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What Is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus …
buyology book report Imagine that you are a smoker. You pick up a pack of essays cigarettes. On the front of the pack are gory images a hemorrhaged brain, blackened lungs, deformed baby, ugly cancerous growth coupled with stern admonitions like #8220;SMOKING KILLS#8221;. Email Resume! How would you react to these gruesome warnings? According to renowned neuro-marketer Martin Lindstrom in his bestselling book Buyology , the essays #8220;craving spot#8221; of your brain would actually be stimulated by those visceral warnings. In other words, you#8217;ll feel like smoking more not less! Do these images deter you? (courtesy of CBC News) (Update recent studies revealed that the gory images DO help people to stop smoking.
So I guess the field of neuromarketing is constantly evolving too!) Neuromarketing = Neurological Science + Consumer Behaviour. Written with an protocol submission, engaging narrative, Buyology provides a fascinating glimpse into the world of neuromarketing, fusing the disparate disciplines of essays on diabetes neurological science with marketing and consumer behaviour. Poo poo-ing the value of market research which can often be gamed by essay about spent my holidays, either companies themselves or the consumers they study, Lindstrom claimed that what #8220;we say we feel about a product can never truly predict how we behave#8221;. Lindstrom#8217;s assertions were based on essays the results of a US$7 million 3 year neuromarketing study of 2,000 people from the essays developed world.
Using state-of-the-art technology like Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and on diabetes Steady-State Typography (SST), Lindstrom and his associates conducted numerous experiments peering into the human brain. So what worked and what didn#8217;t? Let us begin with visual advertising. Most ads are so overwrought that our brains literally shut down and block these images. Apparently, only 2.21 ads are remembered by anybody in the year 2007 (the book was published in 2008)! What about product placements?
Here, we take a leaf from the experience of Coca Cola, Cingular, and Ford Motors, each of which invested millions in sponsoring American Idol . Through immersive placements for example, contours of the studio sofas resembling a Coke bottle, or glasses of Coke provided to the judges the beverage brand achieved the best recall. This was followed by informal essay, Cingular, which was mentioned each time viewers called in to vote for their favourite contestant. Unfortunately, Ford#8217;s advertisements during the break actually led to poorer recall than before. Coca-Cola product placement in American Idol (courtesy of CBU Marketing) Subliminal messaging is another marketing trait which was uncovered to work better than overt advertising. Studies have shown that the millisecond exposure of positive or negative stimuli in a video reel could lead to real difference in on diabetes how humans feel and behave. On the contrary, logos were actively resisted by consumers, causing their minds to dnb thesis submission build mental barriers which block them. On Diabetes! Goodness me! To counter this, brands like Marlboro cleverly deployed colour schemes (its trademark red) and essay about styles to give the essays on diabetes appearance of a brand advertisement or environment sans logo. Pmr! These visual reminders are powerful enough for us to associate them with the brands, eliciting a desired action. Now we know why those darn cigarettes were so addictive and hard to get rid off!
The Marlboro logo is nowhere in essays sight yet its everywhere you look (courtesy of Creative Criminals) Strong brands are also ardent creators of rituals and superstitions . My Holidays! Examples include squeezing a lime into a Corona beer bottle, dipping Oreo#8217;s cookies into milk, and essays pouring a Guinness stout in essay about spent my holidays a certain manner to ensure that the essays on diabetes #8220;head#8221; of the informal essay beer was preserved. Taken a step further, leading brands (like Apple and on diabetes Nike) behave almost like religions . In fact, fMRI studies reveal that they trigger the dnb thesis protocol submission same spots in essays on diabetes a brain akin to informal worshipping at essays on diabetes a church, temple or mosque! Like major beliefs, these vanguard brands embrace the 10 pillars of religions sense of belonging, clear vision, power over enemies, sensory appeal, storytelling, grandeur, evangelism, symbols, mystery and rituals. Some people treat their iPhones with godly reverence (courtesy of Steve Essence) Riding on ideas from essay his earlier book Brandsense , Lindstrom continued to espouse the on diabetes virtues of spent my holidays using multiple senses to improve a product#8217;s #8220;sensory brand#8221;.
While sight is the most commonly deployed sense in marketing, scents and sounds can be far more effective in reaching our hearts particularly when paired with visual elements. Colours are also powerful in triggering brand associations. What about sex , the most potent force in essays advertising? Contrary to popular belief, sex in itself might actually lead to a lower recall of brands. Writing Essay For College! That is unless the use of sexual imagery and copy was controversial enough to essays raise a ruckuss (positive or negative) such that the brand becomes a talking point. Similarly, beautiful celebrities may be overrated as brand ambassadors. The only thing these larger-than-life babes and hunks end up endorsing are themselves, rather than the brands they are paid millions to appear with. That is why campaigns like Dove#8217;s #8220;Real Beauty#8221; work better in promoting recall and response than myriad other beauty brands who use #8220;me-too#8221; celebrities. Somatic Markers and Mirror Neurons.
On the scientific front, we are educated on how somatic markers and mirror neurons lead to our consumption behaviours. Essays! In the world of neuromarketing, somatic markers are dramatic events that exert a permanent and memorable association a veritable book mark to essays the brain. Examples of dnb thesis protocol somatic markers include the essays on diabetes 9/11 World Trade Centre disaster, Blendtec#8217;s unforgettable #8220;Will it blend?#8221; videos on and trust YouTube, and Energizer Bunny#8217;s relentless marching and beating on essays on diabetes a drum. Mirror neurons , on the other hand, are nerve connections that make us want to #8220;mirror#8221; somebody else. This #8220;monkey-see-monkey-do#8221; effect is the protocol reason we feel sad when watching a tear jerker on essays TV, or outraged when reading about violent crimes. When our mirror neurons are triggered, we also receive a shot of dopamine the feel good hormone which leads us to purchase more products or services.
Who can ever forget the adorable Energizer Bunny? Conclusion We are Irrational Buyers! The conclusion from Lindstrom#8217;s excellent work on neuromarketing? Men and women are irrational creatures when it comes to shopping! That is essay, because the essays emotions triggered in the subconscious mind make up 90% of our #8220;buy#8221; decisions compared to the 10% associated with our conscious rational brain . Thus, we often can#8217;t explain why we prefer a particular brand of handbag, running shoe, or electronic device, beyond stating its obvious attributes. In summary, Buyology offers a compelling look or relook rather at what truly makes us buy. By marrying the medical science of neurological studies with marketing, it provides a fresh twist to on society our understanding of consumer behaviour. Fans of Martin Lindstrom (like me) who love his other books like Brandwashed (review here), Brand Child and Brand Sense will find this volume a compelling addition to their bookshelves. Okay.
Scary!! Very interesting information though. Thanks for an easy to read and essays on diabetes interesting post! Great review, I had it on my TBR shelf for a while now, it#8217;s time I picked it up. I know Martin Lindstrom is a branding and marketing expert, so I know I will enjoy the book.
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2300-320-7 - Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program Automated Fellowship Payment System. Remove: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 8/1/03. Insert: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 2/24/09. PLEASE NOTE: For information on: For information on essays, content of this chapter, contact the essays, issuing office listed above. NIH Manual System, contact the Division of Management Support, OMA on 301-496-4606, or enter this url: http://oma.od.nih.gov/public/MS/manualchapters/Pages/default.aspx.
This chapter transmits the NIH policy on the use of the NIH Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program. IRTA Traineeships are established for the principal benefit of the participant and to provide opportunities for developmental training and practical research experience in a variety of disciplines related to essays, biomedical research, medical library research and related fields. Traineeships are designed to provide research training “for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the Public Health Services (PHS) Act, and which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals.” Training must be carried out at essays on society a facility of the NIH, but may be supplemented by additional training acquired at essays on diabetes another institution which is found by the Director to friendship and trust essay, be directly related to the purpose of the traineeship and necessary to essays on diabetes, its successful completion. Training outside of NIH must not comprise a majority of the training. The IRTA Program encourages the participation of individuals from groups who are underrepresented in friendship and trust, biomedical research: women, persons with disabilities, and on diabetes, individuals of friendship essay diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds. Service is a by-product of the essays, IRTA Program unlike Research and Clinical Fellowships where service is a dominant part of the friendship, training objective. Essays On Diabetes! NOTE: Trainees may not independently engage in patient care activities (any clinically-related activity MUST explicitly be under the direct supervision and control of an NIH employee), be assigned official supervisory responsibilities, or sign documents on behalf of the Government (e.g., requisitions). (1) The Director, NIH, may conduct and support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the PHS Act and which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 282(b)(13)]; (2) the Directors of the national research institutes may conduct and support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487, and which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 284(b)(1)(C)]; (3) the informal essay pmr, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C.
287c-21(a); (4) the National Library of Medicine (NLM) may conduct research training as described in on diabetes, 42 U.S.C. 286b-3 (NLM Traineeships limited to Post-baccalaureate students only); (5) the National Center on Minority Health and email review, Health Disparities, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in essays, 42 U.S.C. 287c-31. (6) 42 CFR Part 63, Public Health Service Regulations re: Traineeships. See Appendix 10 (Delegations of Authority) Approval by the Deputy Director Intramural Research ( DDIR) is required for all exceptions to program provisions. Requests for exceptions to informal essay pmr, program provisions must be fully justified in writing, describing the nature and basis for the exception. Trainees are not Federal employees, are subject to the availability of space, funds, and preceptors’ time, and are limited by the number of training assignments available within participating Institutes or Centers (IC). Traineeships are contingent upon submission of acceptable proof of U.S. citizenship or resident alien status, and a medical evaluation if applicable.
In addition, trainees must meet the requirements of essays on diabetes one of the categories specified below: G. Duration of Program Traineeship Programs. Time spent on essays on society, a Traineeship program within any IC counts toward the total Traineeship duration, regardless of the number of Traineeships granted by different ICs. The duration of the award period and the original termination date will be extended due to periods (4-12 months) of excused absence without stipend. All renewals must be in writing and include beginning and termination dates. 1 to 3 year (2-3 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.)
1 month to 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in essays on diabetes, 1 year increments.) 1 month to 1 year. On Society! Traineeships of on diabetes less than 1 month or greater than 1 year may not be authorized. 1 or 2-year increments. 1-month to 1-year increments. 1-month to 1-year increments. May return for summer and other traineeship periods for as long as trainee remains a student in good standing. A terminal Traineeship period not to exceed 3 months is permitted. Trainees do not incur a service payback obligation.
Provided they meet eligibility requirements, trainees may be considered for, but are not entitled to, employment or other training appointments at the NIH. The automated Fellowship Payment System (FPS) is programmed for full-time schedules. For full-time schedules less than one year in duration, the system will calculate the correct amount of pro-rated funds to obligate. However, for part-time schedules, ICs must compute the essay, percent of time and enter the annual prorated stipend in the Fellowship Payment stipend screen. Scheduling policy for the different Traineeship programs is as follows: NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans. NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by the Foundation for essays Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans.
Stipends are established based on relevant research experience or completed education level. And Trust! Stipend ranges and/or fixed stipend levels are periodically reviewed by essays on diabetes the Office of Intramural Research (OIR) in consultation with the NIH Board of Scientific Directors. See appendices for detailed information. Stipends are established based on 5 or fewer years of relevant postdoctoralresearch experience and up to 2 additional years of experience not oriented towards research (i.e., clinical training for physicians). NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the number of friendship years of postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship can only include postbaccalaureate training in an NIH laboratory or relevant professional medical or graduate school enrollment. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the degree and amount of relevant experience at essays activation of Traineeship.
NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the amount of education completed upon activation of and trust Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. A stipend increase of up to $2,000 per annum may be granted based on growth, development, and essays on diabetes, accomplishments, but where warranted, increments can be larger, provided they do not exceed the appropriate stipend range (Appendix 1). ICs may approve a one-time merit-based exceptional stipend increase of one stipend step level at the time of renewal for 10 percent of its trainees, e.g., a trainee with one year of postdoctoral experience could be paid a stipend within the essays, range for the two-year experience level. A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 2 may be granted per annum, based on essays, progress in academic studies and/or the training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in the program . A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 3 may be granted, if the writing for college, award is renewed for second (and final) year in the program. A stipend increase to the next higher level in essays, Appendix 4 may be granted per annum based on progress in academic studies and/or training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in the program. Eligible for the next higher stipend increase (Appendix 5) based on essay about, the amount of education completed. An additional allowance of up to $10,000 may be added to on diabetes, the initial stipend level of postdoctoral trainees for previous training or equivalent experience in one of the following specialty categories: Engineer (electrical, chemical, mechanical, biomedical);
Computational Biologist: (informatics, information technology); Chemist (analytical, physical, organic, and inorganic); IC Competitive Fellowship, e.g., Kety Fellowship in NIMH; or. Fellow entering the fifth year, for protocol submission whom the essays, IC wishes to provide a merit-based stipend higher than the top of the range for the fifth year. Stipends are paid in arrears on a 30-day monthly basis. All trainees are strongly encouraged to immediately establish (or correct) an essay for college, electronic file transfer in the NIH Administrative Database (ADB) via the Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) Vendor miscellaneous payment enrollment form in the ADB vendor database. An automatic $2,000 advance will be provided for on diabetes trainees after activation. An amount less than $2,000 may be provided after activation, based on hardship as determined and email resume, approved by on diabetes the IC Scientific Director prior to writing, the award start date that is entered into the FPS. Any advance payment will reduce the annual stipend payment.
The remainder of the stipend balance will be paid in arrears in 12 equal monthly amounts. Subsequent monthly stipend payments, for those that have ACH, are direct-deposited, usually within the first 5 business days of on diabetes each month. Trainees who do not have established electronic file transfers to their bank accounts will receive stipend payments by check on or about the informal, 10th business day of each month. If the trainee leaves within 12 months of the initiation of the award, the final check may NOT be for the 1/12th amount because it will have been offset by the balance of the advance. The trainee may owe money to NIH if the time served does not offset the balance of the advance. A personal check covering a stipend overpayment must be hand-carried to the Office of Financial Management “Fellowship Payment Office” with a copy of the essays on diabetes, FPS-generated termination notice. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed to the U.S.
Government. Stipends will be made in equal monthly payments. Stipend payments will be certified monthly and authorized in protocol submission, the FPS by the IC Designated Program officials between the 20th - 25th of the month so the on diabetes, Office of Financial Management (OFM) may authorize payments each month. If the IC does not certify and authorize payment for email resume a trainee, no stipend payment will be issued for on diabetes that month until certification is received. Supplemental funding should be granted to Trainees who wish to informal, come to NIH for a period of research training under the auspices of traineeships or grants awarded by outside (non-Federal) organizations or institutions, when the funding provided is essays, insufficient to support the Trainees during research training in NIH laboratories. Supplemental Funding should be granted: ONLY to Trainees who have already been approved for or currently receive outside (non-Federal) support; ONLY to essay pmr, Trainees NOT receiving support under the essays, National Research Service Award (NRSA) Program; ONLY to Trainees that have NO employment relationship with the outside (non-Federal) sponsor: other issues, e.g., potential conflict of interest, intellectual property, etc., must also be addressed. The amount of the NIH IRTA supplement will be determined on a case-by-case basis and will vary depending on the level of support provided by the outside (non-Federal) sponsor. The supplement will be fixed at such a rate that the informal essay, combined level of support will match the stipend rate for essays a similarly qualified Trainee.
Supplemental funding that would result in about my holidays, a combined amount from NIH and essays on diabetes, the outside (non-Federal) sponsor that is pmr, either less than or in excess of the authorized stipend rate for the relevant trainee level and essays on diabetes, Traineeship program may not be approved. Supplemental funding must be terminated when outside (non-Federal) support ceases. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to provide health insurance coverage – a stipend of at least $1 per year must also be authorized. Applicants may apply directly to a specific Principal Investigator or may apply online at essays on society the NIH Office of essays on diabetes Intramural Training and Education (OITE) website. Designated IC Program Administrative Officials receiving application documents should determine candidate's eligibility.
Traineeship preceptors and Laboratory/Branch Chiefs will review applications, evaluate and recommend candidates, and develop individualized training plans for approval by the IC Scientific Director or delegated approving official. Candidates may not be excluded from consideration or evaluation on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, disability, age, national origin, political affiliation or any other non-merit factor. Appropriate documentation should be routed through the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Curriculum Vitae (CV), bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference, applicant's statement of research goals, official copy of transcript. In addition, applicant must provide official copy of doctoral degree and brief summary of doctoral dissertation (if applicable). CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of essays reference emphasizing research potential, applicant's statement of on diabetes research goals, official copy of undergraduate, graduate, and/or medical school transcript.
Verification from the university that the applicant is in good academic standing; is enrolled in a doctoral degree program; and that the school is agreeable to resume review, the student's participation is required. CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing potential, applicant's statement of on diabetes research goals, and essays, official copy of on diabetes undergraduate school transcript. Applications must be made online at http://www.training.nih.gov/student/pre-irta/previewpostbac.asp. Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, statement of career goals, and official copy of undergraduate transcript. Applications must be made online at informal http://www.training.nih.gov/student/pre-irta/previewtechnical.asp. Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, official copy of school transcript, letter from essays school verifying academic standing, information on email, honors and achievements, and statement of interest in biomedical research. Applications must be made online at http://www.training.nih.gov/student/sip/ The principal responsibility rests with training preceptor; other assistance is available from IC Lab/Branch Chiefs and Scientific Director. The NIH Office of Intramural Training and essays on diabetes, Education Career Services Center and and trust essay, NIH Work/Life Center staff are available for career counseling. All trainees may receive training or tuition assistance to the extent that it is directly related to the NIH research experience.
Individual Development Plans (IDPs) are required for all trainees and they must complete all NIH mandatory training. When Trainees will be working with animals, exposed to hazardous situations, or in on diabetes, contact with patients, ICs are responsible for assuring that Trainees receive instruction, as appropriate, including but not limited to, safety, use of equipment, handling hazardous materials, patient privacy, human subject protections and essays on society, proper animal care and essays, treatment. Trainees may not engage independently in any patient care activities. Spent My Holidays! Any clinically related activities MUST be explicitly under the direct supervision and control of an NIH employee. A rotation in a science policy office, generally only essays on diabetes, one rotation of essays three months or less, is permitted when such activity can be justified as an essays, integral part of the NIH research experience. All training, regardless of duration or type, must be documented in the training plan and/or other appropriate administrative training databases and informal essay, should be offered to all similarly situated trainees, regardless of whether they receive supplemental or sole NIH funding. In addition to the above: ICs are expected to fund training directly related to the purpose of the Traineeship, generally consisting of two courses per year at an accredited academic institution. In addition, trainees are expected to attend one FAES BIO-TRAC course or equivalent per essays each 6-month period and other seminar series designated by the IC.
Travel cost to and trust, NIH for trainee, dependents, movement of household goods, and temporary storage of household goods not to exceed (NTE) $3,000 is permitted at the discretion of the essays, IC; no allowance for return travel is authorized. Payment of travel to scientific meetings or training at a remote site is at the discretion of the IC and protocol, is subject to availability of funds. IRTA trainees may accept payment only on essays on diabetes, an “In Kind” basis to essays on society, cover travel and per diem expenses from an outside entity while attending an “official duty” type event for the purpose of teaching, speaking or writing (such as presenting a paper at a scientific meeting), provided there is no conflict of interest in the source of the funds. No honorarium, or compensation for services rendered, may be accepted. Reimbursement must be from nonfederal funds. IRTA trainees must request, and receive, advance approval, in writing, from the IC Scientific Director in essays, order to accept outside travel reimbursement. The HHS Form 348 is for college, not to be used since Postdoctoral Trainees are not Government employees. However, IC administrative staff, on behalf of an IRTA Trainee, must complete an Acceptance Letter and a Certification Checklist indicating that the on diabetes, funding source is non-federal.
For additional information, see NIH Manual 1500, Chapter 08-00(F)(3)). When a separate travel allowance is available through an outside sponsor, at its discretion, an IC will supplement that allowance only to the extent that outside funding is insufficient to pay authorized travel costs. A personal check covering a travel advance overpayment must be hand-carried to the Cashier’s Office attached to a copy of the travel voucher. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the U.S. Email Review! Government. Use the FPS to process terminations of all trainees immediately. Termination of the traineeship may be made prior to essays on diabetes, specific expiration date for scientific or other forms of misconduct or failure to comply with terms of the traineeship or to carry out essays on society, or satisfy the purpose for which it was made. All termination proposals for cause must be in writing and provide the trainee with an opportunity to on diabetes, make a reply before a decision is rendered. In the case of personal incompatibility or any unforeseen programmatic circumstances, and absent any conduct issues, the IC should arrange for transfer of the trainee to another laboratory.
Fiscal considerations should not be the basis for early termination within the NIH Intramural Research Program. Trainees must reimburse Office of Financial Management (OFM), NIH for essay for college any and all stipend overpayments prior to OFM clearance. A personal check must be hand-carried to essays, the OFM “Fellowship Payment Office” with a copy of the FPS-generated termination notice. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the U.S. Government. In addition, if the friendship and trust, Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) (301-496-8063) is handling the on diabetes, trainee’s health insurance, it must be provided a “Notification of Termination” form, obtained from the IC’s Administrative Officer.
The FPS-generated “Notification of writing essay Termination” form must be hand-carried to FAES, which will provide advice and answer questions on Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (C.O.B.R.A.) benefits. The form must be signed by essays an FAES representative before the end of the month in which the fellowship is terminated to avoid overpayment. If a trainee is transferring to another IC within NIH, the friendship and trust essay, losing IC must indicate this in essays on diabetes, the FPS module and notify the review, gaining IC. The gaining IC must accept and retrieve the trainee’s record. The effective date of transfer must be the first day after the original award has ended or the first day of the subsequent month.
Trainees, because they are not employees, do not earn annual or sick leave. However, they may be excused for: 1) Federal holidays, 2) illness, 3) personal emergencies, and 4) vacations when awards are for more than 90 days. For vacations, trainees receive a minimum of two weeks excused absence per year and the number of on diabetes days should be prorated for resume review Traineeships of on diabetes 90 days or less. Essay For College! Preceptors may exercise discretion in granting additional short absences (less than a week per year) as they deem appropriate. More extended absences must be approved by on diabetes the IC Scientific Director. Eight weeks of excused absence will be granted for the birth or adoption of a child or other family health care.
In addition, ICs must excuse absences to informal, accommodate a trainee’s military obligations, e.g. active duty, active duty training, and on diabetes, inactive duty training Not to Exceed (NTE) six weeks per year. Z. Excused Absence without Stipend. Absence without stipend may be approved by the preceptor with concurrence from the respective IC Scientific Director and on society, OIR. Through the FPS, the IC must enter the effective date to temporarily stop payment and must reactivate the award in the FPS to resume payment. For absences of 4-12 months, the appointment clock will be extended to reflect the period of the absence without stipend. Absence without stipend for greater than 12 months will require a new appointment upon return. FAES Elected Health Insurance: Should a trainee with FAES health insurance plan to essays, be absent without stipend for less than 3 months, FAES requires the trainee to maintain continuous health insurance coverage. Specifically, trainees must personally complete a Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of informal pmr 1985 (C.O.B.R.A.) Application through FAES and begin to pay health insurance coverage premiums on the 1st day of the month following the start date of the unpaid absence and continue to pay for any month when trainee is essays, not in a pay status on the first day of the month.
For example, if the trainee is absent without stipend effective June 15th through August 15th, the trainee must pay health insurance premiums beginning July 1st (1st day of the month following the writing essay, start date of unpaid absence) and pay the premium for the month of August (any month when trainee is not in a pay status on essays, the first day of the month) Should the trainee plan to be absent without stipend for email more than 3 months, the trainee may choose to stop coverage and on diabetes, not pay the premium. Upon return to NIH, the trainee may then re-enroll as a new subscriber. Informal! Should the essays on diabetes, trainee prefer to continue health insurance coverage during this period of absence, the trainee must complete a C.O.B.R.A. application through FAES. Generally, C.O.B.R.A. coverage is limited to 18 months. Regardless of total time spent in unpaid absence, respective ICs must provide to FAES written notification generated from the FPS to essays on society, include start and end date of unpaid absence. In addition, upon trainee’s return, ICs must provide a written notification generated from the FPS to FAES and OFM. All trainees may use the Occupational Medical Service for injuries sustained and emergency care on essays on diabetes, the training assignment. Email Resume! Workers' compensation and benefits under the Federal Employees Compensation Act, 5 U.S.C. 8101(1)(B) may be applicable in the event of a work-related injury.
All trainees must have adequate health insurance coverage to essays, receive training in NIH facilities. Writing Essay! This requirement may be satisfied by a policy held either in the Trainee's name or in another's name with the Trainee identified as a family member. Verification of health insurance enrollment is required. An approved plan of on diabetes health insurance is available through the Foundation for email Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES). FAES coverage requires that Trainees be on a training schedule of at least 32 hours per week and a minimum duration of 90 days. Should trainees elect FAES health insurance, they are responsible for enrolling in FAES health insurance within the essays on diabetes, first 30 days of the award. Protocol Submission! Health insurance enrollment will be effective the date the trainee meets with FAES and all required forms are signed. Enrollment data that reflects the FAES effective date must be entered into the FPS . Trainees must maintain an essays on diabetes, existing policy or purchase a personal policy until they have met with FAES and informal, elected health insurance. Funds for on diabetes individual or family FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option health insurance are provided to FAES by the sponsoring IC at the direction of the trainee. For a non-FAES policy, NIH will pay or reimburse for a policy issued in the Trainee's name in an amount not to exceed that of the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate.
Alternatively, NIH will reimburse for any additional health insurance cost, if incurred, as a result of email review being covered under a spouse's plan and identified as a family member in an amount not to on diabetes, exceed the cost of the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option. Sufficient documentation verifying health insurance coverage and spent, documenting health insurance costs are required when using a non-FAES policy. When the outside sponsor provides insufficient funding for on diabetes the purchase of essay health insurance coverage, the IC may provide supplemental funding to permit the essays, purchase of a policy equivalent in cost to the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to provide health insurance coverage – a stipend of at least $1 per year must also be authorized, even when the outside funding is greater than the writing essay for college, applicable stipend. See Section Z, “Excused Absence without Stipend” if applicable. In cases where: 1) the duration of the on diabetes, Traineeship is less than 90 days and; 2) the personal purchase of a Health Insurance Policy would result in undue financial hardship for the student, the IC may pay the total associated cost. Trainees are not employees and therefore not eligible for Federal retirement benefits. Stipends are subject to Federal, state, and local income taxes; however, NIH does not withhold taxes from the Trainees' stipends.
The OFM annually prepares and sends appropriate income information to the IRS and to about, Trainees. Trainees may be required to file quarterly estimated Federal and State income tax returns. Since interpretation and implementation of the tax laws are the responsibility of the essays, Internal Revenue Services (IRS) and courts, Trainees should consult their local IRS office and/or tax advisor if they have questions about the applicability of the current tax code to essay about spent my holidays, the taxability of Traineeships, the proper steps to be taken regarding tax obligations, and concerns regarding their own situations. Trainees are likely to be eligible for coverage under the Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671 et seq.) for damages or injuries that arise from essays actions occurring within the dnb thesis submission, scope of their assignment and on diabetes, while under the direct control and supervision of a Federal employee. Spent! However, the ultimate decision on essays, issues of informal essay liability is made on a case-by-case basis by the courts. Should claims arise from the actions of Trainees acting within the scope of their assignments under the direct control and supervision of a federal employee, NIH would ask that they be defended by the Department of essays on diabetes Justice as if they were Federal employees. Outside employment for Trainees must be approved in writing, accordance with NIH Ethics Office policies http://ethics.od.nih.gov/. The NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education will periodically evaluate the IRTA Program for on diabetes representation of friendship and trust essay women, minorities, and disabled persons; to assess its relationship with other NIH Traineeship Programs; and to determine whether it is functioning effectively and accomplishing the purpose for which it was designed.
The results of these evaluations and any recommendations for changes to the Program will be presented to the Office of Intramural Research (OIR), NIH, and the NIH Board of Scientific Directors (SD) for consideration. OIR will periodically review stipend ranges and/or schedules in consultation with the NIH Board of Scientific Directors. Recommended adjustments by OIR and the SD subcommittee on trainee stipends will be submitted to the Scientific Directors for review and concurrence and essays on diabetes, then to the Director, NIH for final approval. The publication and presentation of scientific research by Trainees are governed by the same policies as applied to other scientists, either employed by or in training at NIH, as described in NIH Manual 1183 “NIH Publications and Audiovisuals: Preparation, Review, Approval, and Distribution.” Trainees, like employees and others working at NIH, are bound by all provisions of Executive Order 10096, as amended, 45 C.F.R. Part 7 and any orders, rules, regulations or policies issued thereunder for inventions conceived or first actually reduced to writing essay, practice while at the NIH, as well as by HHS Technology Transfer Procedure Manual, Chapter 203.1, NIH Procedures Related to Disposition of Rights in Inventions by Non-Employees Working at NIH, Receiving NIH Intramural Training Support or Working On-Site under Research Collaborationshttp://ottintranet.od.nih.gov/Policy/203-1-Procedure.pdf (NIH-Access only). Trainees will disclose promptly, to the appropriate NIH officials, all inventions which they conceive or first actually reduce to practice during their assignment, and will sign and execute all papers necessary for conveying to essays, the government the for college, rights to on diabetes, which it is entitled by virtue of Executive Order 10096, as amended. Records must be maintained in accordance with Privacy Act System Notice: 09-25-0158, Administration: Records of essay pmr Applicants and on diabetes, Awardees of the NIH IRTA Program, HHS/NIH/OD/OIR/OITE (Office of Intramural Training Education) for 5 years. AK.
Retention and Disposal of email resume Records. Records Retention and Disposal: All records (e-mail and non-e-mail) pertaining to this chapter must be retained and disposed of under the authority of the NIH Manual Chapter 1743, Keeping and Destroying Records, Appendix 1, NIH Records Control Schedule, Section 2300 Personnel, 320 Staff Fellowship Programs (all items that apply). NIH e-mail messages: NIH e-mail messages (messages, including attachments, that are created on the NIH computer systems or transmitted over essays on diabetes, the NIH networks) that are evidence of the activities of the dnb thesis protocol, agency or have informational value are considered Federal records. These records must be maintained in accordance with current NIH Records Management guidelines. Contact your IC Records Officer for additional information. All e-mail messages are considered Government property, and essays on diabetes, if requested for a legitimate Government purpose, must be provided to the requester.
Employees' supervisors, the email resume review, NIH staff conducting official reviews or investigations, and the Office of Inspector General may request access to or copies of the e-mail messages. E-mail messages must also be provided to the Congressional Oversight Committees, if requested, and are subject to on diabetes, the Freedom of Information Act requests. Since most e-mail systems have back-up files that are retained for essay pmr significant periods of time, e-mail messages and essays on diabetes, attachments are likely to be retrievable from a back-up file after they have been deleted from an individual's computer. The back-up files are subject to the same requests as the original messages. The purpose of this manual issuance is to provide policies and procedures for the implementation of the NIH Intramural Research Training Program. The Office responsible for internal controls relative to this manual issuance is the friendship essay, Office of essays on diabetes Intramural Research (OIR).
Through this issuance the OIR is my holidays, accountable for the method used to ensure that internal controls are implemented and on diabetes, working. Frequency of Review: Periodic review of the fellowship process will be completed to determine if ICs are in about my holidays, compliance with policy. Reviews will be conducted every 3-5 years. Method of essays on diabetes Review: The OIR will initiate and lead reviews consisting of a random sampling of fellowship files/documentation using a checklist that will monitor the ICs’ compliance with various important aspects of the policy. Dnb Thesis Protocol Submission! Review reports are sent to the Deputy Director for Intramural Research and to the Deputy Director for Management, NIH. Reports should indicate that controls are in essays, place and working well or indicate any internal internal control issues that should be brought to the attention of the report recipient (s). Questions on how to obtain these forms should be directed to the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Fellowship Request (FPS-generated) Fellowship Activation (FPS-generated) Election of Health Insurance Choice 1, 2, or 3 (FPS-generated) Absence without stipend and essay spent, reactivation (FPS-generated) These documents (or copies) (in printed paper version) should be retained by the ICs as official system records for the IRTA Program.
Fellowship Termination Notice (FPS-generated) Since all IRTA Traineeships are considered awards for training and not wages for essays on diabetes service or employment, neither Social Security nor Medicare is deducted from stipends. Informal Essay! Although definitive determinations regarding Social Security obligations and coverage must be made by the Internal Revenue Service and the courts, it is the opinion of the essays on diabetes, NIH Legal Advisor that Trainees are not self-employed but in training for purposes of coverage under the Social Security Act and therefore, can not make Social Security or Medicare payments on their own behalf. Friendship And Trust! Trainees are encouraged to discuss this with their tax advisors. * If you require a 508 compliant PDF version of essays a chapter please contact [email protected]
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Should We Get Rid of the essays, Penny? – 8 Reasons to Keep It vs Eliminate It. According to an old superstition, it’s good luck to find a penny on the sidewalk. But whether or not you believe picking up that penny will bring you luck, one thing it definitely won’t bring you is wealth. Essay. Pennies are worth so little now that by taking five seconds to pick one up, you’re earning just $7.20 an hour less than the federal minimum wage. Pennies are so close to worthless that many people argue it’s time to essays, do away with them altogether. A nonpartisan organization called Citizens to Retire the U.S. Penny has attracted the support of economists from Harvard and resume Wake Forest University. Representative Jim Kolbe of Arizona has twice introduced bills in Congress to eliminate the penny, and in February 2014, President Barack Obama argued during a YouTube chat that pennies were obsolete and on diabetes a symbol of U.S. government waste. However, while many people are calling for the penny’s retirement, others are working just as passionately to keep the coin in circulation. A lobbying group called Americans for Common Cents which represents Jarden Zinc, the protocol submission, company that makes the zinc and copper blanks from which pennies are produced has conducted polls showing that more than two-thirds of Americans favor keeping the essays on diabetes, penny.
On its website, the group marshals an array of for college arguments that eliminating the penny would lead to disaster for consumers, charities, government, and essays on diabetes the economy as a whole. Each side in this debate refers to the other side’s arguments as “myths” and offers up “facts” to counter them, making it hard to determine just where the spent, real facts lie. Here’s a summary of the essays, arguments on dnb thesis protocol submission each side, along with the on diabetes, evidence for resume review, and against them. The arguments for on diabetes, halting production of pennies basically boil down to writing essay for college, the fact that “they’re more trouble than they’re worth.” Pennies today are worth almost nothing, but they still cost money to produce and consume vast quantities of natural resources. To anti-penny activists, that’s a lot of on diabetes costs for a coin that can’t even buy a ball of gum anymore. When the Baby Boomers were young, a penny still had some value. Economist Henry Aaron of the essay my holidays, Brookings Institution, a nonprofit research group, reminisces in a 2013 anti-penny screed about paying a nickel for an ice cream cone as a boy. Essays On Diabetes. Even during my childhood in the 1980s, there was a candy store not far from our house that sold “penny candy” in essay spent my holidays, jars one penny for a mini Tootsie Roll, or two for a Mary Jane. Today, there’s literally nothing you can buy with a single penny and on diabetes you can’t do much else with it either. Vending machines don’t accept them, and neither do most parking meters. Email. Even automatic toll booths won’t take them except in on diabetes, Illinois, the home state of President Abraham Lincoln, whose face adorns the coin.
And if a single penny is useless, a whole bunch of pennies isn’t much better. If you try paying for something in a store with a fistful of pennies, you can expect dirty looks from both the on society, clerk and the other customers if the essays, store doesn’t just flat-out refuse to take them. Pennies are so hard to spend that many people don’t even bother they just store them all in jars, or even throw them away. For College. Economist Greg Mankiw of Harvard University argues that pennies are simply no longer useful as a means of exchange: “When people start leaving a monetary unit at the cash register for the next customer, the unit is too small to on diabetes, be useful.” There are precedents for and trust, getting rid of essays on diabetes coins that are too small to use. Back in friendship essay, 1857, the U.S. Mint stopped producing halfpenny coins which, according to the historical information calculator at MeasuringWorth.com, had a purchasing power of $0.14 in 2015 dollars.
So at the time it was eliminated, the on diabetes, “useless” halfpenny could buy as much as 14 pennies can today. If consumers in 1857 could get along without halfpennies, then modern consumers can almost certainly manage without a coin that’s worth less than one-tenth as much. As useless as pennies are, most of us can’t avoid them. Often, when we pay with cash at protocol a store, the total amount doesn’t end in a multiple of $0.05 so to on diabetes, pay the exact amount, we have to either hand over some pennies or receive some in change. This not only weighs down our pockets, it also holds up the and trust essay, line while we mess around counting out coins. Citizens to Retire the U.S.
Penny cites a study done by Walgreens and the National Association of Convenience Stores showing that handling pennies adds an average of two seconds to essays on diabetes, each cash transaction. That doesn’t sound like much, but a 2012 study by three Federal Reserve Banks shows that the average consumer makes 23 cash transactions in a single month and and trust essay according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there are over 316 million consumers in on diabetes, the country. Add it all up, and it comes to more than 48 million hours wasted each year. To save time at the register, some businesses have experimented with rounding all transactions to the nearest nickel. The New Jersey Star-Ledger reports that several Chipotle restaurants tried this in 2012, but customers who had extra cents added to their bills complained. Informal Pmr. Rather than drop the practice completely, however, the stores decided to simply round all bills down to the nearest $0.05, since losing a cent or two on most transactions was cheaper than paying clerks to essays, count out pennies. Supporters of the penny don’t buy this argument. Americans for Common Cents, the pro-penny group funded by the zinc industry, calls the claim “absurd.” In the first place, the group argues, employees who spend less time counting out change won’t necessarily spend it on other, more useful tasks. It also says there are “many reasons to believe” that time spent at the register could actually increase, rather than decrease, if pennies are eliminated but it doesn’t actually say what those reasons are. Despite what the friendship, old song says, pennies don’t really come from heaven.
They come from mines in the earth zinc mines, mostly, because pennies are more than 97% zinc. Essays. As the U.S. Mint explains, the copper surface of a penny accounts for only 2.5% of its metal content. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, zinc ores contain only 3% to informal pmr, 11% metallic zinc.
Along with the zinc, the ores usually contain other metals, including toxic metals like cadmium and lead. On Diabetes. In addition, zinc itself, though necessary in friendship and trust essay, small amounts, is essays harmful in high doses to both humans and animals. All these toxic metals can contaminate water, soil, and plants in the area surrounding the mine. Producing pennies also uses a great deal of energy. Submission. It takes energy to extract the zinc from the ore, to roll it out and essays on diabetes stamp it into coins, and, not trivially, to transport the coins to banks.
Because pennies are worth so little, they’re much heavier than any other coin in proportion to their value. DesignLife-Cycle.org, a site created by students at the University of California, calculates that just transporting pennies to banks not even counting any of the writing essay, other stages of their production puts about 1.5 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere each year. Anti-penny advocates are fond of pointing out that pennies now cost more to produce than they’re actually worth. According to the 2014 Annual Report from the U.S. Mint, it now costs about $0.017 or 1.7 cents to make one cent. That means whenever the Mint produces a penny and sends it out to a bank, it’s actually losing money on the deal. The Mint has researched the possibility of making pennies from essays cheaper materials, but it found that there’s no way to bring the informal essay pmr, cost of on diabetes producing them below their face value. Of course, spending $0.017 to make a coin that’s worth only friendship and trust, $0.01 isn’t necessarily a bad idea, because coins are reusable. In theory, a single penny could be used for hundreds, thousands, or even millions of transactions before it drops out of essays on diabetes circulation. On Society. However, this only works if the coins actually do circulate and pennies, as noted above, often don’t. They’re so hard to use that they end up stuffed in jars or abandoned on on diabetes sidewalks.
As a result, the essay about my holidays, Mint just has to keep making more pennies at essays a loss. On Society. In 2014, the essays on diabetes, Mint shipped out more pennies than nickels, quarters, and dimes put together over 7.9 billion coins. That adds up to a loss of over writing for college, $55 million for that year alone. One problem with this argument, according to essays, penny proponents, is that if there were no pennies, the Mint would have to produce more nickels. Nickels also cost more to make than their face value about $0.081 apiece so the Mint loses even more money on each nickel it produces than it does on each penny. Many anti-penny activists think the ideal solution to this problem is to eliminate the nickel as well, making the dime the smallest coin in circulation. Dimes cost only $0.039 to make, so the Mint could produce more of those without losing money. Aaron notes in his Brookings Institution editorial that eliminating both pennies and nickels would round off all cash transactions to the nearest $0.10, making for “easier math” and “less stuff in our pockets.” Some of the arguments for writing for college, keeping the penny are practical ones. For instance, penny supporters claim that eliminating the coin could harm the economy or hamper charities in their fund-raising efforts. However, other arguments are sentimental, having to on diabetes, do with the way people feel about the coin and these arguments, because they’re not based on logic, are much harder to counter.
Penny supporters point out that that if pennies are eliminated, all cash transactions will have to be rounded off to the nearest nickel. According to Americans for essay, Common Cents, this will lead to a “rounding tax,” as stores manipulate their prices to essays, ensure that transactions are always rounded up instead of down. Consumers using credit wouldn’t be affected by this, since their transactions could still be counted out to the cent. However, low-income Americans who, as the Federal Reserve Bank study shows, are more likely than other consumers to pay for their purchases with cash would be hit especially hard. The pro-penny group backs up its claim by pointing to a 1990 study by economist Raymond Lombra, who testified before the Senate Banking Committee that his “careful statistical analysis” of pmr prices showed that rounding cash sales up or down to the nearest nickel would cost consumers more than $600,000 a year. Lombra also argued that this small change in prices would trigger an increase in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and, consequently, in all government payments tied to the CPI, such as Social Security. However, a newer study by economist Robert Whaples, published by the Eastern Economic Journal in 2007, contradicts Lombra’s findings. Unlike Lombra, who simply looked at a convenience store’s prices and assumed that each consumer would buy three items in one visit, Whaples analyzed actual data from more than 200,000 convenience-store transactions in seven states. He concluded that once taxes and fees were factored in, consumers would actually come out essays slightly ahead on average with prices rounded off to the nickel.
However, he also stresses that even if prices did increase, the difference would be so tiny it couldn’t possibly affect the CPI, and thus it could not trigger widespread inflation. Another piece of evidence against Lombra’s claims comes from Canada, which stopped minting its penny in 2013. Prices there are now rounded up or down to the nearest $0.05 for cash transactions, while payments made with credit, debit, or old-fashioned checks are still settled down to the cent. Since the changeover, according to essay, Trading Economics, the inflation rate in on diabetes, Canada has wavered slightly up and down but has remained well below its historical average of 3.2%. In Canada, eliminating the penny has not led to a widespread increase in prices. Pro-penny groups argue that even if pennies seem worthless, they actually add up to dnb thesis protocol submission, hundreds of millions of dollars in charitable donations each year. Charities such as the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, the Salvation Army, and essays Ronald McDonald House raise funds through “penny drives,” encouraging people to resume review, donate their unwanted pennies for important causes. The very fact that pennies have so little value makes them useful to charities, because people are happy to give them away.
Penny opponents point out several problems with this argument. First of all, if the U.S. Mint stops producing pennies, they won’t simply lose their value overnight. Instead, the on diabetes, coins will be gradually pulled out of circulation. Informal Essay. However, stores will no longer be required to accept pennies so consumers will have even more incentive to donate the coins to charity, since they won’t be able to use them anywhere else. Second, once pennies drop out of on diabetes circulation, the nickel will become the lowest-value coin cluttering up people’s pockets. So instead of penny drives, charities could start holding nickel drives, putting out friendship and trust bottles or wishing fountains to collect the new “useless” coins. And since each nickel is worth five times as much as a penny, charities would gather five times as much money with each spare coin tossed into the jar.
Citizens to on diabetes, Retire the informal essay pmr, U.S. Penny points out that in essays, countries that have retired their one-cent coins, charities have not reported a significant drop-off in donations though the group doesn’t provide any sources to back up this claim. Finally, small-change drives aren’t a very cost-effective way for resume, charities to raise funds. It takes a lot of on diabetes time for volunteers to writing essay for college, pick up, clean, sort, and count all those coins, and the more pennies there are in the mix, the less value the charity gets for on diabetes, each coin it handles. And as it grows ever easier for charities to accept donations electronically, coin drives are likely to play a diminishing role in fundraising. Some supporters of the penny point out that it’s the only coin bearing the image of Abraham Lincoln, probably our nation’s most revered president. Eliminating the penny, they argue, would be disrespectful to on society, his memory. Anti-penny activists scoff at this argument, pointing out that Lincoln would still remain on on diabetes the $5 bill, which is actually useful to consumers. Dnb Thesis Submission. The bills, according to the Federal Reserve, cost only essays on diabetes, $0.11 to print, far less than their $5 face value, making them a much more cost-effective way to honor Lincoln than a penny that costs $0.017 to mint.
Despite all the arguments for retiring the penny, as of 2014, the on society, majority of Americans are in favor of essays on diabetes keeping it. A YouGov poll from essays January 2014 shows that 51% of Americans favor keeping the penny, while just 34% think we should eliminate it. A 2014 poll by Americans for Common Cents found even stronger numbers in on diabetes, favor of friendship and trust essay pennies, saying 68% of adults want the penny to stay in circulation although the essays, fact that the writing essay for college, poll was conducted by a pro-penny group suggests that the essays on diabetes, questions might be somewhat biased toward the pro-penny side. What’s less clear is why Americans are so committed to a coin with so little monetary value. Americans for on society, Common Cents claims that support for the penny jumps when people are “educated about the issues around the penny, such as rounding at the cash register.” However, given that Whaples’ study shows price rounding is not a problem, it’s hard to see why knowing more about essays on diabetes, this “issue” would make people more strongly pro-penny. It’s possible that by friendship, “educating” the public, this group really means informing people about its own side of the issue only, not presenting both sides and letting people draw their own conclusions.
President Obama, in his 2014 YouTube chat, suggested that Americans are “attached emotionally” to the penny because it brings back happy childhood memories of saving pennies in piggy banks and seeing them eventually turn into dollars. This is the on diabetes, least substantive argument in favor of essay keeping the penny, and yet, ironically, it’s probably the most effective. So long as most Americans remain attached to the penny whether their reasons are logical or not it’s unlikely that a bill to on diabetes, eliminate it will ever make it through Congress. It’s possible that what happens to the penny could end up depending not on the law, but on email resume review decisions made by on diabetes, businesses. If more businesses follow Chipotle’s example and resume review start rounding down their bills, their customers will find themselves with fewer pennies in their pockets. Essays. As both stores and resume review individuals stop keeping pennies on hand, banks won’t need to supply as many and on diabetes eventually, this reduced demand will result in dnb thesis protocol submission, fewer pennies being minted each year. What do you think? Should the penny remain legal tender, or should it be scrapped? Amy Livingston is a freelance writer who can actually answer yes to the question, And from that you make a living? She has written about personal finance and shopping strategies for a variety of on diabetes publications, including ConsumerSearch.com, ShopSmart.com, and about the Dollar Stretcher newsletter.
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Essay/Term paper: 1984 by- george orwell. Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of essays your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on George Orwell: 1984 By- George Orwell , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade. Summary Chapter 1 and 2. We are introduced to friendship essay Winston Smith the essays, main character of the story. Works at essays, Ministry of truth.
Ministry of truth is one of four government. buildings in destroyed London, the main city of Airstrip One, a province of. Essays On Diabetes. Oceania. Year is 1984 and three contries are at war, Oceania, Eurasia and. Eastasia. Oceania is run by the party whose leader is Big Brother. Winston is sick of his life in the ruined city and essays, decides to keep a diary. This is against essays on diabetes, the law in Oceania. He felt his feelings begin to hate. Emmanuel Goldstein, leader of the enemy party. He also spots O'Brien, a. party leader whose eyes he see's a bit of political sympthy. See's young. girl who he dislikes.
He feels it is only a matter of time before his. though crimes are detected. A knock at the door he thinks is police. Mrs. Parsons, his neighbor is at the door and asked him to unclog a sink. He. does it but smells sweat all over informal the apartment. Mrs. Parsons is a. follower of party doctrine and a fellow employee at the ministry. The.
children are members of Spies, a youth that encourages spying and telling. on traitors, including parents. Winston is revolted. He returns home and. Essays On Diabetes. writes a couple more minutes before going back to work. Essays. He remenbers a. dream where O'Brien tole him he would meet him in a place wher there is no. darkness. Essays On Diabetes. He washes his hands and hides the diary. Major ideas, conflicts and themes are introduced. We are shown how the. earth has changed, into 3 main contenients. we are also introduced to the. Essays. main character and how he fits into the new world. Also we are shown how. the computer age has taken over peoples minds. The language is easy to.
understand, it has not really changed much over time. Seems like nothing. left after nuclear war, just ruins remaining. We are introduced to Tom. Parsons which Winston is contrasted with. The city is very drab. Big brother is watching you, the caption beneath it said Thoughtcrime was not a thing that could be concealed for ever. Summary Chapter 3,4 and 5. Waking from dreams, he remembers his mother and sister, and can barely. remember their disappearence and feels responsible for there deaths. He. has another dream where he is in the perfect countryside with the girl he. Essays On Diabetes. had noticed eariler. He dreamed she stripped for him. This time he is.
woken up by the telescreen, telling him to do his exercises. He thinks. about how much power the Party has over all information. Begins work at. the ministry of truth. His job is to correct printed articles in line with. the Party's orders. The Ministry and records department jobs are to. rewrite history to make the essay, party look good. They get a break because of. the 2 minute hate. When he gets back he replaces a speech by Big Brother. with invented history.
Makes up story about a man named Ogilvy. The. article had become contrary to the present party policy. It is on diabetes, replaced as. though is never existed. Informal Pmr. Winston meets Syme, a philologist, for lunch. Syme explains parts about Newspeak. They are joined by Parsons. Winston. thinks of the fate that each co-worker will recieve. Syme will be. vapourized because he is to smart, where Parsons is dull enough to escape.
vapourization. He is the essays, only one who has not been taken over by the. propaganda that is always being brodcast. He notices the same girl from. the other day starring at him and submission, thinks it is the thought police. On Diabetes. The Golden country that he dreams about is definatly a release or a. freedom from the the drabness of London. Also from the party. We are. introduced to essay for college the fact that he has no mother or father or sisters or. brothers anymore because they were taken by essays on diabetes the party. He is essays, realizing that. he is rebelling against the party and he understands that he is at risk. Winston is in search of the essays on diabetes, truth and is concerned because of the party's. ability to change history. We find that he likes his work even though it is. for the party and against morals. He is introduced to the girl that will. Essay. play a big part in the book most likely. People in the Records Department did not talk readily about essays, there jobs.
Winstons greatest pleasure in life was his work Summary Chapter 6,7 and 8. He records in his diary and encounter a couple of years ago with a. prostiture mad up to look young, but was really and old woman. This menory. of the encounter causes him to think of the policy regarding sex and. marriage which the party has enforced. Thsi causes him to theink of his. miserable life with his wife Katherine, that he has not seen in eleven. years. Winston resents the intrusinon of the Party into the sex lives of. its members. Also realizes the discouragement of sexual enjoyment, that. Essay About Spent My Holidays. makes any love affair with a party member impossible. Essays On Diabetes. Writing down the. incident does not help him. He makes another entry in his diary, this one. concerning the proles. He feels they are the only group that might. Resume Review. overthrough the party, but they are unaware of it. There is no way of.
finding the truth about the past but he does think that present life is. worse than the past. He remembers a photo that came into essays his possession. trying to change the pastbut he destroyed it. He plans to stay free. After. work one evening, he wonders into the prole end of London, and ends up near. the store where he bought the diary. Follows man into pub and plans to ask. him about revolution but man is incoherent.
He leaves the pub and wanders. He ends up outside the little antique shop and decides to buy a glass. paperweight. Mr. Charrington shows him a room upstairs and Winston dreams. of for college renting it. He notices a dark haired girl following himand he is sure. it is the thought police and he will be arrested. Essays. We discover that people have a bond when it comes to sexuallity that the. party connot control. Even thought the party rejects sexual relationships. between its members. Sexual experience is no longer allowed in essay, the society. and Winston longs for essays one. He confesses in his Diary about my holidays, his last. expereince but it does not help.
We find he has faith in on diabetes, the proles and. there ability to revolt. It is hard to set up a revolt with the thought. police detecting every thought. Winston reaches a crises with the thought. Writing For College. Winston reached down and essays, cautiously scratched his varicose ulcer Not a word could ever be proved or disproved Summary Part 2, Chapter 1,2 and 3. At work he runs into the dark haired girl again, in the hallway. She. falls and while he is lifting her up she slips him a note. He reads it at. his desk and is amazed to find that it simple states, I love you. Eager. and excited to meat with her, he has to wait 7 days until they eat together. in the cafeteria. Essay For College. They decide to essays on diabetes meet in Victory square. When meeting. there, they arrange another meeting next sunday afternoon.
At the. designated meeting place, in the countryside outside London, he finally. learns her name. Julia explains that she considers herself rebelious to. the party. She has had sex with many other non-members. Suddenly he walks. into the scene exactly like his dreem. She removes her clothes and they. Friendship. have sex. He belives that sexual desire may be the on diabetes, force that destroys the. party. Following there secret meeting they meet each othe occasionally. Julie arranges the meetings. They go a month without seeing each other but. whenever they can before and after. She belives that she must pretend to. cooperate with the submission, party and in secret break the rules whenever possible. Winston thinks that rebellion is the best answer.
They discuss past girl. and boyfriends and how the party controls them. He is ready for the Julia but is worried about a possible trap. His. negative approach to life and his sexual fustration make him ready anyhow. Once he commits to her he connot go back and essays, he is committing though. crimes. Submission. This may be the beginning of the end. He was happy to find that she.
was not a virgin and essays on diabetes, had previous affairs. Writing Essay. His idea of revolt is essays, changed. and he now is enjoying being corrupted. Julia takes charge of the. relationship, showing her aggressivness. She does not believe in Winstons. On Society. ideas on rebellion and thinks that differently. A sense of helplessness took hold of Winston Between you and me, the antique trade's just about finished Summary Chapter 4,5,6 and 7. Winston does rent the room above the antique show and realizes the. foolishness of what he and Julia are doing. She brings him coffee and real. On Diabetes. sugar and real old-fashioned make-up. Essay Pmr. Julie tries to remember an old. nursry rhyme, while Winston immagines that he and Julia and the room. itself were all closed in like the paperweight. Many preperations for the. upcoming hate week keep Winston, Julia and the others very busy. Winston. discovers that his friend Syme has dissappeared and all records of him have. been altered. Meanwhile, Parsons is still busy and happy in the. preperations for hate week.
He was right about essays on diabetes, them. Because of the. increased work load he and Julia do not meet as much but in the room above. the antique shop they look at things from the essay, past and other forbidden. things. They discuss the hopelessness of there private rebellion and that. it cannot go on forever. He is dissappointed that Julie does not reject. propaganda from the partyand her theroy that the essays on diabetes, party sends bombs on. Friendship. itself. One day at work O'Brien gives Winston his address and essays on diabetes, asked him to. stop by so tha he can lend him an advance copy of the Newspeak dictionary.
Winstonthinks this is a conspiracy against on society, the party and is excited but, thinks it will end in touture and death. Winston dreams of his mother. again and the hunger and essays on diabetes, awful conditions there were before the. disappearence. He feals bad for essay asking for rationed food and stealing his. sisters choclate. When he came back they were gone. Winston tries to tell. her but she is tired. He is glad him and her have there own feeling toward.
He rents room above the essays on diabetes, antique shop showing his independence and his. plunge into the end. He wishes the room could be closed in email review, like the. paperweight. We find out how different the two main characters are. The. state does not care what kind of person you you are. Julia understanding. of the party is much better that Winston although she is nieve to many. things that the party does. Winston defines his rebellion in three steps, first the thought then the essays on diabetes, word(Diary) then the act(Julia). O'Brien seems. to essay for college be a good man, also in rebellion. Essays On Diabetes. His mother was like him. The timy interior of the shop ws in fact uncomfortably full, but. there was almost nothing in it of the slightest value A sharp cry of pain was wrung out of her Summary chapter 8,9 and 10. Winston takes Julia to the O'Briens apartment.
He wonderes is O'Brien. is also a rebel because he finds him in essay, front of the telescreen, hard at. work. Over toast he explains to Winston what is required of the secret. rebel brotherhood. They except the terms of the menbership except that. they will never see each other ever again. O'Brien promises to be given a. copy of Emmanuel Goldstein's book, secretly in the future.
After a long. week, of sorting through millions of documents, changing them to prove that. the Party's decision that Easstasia, and not Eurasia, was the enemy that. they have been fighting all along. He rushes home to read the copy of the. book. He reads while lying back and relaxing. Julia falls asleep when he. tries to read her sections of it. When they awake from there sleep they. On Diabetes. start talking, but a voice issues from behind the picture on the wall. It. is a hidden telescreen which instructs them not to move. They are rushed. by armed guards.
The Thought Police had been observing them all along. Winston and Julia are violently seperated. Mr. Charrington enters the dnb thesis submission, room. without his disquise, looking much younger. He is essays, a menber of the thought. Winston thinks of O'Brein as a strong, unexcitable man. He is dedicated. and wholeheartyu to the brotherhood. Winston joins the brotherhood and.
tells about his dreams. We understand about hate week a little more. Winston reads the book that is given to dnb thesis him by O'Brien. Winston and Julia. get arrested. They find out that O'Brien was the enemy. There was a sorta. feeling that O'Brien was the bad guy, and they would get cought sonner or. He was a bit early The lane widened, and in a minute he came to the footpath she had told him.
Summary Part 3 Chapter 1 and essays, 2. Winston is on society, being held prisoner in a large, crowded cell at on diabetes, the Ministry. of Love. Ampleforth and email review, Parsons are both prisoners also. Parsons was tured. in by his own daughter for thoughtcrime. He feels increased discomfort and. room 101 is continually mentioned by several prisoners. O'Brien enters the. cell with a guard and Winston now realized he has been betrayed by him.
O'Brein is a member of the Inner Party. O'Brien orders the guard to strike. Winston who feels a great deal of pain on his elbow. Winston is tortured. Essays On Diabetes. both physically and mentally for an unknown length of essay time. He keeps. getting interrogated with beations and questions until he confesses to many. crimes. O'Brien reveals that he has been watching Winston for seven years. O'Brein wants total rehab. from Winston. O'Brien explains why the party. can never be defeated. He has been informed that Julia quite easily. betrayed him and has now been released totally rehabilitated.
Winstons. questions about room 101 is not answered. Finally he is caught by the thought police, which was inevidable since. the on diabetes, beginning. He realizes that he has been betrayed by writing Julia and O'Brien. But he says he would never betray her. All time is lost while he is in. jail. We is going to be rehabilitated and is taken to the dreded 101 for. more mind games. On Diabetes. Winston does not crack, except that O'Brien gets him to. believe is a little crasy. Protocol Submission. Listen the more men you have had the more I love you We can come here once again Summary Chapter 3 and 4. O'Brien tells Winston th esecond stage of his rehab. is about to begin- understanding the why in party. Essays On Diabetes. He also tells winston that he wrote. sections of Goldstiens book. On Society. He says the Party rules for the sake of. power, and essays on diabetes, power alone.
The proles will never revolt. Friendship. O'Brein questions. him further and punishes him when he does not answer correctly. Winston. says he is morally superior to essays the Party, but O'Brien has a tape of the. conversation about what Winston was willing to do to join the brotherhood. Winston thinks that the party will be defeated by a noble man, but O'Brien. shows Winston himself in the mirror. Winston weeps looking at his own aged. and ghastly body.
He conforts himself by thinking about how he never. betrayed Julia. Winstons health is improving, and he is trying to accept. the friendship and trust, rightness of the party. He examines the past events and realilizes the. party was in control the whole time. He realizes also that he party can. make anything right if is wants to. He has to practice doublethinking. He. wakes up from a troubled sleep, calling Julia's name. O'Brien enters his. room and essays on diabetes, Winston confesses that he still hates Big Brother.
He is sent to. He had also looked to O'Brien for sanity and stength and protocol, kindness but. now he sees what he really is a power-hungry guy who likes infliction of. pain. He finds out he has been watched for 7 years. After being broken or. On Diabetes. cracked he still has the fact that he has not turned against dnb thesis, Julia. They. completely destroyed Winston and on diabetes, he has now entered the party. Have you heard the rumours of the existance of the brotherhood. The brotherhood cannot be wiped out because it is not an email resume orgainization.
in the ordinary sense He was tired, but not sleepy any longer Summary Chapter 5 and 6. The torture room is brightly lit, room 101. O'Brien says that the room. contains the worst thing in the world. It turns out to be rats in a cage. which can be strapped over his face. Winston yells and screems and is. Essays. overcome by the horror and the terror. He screams that this punnishment. should be given to Julia and not him. O'Brien spares his life. Winston is. Email Resume. then released. He is sitting under a tree at the Chestnut Tree Cafe. He. drinks very heavily now. He remembers meeting Julia and how they talked. about how they betrayed each other.
The party would not allow them to essays on diabetes see. Pmr. each other, but neither felt anything anymore. He remembers a game of his. childhood but then it is pushed out by the broadcast that comes on the. telescreen. Eurasia is once again the enemy. His heart fills with love. for Big Brother. The party knows the worse nightmare of each person and on diabetes, is ble to use. that against dnb thesis protocol, them. It worked on Winston.
Finnally he gives in on diabetes, and the. party has won. Quotes He did not attempt to kiss her, nor did they speek
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and on diabetes, Tips. The SAT Essay is essays on society scored separately from the rest of the SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into essays effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to on society, these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and essays on diabetes, what you need to about my holidays, do to train yourself to essays, get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the friendship and trust essay standard format of how you should write an essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. Essays On Diabetes. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you aren’t fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to raise your essay score.
But how do you push your essay to the next level? That’s what this article is about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. You’ll have to friendship and trust essay, practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in written form – it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. Essays On Diabetes. You need to essay, learn the format of an effective essay and how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an essays SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in writing for college all three areas on on diabetes, practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in your question for essays perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is essays not always achievable. We’ve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to submission, score an 8/8/8 on on diabetes, the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.
Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and about spent, writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an on diabetes 8 in Reading, Analysis, and essay, Writing requires some luck. You have to essays on diabetes, read the article and analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the dnb thesis most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. Essays On Diabetes. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to dnb thesis protocol submission, be – you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to essays, analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). The goal, really, is to on society, show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and an 8.
If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the essays difference between the email review 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and essays, Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). We’ve marked the differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text.
The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an on society understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and on diabetes, of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of resume review, fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the essays on diabetes details and examples in the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and dnb thesis, demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for essays on diabetes claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the essay text that are most relevant to addressing the task.
The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and essays, demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the informal essay analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the essays task. The 4 essay delves into the structure of the author’s argument more deeply. The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writer’s discussion of the structure of the resume review text.
The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. Essays. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an informal essay effective introduction and essays on diabetes, conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and writing essay for college, throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures.
The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the essays on diabetes quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. Essays On Society. The response includes a precise central claim.
The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writer’s argument, while the 3 is essays on diabetes just organized clearly. Let’s condense the informal pmr information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to essays, fully support the writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and the author’s claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score.
Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of essay about my holidays, how it fits the criteria above. The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Essays. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the dnb thesis protocol logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Essays On Diabetes. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the essays passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on essays on diabetes, pp. 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. Essays On Society. You'll need the passage to follow along with the essays on diabetes sample essay below.
Here’s the spent my holidays essay. Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the essays on diabetes counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language. Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by email resume the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to 234 in essays on diabetes 2011. In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to dnb thesis protocol, foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. He’s not just writing an opinion piece – his opinion is backed by the truth.
This will bring the readers onboard and make them more likely to essays, trust everything else he says. Email Resume Review. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the on diabetes reader is forced to do the math herself. This engaging of the informal essay pmr reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the reader’s attention. When the reader does the math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for essays more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. Essay About. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for on diabetes Goodman to review, elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing.
Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the on diabetes “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the essay pmr reader is much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the essays power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into writing essay for college his mindset. By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to on diabetes, view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and about my holidays, other white noise” to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of “We” more generally through the on diabetes article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the about spent reader of his claim.
Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in on diabetes yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the same way. But the essay elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. And now for the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an on diabetes 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the and trust theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is essays used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is essays on society described as bombarding the reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting.
All of essays on diabetes, this clear and precise language helps support and explain the email resume review author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and essays, Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to on society, identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to persuade the reader of his claim?
Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the essays writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the dnb thesis protocol submission argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Dos piezas by essays Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents.
Another example of writing essay, this can be found in Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of on diabetes, social media seriously will make the reader more inclined…” could easily be the writing essay simpler “Goodman takes the power of essays on diabetes, social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree…” This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in submission the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of facts and essays, evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the informal essay space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the space to give lots of context for essays on diabetes her examples. Dos and Don’ts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid).
Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Friendship Essay. Making sure you have effective transitions for essays on diabetes a seamless essay. Explaining the dnb thesis protocol persuasive effect the author’s argumentative techniques have on the reader. Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of logos and other rhetorical strategies.
Trying to essays on diabetes, correct every single error – the grammar and friendship and trust essay, the spelling do not have to essays on diabetes, be perfect to spent my holidays, score an 8 in Writing. Essays. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and essay for college, develop your points. Essays. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and pmr, many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Here’s a framework for on diabetes how to do this: Read through our complete list of essay, SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay.
If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. Essays. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the essay. Find a way to grade your essay. If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to resume review, get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. On Diabetes. Start narrowing the time down to dnb thesis protocol submission, 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for a great way to prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program.
It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. Essays On Diabetes. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in essays on society Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College.
She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and essays, GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on essay, our latest articles right on your feed. Essays. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!
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