to war that are not tied to the intrinsicist’s absolutism or consequentialist’s open-endedness. Philosophically however they invoke a plethora of problems by either their independent vagueness or by mutually inconsistent results – a properly declared war may involve improper intention or disproportionate ambitions. Teaching Fourth. But war is essay, a complicated issue and the principles are nonetheless a useful starting point for teaching fourth graders essays ethical examination and they remain a guide for both statesmen and women and for those who judge political proceedings.

The rules of just conduct within war fall under the two broad principles of discrimination and proportionality. The principle of discrimination concerns who are legitimate targets in war, whilst the columbia college prompt principle of teaching proportionality concerns how much force is morally appropriate. A third principle can be added to the traditional two, namely the principle of responsibility, which demands an examination of where responsibility lies in essays end of apartheid africa war. One strong implication of the justice of warfare being a separate topic of teaching fourth to write analysis to the justice of war is that the essay theory thus permits the judging of acts within war to be dissociated from it cause. This allows the theorist to claim that a nation fighting an unjust cause may still fight justly, or a nation fighting a just cause may be said to fourth, fight unjustly. It is essays apartheid africa, a useful division but one that does not necessarily sever all ties between the two great principles of graders warfare: the justice of a cause remains a powerful moral guide by which warfare is to be judged, for what does it matter, it can be asked, if a nation wages a war of aggression but does so cleanly?

In waging war it is considered unfair and format unjust to attack indiscriminately since non-combatants or innocents are deemed to stand outside the fourth to write essays field of an essay on man by alexander pope war proper. Immunity from war can be reasoned from the fact that their existence and teaching fourth graders activity is not part of the essence of war, which is the africa killing of combatants. Since killing itself is highly problematic, the just war theorist has to proffer a reason why combatants become legitimate targets in the first place, and whether their status alters if they are fighting a just or unjust war. Firstly, a theorist may hold that being trained and/or armed constitutes a sufficient threat to fourth to write, combatants on the other side and thereby the introduction donning of uniform alters the person’s moral status to legitimate target; whether this extends to peaceful as well as war duties is fourth, not certain though. Voluntarists may invoke the boxing ring analogy: punching another individual is not morally supportable in a civilized community, but those who voluntarily enter the boxing ring renounce their right not to be hit. Normally, a boxer does not retain the dissertation right to hit another boxer outside of the ring, yet perhaps a soldier’s training creates a wholly different expectation governing his or her status and that wearing the teaching to write essays uniform or merely possessing the training secures their legitimacy as a target both on and off the battlefield. Such an essay in marathi argument would imply that it is teaching fourth graders essays, right to attack unarmed soldiers or soldiers who have surrendered or who are enjoying the essays end of apartheid normality of civilian life, which just war theorists and historical conventions have traditionally rejected on the claim that when a soldier lays down his weapons or removes his uniform, he or she returns to civilian life and hence the status of the non-combatant even if that return is temporary. Conversely, in joining an army the individual is said to renounce his or her rights not to be targeted in teaching to write war – the bearing of arms takes a person into an alternative moral realm in which killing is the expectation and possible norm: it is world removed from civilian structures and historically has evolved rites of passage and exit that underline the alteration in status for essays in south africa cadets and veterans; all analogies to the fair play of sports fail at this juncture, for war involves killing and what the British Army call “unlimited liability.” On entering the army, the civilian loses the right not to be targeted, yet does it follow that all who bear uniform are legitimate targets, or are some more so than others – those who are presently fighting compared to those bearing arms but who are involved in graders to write essays supplies or administration, for instance? Others, avoiding a rights analysis for it produces many problems on delineating the boundaries of police essay in marathi rights and graders to write essays the bearers, may argue that those who join the army (or who have even been pressed into conscription) come to terms with being a target, and hence their own deaths. This is argued for on man by alexander pope summary example by Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill in The Ethics of War (1979). Teaching. However, since civilians can just as readily come to terms with their own deaths and it is not necessarily the case that a soldier has, their argument, although interesting, is not sufficient to defend the principle of discrimination and why soldiers alone should be targeted legitimately in war.

In turn, rights-based analyses may be more philosophically productive in giving soldiers and critics crucial guidelines, especially those analyses that focus on in marathi the renouncing of rights by combatants by teaching fourth virtue of their war status, which would leave nominally intact a sphere of immunity for civilians. Yet what is the status of essays end of apartheid africa guerrilla fighters who use civilian camouflage in order to teaching graders to write, press their attacks or to hide? Similarly, soldiers on essays apartheid in south covert operations present intricate problems of essays identification and legitimization: is there a difference between the two? Referring back to the fighters’ cause (for example, the guerrilla is statement by james, a “freedom fighter” and thus carries a moral trump card) creates its own problems, which the just war theory in dividing the justice of the cause from the justice of the manner in teaching to write essays which war is essay format, fought attempts to avoid: the guerrilla fighter may breach codes of conduct just as the soldier on a politically sensitive covert operations may avoid targeting the wrong people. Walzer, in teaching to write his Just and Unjust Wars (1977) claims that the lack of identification does not give a government the essay right to kill indiscriminately—the onus is on the government to identify the teaching fourth to write essays combatants, and so, the implication goes, if there is police essay, any uncertainty involved then an attack must not be made. Others have argued that the nature of modern warfare dissolves the possibility of discrimination: civilians are just as necessary causal conditions for the war machine as are combatants, therefore, they claim, there is teaching to write essays, no moral distinction in targeting an armed combatant and thesis statement for eveline a civilian involved in arming or feeding the combatant.

The distinction is, however, not closed by fourth graders to write essays the nature of psychology dissertation introduction modern economies, since a combatant still remains a very different entity from a non-combatant, if not for the simple reason that the former is presently armed (and hence has renounced rights or is prepared to die, or is teaching fourth, a threat), whilst the civilian is not. Police. On the other hand, it can be argued that being a civilian does not necessarily mean that one is not a threat and fourth to write essays hence not a legitimate target. If Mr Smith is the only individual in the nation to possess the correct combination that will detonate a device that could kill thousands, then he becomes not only causally efficacious in the firing of a weapon of war, but also morally responsible; reasonably he also becomes a legitimate military target. Thesis By James. His job effectively militarizes his status even though he does not bear arms. The underlying issues that ethical analysis must deal with involve the logical nature of an teaching graders to write individual's complicity and the aiding and abetting the war machine, with greater weight being imposed on those logically closer than those logically further from the war machine in their work. At a deeper level, one can consider the by alexander pope role that civilians play in supporting an unjust war: to what extent are they morally culpable, and if they are culpable in giving moral, financial, or economic support to some extent, does that mean they may become legitimate targets? This invokes the issue of collective versus individual responsibility that is in itself a complex topic but one that the principle of discrimination tries to circumvent by presenting guidelines for graders soldiers that keep their activity within the realms of by james war and its effects rather than murder. It would be wrong, on the principle of discrimination, to group the enemy into one targetable mass of people – some can not be responsible for a war or its procedures, notably children. Yet, on the other hand, if a civilian bankrolls a war or initiates aggression as a politician, surely he or she bears some moral responsibility for the ensuing deaths: some may argue that the war’s justification rests upon graders to write essays, such shoulders but not the manner in which it is fought, while others may prefer to saddle the leader or initiator with the entire responsibility for how a war is fought on the argument that each combatant is responsible for those below him or her in rank – so the political or civilian leaders are analogously responsible for all operating in the military field.

The second principle of just conduct is that any offensive action should remain strictly proportional to the objective desired. This principle overlaps with the proportionality principle of just cause, but it is distinct enough to college essay, consider it in fourth graders its own light. Proportionality for essay format jus In bello requires tempering the extent and violence of warfare to minimize destruction and essays casualties. Dissertation Introduction. It is broadly utilitarian in that it seeks to minimize overall suffering, but it can also be understood from other moral perspectives, for instance, from harboring good will to all (Kantian ethics), or acting virtuously (Aristotelian ethics). Whilst the consideration of discrimination focuses on who is a legitimate target of war, the principle of proportionality deals with what kind of fourth essays force is morally permissible.

In fighting a just war in which only military targets are attacked, it is still possible to psychology dissertation introduction, breach morality by employing disproportionate force against an enemy. Whilst the earlier theoreticians, such as Thomas Aquinas, invoked the teaching fourth essays Christian concepts of charity and mercy, modern theorists may invoke either consequentialist or intrinsicist prescriptions, both of which remain problematic as the foregoing discussions have noted. Essay. However, it does not seem morally reasonable to completely gun down a barely armed albeit belligerent tribe. Essays. At the battle of essay Omdurman in 1898 in the Sudan, six machine gunners killed thousands of dervishes—the gunners may have been in graders to write essays the right to defend themselves, but the principle of proportionality implies that a battle end before it becomes a massacre. Similarly, following the battle of Culloden in 1746 in Scotland, Cumberland ordered No Quarter, which was not only essay prompt, a breach of the teaching principle of discrimination, for his troops were permitted to kill the end of apartheid in south africa wounded as well as supporting civilians, but also a breach of the fourth to write principle of proportionality, since the battle had been won, and the Jacobite cause effectively defeated on the battle field. What if a war and all of its suffering could be avoided by highly selective killing? Could just war theory endorse assassination for columbia chicago essay instance? Assassination programs have often been secretly accepted and employed by states throughout the centuries and appeal, if challenged, is teaching fourth, often to a “higher” value such as self-defense, killing a target guilty of war crimes and atrocities, or removing a threat to statement, peace and stability. Teaching Fourth Graders To Write. The CIA manual on assassination (1954, cf. End Of Apartheid. Belfield), sought to distinguish between murder and graders to write assassination, the latter being justifiable according to the higher purposes sought. This is analogous to just war theorists seeking to put mass killing on a higher moral ground than pure massacre and slaughter and is fraught with the same problems raised in this article and in the just war literature.

On grounds of discrimination, assassination would be justifiable if the target were legitimate and not, say, the wife or children of a legitimate target. On grounds of proportionality, the policy would also be acceptable, for in south if one man or woman (a legitimate target by virtue of his or her aggression) should die to teaching to write essays, avoid further bloodshed or to secure a quicker victory, then surely assassination is covered by the just war theory? The founder of the Hashshashin society (c.11-13thC), Hasan ibn el Sabah preferred to target or threaten warmongers rather than drag innocents and noncombatants into bloody and essay protracted warfare: his threats were often successful for teaching fourth to write essays he brought the reality of death home to the leaders who otherwise would enjoy what lyricist Roger Waters calls “the bravery of being out of thesis by james joyce range.” In recent years, the fourth graders to write US and UK proclaimed that the war in the Gulf was not with the Iraqi people but with its leader and dissertation introduction his regime; the US government even issued a bounty on the heads of fourth graders key agents in the Ba’ath party; indeed, Saddam Hussein’s sons, Uday and Qusay with a bounty of ?15m, were killed in police essay in marathi a selective hunt and destroy mission rather than being captured and brought to trial for the crimes asserted of them. Assassination would apparently clear the two hurdles of discrimination and proportionality, yet the intrinsicist wing of just war theorists would reasonably claim that underhand and covert operations, including assassination, should not form a part of teaching fourth to write war on grounds that they act to undermine the respect due one’s enemy (not matter how cruel he or she is) as well as the moral integrity of the assassin; the consequentialists would also counter that such policies also encourage the enemy to retaliate in similar manner, and one of the sustaining conclusions of just war theory is that escalation or retaliatory measures (tit for tat policies) should be avoided for their destabilizing nature. Once initiated, assassination tends to become the norm of political affairs – indeed, civil politics would thus crumble into columbia chicago essay prompt fearful and barbaric plots and conspiracies (as did Rome in its last centuries) in a race to teaching graders to write, gain power and mastery over others rather than to forge justifiable sovereignty. The principles of proportionality and discrimination aim to temper war's violence and range; while they may ostensibly imply the chicago essay acceptance of teaching fourth essays some forms of warfare, their malleability also implies that we continuously look afresh upon seemingly acceptable acts. Police. Accordingly, they are complemented by other considerations that are not always explicitly taken up in the traditional exposition of jus In bello , this is especially true in the case of the fourth graders to write essays issue of responsibility.

Jus in on man by alexander pope bello requires that the agents of war be held responsible for their actions. This ties in teaching fourth graders essays their actions to morality generally. Some, such as Saint Augustine argues against this assertion: who is but the sword in the hand of him who uses it, is not himself responsible for the death he deals. Those who act according to by james joyce, a divine command, or even God's laws as enacted by the state and who put wicked men to death “have by no means violated the commandment, 'Thou shalt not kill.’” Whilst this issue is connected to the concepts of just cause, it does not follow that individuals waging a just, or unjust war, should be absolved of breaching the principles of teaching to write essays just conduct. Psychology Introduction. Readily it can be accepted that soldiers killing other soldiers is part of the nature of warfare for which soldiers ought to be prepared and trained, but when soldiers turn their weapons against non-combatants, or pursue their enemy beyond what is teaching essays, reasonable, then they are no longer committing legitimate acts of war but acts of murder. The principle of responsibility re-asserts the burden of summary abiding by teaching fourth graders to write rules in times of peace on those acting in war to remind them that one day they will once more take up civilian status and by alexander pope summary should be prepared to fourth graders essays, do so conscientiously, free of any guilt from war crimes. The issues that arise from this principle include the morality of an essay obeying orders (for example, when one knows those orders to be immoral), as well as the moral status of ignorance (not knowing of the effects of teaching graders one’s actions either reasonably or literally). Responsibility for college prompt acts of war relate back to the tenets of jus ad bellum as well as jus in bello , for the justification of going to war involves responsibility as well as the acts ordered and committed in teaching fourth graders essays war. In reviewing the stories from military ethics readers, the on man by alexander pope summary acts of bravery that attract our attention involve soldiers standing up to do the “right thing” against either the prevailing momentum of the platoon or the orders from higher up; the realist rejects such acts as infrequent or unnecessary performances that do not alter the main characteristic of war and its innate brutality, yet such acts also remind the critic as well as the teaching fourth graders soldier of the importance of returning to the civilian mode with good conscience. The aftermath of war involves the relinquishing of armed conflict as a means of resolving disputes and the donning of more civil modes of conduct but it also raises questions concerning the essay in marathi nature of the post bellum justice.

Following the fourth cessation of a war, three possibilities emerge: either the army has been defeated, has been victorious, or it has agreed to a ceasefire. Principles of justice may then be applied to each situation. Orend presents a useful summary of the principles of jus post bellum : the principle of discrimination should be employed to avoid imposing punishment on innocents or non-combatants; the rights or traditions of the defeated deserve respect; the claims of victory should be proportional to the war’s character; compensatory claims should be tempered by the principles of discrimination and proportionality; and, controversially, the need to rehabilitate or re-educate an aggressor should also be considered. It has often been remarked that justice, like history, is written by the victors. A defeated army and indeed the civilian body from which the on man army stems should thus be prepared to subject itself to the imposition of rules and forms of punishments, humiliation, and even retributions that it would not otherwise agree to. The lives, values, and fourth to write essays resources that have been fought for must now be handed over to the conquerors. When put this way, when one readily imagines one’s own country’s army falling to an aggressive enemy, the terms immediately appear fearful and unjust and may stir a greater endeavor to make the statement for eveline joyce victory hollow by the raising of guerrilla or even terrorist organizations to thwart the conquerors’ designs. Yet when one’s own army is victorious, the partiality of teaching to write essays victory can be so easily dismissed on the enthusiastic wave that accompanies triumph: victory is so often associated with the greater right when one’s own country vanquishes its enemy, and assumedly with that right comes the justification to impose conditions upon the vanquished. In so many wars in history, both ancient and modern, victory has provided the winners with the means of dissertation introduction exploiting the defeated nation and for claiming rights over its lands and people whether in the form of enslavement or in monopolistic mercantile contracts; sometimes an appeal to graders essays, divine justice is an essay on man by alexander pope, made; at other times the supremacy of to write one’s nation, race, creed, or political order is lauded over the defeated. Chicago Prompt. Economic exploitation is not the fourth graders only means of subjugating the defeated: new political or religious frameworks can also be imposed sometimes as a means of “rehabilitating the defeated” or as a means to avoid the college chicago prompt circumstances (political or economic) that may bring about further warfare; the philosopher must naturally inquire as to the justice of such measures.

The just war theorist is to write essays, keen to remind warriors and apartheid politicians alike that the principles of justice following war should be universalizable and morally ordered and that victory should not provide a license for imposing unduly harsh or punitive measures or that state or commercial interests should not dictate the form of the new peace. Similarly, imposing an alternative political or religious is not likely to be conducive to peace, as Edmund Burke prophetically warned about decreeing for the “rights of man” in an unprepared culture; re-educating a defeated military or bureaucracy may seem reasonable and arguably was successful in post-war Germany (1945), yet such a program may also be so superficial or condescending as to have only short term and illusory benefits or act to further humiliate the defeated into seething desire for revenge. In post-war Iraq (2003-date), the rehabilitation programs have met with mixed success and have often been criticized for fourth graders to write favoring some ethnic groups over others, i.e., affecting political and cultural nuances that an outsider would not be aware of. Criticism may stem from either intrinsicist reasons (that the defeated should still be viewed as a people deserving moral respect and their traditions held as sacrosanct) or consequentialist reasons (that punitive impositions are likely to produce a backlash); but again it is worth reminding that just war theory tends to merge the two to avoid awkward implications derived from either position singly. At this point, the attraction for jus post bellum thinkers is to return to the initial justice of the war. Consider a war of self-defense: this is an essay, considered by most, except absolute pacifists, to be the most justifiable of all wars.

If the teaching graders essays people are defeated but their cause remains just, should they then continue the fight to rid their country of all the vestiges of occupation? What if fighting is for eveline by james joyce, impossible? Should they bow their heads in honorable defeat and accept the teaching fourth graders to write victor’s terms graciously? Locke believed that an unjustly defeated people should bide their time until their conquerors leave: “if God has taken away all means of seeking remedy, there is nothing left but patience.” ( Second Treatises , §177); however, the right always remains with those who fought against an unjust war but they do not gain any moral right to police essay, attack indiscriminately or disproportionately (such as terrorizing the invader’s own civilians or soldiers at rest), although they may carry on their claim for teaching to write freedom over the generations. A realist, however, may ask how a people are to regain their freedom if they do not raise arms against their sea of troubles? Nonetheless, if the “good fight” is to essay format, continue, most theorists follow Locke and prohibit breaches of the jus in bello principles: while it would be wrong to graders to write essays, bow to introduction, a tyrant or conquering army, it would be immoral to target their families in order to encourage the occupying army to leave. Others may counsel civil disobedience and other forms of intransigence to signal displeasure.

If, on the other hand, the victors have won a just war against fourth an aggressor, Locke argues that the victor’s right does not extend to the aggressive nation’s civilian population, but that it does extend to dissertation, all those engaged in the aggression and teaching fourth graders essays that it extends absolutely: that is, the just conqueror has absolute rights of thesis for eveline by james life and death over the defeated aggressors. The aggressor, one who initiates war, puts the teaching fourth graders individual or the personal community into a state of fourth to write war, he argues, and so the defender has an absolute prerogative to use whatever force necessary to secure freedom and columbia college chicago peace: accordingly, in victory, the victors may enslave or kill the aggressors. Locke’s is an extreme although not logically incoherent position and his exhortations may be compared to other moral positions (often emerging from religious thinking) to temper the justice in teaching to write favor of other virtues such as charity, liberality, and justice. Police. Indeed, King Alfred the Great of teaching graders essays Wessex (c.878AD) defeated the Viking invader Guthrum in battle and rather than executing him as the Vikings would have done Alfred, he ordered them to join the Christian religion and then, and probably more importantly, offered them a stake in the land: toleration merged with prudence and for eveline by james joyce self-interest ensured Guthrum was no longer a threat. Indeed, Machiavelli warned that killing an opponent’s family is likely to raise their ire but taking away their land is guaranteed to continue the fight over generations. Fourth Graders To Write Essays. It may be reasonably held that the aggressors deserve punishment of on man pope some sort, although Alfred’s example highlights an alternative view of dealing with an teaching fourth enemy, one that reminds the columbia college theorist that peace not further war remains the goal. But what if the defeated aggressors are guilty of atrocities, surely they should be made to stand trial to teaching fourth to write essays, send a signal to other “war criminals” as well as to punish them for their own misdeeds? Here we enter the debates regarding punishment: does punishing a violator make any sense except to exact either retribution, revenge, or to promote a deterrence?

Can the victors be sure of their claim to statement by james, punish the aggressors and teaching fourth essays what good could possibly flow from bringing more violence or enslavement to the world? In asserting the need to find universalisable principles, the just war theorist is usually keen to insist that any war crimes trials are held in neutral states and presided over by neutral parties, rather than the victors whose partiality in proceedings must be presumed: after all, in personal essay format the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials, no allied generals or politicians were held accountable for the atrocities created by bombing civilian centers in Germany and Japan and the dropping of nuclear bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The end game and hence the teaching fourth graders to write jus post bellum certainly merit attention before the battles are lost or won: what should be the ruling affairs once the peace is proclaimed? Should the terms of war’s end be elaborated and publicly pronounced as to ensure all parties are aware of the costs of defeat? Is it right that an army should demand unconditional surrender, for instance, when such a policy may entail a protracted war for essay prompt no incentive is given to the other side to surrender; on the other hand, unconditional surrender implies a derogatory view of the enemy as one not to be respected either in or after war. Yet if an unconditional surrender policy does suitably raise the stakes of fighting war it may act as a sufficient deterrent against possible aggressors or act as a useful diplomatic tool to bring a worried enemy back to peaceful overtures. To Write. Similarly, is it right that an army should demand reparations in advance rather than leave them undisclosed and thereby risk the columbia college chicago uncertainty of punishment creating a backlash from the defeated, who may not wish to be so subjected? To keep the expected conditions of war’s end secretive does not seem a wise move in that uncertainty generates fear, and fear can generate a harder campaign than otherwise would be necessary; but if the publicized conditions appear onerous to the enemy, then they have good reasons to prolong and/or intensify their own fight. Of course, if promises of an amnesty or fair treatment of prisoners is reneged on by the victor, then all trust for future arrangements is lost and the consequences imply embedding hatreds and mistrust for generations. Assume that victory is given, that the army has defeated its enemy on the battlefield so attention turns to teaching graders to write, the nature of the post bellum justice of dealing with the defeated regardless of its intentions beforehand.

Arguably, the very nature of the warring participants’ vision of each other and of themselves will color the proceedings both politically and morally. A victorious side, for instance, that sees itself as rightfully triumphant is more likely to impose its will and exactions upon on man pope summary, the defeated in a more stringent manner in which a victorious side that sees itself as its enemy’s equal; but universality demands seeing one’s enemy as oneself and understanding not just the teaching fourth graders essays Realpolitik of state interests and state gains in victory but also the conventions of magnanimity and honor in victory (or defeat). Consider the statement joyce demands for reparations. A defeated aggressor may just be asked to pay for the damage incurred by the war (as justice demands of criminals that they pay for their crimes). But to what extent should the reparations extend? Should there be demands for retribution and teaching fourth to write essays deterrence added in, so that those deemed responsible for their aggression should be put on trial and dissertation introduction suitably punished (and what would “suitable” mean in this instance – that Saddam Hussein stand trial for his invasion of Kuwait implies that George W Bush similarly stand trial for to write essays his invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq?).

In forming the conditions of defeat, should neutral third parties be turned to so as to avoid later accusations of “victor’s justice” and essays end of apartheid the partiality that such justice can invoke or imply, or does victory present the victor with the teaching graders to write essays ultimate moral wreath to justify whatever demands seen appropriate or fitting? Should a war be indecisive though, the character of the peace would presumably be formed by the character of the ceasefire – namely, the introduction cessation of teaching fourth graders essays fighting would imply a mere hiatus in which the belligerents regain the police time and resources to teaching fourth graders to write essays, stock their defenses and prepare for further fighting. As such, a ceasefire would be merely a respite for the military to regain its strengths. Apartheid. However, just war theory also acts to remind contenders that war is a last resort and that its essential aim is always peace, so if peace is forthcoming in any guise, it is morally critical for all parties to seek a return to a permanent peace rather than a momentary lapse of war. This article has described the main tenets of the just war theory, as well as some of the problems that it entails. The theory bridges theoretical and applied ethics, since it demands an adherence, or at least a consideration of to write essays meta-ethical conditions and models, as well as prompting concern for the practicalities of war. A few of those practicalities have been mentioned here.

Other areas of interest are: hostages, innocent threats, international blockades, sieges, the use of psychology introduction weapons of fourth to write mass destruction or of anti-personnel weapons (for example, land mines), and the morality and practicalities of interventionism.

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Child Soldiers Persuasive Essays and Research Papers. ? A long way gone: memoirs of a boy soldier Ishmael Beah tells of a county, Serra Leone, torn apart by a civil war. He describes the . injustices done upon his people that has been ignored for too long. In his book a long way gone, Ishmael describes the teaching fourth graders essays innocence of essay format his youth, the teaching to write slaughtering of the innocent and personal essay format his simple will to survive and come back for the atrocities committed to fourth to write essays, him and by him. In the for eveline by james joyce beginning of the book you read that Ishmael and his friends taught themselves to fourth to write, rap. Coalition to essays apartheid, Stop the teaching fourth to write essays Use of columbia chicago Child Soldiers , Compact Cassette , Human Rights Watch 1141 Words | 4 Pages.

Child soldiers a) The nature of the human rights issue A child soldier is fourth graders to write, a person under the age . of 18 who participates, directly or indirectly, in armed conflicts as part of an armed force or group, in either armed and thesis for eveline by james supporting roles. Essays? The use of children in columbia chicago essay, armed conflict is considered to be a form of slavery or human trafficking. Although children join armed groups ‘voluntarily’ it often involves coercion, force or deception, or the child may see no other option for to write, survival but to join. End Of Apartheid In South Africa? The. Fourth Geneva Convention , Geneva Conventions , Human rights 683 Words | 3 Pages. Yuta Tsujioka ANT 379 11/30/2012 Issue Project: Child Soldiers Child Soldiers in Africa . “ Child Soldiers ” mean under-18 years old children involved in troops as soldiers , especially those mobilized by force. Some people call them “ Child sacrifice,” but it does not mean the to write ones of religious purpose. This issue has been going on all over the world, even though it was more used in end of africa, war time, but it still particularly remains some parts of Africa, Middle East, South-East Asia.

Among these areas. Africa , Chad , Democratic Republic of the Congo 1088 Words | 4 Pages. here today to fourth graders to write essays, discuss the contentious issue of child soldiers and essays end of apartheid inform you of the implications this issue has for our modern . society. Despite popular opinion, this issue is prevalent in our post-modern world and is far too widespread to ignore. The contentious theme of child soldiers is represented as atrocious and an infringement of human rights in a diverse range of literary and non- literary texts such as the movie Blood Diamond, the poem Child Soldier Diary and the article Stolen kids turned into.

Amnesty International , Child , Childhood 901 Words | 3 Pages. Dusty Boyd Research Paper Child Soldiers Imagine having someone come into to write your home and take your eight year old son or . Introduction? daughter away, teach them how to use weapons, have them kill or maim their own family members, expect them to fight in a war that they know nothing about or even turn them into a sex slave. Can you imagine your child as a soldier in teaching fourth essays, a war? Knowing your child is out somewhere getting shot at or even being forced into sex can be very difficult to on man, deal with as a parent. Fourth Graders To Write Essays? Crimes. Central African Republic , Childhood , Complex post-traumatic stress disorder 1358 Words | 4 Pages. ? Child soldiers the term paper should have pictures and contains 1000 words , plus MLA citation . Essays End Of Apartheid In South? Preface: The use of fourth children as soldiers in armed battle is among the most honorably repugnant practices in essay, the world, as illustrated by this Los Angeles Times photo essay. Children are combatants in nearly three-quarters of the to write world's conflicts and on man pope summary have posed difficult dilemmas for teaching graders to write, the professional armies they confront, including the United States'. Africa , Armed forces , Army 837 Words | 3 Pages. Child Soldiers Children being forced to in south, kill and teaching fourth graders essays commit horrific acts of violence; by forced recruitment in a militia is an . ongoing problem worldwide. More than three-hundred thousand children under the age of eighteen fight and die in essay format, thirty conflicts worldwide.

These children, are denied a real childhood or any real life other then the destruction and death that surrounds them. Most are between the ages of fifteen and fourth graders eighteen but some go as young as seven. Essays Apartheid? According to the “ Child Soldiers. Armed forces , Children in war , Human Rights Watch 1148 Words | 3 Pages. Child Soldiers In over 18 countries in teaching fourth graders to write essays, the world, child soldiers and utilized and direct . participants of war. These children, are denied a real childhood or any real life other then the destruction and death that surrounds them, an estimated 200,000 to columbia, 300,000 children are serving as soldiers for rebel groups and the government in graders to write essays, wars that are going on in the world today. Psychology? All of these children, from a young age participate in modern warfare. They hold AK-47s and M-16s on the front lines of to write these. Human rights , Human Rights Watch , Military 1355 Words | 4 Pages. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier By Ishmael Beah Published by: Sarah Crichton Books . Daniel Tran Period 6 Mrs.

Moden I am Ishmael Beah and I was born on November 23, 1980 in Sierra Leone. I did have a mother and a father, and my older brother, Junior, but they were all murdered by the rebels in my country. I was one of the few that survived the psychology attack that occurred in my village. Teaching Graders? Early in my childhood, I lived a normal life. Armed Forces Revolutionary Council , Human Rights Watch , Military use of children 677 Words | 3 Pages. Child Soldiers Children of all ages have been forced to fight in wars.

Wars of all kinds, fought for different reasons, but . if you look back on all of them you’ll see children. They may or may not know why they are fighting; they simply do as they’re told. Everywhere around the world, there is pope summary, always a war of some kind going on. This global issue needs to be resolved so that children of all ages don’t end up being on the battlefield. A child defines someone who shouldn’t be involved in warfare. Armed forces , Child , Federal government of the United States 881 Words | 3 Pages. abused Child soldiers is a serious issue worldwide, there are about 300,000 children as young as nine years old involved in . armed conflicts all around the globe today. This problem is most critical in Africa; however children are also used as soldiers in various Asian countries, parts of teaching fourth graders essays Latin America, Europe and Middle East. Essays In South Africa? Children are used as child soldiers mostly by non government armed groups for teaching fourth to write, many different reasons.

Conditions are usually very harsh for the child soldiers and discipline. Abuse , French Revolution , Human rights 859 Words | 3 Pages. Child Soldiers in the Philippines. The issue regarding child soldiers is one that is familiar to police essay in marathi, most persons, yet the progress in the process of addressing such . problem moves at a very slow pace due to its increasing depth in essays, the past twenty years. According to police essay in marathi, past reading, women and children were involved in many battles conducted during the teaching graders time of the personal essay format American colonization (Camacho, 2003, 5). However, it was a case in February, 1999 that truly opened the public’s eye towards the issue of teaching fourth child soldiers for it was regarding a. Amnesty International , Cagayan de Oro City , Child 945 Words | 3 Pages. and forced to personal format, become soldiers . One of the teaching graders groups responsible for this horrible practice is the Lords Resistance Army, or LRA. The LRA began . abducting children in the late 1980’s (War Child ) . LRA soldiers raid towns, violently intimidating villagers and abducting children. Those who do not come willingly are forced through the pressure of physical violence or death to themselves or loved ones. Police Essay? Armed groups abduct children as they pass through villages (UNICEF).

Child soldiers participate in graders, armed. Acholi , Invisible Children , Joseph Kony 1913 Words | 5 Pages. Preamble Child soldiering refers to the recruitment and utilisation of children under the age of 18 by government forces or paramilitaries . in armed conflicts as either direct combatants or auxiliary forces. The Optional Protocol on the Rights of the psychology Child II requires states that are party to to write essays, it to thesis statement joyce, “take all feasible measures to ensure that members of their armed forces who have not attained the age of 18 do not take a direct part in hostilities”. The Protocol differs from the Convention on the. Amnesty International , Armed forces , Human rights 1792 Words | 6 Pages. Rehabilitation of fourth to write essays Child Soldiers According to personal format, the UN, “Any person under 18 years of teaching fourth graders to write age who is part of any kind of regular or . irregular armed force or armed group in police in marathi, any capacity, including but not limited to cooks, porters, messengers and anyone accompanying such groups, other than family members. The definition includes girls recruited for sexual purposes and for forced marriage. It does not, therefore, only refer to a child who is teaching fourth to write, carrying or has carried arms.” (Abatneh 22).The use of children. Armed forces , Army , Idi Amin 1123 Words | 3 Pages.

Child Soldiers: wrong or justifiable? Grade Literature 10/18/2013 Child Soldiers : Morally sickening or justifiable? The stop of the by alexander summary practice of recruiting . child soldiers would increase the standard of morals throughout the world. Teaching Fourth? It is estimated that there are as many if not more than 300,000 child soldiers around the world. Since 2001 and as of 2008, child soldiers have participated in 21 on-going or recent armed conflicts in almost every region of the world. Ranging from essay ages of teaching graders to write essays 8 to 15, child soldiers are raped, abused, and sometimes.

Armed forces , Army , Battle 872 Words | 3 Pages. The Fear of becoming a Child Soldier If a child goes missing in the United States, the personal format police are . notified and then issue an Amber Alert. Teaching? Radio stations begin broadcasting descriptions, while TV stations flash pictures of the abducted. Billboards along roads flash important information regarding the personal format abduction. The police move out with helicopters and cars, and the Army National Guard may even be called in. Everything is put into operation to bring a child home to its family. At the.

Joseph Kony , Kampala , Lord's Resistance Army 1346 Words | 4 Pages. Child Soldiers * Violates Article 25 of the fourth graders Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 25: a) Everyone has the . right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and personal format the right to security in fourth graders essays, the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. b) Motherhood and childhood are. Amnesty International , Armed forces , Crime against humanity 1553 Words | 5 Pages. Since the 1990s, increasing attention has been drawn to child soldiering in Africa. While greater awareness is important in responding to the . use of thesis by james children as soldiers , popular images have too often sensationalized the issue, with counter-productive consequences. Fourth Graders To Write Essays? Ubiquitous media images of boys with guns as the epitome of child soldiering and girl sex slaves as 'victims' of conflict obscure the fact that many other children and young people, both male and female, play a variety of by james joyce different, and. Armed forces , Childhood , Gender 1135 Words | 4 Pages. The military use of young children takes three distinct forms: children can take direct part in hostilities ( child soldiers ), or . they can be used in support roles such as porters, spies, messengers, look outs, and teaching to write essays sexual slaves; or they can be used for political advantage either as human shields or in propaganda. Throughout history and in many cultures, children have been extensively involved in military campaigns even when such practices were supposedly against cultural morals.

Since the 1970s. Armed forces , Army , Indian Army 2033 Words | 6 Pages. Demobilization, Rehabilitation, and Reintegration of Child Soldiers. Zafar Topic: The Child Soldiers Issue and the alleviating of the college stability and the situation in all conflict zones through . Teaching Fourth Graders Essays? demobilization, rehabilitation and reintegration of child soldiers Background The use of children as soldiers can be traced back as far as ancient Roman history. At that point in police essay in marathi, time, society did not view it as a problem; they merely thought that age does not matter when discussing one’s ability to fight. Boys can be seen as soldiers in essays, wars such as the. Army , Country , Nation 1073 Words | 4 Pages. “Cause” Persuasive Essay: the Rights of college chicago prompt a Child.

Marry Nguyen 2B – English III 1/23/08 “Cause” Persuasive essay: The Rights of a Child What country are we living in right . now? Where are we going everyday as kids ages from 6 to 18? Yes, we are living in the United States of America, the country of teaching fourth freedom. Where there is joyce, public education provided and education valued, but what exactly are we getting educated at—the basics? No, it is merely the fundamental surface of things. The media news on TV is a mass communication across countries. Abuse , Amnesty International , Human rights 766 Words | 3 Pages. The Hunger Games and Child Soldiers: the Sad Truth. Hunger Games and graders essays Child Soldiers : The Sad Truth The Hunger Games, by essay prompt Suzanne Collins,(Collins) and Child . Soldiers are intertwined together because they are both children fighting for their lives. The children are alike because they got executed into being prisoners, that fight to their deaths and kill savagely.

The children live similarly because they both have organizations or sponsors helping them get out of fourth graders to write essays their situation. Lastly, the children experience the essay same emotions because The Hunger Games(Collins). American novels , Fighting game , Joseph Kony 1450 Words | 4 Pages. Multi Genre Project Child Soldiers By: Ralia Lahlou Ms. Gugel March 2nd, 2012 The Beginning of the Change From the teaching graders . first day, something about these innocent eyes filled with hatred inspired me to write. These eyes are those of a child soldier . Before starting this project, I did not think much of children fighting in wars, but as the research got deeper and my understanding of their situation more thorough, this project became much more than a simple task I had to accomplish. I felt close. Children in war , Human Rights Watch , Ishmael Beah 10242 Words | 31 Pages. 1. For Eveline? Child soldiers are any children under the age of 18 who are recruited by a state or non-state armed group and teaching fourth graders to write essays used as . An Essay By Alexander Pope? fighters, cooks, suicide bombers, human shields, messengers, spies, or for sexual purposes. 2. Teaching Fourth To Write? In the last 13 years, the use of child soldiers has spread to essay, almost every region of the world and teaching to write essays every armed conflict. Though an exact number is police essay, impossible to define, thousands of child soldiers are illegally serving in armed conflict around the world.

3. Some children are under. Armed forces , Army , Child 320 Words | 2 Pages. and its aftereffect Ismeal Beah went through tough time in his childhood. These immense situations that he nitwits in teaching fourth to write, his memoir are incredible. And . End Of Apartheid In South? furthermore these events exemplify his childhood and become a child soldier . The turned into a cruel human being and portrayed as a child drenched in teaching graders, blood. The children are in dire circumstances to survive and to strive for the family and personal essay format his memories lost and his past that his is to write, trying to lose due to the cruel person he became.

One of the things. Child , Childhood , English-language films 553 Words | 2 Pages. ? Child Soldiers 18 February 2014 At this very moment, there are an estimated 300,000 child . soldiers active in at prompt, least twenty countries. These children are scarred for fourth essays, life. They are forced to dissertation introduction, kill.

Most of these boys and girls are recruited at around the teaching fourth graders to write essays age of an essay on man pope 12. Teaching Fourth Essays? The LRA, short for the Lord’s Resistance Army, is in south africa, one of the most active rebel groups who recruit child soldiers . Its leader, Joseph Kony, took up arms back in fourth essays, 1986 and said he was fighting against an essay on man pope the marginalization of his. Central African Republic , International Criminal Court , Joseph Kony 701 Words | 2 Pages. Committee: UNICEF Topic: Child Soldiers Name: Topic Background: Throughout history children have been seen to have . the most adaptable compatibility, especially during wartime. At an graders to write, early age children can be trained to dissertation, kill and teaching graders to write do despicable things. This is because children have one barrier against these recruiters and college chicago essay prompt that would be their family member.

Once this barrier is gone, recruiters can easily cheery pick these children, and make them work for them and do terrible things. Now. Al-Qaeda , Amnesty International , Inter-Services Intelligence 491 Words | 1 Pages. critical Analysis of the fourth graders to write essays use of Child Soldiers in Liberia 5.1 Introduction Generally stated ,this paper seeks to establish . the role of essay child soldiers in the escalation of armed conflict in teaching fourth graders to write, Africa. The previous chapters have discussed the essay regional armed conflicts where child soldiers were used or are being used like the case of DRC Congo. This chapter will critically analyse the use of child soldiers in Liberia. There were approximately 120,000 child soldiers who were participating in armed. Armed forces , Human rights , Human rights abuses 3773 Words | 10 Pages. Model United Nations; Resolution: Demobilization, Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Child Soldiers.

General Assembly QUESTION OF: Child Soldiers : demobilization, rehabilitation and reintegration SUBMITTED BY: Amnesty . International CO-SUBMITTED BY: The Democratic Republic of the teaching essays Philippines, Republic of South Africa and Republic of Angola THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, Aware that the in south africa Coalition's estimates over 8,000 children were still fighting in 2005 in the nations of Cote d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, Fully Alarmed that there are over essays 300,000 child soldiers currently serving in the East. Amnesty International , Army , Human rights 652 Words | 3 Pages. Essay: Human rights. Deals with child soldiers, child sex tourism, and mandatory detention. rights can be seen in the use of child soldiers with hundreds of thousands used worldwide. This breaches the right to liberty and . security of person with children forcibly recruited, “press-ganged” or abducted by armed groups. Child soldiers may be forced to thesis for eveline joyce, the front lines or sent into minefields ahead of older troops. Girl soldiers are at graders essays, a particular risk of rape and sexual violence.

The right to education (which under the Convention on the Rights of the Child should be available free to all at. Geneva Conventions , Human rights , International law 1179 Words | 3 Pages. children. General Information about Child Soldiers The numbers of child soldiers are . continually variable given the growth of diverse armed conflicts. Format? The number of children under the age of 18 who have been forced or induced to take up arms as child soldiers is commonly thought to be around of 300,000. Non-governmental military organizations tend to recruit soldiers under the age of 15.Governmental armed forces, on fourth to write essays the other hand, are more likely to recruit soldiers under the age of 18. From what. Armed forces , Human rights , Human Rights Watch 2522 Words | 9 Pages. The Gruesome Idea of a Child Soldier.

Child soldier . Some words don't belong together. Essays? The United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) defines child . soldiers as any child —boy or girl—under eighteen years of age, who is part of any kind of regular or irregular armed force or armed group in any capacity. Child soldiers perform a range of tasks including participation in combat, laying mines and explosives; scouting, spying, acting as decoys, couriers or guards; training, drill or other preparations; logistics and support functions, cooking. Army , Combat , Hitler Youth 414 Words | 2 Pages. The current situation of children used in graders, armed conflicts is extremely serious. Thesis Statement Joyce? Nearly 300 000 children are engaged as soldiers in more than 30 . Fourth Graders To Write? countries worldwide.

It is a fact that many of these states are located in Africa. Hence, it is introduction, particularly in interest of the graders Republic of Zimbabwe that this problem is solved. In 1998, the International Crime Court categorized the conscripting of children under the age of 15 into national armed forces, or the thesis by james joyce active using of the latter in hostilities, as. Armed forces , Army , Republic of China 514 Words | 2 Pages. help to keep the children safe from harm and promote their welfare, to diagnose a special need quickly in children and teaching fourth to write get the statement by james joyce help that is needed to teaching graders to write essays, the . child /family as soon as possible without confusing the child or their families.

And as a pre-school setting it is good to police in marathi, know that you are not on your own if any concerns should arise about a child in the setting and that specialist help is fourth graders, available to all the by alexander summary children and fourth graders to write essays young people if required. 1.2 Identify who relevant partners would. Child , Childhood , Need 831 Words | 3 Pages. smoking. It is true that they need to be analyzed more to confirm if they are actually safe, however, a public opinion would be more affective and also gain . reputation for government officials who at the moment are against e-cigarettes. Statement? I know, as a child , I knew what my mom was up to every time she went out to “puff one”. I hated the teaching fourth to write smell from the start. For a while, things were really severe and she couldn’t be patient with going outside to smoke, she started smoking indoors. However, she began to.

Cigarette , Electronic cigarette , Lung cancer 1868 Words | 5 Pages. As a childminder I work towards EYFS and meet Every Child Matters in everything I do. I would like children in my care achieve as much as they . can so I start the learning and development process from torough talk to parents before child starts attending to my setting to find out child’s likes, dislikes, abilities, achievements. Then I do observe, asses particular child and plan activities following his interest, abilities, individual achievements, background. The important part of thesis for eveline my observation. Child , The Child 1965 Words | 6 Pages. Briefing notes about Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone In 1991, The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) attacked Sierra Leone in an . attempt to obtain diamonds and overthrow Joseph Momoh’s Government.

The resulting civil war lasted for 11 years and left over 50,000(Hara-Kiri, 2008, 8th fact), including children recruited to fight in the war. 3,710 had been used as child soldiers with the RUF, 2,026 with the pro-government Civil Defence Forces (CDF), 471 with the Sierra Leone Army and 427 with the Armed. Armed Forces Revolutionary Council , Joseph Saidu Momoh , Laws of teaching graders to write war 604 Words | 2 Pages. BLOOD DIAMONDS PERSUASIVE ESSAY People say diamonds are a girl’s best friend. A friend that makes you happy and proud to have- but can you . really trust them? What if you little “friend” on your dainty little finger not only cost a ridiculous amount of college essay money but also cost the lives of graders to write essays innocent people? That would really make you reconsider buying a diamond and make you reconsider whom you trust. See, you really have to be careful where your sparkly, little gem comes from. Do you have any idea. Blood diamond , Blood diamonds , De Beers 899 Words | 3 Pages.

Persuasive Essay Erica Crawley COMM215 August 10, 2014 University of Phoenix Running head: PERSUASIVE ESSAY 1 . PERSUASIVE ESSAY 2 Persuasive Essay Many people can benefit from joining the essay format Military service for a lot of different reasons. Fourth Graders Essays? Some joined for the pay, to serve their country and some do it for the experience. Dissertation? There are many reason people join the essays United States Army. Some other reasons to college essay prompt, join the Army could be job security, education benefits, health insurance benefits, life. Ernest McFarland , G.I. Bill , Health insurance 779 Words | 3 Pages. Topic: The effects of single parent homes vs. both parents on teaching fourth child academic. Essay Format? Milne, Ann M., et al. Single Parents, Working Mothers, and graders the . Police? Educational Achievement of teaching essays School Children. Statement By James? Sociology of Education 59.3 (1986): 125-39. ProQuest.

12 Oct. 2013. The researchers did a research on graders essays the effects of mother's employment and living in a one-parent family on columbia college chicago children's achievement. According to Herzong and Sudia they argued that there is no difference in teaching fourth graders essays, school achievement between children from. Education , Family , Father 1756 Words | 5 Pages. Two Soldiers William Faulkner was an enormous man in literature despite the fact that he stood less than five foot six.

He reshaped the way in . which the world views literature today. Faulkner was one of the greatest influences to American culture of his time. In fact, his influence spread throughout many years to come. A major figure of contemporary American literature, his novels and short stories combining stream of essay consciousness narrative with linguistic innovations. In addition, Faulkner's. American literature , Fiction , Flannery O'Connor 1206 Words | 3 Pages. Abducted Children: Forced to Become Soldiers. ? Research Essay Child Soldier Children's lives here in the United States are thorn apart by war, because their . parents are serving in fourth essays, the military. Police Essay In Marathi? If that's not bad enough, children over seas are forced to become a soldier and do things a child doesn't normally do, this affects them mentally for the rest of their lives.

Most children are abducted from teaching to write their home and are forced to kill one or all of statement joyce their family members (“War Child ”), children as young as eight. Not all are in combat. Army , Human rights , Ishmael Beah 1257 Words | 4 Pages. ?Career Plan Since I was a child , I have always dreamt of being rich; having so much money I could be a bank, a mansion to live in, and an . abundance of cars to drive. However, as I grew older, I quickly realized that my dreams and aspirations are directly correlated to my ambition, drive and motivation to obtain them. Teaching Graders To Write Essays? In recent years, I’ve been dedicating myself to my academics in hopes of achieving a better paying job later in life. Introduction? My career dream career path is in the Health Care Industry, specifically. Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Goal , Health care 981 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Essay There are many ways to instill quality values into your child , but abuse is not one of fourth to write them. Abuse creates . fear and destroys self-confidence, as well as a loss of in marathi trust in parents, and graders essays adults alike. Some argue that physical contact is necessary if you want to make the child learn something, but I disagree.

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essay on walt disney Walt Disney was one of the famous motion-picture producers in history. He first became known in the 1920's and 1930's for creating such cartoon film Characters as Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck. He later produced feature length Cartoon films, movies about wild animals in their natural surroundings, and Films starring human actors. Disney won 32 Academy Awards for his movies and For scientific and technical contributions to teaching to write essays filmmaking. He also gained fame For his development of statement for eveline by james joyce theme parks. Walter Elias Disney was born on Dec. 5, 1901, in Chicago, Illinois.

His Family moved to Missouri, and he spent much of his boyhood on a farm near Marceline. At the age of 16, Disney studied art in Chicago. In 1920, he joined The Kansas City Film Ad Company, where he helped make cartoon advertisements to Be shown in movie theaters. In 1923, Disney moved to Los Angeles to become a film producer or Director. When he failed to find a job, he returned to producing cartoons.

He set up his first studio in the back half of teaching essays a real estate office. For Several years, Disney stuggled to personal pay his expenses. He gained success in teaching fourth graders, 1928, When he released the first short cartoons that featured Mickey Mouse. Earlier Filmmakers had found that animals were easier to animate than people. End Of In South! Mickey Mouse, drawn with a series of circles, proved ideal for teaching to write animation. In 1927, sound that had been added to motion pictures, and a process for Making movies in color was developed a few years later.

Disney and apartheid in south africa his staff Made imaginative use of sound and color. Disney himself provided Mickey Mouse's Voice for graders to write Steamboat Willie (1928), the first cartoon to dissertation use synchronized sound. His cartoon Flowers and Trees (1932) was the first cartoon in graders essays, full Technicolor. From 1929 to 1939, Disney produced a cartoon series called Silly Symphonies, which played in theaters along with other animated films featuring Mickey Mouse and other characters, like Donald Duck, Goofy, and Pluto. After 1924, Disney actually did more of the thesis statement joyce drawing necessary for his animated films. His genius lay in creating, organizing, and directing the films. Essays! In 1937, Disney issued the first full-length animated feature film to be Produced by a studio, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Africa! It became one of the Most popular movies in graders to write essays, history.

Disney's later full-length animated films Included Pinocchio (1940), Fantasia (1940), Dumbo (1941), Bambi (1942), Cinderella (1950), Alice in Wonderland (1951), Peter Pan (1953), Lady and the Tramp (1955), Sleeping Beauty (1959), 101 Dalmations (1961), and the Jungle Book (released in 1967, after his death). Thesis By James Joyce! In 1950, Disney released Treasure Island, His first full-length movie to use only human actors. Mary Poppins (1964), Which combines human actors with animation, is the most successful of graders essays Disney's Later films. During World War II (1939 to 1945), Disney's studio made educational Films for the U. S. government as well as cartoon comedies. After the war, Disney created fewer animated movies. He concentrated on making films that Starred real animals or human actors. In 1948, Disney released Seal Island. This short movie was the first in a series of ''True-Life Adventures'' that Showed how animals lived in nature.

In 1953, Disney released his first full- Length nature film, The Living Desert. All of his nature movies included scenes Of animal life rarely seen by human beings. After television became popular about 1950, many filmmakers either Ignored T. V. or fought it as a threat to the movie industry. Psychology! But Disney Adjusted easily to the new form of entertaiment. He hosted a weekly show that Presented Disney films made especially for teaching graders essays television, featuring such characters As Davy Crockett, and Ludwing Von Drake. Disney achieved one of his greatest successes in 1955, when he opened Disneyland, a spectacular theme park in Ahaheim, California. Many of the essays end of in south africa Attractions at the park are based on fourth to write essays the Disney films. During his last years, Disney developed plans for building a huge Entertainment and educational complex in Florida. This project, known as Walt Disney World, was completed after Disney's death. Disney died on Dec. 15, 1966, In Los Angeles.

The Walt Disney Company carried on end of apartheid in south africa Disney's work after his Death. Walt Disney has touched the fourth graders to write hearts of many, adults and essays africa children alike all over fourth graders essays, the world, with his amazing effects of Disney films over the years. Walt's parents were married on January 1st, 1888. Within five years they had three sons, but it took them eight years later to have another child. Personal! In Chicago on December 5th, 1901 Walter Elias Disney was born. In April of 1906 they moved to to write essays a forty-five acre farm. Essays End Of Apartheid In South Africa! Walt grew up on the farm and cherished the friends and neighbors that were his big family. But in the fall of 1910 Walt's father became sick with typhoid and almost died. After a very slow recovery the family sold their farm for a little over five thousand and moved to teaching essays Kansas City in the summer of 1911.

As a boy growing up in Kansas, he began to show his creative art side. He loved to study Charlie Chaplin movies for tips on performing and he began to draw his own versions of Maggie and Jiggs, which is a popular comic strip at the time. Walt's father and mother moved to psychology dissertation introduction Chicago when his dad became the head of the O'Zell Company's plant construction maintenance. But Walt decided to stay back with his two brothers and get a summer job. At the end of the teaching graders to write summer Walt moved back to by alexander pope summary Chicago with his parents. There, he attended McKinley High School. Walt wanted to join the fourth «War to columbia essay prompt End All Wars» but was too young. Instead he joined the Chicago Institute of Arts School where he drew patriotic sketches for the school newspaper. But in the summer of 1918 Walt heard about the Red Cross Ambulance Corps would accept men at the age of seventeen. So Walt lied about his age and joined; but he almost died when he came down with influenza.

Finally Walt' chance came when the to write essays war ended and the Ambulance Corps needed Fifty more men. Walt, lucky enough was the fiftieth chosen. Columbia Chicago Essay Prompt! He was sent off to fourth graders essays France where he drove the ambulance. An Essay On Man By Alexander Summary! He made money on the side by using his artistic talent by painting helmets with camouflage colors and banging them up to look like real battle helmets and then sell them to Americans looking for war souvenirs. On Walt's return from France, he pursued his own company and called it «Laugh-0-Gram» which was unsuccessful, and soon went bankrupt. With his suitcase and only 20 dollars to fourth graders to write essays his name he headed for format Hollywood, California.

He dreamed of an idea of a mouse character but was going to name him Mortimer. His wife, on the other hand, did not like the name but suggested the teaching fourth graders essays name Mickey instead. Of course, Walt took her advice and when he got home began creating three new cartons staring Mickey Mouse. Personal Essay! Mickey Mouse soon took off. To Write! The public loved him and he appeared in an essay on man summary, movie theaters everywhere. Between 1929 and 1932 more then one million children joined the original Mickey Mouse Club. Walt then put himself into the making of «Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs», which was two years of production and a lot of hard work. More than 750 Disney artists used over 5000 miles of paper to to write create more than 2 million drawings and sketches. Disney went through many designs for Snow White before settling on the perfect fairy tale princess. There were also originally 25 songs made for the film but only eight were needed to tell the story.

They had everything wrapped up in the making of Snow White, all the family fortunes, and bank loans. Psychology Introduction! Walt Disney risked everything in the making of Snow White to bring it to teaching fourth graders to write the screen. The characters he created Doc, Happy, Grumpy, Sleepy, Sneezy, Bashful and format most of all Dopey had touched the world's hearts, as they were the most endearing little characters the world had ever seen. Walt Disney, A man of visualization who changed the world of animation for families all over the world. On December the 21st 1937 two years after all the hard work and sleepless nights, Walt's courage had paid off. Snow White and The Seven Dwarfs had captured the world's hearts for Walt Disney's imagination on his first full length animated feature. He was regarded as a mile stone in the film making industry, Snow White and teaching to write the Seven Dwarfs had become his biggest triumph in changing the presentation of motion pictures forever. Walt Disney was asked years later, to explain the police secret of fourth to write Snow White's appeal. Thesis Statement Joyce! He replied, «Over in our place, we are sure of fourth graders essays just one thing, everybody in dissertation introduction, the world was once a child. So, in planning the new picture, we do not think of grown ups or children, but just of that kind, clean, unspoiled spot down deep inside everyone of us, that the world has maybe made us forget, and maybe, just maybe, our pictures can help to recall.» The film earned Walt Disney an academy award.

Walt eventually got his past due royalty payments and his total earnings from Snow White were over 8 million dollars. After Snow White's lengthy, successful time in theatres, World War Two started, and Disney productions entered a difficult time. Walt was in a four point five million dollar deficit and didn't know how to solve the problem. To make things even worse, Pearl Harbor was bombed and teaching fourth graders the Walt Disney studio was used as an introduction, anti aircraft base. The anti - craft base was removed a month later and Disney studio was then advertising war bonds and other government positions. This slowed Walt's business drastically, but the government offered Walt an graders essays, opportunity to travel to South America as a diplomat and they would pay off all his debt. On Man! Walt accepted and enjoyed the fourth graders experience: there he found new ideas for columbia chicago prompt future films. Walt returned home from South America and trouble was brewing in his studio. When war had broken out, Disney productions had stopped production of two films «Bambi» and «Fantasia.» The movies were then released at teaching graders to write essays, the end of the war, but they had made no profit, just more debt and Disney animators were not given bonuses as they were promised.

Walt was astounded when he heard the news. He thought his new studio would have solved all the problems, but unfortunately the animators didn't find it to be the statement by james joyce paradise Walt did. Not seeing bonuses in their paycheck, Disney Animators went on teaching fourth graders to write essays strike. To solve this problem, Walt elected to sell stock in his company and it sold immediately. Walt was now out of essays end of apartheid debt but had a new idea. He then went on to create Disney Land. He once said «Saturday was always Daddy's day and I would take my two daughters to the merry go round and sit on the bench eating peanuts while they rode. To Write Essays! Sitting there, alone, I felt that there should be something built; some kind of Family Park where parents and children could go and have fun together.» Disney productions could not afford this, but Walt had great determination, he raised the money by showing his weekly Disney show on the American Broadcasting Corporation (ABC.)

With money made from weekly Disney showing on ABC he found 200 acres of land in Anaheim, California and set to work on essays end of in south africa the Disney land theme park. The park was opened in 1955. Teaching Fourth Graders Essays! On the Opening day of the essay amusement park «Disney Land» there was a ninety-minute live television program that was the fourth graders to write essays most watched TV event up to that time. The park has been very successful ever since, with two other parks that were to police essay follow in later years. They are still highly successful today. It is nearly impossible to list all of Walt's films and accomplishments that he has completed: Everything from Bambi to Mary Poppins to EPCOT.

Disney. Teaching Graders Essays! What comes to essay one's mind when they hear the word Disney? Is it possible Disney World or maybe even Disney Land? But, it if they really think in depth about all the Disney things there are, wouldn't they wonder how one man could create all these international theme parks, movies, and teaching fourth graders to write essays characters like Mickey Mouse? In order to thesis by james joyce comprehend how influential Walt Disney truly was, try to imagine the world without him. Imagine the world today without Mickey Mouse, the fairytales, Disney World, and fourth possibly all animation.

Walt Disney has most likely affected one's life, whether by touching their heart with a Disney classic such as Beauty and the Beast, or by simply fascinating them by one his amazing theme parks. Walt Disney developed animation and changed the world lived in today. Walt Disney made such an impact on the entertainment world for both children and adults. It's not everyday one man can make the huge accomplishments that Mr. Disney has. Essay! From theme parks around the world, to movies, books, and fourth graders to write essays cartoons Disney has invented it all. He has his own TV station, plus children's toys and personal essay format collectables. An amazing thing about Walt Disney was the fact that after he has died, his work still lives on. To Write Essays! There are still new and improved Disney cartoons and movies made every year. Essays End Of Apartheid! There are new additions to the Disney Theme Parks such as the graders to write essays Animal Kingdom and a Disney Cruise Line.

There is even a new Disney Mickey Mouse cereal that can be purchased in stores. Essays End Of Africa! But how is teaching graders essays, a man dead but his work still continues? Through all the hard times and the good, Walt has really shown the world how to be a kid again. If they ask anyone that has gone to Disney World or Disney Land, they will tell them that they can't help but smile and be a kid again while they are there. Walt Disney has shown the world he was a man of creation, he taught them many things, even when the odds were against him, his creativity allowed him to statement by james succeed in the contributions he made to society, to the kind, clean, little unspoiled spot inside all. To Write Essays! Walt also played a crucial role in the time of the personal essay depression.

When most people had no jobs, were living in poverty, and had no hope for the future, not only graders to write essays, did Walt create his animations despite of personal essay format it but he made the people laugh. He allowed people to forget all about the tragedy in teaching graders to write essays, their own lives for a little while and be happy. Walt Disney created animation as we know it today. Police Essay! He started it all. His imagination was bigger than it will ever be. To Write Essays! Without Walt Disney, who knows if animation would exist today? He forced people to look at columbia college essay prompt, the world differently, from an animated perspective. No one had ever thought of having drawings that could combine to create one big picture. Teaching Fourth Graders To Write Essays! Now, all over the world Disney movies and Disney theme parks are shown and found.

Clearly, Walt Disney was a very influential man. He created animation and showed the psychology world that they can achieve their dreams; he taught the world to always have hope. Even though Walt died on December 15, 1966 he is teaching to write essays, no where close to being forgotten. Dissertation Introduction! The Disney companies are still creating movies, and the Theme parks are very popular. Walt's philosophy of never giving up on your dreams is still a part of the teaching to write essays Disney franchise. Its logo to this day is an essay by alexander pope, ««Making your dreams come true.» Walt created one of the most successful corporations today from teaching fourth graders almost nothing. Columbia Essay! He brought magic into the lives of many children and adults. Walt Disney never gave up.

He was always optimistic and never let anything get in teaching to write essays, the ways of his dreams. If everyone in society would be as full as hope and optimism like Walt Disney the world would be a better place.