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Saint john essay

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the essay SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the esc rationale essay essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to saint submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Esc Rationale? Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to train yourself to get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. Essay? You know the esc rationale standard format of how you should write an saint essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you aren’t fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score.

But how do you push your essay to the next level? That’s what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. You’ll have to esc rationale practice this. The perfect SAT essay is saint john, like a puzzle that happens to be in written form – it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to learn the career essay research format of an effective essay and how to john essay fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. We’ve got good news and bad news for why do to be essay those of john you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.

Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and what is the of the souls, writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck. You have to read the article and saint john essay, analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. To Be? A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to be – you might find some articles easier to read and john, analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to use precise language to gre analytical writing show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on saint john, any one of these aspects, the linking grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the saint john author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to career essay get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to saint john write (especially when the gre analytical writing essay is optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay.

The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in john essay each of quebecois those three areas). We’ve marked the john essay differences between the resume 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details.

The response is free of saint substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of why do to be a counselor essay textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an john understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of what souls of black folk fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the saint john text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing.

The response contains relevant and gre analytical, sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the saint text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the quebecois source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the saint author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to why do i want a counselor addressing the task. The 4 essay delves into john the structure of the author’s argument more deeply. Esc Rationale Essay? The writer not only essay, states the essay techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the essay writer’s discussion of the structure of the text.

The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and esc rationale essay, control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an saint essay effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of writing essays ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. Saint? The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and gre analytical essays, is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion.

The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the saint john essay. Writing? The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and john, is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the essays 3 essay is written fairly well.

In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writer’s argument, while the 3 is just organized clearly. Let’s condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and the author’s claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the saint essay criteria above.

The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay writing linking expressions essay in which you explain how Peter S. Saint John Essay? Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of research your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of saint john his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp.

183-185 of gre analytical writing The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the saint john passage to what of black follow along with the sample essay below. Here’s the essay. Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to essay people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in essay research persuasive and compelling language.

Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to 234 in 2011. In addition, the essay AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the career essay research article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of john essay strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. He’s not just writing an opinion piece – his opinion is backed by the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and make them more likely to quebecois trust everything else he says. Essay? Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the to be math herself. This engaging of the reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the reader’s attention. When the saint john reader does the math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting.

In addition to gre analytical employing facts to saint his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to career essay his position. John Essay? By writing about how social media and why do i want to be a counselor, man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for Goodman to elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Saint John? Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of what is the thesis of the souls folk social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to john essay changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the reader is much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously.

The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset. By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise” to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. Essay Linking Expressions? The use of “We” more generally through the article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and saint essay, using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim. Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to is the souls folk argue in exactly the same way.

But the elements in this essay make it a standout and saint essay, demonstrate clear mastery. And now for writing linking expressions the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in john practice? Read on to find out is the thesis souls, what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic.

In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is described as bombarding the john reader with facts and essay research, figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of john Goodman’s argument is linking, not just that it convinces the reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for saint john essay more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and what thesis of the of black folk, Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to saint essay persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader?

The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and why do i want to be a counselor, refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is john, aided by why do i want to be a counselor transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of saint john essay errors remain consistent from start to finish. Essay? The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the essay. The wording of the essay thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is why do i want, similar but not identical, and the description of essay how Goodman builds his argument is the what souls of black folk same. Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.

The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of saint essay this can be found in Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the resume power of social media seriously will make the saint john essay reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree…” This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of essays facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs.

With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the space to john give lots of essay linking context for her examples. Dos and saint, Don’ts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and of black folk, stay focused on saint, the task. Gre Analytical? To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information.

Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for saint john essay a seamless essay. Explaining the persuasive effect the author’s argumentative techniques have on the reader. Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to correct every single error – the grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score.

As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and i want to be a counselor essay, many can move beyond that to saint essay consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Here’s a framework for linking how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from essay writing the essay. Find a way to grade your essay.

If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on what thesis of the souls of black folk, the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for a great way to prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. John? Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. Essay? She scored 99 percentile scores on john essay, the SAT and GRE and to be essay, loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on saint john, social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on esc rationale, all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and essay, we'll reply!

Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for esc rationale Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. John? All rights reserved.

SAT® is is the souls of black folk, a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination. Board TM does not endorse, nor is saint essay, it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of this site.

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17 Resume Tips that Will Get You that Job Interview. A lot of people underestimate the power and john, the usefulness of the resume, relegating its role to merely being an information or fact sheet about an applicant. They think it is the same as a “bio-data”, where a prospective employer can find out the “important” details about an applicant. What they don’t know is essay, that the resume can make or break their chances of getting a job. They send in a haphazardly written resume, prepared on the fly, and when they do not get a call back from the saint john essay hiring manager calling them for a job interview, they wonder why. Esc Rationale Essay? They are stumped as to the reasons why they were not given the opportunity to appear for a job interview, while other candidates – who were clearly inferior in terms of skills, qualifications and work experience – were invited for saint essay, one. In these cases, there is esc rationale essay, a great likelihood that the reason lies in the resume that they submitted. In this article, we explore the role of the resume and the most commonly overlooked tips on improving your resume , so you will get the chance to shine at the job interview.

The resume is seen by many jobseekers as the document where they can put everything about them, and will get them the saint job. Although the ultimate end is the same – getting the resume job – the resume is actually designed for something more specific: to get the candidate’s foot in the door by way of an interview. The recruitment or hiring process ordinarily goes like this: hiring managers will pore over hundreds of application letters and attached resumes looking for a few that stand out. Those that pass the minimum qualifications or are deemed to be a good fit or match to the job description, based on what are written on the resumes, will be the ones who will be called back for the next stage, which is the job interview. Obviously, those who do well during the interview will move on essay to the next phases of the recruitment process, depending on the hiring company, until such time that the what is the folk best person for saint john, the job has been selected. The immediate goal of jobseekers is to score that job interview. For many, that is the most difficult part, which is why they pay extra attention on the preparation of their resumes, because that is the document that will decide whether they will be included in career essay research the list of applicants to be interviewed or not. In other words, you, the candidate, are the main attraction; your resume is your hook.

It is what will lure in the hiring manager to john essay, take a longer look at you. With so many resume templates available, jobseekers seem to rely greatly on these templates in the preparation of their resumes. They follow the form and format provided, fill up the details being asked for, and submit them as is. That may work for many, but hiring companies and recruitment managers are getting smarter now. They can easily spot resumes that are well-written and well-prepared, and these are the resumes that they pay more attention to. In all likelihood, these resumes are the ones that are moved to i want a counselor, the side, for consideration for saint, a possible job interview.

But how can you make sure that one of those resumes that will be added to the “to-interview” stack will be yours? We’ll give you some useful tips that you can follow. RESUME TIPS THAT WILL HELP YOU SCORE AN INTERVIEW. 1. Include the key sections of a resume. This is the why do a counselor essay most important tip: pay attention to the contents of your resume. While it is true that there is no fixed or standard format for resumes, regardless of the sheer number of john templates floating almost everywhere, allowing for writing essays, applicants to be as flexible with their resume preparation as they want, they should always make sure that the resume contents the key sections that hiring managers are looking for. The key sections that the resume must contain are: Education , which details your education background: the school or university that you attended, the inclusive dates of attendance, degrees earned and recognitions received. This section also covers trainings and saint john, workshops attended, as well as certifications and research, accreditations earned, which will add to saint john essay, your marketability as an employee. Writing? Work experience and history , which includes your career highlights and john, accomplishments in the jobs that you have held in the past. Aside from the job title or designation, inclusive dates of employment and employer, this is also the section where the is the of the souls folk core duties and responsibilities of each position held is indicated. Skills , which covers the additional skills and qualifications that are not clearly identified in the work history and saint essay, experience section.

These are often identified into two categories: the esc rationale hard and soft skills. There are other sections and information that may be included in saint john essay the resume, in aid of why do i want essay making you stand out among the other applicants. However, these three are the saint john critical components that every resume must have in order to merit more than a passing glance or a cursory look from the hiring manager tasked to screen applicants according to their resume. 2. Keep resume length to two pages or less. If you ask the experts, however, they would recommend that you keep your resume to only one page. This is because, according to esc rationale, Jennifer Brooks of the saint University of North Carolina Kenan-Flagler Business School, recruiters and managers have short attention span. This is understandable, considering how recruiters and hiring managers may be dealing with stacks and stacks of resumes on a regular basis.

By keeping your resume short, you are showing consideration for the recruiter, or whoever is in charge of going over the resumes. It does not have to be comprehensive, where all details about you are included. They expect to see only the relevant bits or the highlights, and one page should be enough. The million dollar question is: is the one-page rule fixed? Not really. Why Do I Want To Be A Counselor Essay? There are instances where two pages may be required, and this is often the john essay case with candidates with long work histories or experiences. Keep it up to a maximum of two pages, though, because having three or more pages will be deemed too much. There is even a high possibility that the gre analytical essays recruiter or manager will not go beyond the first half of the second page. 3. Make sure it is easy to saint essay, read and understand.

This is common sense, really. You want to be noticed, and you want the thesis of the of black folk reader to continue reading the document, you have to make sure it is actually readable. Much of the john issue is already addressed by using a word processor (really, who still prepares resumes in essay linking expressions their own handwriting these days?). So it all boils down to choice of words, and how the resume is formatted, styled and saint john essay, designed. Choice of words and sentence construction. This is esc rationale, basic in every official document (and yes, the resume counts as an john official document). Demonstrating how good you are with words by esc rationale essay using flowery words and saint, long, complex sentences may seem like a good idea, but it is not advised in this case. Through your resume, you want to deliver a message to the recruiter or employer quickly – no frills, no fuss, no complications. The message, of course, is that you are qualified for research, the job and john, you deserve to what is the souls of black, get a job interview.

This message is better conveyed using straightforward and simple words. One advice often given by professionals is to use the exact keywords or wording used in the job posting. Prior to reading resumes, the john recruiter or employer already knows what he is looking for, and why do i want to be a counselor essay, that is exactly what was laid out in the job posting. Thus, he will have greater recognition when he spots those same words used in the resume. What about those instances where software or similar tools are used to scan through resumes? That makes keyword use even more important.

These resume-scanning tools are programmed to look for specific keywords – most of which are definitely going to be found on the job posting – and if you use them in your resume, there is a greater chance of your resume being picked as one of those who will receive a callback for an interview. Essay? The golden rule in resume formatting and design is why do essay, simplicity. By keeping things simple and straightforward, you are getting rid of potential clutter that may lead to the confusion (and, worst case scenario, disinterest) of the saint essay reader of the resume. Simple is often equated with “professional”. Gre Analytical? You may be tempted to use five different types of font styles, in an effort to look creative. However, you may only be making it harder for the recruiter to essay, go over the contents of your resume if the essay writing linking effect of having varied font styles will be too jarring.

The same goes with the font sizes. You want them to be able to saint john, read it, so you may be tempted to make the font sizes too big that the recruiter may feel insulted. Or you may also end up choosing a font size that is too small, without taking into account the possibility that the recruiter may have problem reading small fonts. Writing? The rule of thumb in most resume-writing guides is to saint essay, choose basic but modern fonts such as Arial or Helvetica, using a font size between 10 and 12. If you have to make any detail stand out by using a large font, it should be used on your name, which will appear at the top of the page. The recommended font size for the name of the applicant is between 20 and essay, 24. Using the bullet-point format for john essay, lists is also highly recommended for easier readability and writing essays, understandability. Saint John Essay? When laid out like that, it is much quicker for the recruiter to resume, see what you have to offer, instead of having them read blocks of text and saint john, long narratives. There is resume, also the matter of saint essay leaving enough white space on the resume to essay writing expressions, make it look clean. Do not think that having empty spaces means you have a resume that is not so interesting because it looks empty.

Filling in the white spaces may result in a cluttered resume, making it overwhelming and, at times, disorganized. Fortunately, jobseekers now have access to saint essay, a lot of tools online – often free, or some at inexpensive prices – that they can use to help them design their resume to be attractive and professional-looking at the same time. Is The Of The Souls? There are even templates that they can readily use. However, beware not to saint, fall into the trap of letting the template shape the resume. It is your resume, so you should be the one to create and research, mold it. The template should only serve as a guide. Consistency is very important if you want the recruiter to keep reading your resume. Saint John Essay? If you used a black font color, make sure it remains consistent throughout the esc rationale document, except for the odd color in john essay a personal logo that you may have included. If you used one font style for a section heading and linking expressions, another style for the bullet points under the section, do that for all the section headings and essay, section bodies. This will also help in making your resume look more professional. The same rule on consistency applies to esc rationale essay, the structure of the resume.

In the work history, for instance. If you listed the john details in the order of career essay “Job Title”, and saint essay, followed by “Company Name” and essay linking expressions, “Inclusive Dates of Employment”, this order should be observed for the rest of the details or items in the section. If the Education section listed the details in the order of “Education Level”, followed by “School or University attended” and “Dates of Attendance”, this order should also be followed for the rest of the essay entries on education. Keeping the what is the thesis structure parallel and the presentation consistent all throughout the resume will give it a neater, and more organized look, and the recruiter or employer will have an saint john essay easier time reading through it, and spotting the information that he is looking for. 5. Be specific when detailing accomplishments.

Vague and ambiguous details are sure to turn anyone away from continuing on reading your resume. What Thesis Of Black? Specificity means providing the barest details about the accomplishment or task that gives it more impact. Joy Haugen suggested that you should also include how you performed your duties, and how you were able to provide an impact to the job and the organization as a whole. For example, writing that you “acted as social media manager for saint john essay, the company” raised more questions than clarifications in the eyes of the resume quebecois recruiter. Saint John? Be more specific about it. Perhaps you can rewrite it to “created social media content and managed social media accounts of XXX company, increasing social engagement by 50% in six months”. Avoid preparing a one-size-fits-all resume, where the only thing you will edit is the company name and job title. Make an effort to customize the resume to be tailor-fitted to the specific job that you are applying for.

Believe me, the recruiter will immediately know whether you made the effort or not. The key here is to write with the career essay research recruiter or employer in mind. It is similar to when you write a personal letter to a friend or an acquaintance. John Essay? You write your message with them in mind, hoping you will be able to connect with them. When writing your resume, think about what the recruiter or employer will feel once he starts reading your resume. Esc Rationale Essay? Will he feel like the resume is appealing to him directly, or will he think that the resume is something that is directed to him, and a hundred other recruiters for other companies? You may be applying in two companies at the same time, as a PR manager in company A and saint, as an office administrator in company B. Your past work experience shows that you have more experience in PR, so it should not be a problem highlighting your PR skills, qualifications and experience in your resume, putting them above the fold. Of The? However, for the resume for company B, it would be better if you put your PR background on the backseat and highlight your administrative skills on the first part of the resume instead.

By reviewing the job description of the open position, you will be able to tell which skills and saint, qualifications are going to be prioritized by the recruiter. Take your cue from there, and choose what to esc rationale, put in your resume, and where to put them. In fact, it would be a good idea to use the actual words and phrases used in the job description to saint john essay, write in your resume. You can use those free resume templates . Essay? 7. Put your best stuff on the top third of the resume. You have to get over the desire to put EVERYHING on the resume. Remember, you are not writing an autobiography in bullet point form; you are writing a resume that will hook the recruiter and reel him in, strong enough to call you up for an interview. Think of the saint essay resume as a summary, not a comprehensive record of your work history, experience, and education. You are supposed to put only the highlights on there, which means that you have to esc rationale, include only the john essay best information about yourself. It’s also important to note that choosing what to include is essay, not the only concern you should have; even the placement matters. Applicants are advised to put the highlights of their accomplishments and saint, skills, specifically those that are deemed to be most relevant to what of black folk, the open position being applied for, in the top third of the resume or, as marketers put it, “above the fold”.

This is because the top third of the resume is the first portion that the recruiter or manager will see. He reaches for saint, your documents, scans your cover letter, then moves on to the resume. His eyes will automatically be drawn to the top of the document, and that is where you will grab the why do i want a counselor essay opportunity to engage their attention. That is where you should put your most appealing or attractive points. 8. Exclude the objective statement. In the past, the objective statement used to be one of the critical parts of the resume. However, that is no longer the case. Unless you are in the process of making a major career change or transition where an john essay explanation is called for, you may choose to ditch the objective statement altogether. First reason: the objective statement may take up space in the resume that you can use for essay linking, other more important and relevant information instead. Saint Essay? Second reason: the recruiter does not really care what your objectives are. His main concern is to evaluate whether your resume has been written specifically for the job, and that you have the required qualifications and linking, skills for the open position.

Third, objective statements are all starting to sound and read the same, and if this happens to you, then it totally defeats your purpose or aim of letting your resume make you stand out. 9. Keep only the recent and relevant work experience and skills. This is in keeping with the principle of keeping your resume short yet meaty at the same time. You are applying for a PR job. That means you should put work experience, history and skills that have to do with PR. John? Bookkeeping skills and machine operation skills are not relevant to that PR job, so feel free to career, exclude them from the resume. You should also keep only the recent ones. John Essay? Some companies may not care for the technical trainings that you have undergone while you were still in college at university, especially if that was more than ten years ago, and you’ve held at gre analytical writing, least two or three jobs since then. The fact that you were able to land those recent jobs and earned certifications will be enough, so they will only look at essay, recent records. Is The Of The Souls? The temptation to put all the skills that, for you and many others, make you impressive is going to be very high, and essay, you may find yourself caught between wanting to put them and keeping them out of the resume because of the question on relevance.

Keep in mind that the main focus of recruiters and employers is to look for those relevant information, not only those that prove you are a great individual all around. Is The Thesis Souls Of Black Folk? Another thing you should remember: if your resume has too much content, and it becomes too long, it will also end up looking boring in the eyes of the recruiter. John? You will be amazed at how opinions can change if you give them facts, figures and numbers, especially in esc rationale relation to john, your accomplishments. How much did your previous company’s income or sales increase due to an innovation you introduced? How many employees benefited from a project that you were able to successfully lead and complete? Measurability adds credibility to your resume.

If you can give them numbers – real ones, not fabricated or padded – then you will definitely get the attention of the recruiter, as well as an invite for a job interview. 11. Keep things reverse chronological (if you’re using the Chronological Resume format) This applies to the work history and experience and, in many cases, the education background. The details of work history and experience will be listed in chronological order, but in reverse, meaning the most recent employment will be the first on the list, while the oldest work experience will be the last. Oh, and when dealing with dates and exact figures, make sure you get the details correctly.

Some digits in the years may slip, so instead of saying you worked in writing one company from “2001 to 2015”, you may have written it as “2010 to 2015”. You just shaved off 10 years from your work experience, and john, even left a 10-year employment gap. 12. Observe professional industry standards. There are instances when specific industries may have expectations on what applicants’ resumes should look like. For example, in the IT industry, more emphasis is essay research, placed on the skills of the candidates, more than their education background.

This is why it would be more advisable for candidates to list their skills and qualifications first, before their work history and experience. When you organize the details on saint john essay your resume, see to it that they are in essay accordance with professional industry standards. Not only will this gain you a lot of points from the recruiter or employer for compliance, but it also shows that you have done your research and made the effort to follow the norm, or what is generally accepted. 13. Saint John? Pay attention to the skills section. Esc Rationale Essay? Sadly, many overlook the john essay Skills section, thinking that it is only a supplement to the Work History and Experience section. Well, in a sense, that is true; but you should never underestimate the usefulness of this section. After all, it will underline or elaborate on the details that you cannot expand in the experience section. This is your opportunity to stand out. By listing the hard and soft skills that you possess, and that are relevant to esc rationale, the job, you are informing the recruiter how much they will benefit if you are made to do the job. Even a misplaced letter or typographical error can change the impression of a recruiter reading the resume.

Make sure that you proofread your resume as you go along. Saint Essay? You may have someone else go over it with an career research objective eye. A grammatical error, a typo, a misplaced punctuation mark… all these can have major effects on saint essay the content of why do a counselor essay your resume. Keep your resume updated. John? You may keep a separate master list of all work history, experiences and other relevant details. That is all right, as long as you keep it updated. This would mean that it would also be easier to update your resume from time to time. Regular updating calls for regular review of the resume.

This is very important, especially if you are applying for different jobs, and you have to ensure that the resumes you submit are tailored for the respective jobs being applied for. You should also prepare and update your resume in different file formats. Save and esc rationale essay, check them in DOC, PDF and john essay, other formats. Some companies may have preferences on quebecois what file formats you should submit your resume in, and by saint john doing this, you will have an easier time updating your resume, ready for submission to the company of your choice. 16.

Pay attention to the cover letter. Many do not pay enough attention to what is i want to be, written on their cover letter, thinking that they should focus all their attention to the resume. The cover letter is the first thing that the recruiter or employer will see, and if they like what they see first, they are going to be more interested to turn the page and check out your resume. It is in the cover letter where you will make your pitch for the job opening. It is where you will express your interest for the position, and john, let the esc rationale essay employer know what you can do to fill their need and help them out.

Again, research will serve you well in the preparation of the cover letter. Find out as much as you can about the position and about the saint john company, and use the information when writing your cover letter. The focus of the cover letter should be on what you can offer them as an essay writing linking employee, and not your expectations. 17. Get help from the professionals. In some cases, jobseekers even pay resume writers and professionals to give their resumes the once-over. The expertise of john essay these professionals may be relied on why do i want to spot areas on the resume that need more work, or areas that have to be scrapped entirely. This begs the question on whether to have a professional prepare your resume for you, instead of you preparing it yourself. There are several pros and cons to this, and the decision will depend on a lot of factors. Whether you get the services of resume writers or you write your own resume, you have to saint, make sure that you proofread them, just in case there are errors that slip your eye the first, second, third, or even the nth time.

Follow these tips, and you will find yourself fielding more calls from recruiters, asking you to i want to be essay, appear at a job interview with them! Share your thoughts and experience. 15 Good Questions Jobseekers Should Ask in Interviews. When going on a job interview, most jobseekers tend to john essay, mentally and emotionally prepare themselves … Do’s and Don’ts of Job Hunting (Expert Advice) Are you looking for essay, a job right now? Are you a fresh college graduate and looking to saint essay, build a career? … 10 Job Interview Tips and Tricks for Job Seekers. This is something everyone can definitely relate to. We have all been through the resume quebecois harrowing stage of … Let's find the one for saint essay, you Start here! Already a member? Log in.

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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from saint john essay Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and Mrs. Kennedy arrive at Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House, in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston.

Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at the moment of his death, was John F. Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam? It’s one of the big questions, alternately evaded and disputed over four decades of historical writing. Linking! It bears on Kennedy’s reputation, of course, though not in an unambiguous way. And today, larger issues are at stake as the United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and saint, that, perhaps, also cannot be won. Esc Rationale! The story of Vietnam in 1963 illustrates for us the saint john essay, struggle with policy failure. Esc Rationale Essay! More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the reality of our own history in the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by recalling the furor over Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect.

Reaction then focused mainly on john McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the essay, Secretary of john, Defense responsible for it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to the book’s contribution to history. In an editorial on April 12, 1995, the New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the only value of why do to be a counselor, “In Retrospect” is to saint john, remind us never to forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of their power would not listen to logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that. David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and the Brightest] to his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. So too, did the Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of documents assembled at Mr. McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to history. In view of these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of contents and sees this summary of Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”:

A pivotal period of U.S. Essay Writing Linking! involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by three important events: the overthrow and assassination of South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on October 2 to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces ; and his assassination fifty days later. Saint John! (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to Frankel, this is not something you will find in Halberstam. You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in the Gravel edition of The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the case for quebecois, a Kennedy decision to withdraw were published in that edition. Nor, with just three exceptions prior to last spring’s publication of Howard Jones’s Death of a Generationa milestone in the search for difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in 30 years of historical writing on Vietnam. Did John F. Kennedy give the order to withdraw from Vietnam? Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the question worth posing. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and essay, also that Kennedy especially had expressed to writing linking, friends his desire to get out sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in Vietnam and saint john, gradually escalate the war in 1964 and 1965is held by left, center, and right, from Noam Chomsky to Kai Bird to William Gibbons.

It was promoted forcefully over the years by linking, the late Walt Rostow, beginning in 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s. Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 [1963], Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the U.S. commitment to Vietnam and the continuation of saint john, Vietnam programs and policies of the Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. What Souls Folk! Gary Hess offers summary judgment on the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the john, problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the writing linking expressions, general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to quit. Essay! So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and did not include withdrawal without negotiation. All this (and more) is in esc rationale essay spite of evidence to the contrary, advanced over saint essay the years by a tiny handful of authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the case for continuitywas in essay fact a departure from john essay Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in writing Gravel’s edition of john essay, The Pentagon Papers. Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and His Times tells in essay a few tantalizing pages of the “first application” in saint john October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in resume 1992, with the publication of John M. Newman’s JFK and Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in the U.S.

Army, an intelligence officer last stationed at saint essay Fort Meade, headquarters of the why do i want, National Security Agency. As an essay historian, his specialty is deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to the CIA’s long-hidden archives on Lee Harvey Oswald. Newman’s argument was not a case of “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived. Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Here is the chronology, according to Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the report of a mission to Saigon by career essay research, McNamara and john essay, Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The main recommendations, which appear in Section I(B) of the McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by the end of 1965 and that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1,000 out of essay, 17,000 U.S. military personnel stationed in saint john Vietnam by the end of 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal.

(2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision. Newman quotes the minutes of the linking expressions, meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to remove 1,000 U.S. advisors by December of this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the action should be carried out routinely as part of our general posture of withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in fact made on that day, and (b) that despite the earlier announcement of McNamara’s recommendation, the essay, October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions. (3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the military recommendations contained in section I B (1-3) of the report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of writing essays, plans to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. In other words, the saint john, withdrawal recommended by esc rationale, McNamara on October 2 was embraced in secret by Kennedy on October 5 and implemented by his order on October 11, also in secret. Newman argues that the secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved). There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the withdrawal was a result of progress toward the goal of a self-sufficient South Vietnam.

The alternative would have been to withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to take this step before it became necessary. If the saint, troops could be pulled while the South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the esc rationale essay, better.4 But from October 11 onward the CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Official optimism was replaced by a searching and john essay, comparatively realistic pessimism. Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the previous July, was a response to NSAM 263. It represented an effort by the CIA to undermine the career essay, ostensible rationale of withdrawal with success, and therefore to obstruct implementation of the john essay, plan for withdrawal. Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the career research, coup in Saigon and the assassination of Diem and Nhu. At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals.

They were “to intensify the saint, struggle” and “to bring Americans out of there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on writing linking the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of senior cabinet and saint john, military officials on November 2021 was called to why do to be, review plans in the wake of the Saigon coup. The military and saint essay, the CIA, however, planned to i want essay, use that meeting to essay, pull the rug from under the false optimism which some had used to rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory. It follows that the research, changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of what would eventually be NSAM 273.

The plan was to present it to john essay, Kennedy after the meeting ended. Dated November 21, this draft reflected the change in military reporting. It speaks, for example, of a need to “turn the tide not only of battle but of belief.” Plans to intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against the North underscores the role of Vietnamese forces: 7. With respect to action against North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for resume quebecois, the development of additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the time and investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of saint, effectiveness in this field of action. (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and linking, later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for presentation. This plan called for saint john, intensified sabotage raids against the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of this plan, it had not been shown to McNamara.

Tab E of the meeting’s briefing book, also approved by what is the thesis souls, Taylor and also not sent in advance to john essay, McNamara, showed that the withdrawal ordered by Kennedy in October was already being gutted, by the device of substituting for writing, the withdrawal of full units that of saint john essay, individual soldiers who were being rotated out of Vietnam in any event. (8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by Johnson on November 26, differs from the draft in several respects. Most are minor changes of quebecois, wording. The main change is that the saint essay, draft paragraph 7 has been struck in its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on the November 21 draft), and replaced with the following: Planning should include different levels of possible increased activity, and in each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. The plausibility denial; C. Gre Analytical Essays! Vietnamese retaliation; D. Other international reaction. Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is incomplete. It does not begin by declaring outright that the subject is attacks on the North.

But the thrust is unmistakable, and the restrictive reference to “Government of saint john essay, Vietnam resources” is now missing. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for U.S.directed combat actions against North Vietnam. Planning for these actions began therewith, and we now know that an career research OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the North Vietnamese retaliation against the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the Turner Joy, to reports that it too had been attacked, and to saint john, Johnson’s overnight decision to essay, seek congressional support for john essay, “retaliation” against North Vietnam. From this, of course, the larger war then flowed. A reply to Newman’s book appeared very quickly. It came from Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for Lyndon Johnson or the war.

Chomsky despises the Kennedy apologists: equally the old insiders and essay expressions, the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and Oliver Stoneand the historical memory of “the fallen leader who had escalated the attack against Vietnam from terror to aggression.” He reviles efforts to portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. First, did Kennedy plan to withdraw without victory? Or, were the plans of NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of success in battle? Second, did the change in NSAM 273 between the draft (which was prepared for Kennedy but never seen by him) and saint essay, the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in policy? Chomsky is categorical on both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in the voluminous internal record that even hints at withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. . . . Not a trace of supporting evidence appears in the internal record, or is suggested [by Newman].” And, as for the changes to NSAM 273: “There is gre analytical writing no relevant difference between the two documents [draft and final], except that the LBJ version is weaker and more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the saint john, new version of paragraph 7 in the final draft of NSAM 273 signed by Johnson on November 26 opened the way for OPLAN 34A and the use of U.S.directed forces in covert operations against North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the essay linking expressions, Johnson version as applying only to Government of Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to those forces is no longer there.

Peter Dale Scott, the john, former diplomat, professor of English at esc rationale the University of California, Berkeley, and author of part of the Pentagon Papers, replied to Chomsky on both points almost immediately. On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in saint response to is the thesis of the of black folk, an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . John Essay! . But in fact the planning was first ordered by McNamara in May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in essay writing linking expressions part on a proposal to the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on to point out that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for McNamara’s order. Saint John! But there is good reason to believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on Vietnam.6 As for essay linking, the proposition that no evidence hinting at withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the Pentagon Papers“is in saint fact an edited version of the primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is conspicuously defective” for November 1963. “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of October 30 and resume quebecois, McNamara’s memorandum of December 21; the 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on essay October 30.” On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and essay expressions, ignoring “early accounts of it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and I. F. Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to escalate operations against North Vietnam.”

In the course of this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from Vietnam. John! Instead, the disagreements focused on four questions: Did the essay, withdrawal plans depend on the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at Diem or a ploy for the American public, or were they for real? And were the saint john essay, OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in the South?

The publication of McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate. Some key source materials, including the texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and those of esc rationale essay, NSAM 263 and 273, have been in the public domain for john essay, years. McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to Vietnam makes substantial use of the McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in ambiguity. He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the writing linking expressions, war could be won by the end of saint, 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and political stability” and is the of the of black, describes the impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and continues to progress. . Saint! . . There are serious political tensions in Saigon. . . . Further repressive actions by Diem and is the thesis of the of black, Nhu could change the present favorable military trends. . . . It is not clear that pressures exerted by the U.S. will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. . . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the saint, Diem government is failing and what thesis souls of black, there is no reason to essay, think a replacement would be better. But the references to career research, “great progress” leave room for doubt. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the precise wording of the military recommendations from saint Section I(B) of the report: We recommend that: [1] General Harkins review with Diem the military changes necessary to complete the military campaign in the Northern and Central areas by the end of 1964, and in the Delta by the end of resume quebecois, 1965. [2] A program be established to train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by U.S. military personnel can be carried out by Vietnamese by the end of saint essay, 1965.

It should be possible to withdraw the bulk of U.S. Why Do! personnel by that time. [3] In accordance with the program to train progressively Vietnamese to take over john military functions, the Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. The report then went on to make a number of recommendations to “impress upon what souls of black folk, Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the repression of the saint john, Buddhists and resume quebecois, related issues; the recommendation to announce plans to withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over the military situation, as well as the saint, vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over esc rationale the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and training had progressed to the point where we could begin to withdraw. A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of essay, successful training. But they, too, agreed that we should begin to withdraw. Expressions! . . . The third faction, representing the john, majority, considered the South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on deposit at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to what would follow. The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the president endorsed our recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by gre analytical writing essays, December 31, 1963. He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. Saint John! In any event, because objections had been so intense and because I suspected others might try to get him to reverse the decision, I urged him to announce it publicly.

That would set it in concrete. . . . Writing Essays! The president finally agreed, and saint john, the announcement was released by resume quebecois, Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of this meeting and stressed its importance. He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by the end of 1963, and (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. McNamara also added the john, critical information that there exists a tape of this meeting, in the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, to which he had access and on expressions which his account is based. The existence of a taping system in JFK’s oval office had become known over the years, particularly through the release of partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the john, “ExComm” during the Cuban Missile Crisis of essay, October 1962. But the full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. And, according to McNamara, access to saint essay, particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in Austin, only he and his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of listening to the actual tape recordings of Kennedy’s White House meetings on Vietnam. In 1997, however, this situation changed.

The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for the release of millions of pages of official records deemed relevant to Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to thesis souls, Vietnam decision-making should be released. In July the JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the withdrawal meetings on October 2 and 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is essentially accurate and even to saint, some degree understated. One can hear McNamarathe voice is essay linking unmistakablearguing for a firm timetable to withdraw all U.S. forces from Vietnam, whether the war can be won in 1964, which he doubts, or not. McNamara is emphatic: “We need a way to get out of saint john, Vietnam, and this is a way of doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to withdraw ends at this point. McNamara makes no mention of NSAM 263. What Is The Of The Souls Of Black! However, on the tape of the meeting of October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of “items one, two, and three” on a paper evidently in front of them. Saint John! It is clear that one of quebecois, these items is the saint, recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by the end of 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed.

This short exchange is thus unmistakably a request for esc rationale, a formal presidential decision concerning the McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the possible political effect in Vietnam of announcing this decision, the voice of JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on ahead and do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about essay, it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the Kennedy administration is essay dated November 7, 1963. The archivists at the JFK Library have no information on why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for later dates. Saint John! McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the gre analytical writing essays, Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in a vacuum. Agencies have to be notified, plans have to be made, actions have to saint john essay, be taken. Part of the enduring doubt over Kennedy’s decision to essay, withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the saint essay, failure of this decision to cast a shadow in the primary record, and particularly in the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for esc rationale essay, so many years. Saint John Essay! Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to the “it should be possible” language of the McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of 1965 as leaving an “out” for is the souls of black, the case where the essay, military situation might turn sour.

In two years and two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in 1993, the primary record available to date has been heavily edited. Documents from November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing. Essay! So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the supervision of the ARRB, about 900 pages of new materials were declassified and released from the JCS archives. Saint John Essay! These include important records from May 1963, from October, and from the period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in writing 1989 but were not declassified at that time. They clarify considerably the saint, nature of the linking, “presently prepared plans” referred to in the McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and they give the saint, military leadership’s interpretation of the direction they were getting from JFK. What Thesis Of The Souls Of Black! Since it is essay well known that the what is the thesis souls of black folk, Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to assume that if wiggle room existed in the President’s instructions it would surface in these documents. Many of the new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on saint john May 6, 1963. Here one gets a taste of McNamara’s skepticism and the replies of the brass.

For instance, at one point the secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for effective control the border should be defined, marked and cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.” Turning to the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in what of black the U.S. presence. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over equipment now in U.S. units supporting the Vietnamese as rapidly as possible. He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1.

Draw up training plans for the RVNAF that will permit us to start an earlier withdrawal of U.S. personnel than proposed under the plans presented.” And: “d. Plan to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from RVN by December 1963.” Further discussion of the saint john essay, 1,000 man withdrawal is recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc. This would have a bad effect on the Vietnamese, to esc rationale essay, be pulling out just when it appears they are winning. SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. However, there should be an intensive training program of john essay, RVNAF to allow removal of U.S. units rather than individuals.

There follows considerable discussion of proposals to launch raids on North Vietnam. For Geneva convention reasons, it is agreed that these must be covert. Use of Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for sea entry, available boats are susceptible to weather and too slow. Sea is the what is the thesis souls of black, only means of exfiltration. Essay! However, for any major operation the RVN naval craft are not qualified to esc rationale, tangle with DRV craft. . . . Build-up in saint john CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in addition to 9 in country.

New high speed armed boats will be available for infiltration and exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an answer to one of the critical questions separating Newman and is the of the, Scott from Chomsky. OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for the Government of Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to projected force structures, and john, a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by essay expressions, major unit, of the projected American commitment through 1968. McNamara’s reaction to this timetable is john essay recorded clearly:

In connection with this presentation, made by esc rationale, COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the saint, Secretary of Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. He directed that training plans be developed for the GVN by CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of essay, U.S. forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for saint john essay, pilot training with the view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the Vietnamese our copters and esc rationale essay, thus be able to move our own forces out. ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. (Emphasis added.) The May conference thus fills in the primary record: plans were under development for saint john essay, the complete withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by the end of 1963, and to get almost all the career, rest out by the end of 1965. There followed, on October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from General Maxwell Taylor to his fellow Joint Chiefs of Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. The program currently in progress to train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for the projected operational environment, to saint john, include those now performed by U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by the Vietnamese by the end of calendar year 1965. All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for the withdrawal of all U.S. special assistance units and personnel by the end of calendar year 1965. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is no contingency here, or elsewhere in this memorandum. The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the plan to why do i want a counselor essay, withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963 per your DTG 212201Z July, and as approved for planning by john, JCS DTG 062042Z September.

Previous guidance on esc rationale the public affairs annex is altered to the extent that the action will now be treated in low key, as the initial increment of U.S. forces whose presence is no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the function involved; or (b) the function for which they came to Vietnam has been completed. (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of how the initial withdrawal was to saint john, be carried out. It was not to writing, be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to essay, please either U.S. opinion or to resume quebecois, change policies in Saigon. Saint John Essay! It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to a process that would play out over the following two years. The final paragraph of Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against which progress can be evaluated on of the folk a quarterly basis.” There is much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the evidence that South Vietnam was, in fact, losing the war. But it hardly matters.

The withdrawal decided on was unconditional, and did not depend on military progress or lack of it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into policy. Saint! It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the writing essays, same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the saint john, people and i want essay, government of South Vietnam to win their contest against the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the application of overt U.S. military force. But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for covert action against North Vietnam by essay, CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Yes, the “central objectives” remained the gre analytical writing essays, same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. Saint John! military force.” But covert force is still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and career research, 26after the essay, Honolulu meeting had adjourned and probably after Kennedy died. A final military document is i want to be a counselor relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is titled “Department of Defense Actions to Implement NSAM No.

273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Dalby; it is from john CINCPAC files and is labeled “Group 1Excluded from Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in Honolulu and after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the President directed that certain guidance be issued to writing essays, various Government Agencies. This was promulgated in the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is no reference to the change of commander in chief, which had occurred within the time frame indicated by john essay, the opening sentence. The particular importance of this document is resume quebecois its reference to paragraph 7 of NSAM 273. Planning for intensified action against North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in john essay the form of a 12-month program. . . . A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the what is the thesis souls, plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to CINCPAC and COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from COMUSMACV on December 3. CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that: CIA guidance to Saigon Station for intensified planning was dispatched following the Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the john, CIA began developing intensified plans to implement OPLAN 34A, the program of seaborne raids and sabotage against esc rationale North Vietnam that would lead to the Gulf of Tonkin incident and eventually to john, the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action.

How this happened, and gre analytical writing essays, its precise significance, remains to be determined.9. John F. Kennedy had formally decided to john essay, withdraw from gre analytical writing Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Saint! Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. These decisions were taken, and even placed, in an oblique and carefully limited way, before the what souls of black folk, public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to this tale. One of them is simply range, depth, and completeness.

His recent book Death of john, a Generation is a full history of how the assassinations of Diem and esc rationale essay, then of saint essay, JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Where this essay has presented the story-within-a-story of just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for power and is the thesis of the folk, policy that marked the whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. Saint Essay! And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to Saigon. In a long and fascinating section he outlines the intrigues that led to the murders of Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963.

Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at its worst. It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the is the of the souls of black folk, forces it faced in Vietnam. Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the monk Quang Duc to burn himself on a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the White House. Saint John Essay! And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about “barbecued bonzes” were an irritant out of proportion to their importance. I Want A Counselor! Thus, in part, the saint, decision to dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the most senior officials over essay writing linking a Washington weekend. Then, having set events in motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible.

Partly as a result it had limited contact with the conspirators and was unable to protect Diem and Nhu when the coup came. Diem was indefensible in many ways. But the coup went forward with no alternative in view; and as the john, French ambassador to Saigon put it at the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on the Americans, will be obedient to them in all things, and so there will be no chance for peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of what might have been. Essay! Was Nhu in discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to boot the Americans from john Vietnam? It appears that he was.

And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. policy over Vietnam changed again in late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against research targets in saint the North. The decision to linking expressions, launch covert attacks on North Vietnam does not by itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. Essay! He feared that a catastrophe would follow. Career Essay Research! In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the disaster. He acceded to proposals for covert action, and he promised the military, on john essay November 24, that they could have what they wanted. And so the sequence of events that led to research, the Tonkin Gulf, to our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to introduce their own main forces in the South, and to our decision to introduce main forces, played out.

The days from Honolulu to NSAM 273, November 20 to 26, 1963, simply marked the first turning point. It is not difficult to understand why Johnson felt obliged to assert his commitment to Vietnam in November 1963. To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to maintain the illusion of continuity, and thisin the moment of john essay, trauma that followed the assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Moreover, delay in the resolution of the essay, Vietnam problem in late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Our commitment then was still small. Tonkin Gulf and its aftermath lay almost a year into the future.

Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in essay charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates. But ultimately he committed us to war that he knew in gre analytical writing essays advance would be practically impossible to win. Nothing can erase this. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to saint john essay, an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and essay linking expressions, nuclear confrontation. He bided his time, until the trauma of Tet in January of 1968 and his own departure from politics in March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Laos in 1961: send Harriman to end it at the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for saint, sucess.

He was not crazy. His political fate in 1964 did not depend on a show of toughness. Quebecois! But one possibility is saint john essay that the alternatives, as he saw them, were worse. To appreciate this possibility, one needs to grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the strategic balance in career essay the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the assassination of John F. Kennedy on the other. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the two black holes of the modern history of the United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for he approved a calendar of events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in saint essay 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in quebecois 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in 1963. Kennedy subordinated the timing of these events to politics: he was quite prepared to leave soldiers in harm’s way until after his own reelection. His larger goal after that was to settle the Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963. And that was, partly, a question of atomic survivala subject that can only be said to have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in those days, and for very good reason. The Soviet Union, which had at essay that time only four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the U.S. mainland, was not the danger that rational men most feared.

The United States held an overwhelming nuclear advantage in late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to carrying out why do i want to be essay those plans at saint john essay the appropriate moment. Essay Research! In July 1961, the nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for such an attack would come at essay the end of writing linking expressions, 1963. And yet, standing against them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to saint john, allow U.S. nuclear weapons to be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against expressions China, not over Cuba or Berlin, nor against the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the essay, atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the essay writing expressions, time. Was it also a deadly secret? Did LBJ have reason to fear, on the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the essay, idea that Kennedy really had decided to quit Vietnam.

Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. To Be! Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the need to recognize and cope with policy failure. And as for the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the victims of September 11, 2001, don’t have to wait as long. Saint John Essay! James K. Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the writing essays, Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an odd story, in which I should acknowledge a small role. On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in the New York Times Book Review. But of saint john essay, some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to Newman) only resume about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on my own in essay the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. I met Newman in essay research November 1993, partly through the good offices of the LBJ Library. I carried his grievance personally to an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the return of his rights. Still, the john, hardback was never reissued, and no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for a conference at the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and 273: Manipulating History” in career essay Lloyd C. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Texas Press, 1997).

3 Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of Power, made this argument in a televised lecture at the LBJ Library in john essay early 1995. 4 In a contribution to Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on October 2, allowed McNamara and Taylor to announce, as their recommended target date, that the is the of the souls of black folk, withdrawal be completed by 1965. It would have been awkward to saint, follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in the New York Times of why do i want a counselor essay, 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prison, many were denied immigration to the United States because of a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an open mind.” 7 I requested release of the saint john, tapes in a letter to career essay, the ARRB in saint essay November 1996. 8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to writing, JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at john his first Vietnam meeting as President on November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the escalatory language in NSAM 273 to this.

However, by any standard the CIA moved quickly, and by this account it relied on the discussions at Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the why do i want to be a counselor essay, role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in favor of john essay, disengagement from Vietnam, and whose 1962 recommendation for phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the writing linking expressions, 1963 orders. My father did not know that the actual decision was taken in October 1963, but he is in no doubt as to Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in 1962 saying to him privately and unmistakably that withdrawal from Vietnam, as that from Laos and essay, the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of what is the, political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of LBJ’s words to him, in private, on one of their last meetings before the saint john essay, Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and I documented these nightmares in an article published in 1994 entitled “Did the U.S. Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is still available on i want a counselor essay the website of the American Prospect. When once I asked the late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the National Security Council meeting of July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the one where they wanted to blow up the world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on Johnson’s mind. It also explains important points about his behavior in those days, including his orders to saint john essay, Earl Warren and esc rationale essay, Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the C-SPAN website) as to how they would conduct their commission. John! The point to appreciate is that there is only one way a war could have started at why do to be that time: by john, preemptive attack by the United States against writing essays the Soviet Union. 19972003 by john essay, James K. Galbraith.

All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on politics, literature, and more in thesis folk your inbox. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. Kenya#039;s New Electoral Authoritarianism. Business as Usual: The Long History of Corporate Personhood. Searching for Mao in john essay Xi Jinping#039;s China. Copyright 1993-2017 Boston Review and writing linking, its authors.

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St John s College Undergraduate College Application Essays

IGCSE and saint john essay, GCSE Geography Coursework (Paper 4) Paper 4 is the esc rationale essay, alternative to coursework paper that is worth 27.5% of your final IGCSE grade. The coursework paper tests your understanding of john essay how coursework is carried out. The paper is 1 hour and 30 minutes long and divided into two 30 mark questions. You answer all the questions on the examination paper, most questions are short in length, between 1 and 4 marks. The paper requires a combination of knowledge and skills. The questions usually focus on coursework to do with; coasts, rivers, settlements or weather. As a IGCSE geographer it is possible to carry out coursework on many aspects of the esc rationale, course.

Possible topics and areas of john essay study may include: Changes in river velocity from source to essays, mouth Changes in load (shape and saint, size) from source to mouth Changes in channel depth, width, cross-section and wetted perimeter from source to mouth Changes in essay, discharge from john essay source to mouth Changes across a meanders cross section Changes in river gradient from source to mouth Changes in valley size and gradient from source to mouth Changes in land use a long a river Changes in esc rationale, pollution along a rivers' course (you need proper equipment for this) Changes in vegetation (cover and variety) moving inland Changes in saint, beach profile and gre analytical essays, sand dune profile Speed of longshore drift Changes in john essay, land use Changes in defences (compare to career research, land use) Changes in beach or dune material (size or shape) Changes in land use Changes in traffic (maybe CBD to rural-urban fringe) Changes in pedestrians Number and saint john essay, type of tourists Changes in essay, the quality of the saint john, environment or pollution levels (may look at the impact of quebecois industry) Changes in globalisation Changes in john essay, cost of products Comparison to Burgess or Hoyt Model Changes in wealth or population density (will have to use some secondary data) Sphere of influences of settlements or services. Changes in temperature throughout the day or between seasons Changes in rainfall Changes in humidity Changes in quebecois, hours of sunshine or cloud cover Changes in john, wind speed and wind direction. Before you choose your coursework you have to decide if you live in a suitable study location. Esc Rationale. For example it is no use trying to do a piece of coursework on saint essay, rivers, if you live in the middle of career essay research a desert. Before starting your coursework, you should also think about how you can carry out the coursework safely and definitely carry out a risk assessment. You can make your coursework safer by doing the following:

Protection from the weather (waterproof jacket, umbrella, hat, suncream) Sensible dress (remember you will be representing your school, but you should also wear clothes that don't draw attention to yourself Always carry out coursework in groups Always tell an adult or teacher where you area carrying out coursework Always carry a mobile phone with you Never do coursework near a river or the john essay, sea without an adult or teacher and without them checking that it is safe Carry out coursework in day light and wear reflective clothes Check that your study area is safe. For example it wouldn't be safe walking around downtown San Salvador Don't display valuables making you more vulnerable to crime e.g. if you have a camera or a phone keep it out of research sight. Specification: Formulating aims and hypotheses: Candidates should be familiar with hypotheses as statements that form the basis of Coursework assignments. The hypotheses may investigate a geographical concept e.g. ‘A CBD has the highest concentration of comparison shops’. Collecting relevant data, analysis and drawing conclusions using the saint john essay, data as evidence can test these. The width of a river will increase as you move from the source to esc rationale, the mouth The amount of essay traffic will increase as you move from the rural-urban fringe to a counselor essay, the CBD The amount of vegetation will increase as you move inland from the sea (distance = 200metres) The hottest part of the day will be between 1200 and 1400. Whenever you are doing data collection, the aim is to be as objective as possible. Objective means that no bias or personal opinion affects the outcome of saint essay your results. The opposite to be objective is being subjective. Being subjective simple means that your own personal views and bias has influenced results. It is up to date (current) You know how the data has been collected i.e. Linking Expressions. what technique It only includes data that is relevant to your coursework It only covers your study area It is essay, collected in gre analytical writing essays, the format that you want.

You can study temporal changes e.g. how population has changed over a number of years It can be quicker, especially if the data is on the internet You can study a larger area It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. salaries. The data may include some personal bias Data collection can be time consuming It can be expensive to travel to places to saint john, collect data It is hard to study temporal changes Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to collect Only possible to cover a small area. It is out of date, especially if it has been printed in a book. There might more information than you need The information may include a larger area than your study area You may not know how the data was collected and who collected the data The data might be in the wrong format e.g. in a graph and i want a counselor essay, not raw figures. Quantitative data: This is saint, any data that involves figures. Quantitative data is very easy to resume, present and analyse. Even though it is easy to present it can be very general and exclude some data. Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an area or sample group. Saint Essay. Even though you pick the technique, once it is picked, there is no bias in essay, who gets selected. Saint John. It is essay research, very simple to understand and carry out.

Because you are selecting the systematic technique, there is some bias (subjectivity). Saint Essay. You decide how often to take a sample. Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an unrepresentative sample e.g. Esc Rationale. you ask every 10th person to fill in a questionnaire, but every 10th person turns out to be female. Every person or every location/place has a completely equal chance of being selected It is quick and simple. Because it is totally random, results maybe completely random and not representative e.g. when randomly selecting names out of saint hat to ask questionnaires too, you only pick females.

Stratified sampling: Because both systematic and random sampling can give you a unrepresentative sample, if you have some secondary data that allows you to essays, rank your sample group you can then carry out stratified sampling. For example if you are carrying out saint john essay, environmental indexes in a city that has 12 districts, if you randomly or systematically select four, you may pick th efour best or the four worst. Gre Analytical Essays. However, if you know the average income of saint john essay those 12 areas (census data) you can them rank them 1 to 12 and then randomly or systematically pick a district from each quartile giving you a more representative sample. Decide on resume, your questions (what do you need to saint john essay, find out and what type of question are you going to ask) Whether to do the questions orally or give them in written form (you may have to think about translations) How you are going to essay writing linking expressions, pilot (test) your questions How you are going to record the answers (record them, write them down, trying to remember is essay, unreliable) How you are going to sample (random, systematic, stratified) Remember that you are representing yourself and the school - be polite Remember people don't have to answer questions and they may be sensitive about some e.g. age groups and income groups. When actually designing your questions you have two real choice; open or closed: You are getting the respondents personal opinion. They are not limited in esc rationale, their response. Some responses might not be relevant to your research Respondents may not understand the john essay, question and give you an irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables.

All answers will be relevant to your research The results are easy to analyse using graphs and tables. The results lack personal opinion. They can be very generalised You are nearly always forced to have an other box meaning you don't know what the respondent thinks Your personal opinion has been placed on the questions (subjective). Specification: Observation – Examples of using observations as an enquiry skill to collect data include the recording of land-use in an urban area or observations of river or coastal features. Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and annotated photographs may all be used to record candidate observations. It is important to always have an other category, because you always find a land use that you have not thought about.

They are more accurate than field sketches They can be good for why do essay, showing data collection techniques e.g. measuring a river's load They can support data collection findings e.g. they can show an example of a poor environment They can show temporal changes, especially if you can find historical photos. You can annotate and label them. People often include photos that are not relevant e.g. a photo of their friends People forget to label, annotate or refer to photos, which then makes them irrelevant. Saint Essay. People often only writing essays, photograph the john, nice things e.g. pretty view and forget the more ugly areas that are just as important e.g. area of pollution They can often contains too much information e.g. people and esc rationale, vehicles Because they are two dimensional, depth can be deceptive. Specification: Counts – Pedestrian and traffic counts are two significant examples of this enquiry skill. Saint John. Appropriate methods for recording the counts should be discussed including the layout of recording sheets, instructions and the necessary information required to identify the sheet following the count (i.e. time, date, location and name of recorder).

Geography fieldwork equipment can be used to measure virtually anything, but is most commonly used to take measurements along a river or at a beach. Gre Analytical Writing. Below are photos and descriptions of some of the john essay, most common types of geography equipment. Transect: A transect is basically a line a long which you take measurements. You may have a transect that runs from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD or a transect that runs from the sea in land through sand dunes. In a real piece of coursework, you would explain how all your data was collected. A Counselor Essay. In your description you would probably contain the following information: Date, time and location of saint essay data collection Group size Description and copy of data collection forms used e.g. Quebecois. questionnaires or counts Explanation of how the saint john, forms were used e.g. sample size, count period, count technique, etc. Essay. Description of equipment and an explanation of its use.

Instead of writing a methodology in your exam, you may be asked to write a set of instructions, explaining how data collection should be carried out. For example you might be asked to give a set of instructions for doing a traffic count. You might say: Find a safe location near the road your are counting traffic Count the traffic in both directions for a 10 minute period A tally should be used for counting because this is easy and quick At the end of saint essay 10 minutes count up the totals for each type of essay linking expressions vehicle. You may also be asked about essay, how your data collection could be improved. Improvements may be made in career essay, some of the following ways: Do counts more regularly e.g. every one or two hours Do counts, surveys or indexes in more locations Do counts, surveys and indexes on different days of the week (including weekends) Get two groups doing the same survey, index or count so that an average may be taken. Specification: Data presentation techniques: A knowledge of the illustrative techniques to present data across the topics for saint essay, Paper 4 is career research, required. This should include, various types of graphs, maps and diagrams for example line graphs, bar graphs, divided bar graphs, histograms, flow diagrams, wind rose graphs, isoline maps, scatter graphs, pie graphs, triangular graphs and radial graphs. If you are asked to complete a graph or table, all the data will be there for saint, you so read the is the of the, data carefully and essay, complete the graph/table/diagram carefully. Shows spatial distribution e.g. dot map Shows variations between regions and countries e.g. choropleth map Visually interesting (interesting colours, symbols) Very bold and clear Easy to understand Clearly shows trends and quebecois, anomallies.

Can disguise intra-region or intra-country variations e.g. choropleth map Hard to see trends and anomalies Very complicated to read Symbols take up to much room. Specification: Analysis: Candidates should be able to saint john, describe the patterns in essay, data presented in graphs and tables of results. Reference to relevant geographical knowledge and understanding is often required in the interpretation of the data. Saint John. Practice of this skill will improve success in Paper 4 questions. Look for essay writing linking expressions, trends and correlations (if there is not a overall trend, look for smaller trends) Look for essay, anomalies (things that don't fit the thesis souls of black, general trend) When ever you refer to trend and anomalies you must support with evidence e.g. facts and figures from graph or table. Saint. Try and resume quebecois, explain trends (refer back to theory or other information that you have discovered in your investigation) Try and saint essay, explain anomalies.

Specification: Formation of conclusions: Using the evidence from the data, candidates should be able to make judgements on the validity of the original hypothesis or aims of the assignment. Reference is also required of the reliability of the essays, collected data and a critical evaluation of the chosen data collection methods. Refer back to original hypothesis Use some data to support your findings Refer to theory (if mentioned in introduction) - do your findings agree or disagree with theory State what you have learnt from saint essay your investigation. Evaluation : In an evaluation you state what went well in your research, but also how it can be improved or extended in the future. If you are asked to write an evaluation, think about the following:

What went well (keep this brief) Any problems with data collection e.g. bad weather, missing data, sampling technique, questions, data collection form Data that could be useful in the future e.g. secondary data from government, more questionnaires (bigger sample) Additional hypothesis that you could have used Problems with time or money that could be changed in the future. Portions not contributed by visitors are Copyright 2017 Tangient LLC.