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Marie Curie Essay - …

Marie curie essays

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Marie Curie Essay - …

Barbara Bernard: Challenges of widowhood nurture independence. on November 01, 2013 at 4:00 AM. My husband died 15 years ago on Oct. Marie Curie! 31, 1998. We had been married 50 years that Oct. 16. Essay! He turned 75 years old on marie curie essays, Oct. 26, and, because our beloved granddaughter was born on essays person writing, Oct.

31, 1980, I consoled myself with a rather dumb rationalization. Since it was Halloween, a time for trick-and-treating, the day would reflect it was a mean trick for God to take my husband but a treat to know we#8217;d been given this lovely child on this very day many years before. The memory of watching her grow into womanhood as an outstanding wife, mother and curie essays, teacher became more palatable than the memory of my husband, always a physically strong man, slowly succumbing to the colon cancer he had fought in every possible way the medical and religious worlds knew. Gas Essay! I guess I seek consolation in the strangest ways. Curie! This column is not about consolation, but rather what widowhood is all about. Gas Essay! I was always independent and had willingly worked to essays, provide the financing my husband needed to work at his dream of study on tata, designing and manufacturing machinery.

Because of this experience, financially supporting myself was not going to be a problem, although it took over three years to marie, pay off company debt, product liability lawsuits and get rid of two buildings which had seen far better days. Those days necessitated being very cautious with personal budgeting, something every widow should have learned long before she married or as just as soon as she became a wife. Essay Introduction! Every female should learn the importance of caring for herself financially. A woman who chooses to remain single does this. Women who marry might lose their mate, be divorced with no alimony and, if there#8217;s no sufficient insurance or if there are disastrous situations which strip finances, to be a widow with no means of financial support is curie, a nightmare. Going beyond the right essay necessity of providing for themselves financially, widows face a reality that couples are far more appealing in essays society than single women. It didn#8217;t happen to me, but some widows have shared stories about former couples who no longer included them once they became widows. They were relegated to luncheons with the nano females of the couples who they and marie curie essays, their late husbands had as friends. It is fitness introduction, imperative no matter how wonderful a union is marie essays, women should always have friends other than those with her husband.

Some women are active in social or civic endeavors, involved with church or community efforts or friendly gatherings such as the classic bridge group, lunch bunch or monthly dinners. These groups are wonderful for widows, but it#8217;s best if they start long before widowhood arrives. Fitness Essay! It keeps women in a lively world of communication and always these friends who are there to console if widowhood comes. It is not a bad idea for wives to learn to do a few basic home repairs such as how to reset a blown fuse, replace a light bulb, clean the garage and weed the flower beds. The first time I had to remove a dead mouse from the cellar was awful. I went into the inner cellar, and there it was, all curled up, definitely dead so I couldn#8217;t stamp my feet and marie, tell it to #8216;shoo#8217; like I do for rabbits in the back yard. I have wonderful neighbors, but I save them for emergencies, not dead mouse removal. With a little shovel and courage, a bag, I dropped the mouse once or twice before I finally got rid of it and then promptly threw up. A few days ago there was another mouse, probably the 100th in these past 15 years which I#8217;ve removed from my house. This one took me second; I washed my hands and prepared my dinner. Want a mouse removed?

Call me. I had to buy a car alone. Marie Curie Essays! My husband was the car expert. He bought the cars. I drove them. I asked questions and solved study on tata, took a friend with me who gave me good advice. I would rather not have to buy another car, but if I did I now know how. Math not being my best subject I was never swift with the checkbook, needing my husband to correct my balancing act. I am alone to balance my checkbook, admitting there are now days I no longer stay up until midnight to find that missing 29 cents. I write it off and don#8217;t feel ashamed. And, I need to resort to a #8220;tip chart#8221; because in spite of many formulas for figuring out gratuities, my husband was the expert at curie essays leaving gratuities when we dined out.

I knew how to solved study, mow a lawn and shovel snow. I did them both for many years. Later, my husband enjoyed doing those jobs because by then there was a power mower and curie, snow blower. (Someday, I will tell you the story how he took over these jobs.) When he became ill, we were fortunate to hire someone do these chores. Gas Essay! Learning to turn off and on marie, the outside water as seasons changed was one of my most difficult challenges. I wish I had learned before.

I still have trouble doing it without having a petcock come flying out at me and introduction, water leaking onto the cellar floor. Sometimes, I think I should write a book and call it #8220;Advice to Follow Before You Become a Widow.#8221; I would list all chores women alone must do or, of course, have the marie essays option of hiring someone or moving into an assisted-living facility. Fahrenheit 451 5! As for marie essays, the social part of being a widow, it takes an adjustment to go to essay introduction, a restaurant, movies, a concert or a lecture alone. Curie! If you have attended and miss them, bite that bullet. Go alone. I did. I went to dinner alone. Study On Tata! Friends were there, and marie, they asked me to join them but I said, #8216;No, thank you.#8221;. I needed to do this alone.

I hated it, and I bawled like a baby when I got home. But, I survived, and, now, I rather enjoy it sometimes. It becomes a step in the right direction toward independence and introduction, a move toward acceptance of marie curie essays, being a widow. If you are young, I hate to suggest you be prepared for widowhood. But, I do urge you to learn to be independent and study, seize any opportunity to take care of yourself. If you are married and haven#8217;t even considered being alone, please remember it can happen so learn the things your husband does. And, if you are a widow, decide what you need to curie, learn, what you need to hire people to do and be grateful when family, friends, even strangers help with something total alien to on tata, you. Barbara C. Essays! Bernard, of Holyoke, is courage essay introduction, a columnist with The Republican. Curie Essays! Registration on or use of this site constitutes acceptance of our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Gas Essay! 2017 MassLive LLC. All rights reserved (About Us).

The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the curie prior written permission of essays, MassLive LLC. Community Rules apply to all content you upload or otherwise submit to this site.

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How to marie curie Write a Cover Letter 40+ Free Templates. Writing a smart cover letter can get your foot in the door, even if you have a weak resume. This guide will help you to write the best letter possible. Cover Letter Examples. Professionally-written cover letter samples. Cover Letter Designs. Beautifully arranged cover letter designs. Cover Letter Builder. Create your cover letter in 15 minutes. How to Write a Resume.

Learn how to write a resume in and wrong, 3 Steps. Are you looking for a follow up email or letter instead? Check out marie, our comprehensive Follow Up Guide. This is a very simply written guide — follow it, and you will land interviews faster. Don’t forget to double check!

Be sure to use our checklist to easily find out what you may be missing on your letter. It is free to download. Click Here to courage essay introduction Download. Our Cover Letter Checklist. Cover letters are one page documents that you send with your resume when applying for a job.

It is marie curie essays meant to: Introduce yourself to the hiring manager. Argue why you’d be a good fit for the job Fill in places your resume cannot describe Further explain other aspects of your resume. By hitting those 4 aspects, your letter can be a convincing and powerful companion to a well-written resume. If you want to see how a cover letter in your field should be written, then browse through our cover letter example library.

To begin, include both the employer’s and your contact information. See the essay example below: While the marie essays example above demonstrates the information you need to include in the section, there are various ways to format it. Check out the cover letter designs below to get more ideas on how you can structure this section. No spelling or grammar errors! This one really goes without saying.

Spelling mistakes make an awful first impression. Put yourself in the hiring manager’s shoes for a second. Person Writing. Would you like to be addressed as “Dear Sir or Madame?” or “To whom it may concern?” “Dear Sir or Madame” makes you sound like you’re from the year 1865, and “to whom it may concern” is very irritating to hiring managers. You can easily avoid this problem by doing your research. Look through the company’s website, LinkedIn, or even give the company a call to ask for curie essays, the hiring manager’s name. Even if you get it wrong, it still looks like you’ve made an effort. In the fitness essay introduction first paragraph, begin by telling the employer the position you are applying for and how you learned about the opportunity.

The rest of this paragraph should briefly present basic info about yourself, including: degree, area of study/expertise, and your career goals in terms of curie essays, how they align with the goals of the company. The second paragraph should respond directly to study on tata the job description written by the hiring manager. Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and curie essays, abilities will allow you to meet the company’s needs. To make that easier, you can (and should) literally include words and phrases from the job description in your cover letters. No bombast! The rule of thumb is that you’re allowed to courage essay introduction be as boastful as you want – so long as you have the evidence to back it up ! To go the extra mile, do some research about the company, and marie, try to find out what they are doing — and why — given the gas essay current state of their industry. In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into that schema, and help push the company forward and achieve any goals you suspect they may have. The final paragraph is called the “call to curie action.” Inform them that you’d love to get interviewed. Tell them that you’ll be in contact with them in solved study, a week if you don’t hear back. Thank them for spending the marie time to read your letter. Aside from the content on the page, the actual look and feel of the document is fahrenheit paragraph essays also an important aspect of the your letter.

Elements such as margins, font size and style, and alignment all factor in to the hiring manager’s overall impression of you. Here are a few quick tips when styling your own: 1” – 1.5” margins are always a safe bet. If you are having trouble fitting everything on one page, there is some wiggle room, but be careful not to make the content look crammed together. Don’t go below a 12-point font unless absolutely necessary. Anything below 12 can strain the eyes. Curie Essays. Font style is really a matter of preference. Try to choose one that looks professional or that matches what the employer uses on their website. Nano. Keep in mind that different styles will change the size of the font. Maintain a uniform alignment throughout. We suggest keeping all paragraphs left-aligned.

Formatting For Applicant Tracking Systems. If you don’t know what an ATS is, you absolutely must read up on it before sending in your next job application. Applicant tracking systems are mostly designed to read through resumes, sifting through keywords and key-phrases to statistically determine whether to let you through to the next stage. Essays. 70% of jobs are filled via an applicant tracking system. Some ATS software is fahrenheit 451 5 paragraph designed to read through letters as well, while others are not. Curie. You might as well be completely prepared. The good news is that simply by gas essay, following the instructions we’ve written above, your letter should already be in good shape. If you’ve responded directly to the hiring manager’s job description, and included language from it in your own your letter, you already have a high likelihood of marie curie, hitting statistically important keywords and phrases. Yes, someone will read it. Will they read it carefully?

It depends on the hiring manager. Some use the letters to “weed out” candidates out of fitness, a huge stack, while others believe that the candidate’s interview skills are more important. Either way, you’re going to need to write a strong letter, in order to give yourself a higher chance of getting a job. Winning Cover Letter Templates for All – Copy, Paste, Fill in the Blank. Simply click the section that best reflects your current life situation and curie essays, work experience, then choose the “tone” of cover letter that best suits your personality. Before you start – 5 tips for filling in these template letters: In our templates, you’ll be filling in the blanks that look like [this]. Here’s some help for filling in these trickier ones: [insert positive trait] – here’s a list of positive traits you can use to describe yourself [insert 1-3 soft skills] – here’s a list of soft skills you can use to describe your abilities [insert 1-3 hard professional skills] – our cover letter samples or resume by industry pages should help you brainstorm [insert GPA] – only fahrenheit, insert if your GPA is above a 3.5 [insert your degree] – style it this way, including the parentheses – (BS Engineering)

My name is [your name]. I am thrilled to be applying for the [position] role in marie essays, your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to gas essay fully engage with the role and develop professionally in a self-motivated manner. Given these requirements, I believe I am the essays perfect candidate for the job. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. Study Nano. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to leverage into the [name of open position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of positive and curie, driven candidate that you are looking for. Essays In Third Person Writing. I am excited to elaborate on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization.

Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for curie, your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. Confident (Authoritative) Tone. My name is [your name]. Thank you for the opportunity to apply for the [position] role at your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for gas essay, a candidate that is extremely familiar with the responsibilities associated with the role, and can perform them confidently.

Given these requirements, I am certain that I have the necessary skills to successfully do the job adeptly and perform above expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into marie essays, the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and competitive candidate you are looking for. I look forward to fahrenheit paragraph essays elaborating on marie essays how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. Courage Essay Introduction. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at marie curie [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for gas essay, your consideration, and curie, I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is [your name]. I’m grateful for the opportunity to apply for right essay, the open [position] role at curie your company.

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I look forward to elaborating on how my varied skillsets and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at marie curie essays [PHONE] or via email at essays writing [EMAIL] to arrange for essays, a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is [your name]. Please accept my application for the open [position] role at your company. After reviewing your job description, I believe that I have the necessary skills and gas essay, abilities to fill the role. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers.

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Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. Download HR-Approved Cover Letter Template Designs. We provide 8 free downloadable cover letter designs. Just click the any template below to download the one that best suits you. I have “Red Flags” in my work or personal history — should I address them in my Cover Letter? ‘Red flags’ are a critical consideration to make when writing your cover letter. Marie Curie. A red flag is something in your professional or personal history that could negatively impact the way a hiring manager views your job application. Gas Essay. While many red flags should be directly addressed in a cover letter, some others are best left for the job interview stage. The following list is of 8 of the biggest cover letter red flags. If any apply to you, click to marie curie essays learn more about how to effectively handle it so it doesn’t become a roadblock in right, your efforts to secure your next job.

i need cover letter for my resume. You can either write your own cover letter with the marie curie essays guide above or use our software to build one instead. If you want to case study on tata use our software just go to our homepage at https://resumegenius.com/ What about references? Can they go on the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for those? References should NOT be included on your resume — nor should you write “References Available Upon Request” on your resume. The hiring manager will request that information from you at a later date if they are interested in doing so.

(Note: If the curie employer ASKS you to include references with your application, obviously you should do that.) Thanks for your question! This has given me a better understanding in the resume field! Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt! thanks. you have explained clearly what i need to right essay do. We are glad that the article could help!

I just applied for a $14/hr job on Indeed. After 6 years of working for the same company for $10/hr…. Marie. I’m praying this cover letter is enough to essay introduction land me the essays job. I converted the “Sales Cover Letter” into a “Warehouse Manager” cover letter. Of course I tweaked it to my specifications and needs… but it turned out to be one professional piece of work when I was finished. I can’t thank you all enough for this posting. I’ll be back to fahrenheit 451 5 paragraph essays update if I land the marie curie job. We are happy to hear that as well! Hope to hear back from you soon. Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions.

Best luck on your job hunt! This was definitely helpful. Recently I came across a job opening and solved on tata nano, they had asked for marie, a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Googled it.. And Wrong. nd came here.. im thankfull to marie curie you.. #128578; We are glad that we were able to help you with your cover letter. 451 5 Paragraph Essays. We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in marie curie, full-time employment. I need to create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap.

The template of a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you weren’t able to find what you were looking for. The stay at home mom resume is one of 451 5, our most popular and has received a lot of curie, positive feedback. We suggest that you check out essay, our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for a subscription with us. We offer the “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to marie curie essays a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt! Hello I am applying for essay, flight attendant position, but I have never worked in marie curie essays, this position before.

What title I need to put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the solved study information you need to write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Good luck on marie essays the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out our “How to Write a Resume” writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question. Very true and informative. Just googled it and no doubt remains now. Cover letter will be easy for me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful.

Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt! This was helpful. is it same for Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the student cover letter above could be reworked for solved case nano, an internship application. Marie Curie. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before. Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful!

Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to apply for a post of an armorer in in third person, the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Marie Essays. Please lead me through… We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to essay lead you.

Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to curie essays format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for the employer to spot as they go through all the applicants in fitness introduction, their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to marie a “work from home” job–but, have no idea how to write it. Please help! We have plenty of industry-specific samples above. Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to introduction hear that and thank you for curie, your support. Please let us know if you have any question.

I remain stumped as to how to address a cover letter in 451 5 essays, response to marie curie essays a job advertisement that gives neither the gas essay company name nor the name of the person in marie curie, charge of hiring. This is true of many job postings on Craigslist, for example. 451 5 Paragraph. I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into this issue. When the marie posting doesn’t include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and searching for it on fahrenheit Google.

You may find the job ad with the names included. If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. I’ve had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. If I ask the employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.” I’m going to forward this to a client of marie curie essays, mine I was just talking to him about this. Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful.

I have done my resume and now I’m preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in resume – especialy introduction. Fahrenheit Essays. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is almost the same to write. Marie Curie Essays. please advise. Some of the contents from your resume intro should be used in gas essay, you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Also, be sure to curie check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on how you can word your cover letter.

Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for paragraph essays, a managerial position in marie curie, the hospitality field. However, I do not see any examples. We are in right essay, the process of adding new cover letter samples and have included your suggestion in the list. Essays. In the meantime, follow the guide above and fahrenheit paragraph, download one of curie essays, cover letter templates. Good luck on the job hunt!

Basically, a cover letter is a letter of introduction. Usually I state the name of the position I’m applying for and why I am qualified for the position. At the end of the courage essay introduction letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for an interview, please contact me at ***-**-****.” Then double space and marie curie, type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and type your name. Writing. You’ll be signing in curie, the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends.

GBU, too! I am working on a resume for an experienced welder, One of the requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at essay this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and marie essays, get my license back with my first paycheck. Should I explain this on fitness essay introduction my resume or by telephone or in person or not at essays mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to pay the traffic fine and courage introduction, get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the way for a re issue. All about the money. which I happen to be in curie, short supply of. Thanks again. We know the struggle. Hang in there brother!

Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Best of luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to essay throw some of them in. I’m still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point ‘numbers’. Marie. Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the in third person writing tips written above. That should get you started.

Best of marie essays, luck! How to fahrenheit paragraph essays address gaps in marie, employment. In Third Person. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005. I was incapacitated by curie, depression and unable to work from 2005-2008. Right. Got a job in 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at home mom. Ready to go back to work again. Marie Curie. How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites?

I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. I’ve searched hundreds of gas essay, resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the best. Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for essays, the kind words. One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think. Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself.

We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on a positive note. So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Essay. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for marie essays, the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for a summer internship. I’m not applying for a posted internship, just going to show up at fitness essay introduction an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right? Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful.

In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in marie, the same exact role. I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and courage essay, experience) about curie, a year ago this month. They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to ask for 10-20% more than you were paid before.

The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Right. Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to move into a completely different line of work, he has only marie curie, had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to the job. I just turned 62 and want to retire from my current job, but not ready to retire. Any suggestions on how to “put my best foot forward” when applying for a new position in an industry I’ve never worked in before? When applying for a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in essay introduction, before, the first thing you should do is come up with a list of the relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. From there, you can work on ‘selling’ those particular skills in your cover letter and resume.

Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the mining company has different projects. Would I have the curie essays company’s address or the project site address? We recommend that you use the essays in third person address that the cover letter is being sent to. If you are not sure, then use the marie company’s address. Good luck!

Some cover letter here have helped me move on solved case to another level. Through this i had to pay bills for my ailing child . Marie Curie. Thanks you have been of introduction, great help through the way to write a winning cover letter. Great information! My question is I have been out curie, of the work force for about a year and a half due to birthing children and staying home for gas essay, them. I am wondering if this is something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in work history or is this information to personal to include? Great question! If your work gap is longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an explanation in your cover letter. Marie Curie Essays. Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Remember that you want to keep the essay focus of your cover letter on your experience and qualifications.

You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and marie essays, enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and right, how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the time to marie do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for in third, older family members, or even your own issues. Curie Essays. Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to take a break, so to speak. Good luck! I’m a college dropout and I couldn’t decide on fahrenheit 451 5 which template to use for marie essays, my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year.

We suggest using the case study ‘Non-Student’ templates. If your college experience is marie curie relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of luck on the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the right template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an idea of what the employers is looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter.

Good Luck! Fair point – it’s always good to marie be careful when sending out personal information. Right And Wrong Essay. Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to marie curie essays Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to courage essay introduction help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and marie curie essays, easy export to MS Word and gas essay, PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and marie curie, Privacy Policy.

Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the courage essay quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of curie, a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to person writing download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your.

Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for marie curie, a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the paragraph essays major online resume builders? Here's an in curie, depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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42 Resume Dos and Don#39;ts Every Job Seeker Should Know. If things are supposed to get easier over time, why hasn’t the task of resume-writing gotten simpler? Actually, it feels like we’re heading in marie essays, the opposite solved case on tata nano direction—every month, we learn about curie a fresh resume commandment, like “Thou shalt not use a resume objective statement” or “Thou shalt not send a traditional resume to a creative company.” It’s enough to make any professional a little frustrated. Fortunately, we’ve rounded up the ultimate list of gas essay resume dos and don’ts, from the traditional rules to the brand-spanking-new ones. Take a look, then pull up your resume and make sure it’s recruiter-ready. 1. Do Highlight Your Most Relevant Experiences. Rule #1 of resume writing is that you should be turning in a different version for each role you apply to, tailored and targeted to the position.

After all, your resume should demonstrate you have the specific set of skills, experience, and curie essays accomplishments necessary to do the job—not just a set. Make it easy for the hiring manager to 451 5 paragraph essays see why you’re the right fit. 2. Don’t Freak Out if You Have No Relevant Experience. Whether you’re fresh out of college or switching to a brand-new industry, you can help bolster your lack of relevant work experience by listing your transferable skills, related side projects, and relevant coursework. Read more about how to do this here. Essays! 3. Do Optimize for Applicant Tracking Systems. Many large organizations (and even some smaller ones) use applicant tracking systems to weed out unqualified applicants. Fitness! The systems scan your resume for contextual keywords and phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance and marie sending only the most qualified ones through for human review.

As you can guess, this strategy isn’t perfect. To ensure your resume makes it past the ATS and into the hands of a human, keep your formatting simple, include the right keywords (but don’t go overboard), and quadruple check for case nano spelling mistakes. Marie Curie! (More on how to do it right, here.) 4. Don’t Steal the Job Description’s Exact Wording. That said, you shouldn’t take exact phrases straight from the job description. If a company says it’s looking for candidates who “learn rapidly” and “have a diverse knowledge of programming languages,” your skills section shouldn’t read “learns rapidly” and “has a diverse knowledge of programming languages.” Instead, find a different way of saying the same thing—maybe devote a resume bullet to a software you learned in two weeks, or list the gas essay, seven different programming languages you’re familiar with. Marie Curie Essays! You’ve probably heard that recruiters love reading resume bullets with numbers, like “Increased sales in Northern region by solved case nano 300%.” And they do!

So use them whenever possible. Oh, and marie essays don’t worry if your job doesn’t really involve numbers—with our guide, you can quantify any accomplishment. 6. Don’t Include Anything Confidential. Seems like a no-brainer—but Google’s Head of HR says he sees confidential info on gas essay, resumes all the time. When deciding whether to leave something on your resume, use the New York Times test. In other words, if you wouldn’t want it published next to your name on the front page of marie curie essays a major national newspaper, take it out. The “quantifiable accomplishments” technique also works for soft skills. Make sure each bullet point describes a skill the hiring manager is looking for, then use facts and courage essay figures to show—not tell—just what a “skilled manager” or “effective communicator” you are. Check it out: “Developed and independently initiated new mentorship program to alleviate high turnover of new staff members, resulting in the matching of 23 mentor-mentee pairs and a significant reduction in staff turnover.” Sounds like a “skilled manager” to us! Because everyone assumes you know how to use Microsoft Word.

And the internet. Use your valuable resume space to curie essays highlight skills that actually make you stand out. 9. 451 5 Paragraph! Do Consider Volunteer or Other Non-Work Experience. Although it’s nontraditional, if volunteer work has taken up a significant chunk of your time or taught you skills applicable to the job you’re applying for, think about putting it on marie curie, your resume. Side projects, pro bono work, or temp gigs can also be a unique way to bolster your resume and show off other skills. 10. Don’t Include Work With Controversial Organizations. Maybe that volunteer work was fundraising for a politician, or answering the phone at a LGBT-resource organization. Some experiences are pretty divisive, so read our tips on whether or not you should put them on your resume. 11.

Do Include Personal Accomplishments. If you’ve done something cool in your personal life that either shows off your soft skills or engages your technical skills in courage essay, a new way, you should definitely include it. Maybe you’ve run a couple marathons, demonstrating your adventurous spirit, strong work ethic, and desire to challenge yourself. Or you’ve won some poker tournaments, which shows you’re a quick thinker and good with numbers. Learn more here on how to include these in the right way.

12. Marie! Don’t Include Random, Unrelated, or Off-Putting Hobbies. That said, remember that hiring managers probably don’t care if you love basketball, are active in essays, your book club, or are a member of a Dungeons and Dragons group. Marie Essays! Eliminate anything that’s not totally transferable to solved case on tata nano work-related skills (or a really, really epic conversation starter). Marie Curie Essays! 13. Do Think of New Ways to Frame Your Accomplishments. Don’t have the exact experience for the job you’re applying to? You can actually tweak how you frame your accomplishments to show off vastly different things. Career expert Lily Zhang explains with examples here.

Meaning: Don’t oversell your high school babysitting experience. Essay! In fact, anything from marie high school should probably go. 15. Do Show How You Moved Up (or Around) at Past Companies. It can be tempting (and more simple) to combine multiple roles at study, one company, but you should actually be highlighting your different job titles. After all, it says a lot about you if you were promoted within an organization or were able to transition your role. Learn how to marie curie show this off without making your resume look disorganized here. 16. Don’t Use an Objective Statement. There’s only one situation in which you need an objective statement: when you’re making a huge career change.

Making the leap from, say, business development to marketing means your resume could definitely use a clear explanation that you’re transitioning roles and have the necessary transferable skills. But if you’re a PR rep applying to essay introduction a PR firm, an objective statement will just waste valuable space. 17. Do Consider a Summary Statement. A summary statement, which consists of a couple lines at the beginning of your resume that give potential employers a broad outline of your skills and experience, is the most ideal if you have years of experience you need to tie together with a common theme. They’re also good if you have a bunch of disparate skills and want to make it clear how they fit together. Here’s more on when you need one and how to put it together. While it’s okay to glaze over gaps a little (for example, by just using years to marie curie show dates of gas essay employments instead of months and years), you should never outright lie about them. Instead, be honest and confident when explaining unemployment periods. Curie! Whatever you did while you weren’t working—traveling, running a household, helping your community—it’s almost certain you picked up some skills that would help you in introduction, the job for curie which you’re applying.

So mention them! For obvious reasons, anything that’s not 100% true doesn’t belong on your resume. Because hiring managers are really, really tired of seeing descriptions like hard worker, team player, or detail-oriented on resumes. You should also be careful about any industry or role-specific jargon you use. In many companies, if you want to and wrong your resume to land on curie essays, the hiring manager’s desk, you’ve got to get it past HR first—which means putting everything in terms a layperson can understand. Using unnecessarily big words doesn’t make you sound more intelligent or capable. Not only are hiring managers totally aware of essays in third person writing what you’re trying (and failing) to do, but “resume speak” can obscure your real experience. So, instead of “utilized innovative social media technique to boost readership and engagement among core demographic” say, “posted on marie essays, Twitter three times a day and brought follower count from on tata 1,000 to curie 3,000.” You should also be careful of using words with negative connotations—even if you’re using them in a positive light.

Saying “met aggressive sales goals” or “fixed widespread communication problem ” will subconsciously make recruiters think less of you. Instead, write “delivered on ambitious number of sales” or “proposed and implemented solution to make company communication easier and more efficient.” Skip the tired and all-too-frequently used “led,” “handled,” and “managed,” and essays in third go for verbs like “charted,” “administered,” “consolidated,” or “maximized,” which make you look both confident and competent. We’ve compiled 181 options of marie unique verbs to use, so no matter what you do, you can find the right word. 24. Don’t Include “References Upon Request” It takes up room you could otherwise use for experience and skills. And, um, it looks presumptuous. Pretty basic, but you’d be surprised how many job seekers put together an amazing resume—and then don’t include enough “here’s where to find me” info.

This section should have your name, email address, phone number, address (or just city), LinkedIn URL, and personal website, if you have one. Also, make sure you’re using your personal contact info, rather than your work. Because that’s a recipe for disaster. 26. Person! Don’t Include Anything That Could Be Discriminated Against. While it’s illegal to discriminate against curie, a job candidate because of his or her age, marital status, gender, religion, race, color, or national origin, it doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen subconsciously. Don’t give recruiters the gas essay, chance, and marie just leave these details off. Recruiters read a lot of resumes, so they don’t want to have to spend a ton of time looking over right yours.

Cut it down to the most relevant information and keep it short and essays succinct. Laszlo Bock, Google’s senior vice president of people operations, recommends one page of resume for every 10 years of essays in third writing work experience as a good rule of thumb. That being said, don’t try to essays squeeze as much information as possible into essay introduction that one page. If you manage to pack in more information—but in a size 8 font and with no white space on the page—you might as well have not added that information at all. Cut it down to marie essays an amount of in third information you can comfortably fit on the page, in marie essays, a readable font and with enough white space to make it easy on the eyes. Solved Case! 29. Do Consider a Creative or Digital Resume. Resumes that look like infographics, data visualizations, or even videos or multimedia presentations can be a great way to stand out from the crowd. If you think this might be the right route for you, check out marie curie, some great options here. (Note: This is generally a better option when you’re applying to essay introduction smaller, more creative shops—traditional companies will still likely want traditional resumes.) 30. Marie Curie Essays! Don’t Spend All Your Time on the Design.

While making your resume look nice is important, recruiters say job seekers spend far too much time worrying about paragraph essays it (that is, unless you’re working in a design field). Focus on the content, make sure the marie curie, right information is highlighted, and just make sure it looks nice enough to right and wrong essay make the information easy to marie curie digest. Want your resume to look well designed—without the extra time? We’ve found 41 of the best resume templates ever. They’ll make formatting a breeze. And really, it’s best to courage introduction stick to one basic font. Unless you’re a designer and know a lot about typography, it’s easy to choose fonts that clash or are distracting. 33. Do Make Sure Your Job Titles or Companies Stand Out.

Of course, you want to make sure the most important information stands out and is easy to skim. Instead of using a different font to marie do this, use bold or italic text, a slightly larger font, or your layout to help make sure this information is 451 5 paragraph findable. 34. Don’t Go Overboard With Text Effects. If every other word is curie bolded , italicized , or in ALL CAPS, at introduction, best, your resume will be distracting—at worst, annoying. Use emphasis sparingly, for your most important info. 35. Do Align Your Dates and Locations to the Right.

This small change will make your resume way easier on the eyes. Marie Curie Essays! You should be able to make a “column” of dates and gas essay locations for each job by marie essays creating a right tab. 36. Don’t Use More Than Two Lines Per Bullet. This strategy will make your resume easier to skim (which is good, because most hiring managers will spend less than 20 seconds reading it). Right! Again, cut it down to essays the most important information. Because 4 and 22% take less time to read than “four” and “twenty-two percent.” Plus, using digits saves you space. Fahrenheit! 38. Don’t Send it as a Word Document. Marie Curie Essays! Sending your resume off as a .doc file will most likely result in fitness essay introduction, all of this careful formatting getting messed up when the recruiter opens the file.

Save your final version as a PDF to marie curie make sure everything stays just as is. Solved Case Study On Tata Nano! 39. Do Swap Resumes With Colleagues. Look at how they describe their duties and the company. Marie Curie Essays! Chances are, you’ll get some inspiration for your own descriptions. Plus, having some fresh eyes look at and wrong, your resume is always beneficial. Curie! Ask a few friends what about your resume makes an impact and what is boring, confusing, or too vague. If the same things keep popping up, it’s probably time to essay edit. And proofread. Multiple times.

For help, check out this editor’s guide to perfecting your resume. Curie! Remember rule number one on essays in third person, tailoring your resume? Well, creating a master resume that includes every position you’ve ever held will make that task much quicker. Marie Curie Essays! You’ll never send your master resume to anyone, so it doesn’t matter how long it is. Just write out courage, each and every job experience you’ve ever had. With all of the curie essays, possible corresponding bullet points. Then, when it comes time to apply to a job, you can copy and gas essay paste the marie essays, relevant sections of your master resume into case study on tata a new document. Want to marie curie essays make sure you’re spending enough time on gas essay, the right things in your resume? Run your resume through a word cloud generator like TagCrowd. This will create an marie curie essays image representing the case study on tata, most frequent words, with the most common ones showing up larger and darker.

With a quick glance, you’ll be able to see what terms employers will most associate with you—and whether you need to do some adjusting to have the right message shine through. Photo of marie curie essays typewriter courtesy of case on tata Shutterstock. Aja Frost is marie a freelance writer specializing in business, tech, career advice, and productivity. Check out her website or say hi on courage essay, Twitter. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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Marie Curie essays

Counterfactual Theories of Causation. The basic idea of counterfactual theories of causation is that the meaning of causal claims can be explained in terms of counterfactual conditionals of the form “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”. While counterfactual analyses have been given of type-causal concepts, most counterfactual analyses have focused on curie essays singular causal or token-causal claims of the form “event c caused event e ”. Analyses of token-causation have become popular in the last forty years, especially since the development in the 1970's of possible world semantics for counterfactuals. Essay Introduction! The best known counterfactual analysis of causation is David Lewis's (1973b) theory. However, intense discussion over marie curie essays forty years has cast doubt on the adequacy of any simple analysis of singular causation in terms of counterfactuals. Essay Introduction! Recent years have seen a proliferation of different refinements of the basic idea to achieve a closer match with commonsense judgements about causation. The first explicit definition of causation in terms of counterfactuals was, surprisingly enough, given by Hume, when he wrote: “We may define a cause to be an object followed by essays, another, and where all the objects, similar to the first, are followed by case study, objects similar to marie curie essays, the second . Or, in other words, where, if the first object had not been, the second never had existed .” (1748, Section VII). It is difficult to courage introduction, understand how Hume could have confused the first, regularity definition with the marie curie, second, very different counterfactual definition.

At any rate, Hume never explored the gas essay, alternative counterfactual approach to causation. Marie! In this, as in much else, he was followed by generations of empiricist philosophers. The chief obstacle in empiricists' minds to explaining causation in terms of counterfactuals was the obscurity of counterfactuals themselves, owing chiefly to their reference to unactualised possibilities. Starting with J. Courage! S. Mill (1843), empiricists tried to analyse counterfactuals ‘metalinguistically’ in terms of implication relations between statements. The rough idea is that a counterfactual of the form “If it had been the case that A, it would have been the case that C ” is true if and only if there is an marie essays auxiliary set S of true statements consistent with the antecedent A , such that the members of S , when conjoined with A , imply the consequent C . Much debate centred around the issue of the precise specification of the set S . (See N. Goodman 1947.) Most empiricists agreed that S would have to include statements of laws of nature, while some thought that it would have to include statements of singular causation.

While the truth conditions of fitness essay introduction, counterfactuals remained obscure, few empiricists thought it worthwhile to try to explain causation via counterfactuals. Indeed, the marie, first real attempts to fahrenheit essays, present rigorous counterfactual analyses of causation came only in the late 1960's. (See A. Lyon 1967.) Typical of these attempts was J. L. Mackie's counterfactual analysis in Chapter 2 of curie, his seminal book The Cement of the Universe (1974). As well as offering a sophisticated regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, Mackie presented a counterfactual account of the concept of a cause as “what makes the difference in relation to some background or causal field” (1980, p.xi). Mackie's account of the essay, concept of causation is rich in insights, especially concerning its relativity to a field of background conditions. However, his account never gained as much attention as his regularity theory of causation ‘in the objects’, no doubt because his view of counterfactuals (in his (1973)), as condensed arguments that do not have truth values, compounded empiricists' scepticism about counterfactuals. The true potential of the counterfactual approach to causation did not become clear until counterfactuals became better understood through the development of possible world semantics in the early 1970's. 2. Lewis's 1973 Counterfactual Analysis. The best known and marie, most thoroughly elaborated counterfactual theory of causation is David Lewis's theory in his (1973b), which was refined and extended in essays in third writing articles subsequently collected in his (1986a). In response to doubts about the theory's treatment of preemption, Lewis subsequently proposed a fairly radical revision of the curie, theory. Essay Introduction! (See his Whitehead Lectures, first published in his (2000), and reprinted in his (2004a).) In this section we shall confine our attention to the original 1973 theory, deferring the later changes he proposed for consideration below.

2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence 2.2 The Asymmetry of Causal Dependence 2.3 Preemption and Transitivity 2.4 Chancy Causation 2.5 The Theory's Advantages. 2.1 Counterfactuals and Causal Dependence. Like most contemporary counterfactual theories, Lewis's theory employs a possible world semantics for counterfactuals. Such a semantics states truth conditions for counterfactuals in terms of similarity relations between possible worlds. Lewis famously espouses a realism about possible worlds, according to marie curie, which non-actual possible worlds are real concrete entities on 451 5 paragraph a par with the actual world. (See Lewis's defence of curie, modal realism in his (1986e).) However, most contemporary philosophers would seek to deploy the essay introduction, explanatorily fruitful possible worlds framework while distancing themselves from curie essays, full-blown realism about possible worlds themselves. Fahrenheit 451 5 Essays! For example, many would propose to understand possible worlds as maximally consistent sets of propositions; or even to treat them instrumentally as useful theoretical entities having no independent reality. The central notion of a possible world semantics for counterfactuals is a relation of comparative similarity between worlds (Lewis 1973a). One world is said to essays, be closer to nano, actuality than another if the first resembles the actual world more than the second does.

Shortly we shall consider the respects of curie essays, similarity that Lewis says are important for the counterfactuals linked to causation. For now we simply note two formal constraints he imposes on this similarity relation. First, the relation of similarity produces a weak ordering of worlds so that any two worlds can be ordered with respect to their closeness to the actual world, with allowance being made for introduction ties in closeness. Secondly, the actual world is closest to actuality, resembling itself more than any other world resembles it. In terms of this similarity relation, the essays, truth condition for the counterfactual “If A were (or had been) the case, C would be (or have been) the case” is stated as follows: We shall ignore the first case in in third which the counterfactual is vacuously true. The fundamental idea of this analysis is that the counterfactual “If A were the case, C would be the curie essays, case” is true just in case it takes less of a departure from actuality to make the antecedent true along with the consequent than to make the fitness introduction, antecedent true without the consequent. In terms of counterfactuals, Lewis defines a notion of causal dependence between events, which plays a central role in his theory of causation (1973b). This condition states that whether e occurs or not depends on whether c occurs or not. Where c and e are actual occurrent events, this truth condition can be simplified somewhat.

For in this case it follows from the second formal condition on the comparative similarity relation that the counterfactual “If c were to occur e would occur” is automatically true: this formal condition implies that a counterfactual with true antecedent and true consequent is itself true. Consequently, the truth condition for causal dependence becomes: The right hand side of this condition is, of course, Hume's second definition of causation. (As we shall see shortly, Lewis's official definition of causation differs from it, as he defines causation not in marie essays terms of causal dependence directly, but in courage terms of chains of causal dependence.) Why is it plausible to think that causation is conceptually linked with counterfactuals in the way specified by this definition of causal dependence? One reason is that the marie essays, idea of a cause is conceptually linked with the idea of something that makes a difference and this idea in turn is best understood in terms of counterfactuals. In Lewis's words: “We think of a cause as something that makes a difference, and the difference it makes must be a difference from and wrong essay, what would have happened without it. Marie Curie! Had it been absent, its effects some of them, at essays person least, and usually all would have been absent as well.” (1973b, p.161)

There are three important things to note about the definition of marie, causal dependence. First, it takes the primary relata of causal dependence to be events . Lewis's own theory of events (1986b) construes events as classes of courage essay, possible spatiotemporal regions. However, very different conceptions of curie essays, events are compatible with the basic definition. Indeed, it even seems possible to formulate it in terms of facts rather than events. Solved On Tata! (For instance, see Mellor 1996, 2004.) Secondly, the definition requires the causally dependent events to be distinct from marie essays, each other. Distinctness means that the events are not identical, neither is solved on tata part of the marie essays, other, and neither implies the fitness essay introduction, other. This qualification is important if spurious non-causal dependences are to be ruled out. (For this point see Kim 1973 and Lewis 1986b.) For it may be that you would not have written “Lar” if you had not written “Larry”; and marie essays, you would not have said “Hello” loudly if you had not said “Hello”. But neither dependence counts as a causal dependence since the paired events are not distinct from essay, each other in the required sense. Thirdly, the counterfactuals that are employed in the analysis are to be understood according to marie, what Lewis calls the standard interpretation. There are several possible ways of in third writing, interpreting counterfactuals; and some interpretations give rise to spurious non-causal dependences between events.

For example, suppose that the events c and e are effects of essays, a common cause d . Essays In Third! It is tempting to reason that there must be a causal dependence between c and e by curie, engaging in the following piece of counterfactual reasoning: if c had not occurred, then it would have to have been the case that d did not occur, in which case e would not have occurred. But Lewis says these counterfactuals, which he calls backtracking counterfactuals, are not to 451 5 paragraph, be used in the assessment of causal dependence. The right counterfactuals to marie essays, be used are non-backtracking counterfactuals that typically hold the past fixed up until the time at which the counterfactual antecedent is supposed to obtain. 2.2 The Temporal Asymmetry of fitness essay, Causal Dependence. What constitutes the direction of the essays, causal relation? Why is this direction typically aligned with the temporal direction from fitness, past to future? In answer to these questions, Lewis (1979) argues that the direction of curie essays, causation is the direction of causal dependence; and it is typically true that events causally depend on earlier events but not on later events. Essays Person! He emphasises the curie, contingency of the introduction, latter fact because he regards backwards or time-reversed causation as a conceptual possibility that cannot be ruled out a priori . Accordingly, he dismisses any analysis of counterfactuals that would deliver the marie, temporal asymmetry by conceptual fiat. Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence is based on a de facto asymmetry about the actual world. He defines a determinant for an event as any set of conditions jointly sufficient, given the laws of gas essay, nature, for essays the event's occurrence. (Determinants of an event may be causes or traces of the event.) He claims it is contingently true that events typically have very few earlier determinants but very many later determinants. As an illustration, he cites Popper's (1956) example of a spherical wavefront expanding outwards from a point source.

This is a process where each sample of the wave postdetermines what happens at fahrenheit 451 5 the point at which the wave is emitted. He says the reverse process in which a spherical wave contracts inward with each sample of wave predetermining what happens at the point the wave is essays absorbed would obey the laws of fahrenheit essays, nature but seldom happens in actual fact. Lewis combines the marie, de facto asymmetry of overdetermination with his analysis of the comparative similarity relation (1979). According to this analysis, there are several respects of similarity to be taken into fahrenheit essays account in evaluating non-backtracking counterfactuals: similarity with respect to laws of nature and also similarity with respect to particular matters of curie essays, fact. Worlds are more similar to the actual world the fewer miracles or violations of the actual laws of nature they contain. Again, worlds are more similar to the actual world the greater the spatio-temporal region of perfect match of particular fact they have with the actual world. If the actual world is governed by deterministic laws, these rules will clash in case assessing which counterfactual worlds are more similar to the actual world. Marie Curie! For a world that makes a counterfactual antecedent true must differ from the actual world either in allowing some violation of the actual laws, or in differing from the actual world in fitness essay particular matters of fact.

Lewis's analysis allows a tradeoff between these competing respects of similarity in such cases. It implies that worlds with an marie curie essays extensive region of perfect match of particular fact can be considered very similar to the actual world provided that the match in particular facts with the actual world is courage essay achieved at the cost of a small, local miracle, but not at the cost of marie essays, a big, diverse miracle. Taken by itself, this account contains no built-in time asymmetry. That comes only when it is combined with the asymmetry of overdetermination. To see how the two parts combine, consider the famous example of Nixon and the Nuclear Holocaust. An early objection to Lewis's account of counterfactuals (Fine 1975) was that, counterintuitively, it makes this counterfactual false:

The argument is that a world in which Nixon pressed the button, but some minute violation of the courage introduction, laws then prevented a nuclear war, is much more like the actual world than one in which Nixon pressed the curie, button and a nuclear war took place. Case Study! Lewis replied (1979) that this does not accord with his account of the similarity relation. On this account, a button-pressing world that diverges from the actual world by virtue of essays, a miracle is gas essay more like the actual world than a button-pressing world that converges with the actual world by virtue of a miracle. Essays! For in gas essay view of the asymmetry of overdetermination, the essays, divergence miracle that allows Nixon to press the button need only be a small, local miracle, but the convergence miracle required to wipe out the right essay, traces of marie curie essays, Nixon's pressing the button must be a very big, diverse miracle. Of course, if the asymmetry of overdetermination went in the opposite temporal direction, the very same standards of similarity would dictate the opposite verdict. In general, then, the symmetric analysis of similarity, combined with the de facto asymmetry of overdetermination, implies that worlds that accommodate counterfactual changes by preserving the actual past and allowing for divergence miracles are more similar to the actual world than worlds that accommodate such changes by essays in third, allowing for curie essays convergence miracles that preserve the actual future. In Third Writing! This fact in turn implies that, where the asymmetry of overdetermination obtains, the present counterfactually depends on the past, but not on the future. According to Lewis, causal dependence between actual events is sufficient for causation, but not necessary (1973b): it is essays possible to essay, have causation without causal dependence. Marie Essays! This can happen in the following way.

Suppose that c causes d in virtue of the fact that d causally depends on gas essay c , and d causes e in virtue of the marie essays, fact that e causally depends on right and wrong essay d . Then because causation is transitive, Lewis insists, c must cause e . However, because causal dependence is not transitive like causation, the causal relation between c and e may not be matched by a causal dependence. (We shall shortly consider an example of this kind.) To overcome this problem Lewis extends causal dependence to a transitive relation by taking its ancestral. He defines a causal chain as a finite sequence of actual events c , d , e , where d causally depends on c , e on d , and so on throughout the sequence. Then causation is finally defined in these terms: This definition not only curie ensures the transitivity of causation, but it also appears to solve an additional problem to do with preemption that is illustrated by the following example. Suppose that two crack marksmen conspire to fitness essay introduction, assassinate a hated dictator, agreeing that one or other will shoot the dictator on a public occasion. Acting side-by-side, assassins A and B find a good vantage point, and, when the dictator appears, both take aim. A pulls his trigger and fires a shot that hits its mark, but B desists from firing when he sees A pull his trigger.

Here assassin A 's actions are the essays, actual cause of the dictator's death, while B 's actions are a preempted potential cause. (Lewis distinguishes such cases of preemption from cases of symmetrical overdetermination in which two processes terminate in the effect, with neither process preempting the other. Lewis believes that these cases are not suitable test cases for case nano a theory of causation since they do not elicit clear judgements.) The problem raised by this example of preemption is marie essays that both actions are on a par from the point of view of causal dependence: if neither A nor B acted, then the essays person, dictator would not have died; and if either had acted without the marie essays, other, the dictator would have died. However, given the definition of causation in terms of causal chains, Lewis is able to distinguish the preempting actual cause from the preempted potential cause. There is a causal chain running from A 's actions to the dictator's death, but no such chain running from study, B 's actions to the dictator's death. Take, for example, as an intermediary event occurring between A 's taking aim and the dictator's death, the bullet from A 's gun speeding through the air in marie curie mid-trajectory. The speeding bullet causally depends on A 's action since the bullet would not have been in mid-trajectory without A 's action; and essays in third writing, the dictator's death causally depends on the speeding bullet since by the time the bullet is in mid-trajectory B has refrained from firing so that the dictator would not have died without the curie essays, presence of the speeding bullet. (Notice that this case illustrates the failure of transitivity of causal dependence since the dictator's death does not causally depend on A 's actions.) Hence, we have a causal chain, and so causation.

But no corresponding intermediary can be found between B 's actions and the dictator's death; and for this reason B 's actions do not count as an actual cause of the death. So far we have considered how the counterfactual theory of causation works under the assumption of determinism. But what about causation when determinism fails? Lewis (1986c) argues that chancy causation is a conceptual possibility that must be accommodated by a theory of causation. Indeed, contemporary physics tells us the actual world abounds with probabilistic processes that are causal in character. To take a familiar example (Lewis 1986c): suppose that you mischievously hook up a bomb to right, a radioactive source and geiger counter in such a way that the curie essays, bomb explodes when the counter registers a certain number of clicks.

If it happens that the counter registers the essay, required number of clicks and the bomb explodes, your act caused the explosion, even though there is no deterministic connection between them. In order to marie curie essays, accommodate chancy causation, Lewis (1986c) defines a more general notion of causal dependence in terms of solved case study on tata, chancy counterfactuals. These counterfactuals are of the form “If A were the case Pr ( C ) would be x ”, where the marie curie, counterfactual is an ordinary would-counterfactual, interpreted according to the semantics above, and the Pr operator is a probability operator with narrow scope confined to the consequent of the counterfactual. Lewis interprets the probabilities involved as temporally indexed single-case chances. (See his (1980) for the theory of single-case chance.) The more general notion of causal dependence reads: This definition covers cases of deterministic causation in which the chance of the effect with the person, cause is 1 and the chance of the effect without the curie essays, cause is 0. Essays In Third! But it also allows for cases of irreducible probabilistic causation where these chances can take non-extreme values. It is similar to marie essays, the central notion of probabilistic relevance used in probabilistic theories of type-causation, except that it employs chancy counterfactuals rather than conditional probabilities. (See the discussion in Lewis 1986c for the advantages of the essays writing, counterfactual approach over marie the probabilistic one.

Also see the paragraph essays, entry “Probabilistic Causation”.) The rest of the marie curie, theory of chancy causation follows the outlines of the gas essay, theory of deterministic causation. Causal dependence is marie curie essays extended to a transitive notion by taking its ancestral. Person Writing! As before, we have causation when we have one or more steps of causal dependence. Before turning to marie curie essays, survey some of the problems confronting Lewis's theory of causation, it is worthwhile pausing to consider some of the advantages it affords. At the courage essay, time that Lewis advanced his original theory, regularity theories of causation were the orthodoxy. Taking Hume's first definition as their point of departure, these theories defined causation in terms of subsumption under lawful regularities.

A typical formulation went like this: c is a cause of e if and only c belongs to a minimal set of conditions that are jointly suficient for e , given the laws. It was well known that theories of this kind were faced with a number of recalcitrant counterexamples. Thus, while c might belong to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e when c is a genuine cause of e , this might also be true when c is an marie curie effect of e an effect which could not have occurred, given the laws and the actual circumstances, except by being caused by e . Or it might be true when c and e are joint effects of a common deterministic cause. Or when c is a preempted potential cause of e something that did not cause e , but would have done so if the actual cause had been absent. In contrast, Lewis's counterfactual analysis of causation is essays in third writing not subject to the same counterexamples, so long the counterfactuals in the definition of causal dependence and causation are interpreted in a non-backtracking fashion. The theory implies that even if c belongs to a minimal set of sufficient conditions for e , e will not causally depend on c when c occurs after e as its effect, since earlier events do not typically causally depend on later events. Nor will e causally depend on c when c and e are joint effects of a common cause, since the non-backtracking counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would still have occurred” will be true in view of the fact that it holds fixed the presence of the curie essays, common cause. Nor will c count as a cause of e when c is a preempted potential cause of e in a typical case of preemption. For, as we have seen, c will not be connected to e by a chain of causal dependences. So at the time it was first proposed, Lewis's counterfactual analysis offered considerable explanatory benefits. (For a more negative assessment of the explanatory benefits of gas essay, Lewis's theory see Horwich 1987.

For extensive discussions of the merits of marie curie, counterfactual theories of causation, including Lewis's, see Moore 2009: Chaps. 16-17; Paul 2009; Paul and Hall 2013 passim ). 3. Gas Essay! Problems for Lewis's Counterfactual Theory. In this section we consider the principal difficulties for Lewis's theory that have emerged in discussion over the last thirty years. 3.1 Context-sensitivity 3.2 Temporal Asymmetry 3.3 Transitivity 3.4 Preemption. In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to the context-sensitivity of causal statements. Essays! (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Hitchcock, forthcoming; Hitchcock 1996a, 1996b, 2007; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009; Maslen 2004; Menzies 2004a, 2007, 2009; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005, 2013) In so far as Lewis's theory overlooks this context-sensitivity, it represents a shortcoming of the fahrenheit 451 5 essays, theory. The theory assumes that causation is an absolute relation whose nature does not vary from one context to marie curie, another. (This follows from the way the counterfactuals that define the essay, central notion of causal dependence are governed by a unique, context-invariant system of weighted respects of similarity.) According to the theory, any event but for which an effect would not have occurred is one of the marie, effect's causes.

But this generates some absurd results. For example, suppose a camper lights a fire, a sudden gust of wind fans the fire, the fire gets out of control and the forest burns down. Gas Essay! It is curie essays true that if the camper had not lit the fire, the forest fire would not have occurred. But it is also true that the forest fire would not have occurred if any of a vast number of fitness essay introduction, contingencies, including the marie curie essays, camper's birth and his failure to be struck down by a meteor before striking the introduction, match, had not occurred. But commonsense draws a distinction between causes and background conditions, ranking the camper's lighting of the fire among the former, and his birth and his failure to be struck down by marie curie, a meteor, among the latter. H. Fitness Introduction! L. A. Hart and A. Honoré (1965; 2nd ed 1985) argue that the distinction between causes and conditions is relative to context in at least two different ways. Curie! One form of relativity might be called relativity to the context of occurrence.

If a forest is destroyed by fire, the presence of oxygen would be cited as a mere condition of the forest's destruction. On the other hand, if a fire breaks out in a laboratory where oxygen is deliberately excluded, it may be appropriate to cite the presence of oxygen as a cause of the case on tata nano, fire. The second form of relativity might be called relativity to marie essays, the context of enquiry. For example, the cause of a great famine in India may be identified by an Indian farmer as the drought, but the World Food Authority may identify the Indian government's failure to build up reserves as the cause, and the drought as a mere condition. For the most part, Lewis ignores these subtle context-sensitive distinctions, as he says he is interested in a broad, non-discriminatory notion of gas essay, cause. In his view (1986d), every event has an objective causal history consisting of a vast structure of events ordered by causal dependence. The human mind may select parts of the causal history for attention, perhaps different parts for different purposes of enquiry. However, Lewis does not specify the ‘principles of curie, invidious selection’ by which some parts of the causal history are selected for right essay attention, except to mention the relevance of Grice's maxims of conversation. But Grice's maxims of conversation, as general principles of rational information exchange, are not well suited to explaining the causation-specific distinctions we draw. As several philosophers have pointed out (A.

Garfinkel (1981); C. Hitchcock (1996a, 1996b); P. Essays! Lipton (1990); J. Woodward (1984); and fitness essay introduction, B. Van Fraassen (1981)), some of the essays, contextual principles behind our causal judgements seem to rely on considerations concerning which class of situations the effect is gas essay contrasted with. Thus, in the example of the Indian famine, we contrast the actual situation in which a famine occurs with another situation in marie which normal conditions prevail and a famine does not occur. A cause is then thought of as a factor that makes the difference between these situations; and gas essay, the background conditions are thought of as those factors that are common to the two situations. In different contexts of enquiry, the contrast situation is marie essays framed in fitness essay introduction different terms. A farmer may take the contrast situation to be the normal situation in which the government does not stockpile food reserves but there is no famine. Essays! In this case it would be reasonable for the farmer to identify the 451 5 paragraph essays, drought as the factor that makes the difference between this contrast situation and the actual situation in curie essays which there is famine.

On the other hand, an solved study nano official of the World Food Authority with a different conception of what normally happens may take the contrast situation to be one in which governments build up food reserves as a precaution against droughts. Marie Curie Essays! Consequently, it would be reasonable for the official to see the failure of the right, government to build up food reserves as the factor that makes the difference between the contrast situation and the actual situation in which there is a famine. (For discussion of the relevance of marie curie essays, contrastive explanation to the causes/conditions distinction see Menzies 2007 and Schaffer 2005.) A good case can be made that causal statements display contrast-relativity not only at the effect-end but also at the cause-end. (See Hitchcock, 1996a, 1996b; Maslen 2004; Northcott 2008; Schaffer 2005) Recognising this helps to deal with a problem affecting Lewis's original theory. In evaluating whether an event c caused an fahrenheit essays event e , Lewis's theory says we have to consider what would have happened in those closest worlds in which c did not occur. For example, in evaluating whether the camper's lighting of the marie essays, fire caused the forest, we have to right and wrong essay, consider what would have happened in those closest possible worlds in essays which the camper's action of lighting the introduction, fire did not occur. Are these worlds in which the marie essays, camper does not light the fire but does something else instead, or are they worlds in which he lights the fire in slightly different manner (perhaps with a lighter instead of matches) or at a slightly different time (three minutes later when the wind died down)?

In order to answer such questions, Lewis says it is necessary to say how much of a change or a delay it takes for essay an event to become an altogether different event, rather than a different version of the marie, same event. (Lewis sometimes discusses this issue as the question of how fragile events are: a modally fragile event is one which cannot occur in a different manner or at a different time from its actual manner and solved, time of occurrence. See Lewis 1986b.) The problem, as he sees it, is that there is no unique principled way in which we do this: there is linguistic indeterminancy about what event nominals refer to. He writes: “We have not made up our minds: and if we presuppose sometimes one answer and sometimes another answer, we are entirely within our linguistic rights. This is itself a big problem for a counterfactual analysis of essays, causation, quite apart from the problem of preemption.” (2000, p.186) However, if we recognise that the solved nano, cause-end of causal statements displays contrast-relativity as well as the effect-end, we can obviate the need to provide an account of the essays, identity of events under counterfactual changes. For example, suppose we are interested in why the forest fire took one path P 1 rather than another path P 2 . Variation in the starting point of the fire will be relevant to this difference. So it would be appropriate to say that the gas essay, camper's lighting the marie essays, fire in location L 1 rather another location L 2 caused the forest fire to take path P 1 rather than P 2 . On the right and wrong, other hand, suppose that we are interested in why the forest occurred rather did not occur at marie all. Gas Essay! Variation in the starting point of the fire will probably not be relevant to this contrast. Marie Curie! Rather the appropriate causal statement will be one that says the camper's lighting the fire (in some or other location) rather his not lighting it (in any location) caused the fire to occur rather than not to occur. Such causal statements reveal the relevant contrasts at both the cause- and case on tata, the effect-ends. Sometimes, such contrasts are indicated by the use of emphasis as in “The fire's starting in location L 1 caused the fire to take path P 1 ”.

But more often than not the essays, surface form of causal statements does not disclose the contrasts that are intended and solved case study, they must be supplied by context. Marie! This fact means that there may be linguistic indeterminacy in courage essay introduction causal statements. But it is not indeterminacy about the reference of event nominals, but rather about the curie essays, situations that are intended as contrasts for the cause and solved case nano, the effect. Once these are resolved the marie curie, linguistic indeterminacy is resolved as well. The contrast-relativity of causal statements, if it is genuine, has significant implications for the form that a counterfactual analysis should take. Those who accept the arguments above for the context-relativity of causal statements think that the canonical form of causal statements is “ c rather than c* caused e rather than e* ”, where the contrast situations c* and e* are supplied by context. This suggests that the definition of causal dependence should not be formulated in case study on tata terms of the counterfactual “If c had not occurred, e would not have occurred”, but the more specific counterfactual “If c* had occurred instead of c , then e* would have occurred instead of e ”. This formulation has several advantages over marie curie the old formulation. (For discussion of this point see Schaffer 2005. For criticisms see Steglich-Petersen 2012; Reiss 2013) Its chief advantage from the point of our discussion is that it obviates the need for solved on tata the counterfactual theory to provide an account of the identity of events under hypothetical changes. With this new formulation, there is no need to work out whether c* and e* are identical with, or different from, c and e ,respectively. It is simply stipulated on the basis of contextual considerations that c* and essays, e* are intended to courage essay introduction, act as contrasts to c and essays, e . There have been several important critical discussions of Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of causation. (See Elga 2000; Frisch 2007; Hausman 1998: Chap.

6; Horwich 1987: Chap. Gas Essay! 10; Loewer 2007; Kutach 2013: Chaps. 3-7; Price 1996: Chap. 6.; Price and Weslake 2009) One kind of criticism has focused on the psychological implausibility of marie essays, Lewis's explanation. (See Horwich 1987.) Recall that the explanation appeals, on the one hand, to a system of weighted respects of similarity between possible worlds that is delivered by a priori conceptual analysis and, on the other hand, to an asymmetry of overdetermination that is claimed to be a contingent a posteriori truth about the actual world. The two-part explanation is supposed to employ facts that are sufficiently well known to play a role in the explanation of our linguistic use of counterfactuals. However, it is fahrenheit 451 5 paragraph essays psychologically implausible that the intricate system of weighted respects of similarity involving comparison of miracles of different sizes could capture the intuitive similarity relation used in counterfactual reasoning. Why should we have developed such a baroque notion of similarity?

Moreover, the curie, asymmetry of overdetermination is an essay esoteric scientific hypothesis that is not common knowledge to everyone using counterfactuals. So it is very unlikely that this hypothesis could account for ordinary speakers' mastery of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. (For Lewis's reply to this criticism see Postscript E to “Counterfactual Dependence and essays, Time's Arrow” in his (1986a, p. 66).) Another criticism is gas essay that the asymmetry of overdetermination does not exist in the form required to support Lewis's explanation of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals. Lewis's idea is that any event e has many postdeterminants and few predeterminants, where a predeterminant or postdeterminant of an event is a set of conditions that are jointly sufficient, given the laws of nature, for the occurrence of the event. But if Lewis is assuming that the laws involved are like those of curie, classical mechanics, he is mistaken on this score. For a theory that is time symmetric and deterministic in gas essay both the forward and backward direction will imply that for any local event e and any time t , there is a unique set of conditions obtaining at t that are necessary and sufficient, given the laws, for the occurrence of the event e . Marie! The conditions may not be localized conditions that are typically regarded as events, but nonetheless they will qualify as predeterminant or postdeterminants. For example, consider Popper's example of the wave spreading out from a point source. If there is in third person a process that postdetermines what happens at the point at which the wave is emitted, there is also a process, perhaps a very unlocalized process, that predetermines this. Pace Popper and Lewis, both processes are equally likely; and whether they occur depends on the boundary conditions of the system. (For discussion of this point see Arntzenius 1993; Frisch 2005; North 2003; Price 1996. Also see the entry “Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time”.)

A related criticism concerns the asymmetry of miracles that is marie central to Lewis's account of the temporal asymmetry of causation. The asymmetry of miracles consists in the fact that a miracle that realises a counterfactual antecedent about particular facts at time t by having a possible world diverge from the solved case study nano, actual world just before the time t is smaller and less diverse than a miracle that realises the same counterfactual antecedent and marie curie essays, makes a possible world converge to the actual world after the time t . Adam Elga (2000) has argued that the asymmetry of miracles does not hold in many cases. Elga's argument proceeds by way of an example: Gretta cracks an egg into a hot frying pan at 8:00am and at 8:05am the essay introduction, egg is cooked. Consider the process that occurs in the period from 8:00am to 8:05am, run backwards in time: a cooked egg sits in the frypan; it coalesces into a raw egg and leaps upward; and a shell closes around it. The laws of curie essays, thermodynamics allows that this process is physically possible but extremely rare. These laws also state that the process is very sensitive in its initial conditions: even the slightest changes in the molecules making up the essay introduction, state of the cooked egg would result in the process evolving in marie curie essays such a way that the cooked egg continues to sit in the pan rather than coalescing into a raw egg and leaping upwards. But this is, Elga points out, exactly the kind of change that would make for a “convergence miracle”. Take the state of the actual world at 8:05am, holding fixed its future after this point; make some small changes to the molecules making up this state; and then run the laws of thermodynamics backwards in time, and we will almost certainly arrive at a state in which the egg sits in the pan growing colder.

This state will be one in which Gretta does not crack the egg. The small change in essays in third the state of the actual world at 8:05am is a “convergence miracle” that yields a possible world that realises the counterfactual proposition that Gretta does not crack the egg at 8:00am while holding fixed the marie curie essays, actual future after 8:05am. But this miracle is not the large, diverse miracle that Lewis claims a convergence miracle would have to be. As we have seen, Lewis builds transitivity into causation by defining it in terms of fitness, chains of causal dependence. The transitivity of causation fits with some of our explanatory practices.

For example, historians wishing to explain some significant historical event will trace the explanation back through a number of causal links, concluding that the event at curie the beginning of the causal chain is responsible for the event being explained. On the other hand, a number of counter-examples have been presented which cast doubt on transitivity. Courage Essay! (Lewis 2004a presents a short catalogue of these counterexamples.) Here is a sample of two counterexamples. First, an example due to Ned Hall (2004). A person is walking along a mountain trail, when a boulder high above is marie curie essays dislodged and comes careering down the right, mountain slopes. Essays! The walker notices the gas essay, boulder and ducks at marie curie the appropriate time. Fahrenheit! The careering boulder causes the walker to duck and this, in turn, causes his continued stride. Marie Curie! (This second causal link involves double prevention : the duck prevents the collision between walker and boulder which, had it occurred, would have prevented the nano, walker's continued stride.) However, the careering boulder is the curie, sort of thing that would prevent the walker's continued stride and so it seems counterintuitive to say that it causes the stride. Second, an example due to essay, Douglas Ehring (1987). Marie Curie! Jones puts some potassium salts into a hot fire.

Because potassium compounds produce a purple flame when heated, the flame changes to and wrong, a purple colour, though everything else remains the same. The purple flame ignites some flammable material nearby. Here we judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the purple flame, which in turn caused the curie, flammable material to ignite. But it seems implausible to judge that putting the potassium salts in the fire caused the flammable material to ignite. Various replies have been made to these counterexamples. The second counterexample seems the courage essay introduction, most easily deflected. For example, Maslen (2004), who endorses the contrast-relativity of causal statements, has argued that this example is misdiagnosed as a counterexample to transitivity, as the contrast situation at the effect-end of the first causal statement does not match up with the contrast situation at the cause-end of the second causal statement. Thus, the first causal statement should be interpreted as saying that Jones's putting potassium salts in the fire rather not doing so caused the flame to turn purple rather than yellow ; but the second causal statement should be interpreted as saying that the purple fire's occurring rather than not occurring caused the flammable material to ignite rather not to ignite. Where there is a mismatch of this kind, we do not have a genuine counterexample to transitivity.

L. Paul (2004) offers a similar diagnosis of the second example, though her diagnosis proceeds in terms of event aspects, which she takes to be causation's primary relata. She argues similarly that there is mismatch between the event aspect that is the effect of the first causal link (the flame's being a purple colour) and the event aspect that is the cause of the second causal link (the flame's touching the essays, flammable material). The first example cannot be handled in the same way. Some defenders of transitivity have replied that our intuitions about the intransitivity of causation in these examples are misleading. For instance, Lewis (2004a) points out that the solved study on tata nano, counterexamples to transitivity typically involve a structure in which a c -type event generally prevents an e -type but in the particular case the c -event actually causes another event that counters the marie curie, threat and causes the e -event. If we mix up questions of what is courage introduction generally conducive to what, with questions about what caused what in this particular case, he says, we may think that it is reasonable to deny that c causes e . But if we keep the focus sharply on the particular case, we must insist that c does in fact cause e . The debate about the transitivity of causation is not easily settled, partly because it is marie curie essays tied up with the issue of how it is best for fitness essay a counterfactual theory to deal with examples of preemption. As we have seen, Lewis's counterfactual theory relies on the transitivity of causation to marie, handle cases of preemption. If such cases could be handled in some other way, that would take some of the theoretical pressure off the theory, allowing it concede the persuasive counterexamples to transitivity without succumbing to the difficulties posed by preemption. (For more on this point see Hitchcock 2001.

For an extensive discussion of the issues around transitivity see Paul and Hall: Chap. 5.) As we have seen, Lewis employs his strategy of solved on tata nano, defining causation in terms of chains of causal dependence not only to make causation transitive, but also to deal with preemption examples. However, there are preemption examples that this strategy cannot deal with satisfactorily. Difficulties concerning preemption have proven to be the biggest bugbear for Lewis's theory.(Paul and Hall 2013: Chap 3 contains an extensive discussion of the problems posed by preemption and other kinds of redundant causation for counterfactual theories.) In his (1986c), Lewis distinguishes cases of early and late preemption . In early preemption examples, the process running from the preempted alternative is cut short before the main process running from the marie curie, preempting cause has gone to completion. The example of the fitness, two assassins, given above, is an example of this sort. The theory of causation in terms of chains of essays, causal dependence can handle this sort of example.

In contrast, cases of late preemption are ones in in third writing which the marie, process running from the essays writing, preempted cause is cut short only after the main process has gone to curie essays, completion and brought about the fitness essay introduction, effect. Essays! The following is an introduction example of marie curie essays, late preemption due to fahrenheit paragraph, Hall (2004). Billy and marie curie, Suzy throw rocks at and wrong essay a bottle. Suzy throws first so that her rock arrives first and shatters the glass. Marie Curie! Without Suzy's throw, Billy's throw would have shattered the bottle. And Wrong! However, Suzy's throw is the actual cause of the shattered bottle, while Billy's throw is merely a preempted potential cause. This is a case of late preemption because the alternative process (Billy's throw) is cut short after the main process (Suzy's throw) has actually brought about the effect. Lewis's theory cannot explain the marie curie, judgement that Suzy's throw was the actual cause of the shattering of the bottle. For there is no causal dependence between Suzy's throw and introduction, the shattering, since even if Suzy had not thrown her rock, the bottle would have shattered due to Billy's throw. Nor is there a chain of stepwise dependences running cause to effect, because there is no event intermediate between Suzy's throw and marie curie essays, the shattering that links them up into a chain of dependences.

Take, for instance, Suzy's rock in mid-trajectory. Certainly, this event depends on Suzy's initial throw, but the problem is that the shattering of the bottle does not depend on it, because even without it the bottle would still have shattered because of Billy's throw. To be sure, the bottle shattering that would have occurred without Suzy's throw would be different from the bottle shattering that actually occurred with Suzy's throw. For a start, it would have occurred later. This observation suggests that one solution to fahrenheit 451 5 paragraph essays, the problem of late preemption might be to insist that the marie curie, events involved should be construed as fragile events. Accordingly, it will be true rather than false that if Suzy had not thrown her rock, then the fitness essay, actual bottle shattering, taken as a fragile event with an essential time and manner of occurrence, would not have occurred. Lewis himself does not endorse this response on the grounds that a uniform policy of construing events as fragile would go against our usual practices, and would generate many spurious causal dependences. For example, suppose that a poison kills its victim more slowly and painfully when taken on a full stomach. Then, the victim's eating dinner before he drinks the poison would count as a cause of his death since the time and manner of the death depend on the eating of the dinner. (For discussion of the limitations of this response see Lewis 1986c, 2000.) When we turn from preemption examples involving deterministic causation to those involving chancy causation, we see that the problems for Lewis's theory multiply.

One particularly recalcitrant problem is described in curie Menzies 1989. (See also Woodward 1990.) Suppose that two systems can produce the same effect, perhaps at the same time and in the same manner. In Third Writing! (It does not matter whether this is an example of early or late preemption.) However, one system is much more reliable than the other. The reliable system starts and, left to itself, will very probably produce the effect. But you do not leave it to itself. You throw a switch that shuts down the reliable system and turns on the unreliable one. As luck would have it, the unreliable system works and marie essays, brings about the effect. This kind of fahrenheit, example presents a problem for the probabilistic generalisation of the counterfactual theory because the preempting actual cause decreases the chance of the effect while the preempted potential cause increases its chance. In addition to the problem of explaining how the preempting cause qualifies as a cause when the effect does not causally depend on it, the probabilistic counterfactual theory faces the problem of explaining how the preempted cause is not really a cause when the effect does causally depend on it.(Examples of this kind have been the subject of extensive discussion in the context of both counterfactual and probabilistic theories of causation. For discussions about how best to deal with them within theories admitting of marie curie, indeterminism, see Barker 2004; Beebee 2004; Dowe 2000, 2004; Hitchcock 2004; Kvart 2004; Noordhof 1999, 2004; Ramachandran 1997, 2004.) In this section we shall consider some recent developments of the counterfactual approach to causation, which have been motivated by solved on tata, the desire to overcome the deficiencies in Lewis's 1973 theory, especially with respect to preemption. 4.1 Lewis's 2000 Theory 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

In an attempt to deal with the various problems facing his 1973 theory, Lewis developed a new version of the counterfactual theory, which he first presented in his Whitehead Lectures at Harvard University in March 1999. (A shortened version of the curie essays, lectures appeared as his (2000). The full lectures are published as his (2004a).) Counterfactuals play a central role in the new theory, as in the old. Gas Essay! But the counterfactuals it employs do not simply state dependences of whether one event occurs on whether another event occurs. The counterfactuals state dependences of essays, whether , when , and how one event occurs on whether , when , and how another event occurs. A key idea in the formulation of these counterfactuals is that of an alteration of an event. This is an actualised or unactualised event that occurs at courage a slightly different time or in a slightly different manner from the given event. An alteration is, by marie curie, definition, a very fragile event that could not occur at a different time, or in a different manner without being a different event. Lewis intends the 451 5, terminology to be neutral on the issue of whether an alteration of an event is a version of the same event or a numerically different event.

The central notion of the new theory is that of influence. Where one event influences another, there is a pattern of counterfactual dependence of whether, when, and how upon whether, when, and how. Marie Essays! As before, causation is defined as an ancestral relation. One of the points Lewis advances in favour of this new theory is that it handles cases of late as well as early pre-emption. (The theory is restricted to deterministic causation and so does not address the fitness essay introduction, example of probabilistic preemption described in section 3.4.) Reconsider, for instance, the example of curie, late preemption involving Billy and Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle. The theory is supposed to explain why Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, is the cause of the shattering of the bottle. If we take an alteration in which Suzy's throw is fitness essay slightly different (the rock is lighter, or she throws sooner), while holding fixed Billy's throw, we find that the marie, shattering is different too. But if we make similar alterations to Billy's throw while holding Suzy's throw fixed, we find that the shattering is unchanged. Another point in favour of the new theory is that it handles a type of preemption Lewis that have come to be called trumping . Fahrenheit Paragraph! (Trumping was first described by Jonathan Schaffer(2000).) Lewis gives an curie essays example involving a major and a sergeant who are shouting orders at the soldiers. The major and gas essay, sergeant simultaneously shout “Advance”; the soldiers hear them both and advance. Since the soldiers obey the superior officer, they advance because the major orders them to, not because the sergeant does.

So the major's command preempts or trumps the sergeant's. Where other theories have difficulty with trumping cases, Lewis's argues his new theory handles them with ease. Altering the major's command while holding fixed the sergeant's, the soldier's response would be correspondingly altered. In contrast, altering the sergeant's command, while holding fixed the major's, would make no difference at all. There is, however, some reason for scepticism about whether the curie essays, new theory handles the examples of late preemption and trumping completely satisfactorily.

In the right and wrong essay, example of late preemption, Billy's throw has some degree of influence on the shattering of the bottle. For if Billy had thrown his rock earlier (so that it preceded Suzy's throw) and in a different manner, the bottle would have shattered earlier and in a different manner. Likewise, the sergeant's command has some degree of influence on curie essays the soldiers' advance in that if the sergeant had shouted earlier than the major with a different command, the soldiers would have obeyed his order. In response to these points, Lewis must say that these alterations of the events are too-distant to be considered relevant. But some metric of distance in alterations is required, since it seems that similar alterations of Suzy's throw and the major's command are relevant to their having causal influence. It has also been argued that the new theory generates a great number of spurious instances of causation. (For discussion see Collins 2000; Kvart 2001.) The theory implies that any event that influences another event to a certain degree counts as one of its causes. But common sense is essays in third writing more discriminating about causes. To take an example of Jonathan Bennett (1987): rain in December delays a forest fire; if there had been no December rain, the forest would have caught fire in January rather than when it actually did in February. The rain influences the fire with respect to curie, its timing, location, rapidity, and so forth.

But common sense denies that the rain was a cause of the essay, fire , though it allows that it is a cause of the delay in the fire . Similarly, in the example of the poison victim discussed above, the essays, victim's ingesting poison on courage introduction a full stomach influences the time and manner of his death (making it a slow and painful death), but common sense refuses to countenance his eating dinner as a cause of his death , though it may countenance it as a cause of its being a slow and painful death . Pace Lewis, common sense does not take anything that affects the time and manner of an event to be a cause of the event simpliciter . 4.2 Causation as Intrinsic Relation. One way of treating preemption that has been recently discussed departs from a purely counterfactual analysis of causation. It has been argued that preemption examples highlight the intuitive idea that causation is an intrinsic relation between events, which is to say it is a local relation depending on the intrinsic properties of the marie curie essays, events and what goes on between them, and nothing else. The proposed treatments of preemption marry this intuitive idea with a crucial deployment of counterfactuals. At one time Lewis himself resorted to this way of treating late preemption examples when he invoked the notion of quasi-dependence . (See his (1986c).) To explain this notion consider a case that resembles the case of Billy and case, Suzy throwing rocks at a bottle.

Suzy throws a rock and shatters the marie curie essays, bottle in exactly the same way in fahrenheit 451 5 paragraph which she does in the original case. But in this case Billy and his rock are entirely absent. Lewis argued that since the process in the original case and the process in marie curie the comparison case are intrinsically alike (and also obey the same laws), both or neither must be causal. Essays Writing! However, the comparison process is surely a causal process since, thanks to Billy's absence, it exhibits a causal dependence. Marie Curie! Accordingly, the process in the original case must be a causal process too, even though it does not exhibit a causal dependence. In such examples Lewis has said that the actual process that does not exhibit causal dependence is, nonetheless, causal by courtesy: it exhibits quasi-dependence in virtue of its intrinsic resemblance to the causal process in essays the comparison case.

A related idea is pursued in marie Menzies (1996; 1999). In Third! Menzies argues that there is an element in our concept of causation that resists capture in marie essays purely counterfactual terms. This element consists in the idea that causation is a structural relation that underlies and supports causal dependences. This idea can be captured by treating the essays writing, concept of causation as the concept of a theoretical entity. Applying a standard treatment of theoretical concepts, he argues that causation should be defined as the unique occupant of a certain characteristic role given by the platitudes of the folk theory of causation. One platitude is marie essays that causation is an intrinsic relation between events. Fahrenheit! Another platitude is that it is typically , but not invariably, accompanied by marie essays, causal dependence.

Accordingly, causation is defined in the following way: On this account, causation is solved not constituted by causal dependence. Curie! It is, in fact, a distinct relation for which causal dependence is, at right and wrong essay best, a defeasible marker. The relation may be identified a posteriori with some physically specifiable relation such as energy-momentum transfer. It may, indeed, be identified with different relations in marie curie essays different possible worlds. This definition is supposed to explain common sense intuitions about preemption examples.

For example, Suzy's throw, and not Billy's throw, caused the shattering of the bottle, because the intrinsic relation that typically accompanies causal dependence connects Suzy's throw, but not Billy's throw, with the shattering of the bottle. Lewis later rejected the approach to preemption via quasi-dependence in favour of his 2000 theory in terms of influence. In Lewis 2004a and 2004b, he claims that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation do not do justice to the full range of our intuitions about causation. (For related points see Hall 2002, 2004.) He offers several reasons, but one reason will suffice for essay introduction our discussion. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic matter does not apply to cases of double prevention. Suppose that billiard balls 1 and 2 collide, preventing ball 1 from continuing on marie essays its way and hitting ball 3. If the collision of balls 1 and case nano, 3 had occurred, ball 3 would not have later collided with ball 4. So, we have double prevention: the collision of balls 1 and 2 prevented the collision of balls 1 and 3, which would have prevented the curie essays, later collision of balls 3 and 4. Here it seems reasonable to say that the introduction, collision of balls 1 and 2 was a cause of the later collision of balls 3 and 4. Lewis observes that the causation in marie curie such cases of double prevention is partly an extrinsic matter. If there had been some other obstruction that would have stopped ball 1 from hitting ball 3, the paragraph, collision of 3 and 4 would not have depended on the collision of 1 and 2. Moreover, he notes that much of the spatiotemporal region between the collision of balls 1 and essays, 2 and the collision of balls 3 and 4 is simply empty so that there is no chain of events to serve as a connecting process between cause and courage essay, effect. The intuition that causation is an intrinsic relation does not apply in this case. More generally, he argues that theories of causation as an intrinsic relation are overhasty generalisations of curie essays, one specific kind of causation, and they fail to do justice to our intuitions about causation involving absences (as causes, effects or intermediaries). 4.3 The Structural Equations Framework.

A number of contemporary philosophers (Hitchcock 2001, 2007; Woodward 2003; Woodward and Hitchcock 2003) have explored an fahrenheit 451 5 essays alternative counterfactual approach to causation that employs the structural equations framework. Marie Curie Essays! This framework, which has been used in the social sciences and gas essay, biomedical sciences since the 1930s and 1940s, received its state-of-the-art formulation in Judea Pearl's landmark 2000 book. Hitchcock and Woodward acknowledge their debt to Pearl's work and to the related work on causal Bayes nets by Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and Richard Scheines (1993). Curie Essays! However, while Pearl and Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines focus on issues to do with causal discovery and inference, Woodward and Hitchcock focus on issues of the meaning of causal claims. For this reason, their formulations of the structural equations framework are better suited to the purposes of this discussion.

The exposition of this section follows that of Hitchcock 2001, in particular. Gas Essay! While philosophical work using this framework has only just begun, it would seem that this framework looks likely to rival Lewis's framework in terms of its theoretical richness and fruitfulness. The structural equations framework describes the causal structure of a system in terms of a causal model of the system, which is identified as an ordered pair V , E , where V is curie a set of and wrong essay, variables and E a set of structural equations stating deterministic relations among the variables. Curie! (We shall confine our attention in this section to gas essay, deterministic systems.) The variables in V describe the different possible states of the system in question. While they can take any number of values, in the simple examples to be considered here the variables are typically binary variables that take the marie, value 1 if some event occurs and writing, the value 0 if the event does not occur. For example, let us formulate a causal model to describe the system exemplified in the example of late preemption to do with Billy and Suzy's rock throwing. We might describe the system using the curie, following set of variables: BT = 1 if Billy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; ST = 1 if Suzy throws a rock, 0 otherwise; BH = 1 if Billy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; SH = 1 if Suzy's rock hits the bottle, 0 otherwise; BS = 1 if the solved nano, bottle shatters, 0 otherwise. Here the variables are binary. But a different model might have used many-valued variables to represent the different ways in which Billy and Suzy threw their rocks, their rocks hit the bottle, or the bottle shattered.

The structural equations in a model describe the dynamical evolution of the system being modelled. There is a structural equation for each variable. The form taken by a structural equation for marie a variable depends on which kind of variable it is. The structural equation for an exogenous variable (the values of right and wrong essay, which are determined by factors outside of the marie, model) takes the form of Y = y , which simply states the actual value of the variable. Courage Introduction! The structural equation for an endogenous variable (the values of which are determined by factors within the model) states how the value of the variable is marie determined by the values of the right essay, other variables.

It takes the form: What does this structural equation mean? There are in fact competing interpretations. Pearl (2000) regards the structural equations as the conceptual primitives of his framework, describing them as representing the basic mechanisms of the system under investigation. However, for the purposes of exposition, it is more convenient to essays, follow the fitness essay, interpretation of Woodward (2003) and Hitchcock (2001), who think of the structural equations as expressing certain basic counterfactuals of the following form:

As this form of counterfactual suggests, the essays, structural equations are to be read from right to left: the antecedent of the essays, counterfactual states possible values of the variables X 1 through to marie curie essays, X n and the consequent states the corresponding value of the endogenous variable Y . There is a counterfactual of essay introduction, this kind for every combination of possible values of the variables X 1 through to X n . It is important to note that a structural equation of this kind is marie curie not, strictly speaking, an identity since there is a right-to-left asymmetry built into it. This asymmetry corresponds to solved nano, the asymmetry of non-backtracking counterfactuals. Curie Essays! For example, supposing that the actual situation is courage introduction one in which neither Suzy nor Billy throws a rock so the bottle does not shatter, the non-backtracking counterfactual “If either Suzy or Billy had thrown a rock, the bottle would have shattered” is true. But the counterfactual “If the curie essays, bottle had shattered, either Suzy or Billy would have thrown a rock” is false. As an illustration, consider the set of structural equations that might be used to model the late preemption example of Billy and Suzy. Given the solved case study on tata, variables listed above, the structural equations might be stated as follows: In these equations logical symbols are used to marie, represent mathematical functions on binary variables: X = 1 − X ; X v Y = max X , Y ; X Y = min X , Y . The first two equations simply state the essay introduction, actual values of the exogenous variables ST and BT . Marie! The third equation encodes two counterfactuals, one for each possible value of right essay, ST . It states that if Suzy threw a rock, her rock hit the bottle; and if she didn't throw a rock, her rock didn't hit the bottle. The fourth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for each possible combination of curie essays, values for BT and. SH . It states that if Billy threw a rock and Suzy's rock didn't hit the bottle, Billy's rock hit the bottle; but didn't do so if one or more of these conditions was not met.

The fifth equation encodes four counterfactuals, one for case study each possible combination of values for SH and BH . It states that if one or other (or possibly both) of Suzy's rock or Billy's rock hit the bottle, the bottle shattered; but if neither rock hit the bottle, the bottle didn't shatter. The structural equations above can be represented in terms of a directed graph . The variables in curie the set V are represented as nodes in essay the graph. An arrow directed from one node X to another Y represents the fact that the variable X appears on marie essays the right-hand side of the structural equation for Y . In this case, X is said to gas essay, be a parent of Y . Marie Curie Essays! Exogenous variables are represented by nodes that have no arrows directed towards them. A directed path from X to Y in a graph is a sequence of arrows that connect X with Y . The directed graph of the model described above of Billy and Suzy example is depicted in Figure 1 below: The arrows in this figure tell us that the bottle's shattering is a function of Suzy's rock hitting the bottle and Billy's rock hitting the essay, bottle; that Billy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of Billy's throwing a rock and Suzy's rock hitting the marie curie, bottle; and that Suzy's rock hitting the bottle is a function of her throwing the rock. As we have seen, the structural equations directly encode some counterfactuals. However, some counterfactuals that are not directly encoded can be derived from them. Consider, for example, the counterfactual “If Suzy's rock had not hit the bottle, it would still have shattered”.

As a matter of fact, Suzy's rock did hit the bottle. But we can determine what would have happened if it hadn't done so, by replacing the fitness, structural equation for the endogenous variable SH with the equation SH = 0, keeping all the marie curie, other equations unchanged. So, instead of having its value determined in the ordinary way by the variable ST , the value of SH is set “miraculously”. Fitness! Pearl describes this as a “surgical intervention” that changes the marie, value of the variable. In terms of its graphical representation,this amounts to wiping out the arrow from the courage essay introduction, variable ST to the variable SH and treating SH as if it were an exogenous variable. After this operation, the value of the variable BS can be computed and shown to be equal to marie essays, 1: given that Billy had thrown his rock, his rock would have hit the bottle and shattered it. So this particular counterfactual is true. This procedure for evaluating counterfactuals has direct affinities with Lewis's non-backtracking interpretation of counterfactuals: the surgical intervention that sets the variable SH at its hypothetical value but keeps all other equations unchanged is similar in solved study on tata its effects to curie essays, Lewis's small miracle that realises the counterfactual antecedent but preserves the past. In general, to evaluate a counterfactual, say “If it were the case that X 1 ,,X n , then ”, one replaces the original equation for gas essay each variable X i with a new equation stipulating its hypothetical value,while keeping the marie, other equations unchanged; then one computes the gas essay, values for marie the remaining variables to see whether they make the consequent true. This technique of replacing an equation with a hypothetical value set by essay introduction, a “surgical intervention” enables us to capture the notion of counterfactual dependence between variables:

How does the structural equations framework deal with examples of curie, late pre-emption that pose such problems for Lewis's counterfactual theory? Can this framework deliver the intuitively correct verdicts in fahrenheit paragraph essays the example about Suzy and Billy? Halpern and Pearl (2001,2005), Hitchcock (2001),and Woodward (2003a) all give roughly the marie, same treatment of examples of gas essay, late preemption. The key to their treatment is the employment of a certain procedure for testing the existence of marie, a causal relation. The procedure is to look for an intrinsic process connecting the putative cause and effect; suppress the influence of their non-intrinsic surroundings by “freezing” those surroundings as they actually are; and essays person, then subject the putative cause to a counterfactual test. So, for example, to test whether the variable Suzy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter, we should examine the marie curie essays, process running from ST through SH to BS ; hold fix at its actual value the variable BH which is extrinsic to right, this process; and then wiggle the variable ST to curie essays, see if it changes the value of BS . The last steps involve evaluating the counterfactual “If Suzy hadn't thrown a rock and Billy's rock hadn't hit the bottle, the right, bottle would not have shattered”. It is easy to see that this counterfactual is true. In contrast, when we carry out a similar procedure to test whether Billy's throwing a rock caused the bottle to shatter,we are required to marie curie essays, consider the counterfactual “If Billy hadn't thrown his rock and Suzy's rock had hit the bottle, the bottle would not shattered”. This counterfactual is false. Gas Essay! It is the difference in the truth-value of these two counterfactuals that explains the fact that it was Suzy's rock throwing, and marie, not Billy's, that caused the fitness introduction, bottle to shatter. Curie Essays! (A similar theory is developed in courage essay introduction Yablo 2002 and marie, 2004 though not in the structural equations framework.) Hitchcock (2001) presents a useful regimentation of this reasoning.

He defines a route between two variables X and Z in the set V to be an ordered sequence of variables X , Y 1 ,, Y n , Z such each variable in the sequence is in V and is a parent of its successor in the sequence. A variable Y is intermediate between X and Z if and only if it belongs to some route between X and Z . Then he introduces the new concept of an active causal route: This definition generalises the informal idea sketched in the example of Suzy and Billy. There is an active causal route going from Suzy's throwing her rock through her rock hitting the bottle to the bottle shattering: when we hold fixed Billy's rock not hitting the bottle, which is the actual value of the only intermediate variable BH that is solved case not on this route, we see that the bottle's shattering counterfactually depends on Suzy's throwing her rock. Marie Essays! There is, however, no active causal route between Billy's throwing his rock and the bottle shattering. In terms of the notion of an active causal route, Hitchcock defines actual or token causation in the following terms: A crucial notion in this definition is that of “an appropriate” model. It would be undesirable to have multiple structures of causal relations being posited by different models willy-nilly. So Hitchcock insists causal relations are revealed only by “appropriate models”.

He mentions a number of criteria for appraising whether a model is appropriate, the most important one being that the structural equations posited by the model must not imply any false counterfactual. In order to deal with examples of symmetric overdetermination, Hitchcock (2001) defines a notion of a weakly active route , the fahrenheit essays, essential idea being that there is a weakly active route between X and marie curie essays, Y just when Y counterfactually depends on fahrenheit essays X under the freezing of some possible, not necessarily actual, values of the variables that are not on the route from marie, X to Y . Essays Person! As we shall not be considering any examples of oversymmetric overdetermination, we shall focus on the stronger notion of an active causal route. This account of causation differs from Lewis's accounts in a number of respects. One difference is marie curie essays that the account does not appeal to person writing, the transitivity of causation to deal with preemption examples, in contrast to Lewis's accounts, both early and late. Hitchcock (2001) is at pains to stress that the structural equations framework described above allows for failures of transitivity. Another difference between the accounts is that the structural equations account appeals to special counterfactuals with complex antecedents in order to handle preemption examples. These counterfactuals describe what would happen if a causal variable were changed when certain other variables are held fixed at their actual values. (Hitchcock calls these “explicitly nonforetracking counterfactuals”.) Lewis's accounts does not make use of such counterfactuals, relying as it does on counterfactuals with simple antecedents that describe single changes in the causal variables. The differences between the accounts should not, however, overshadow the similarities that also exist. Both accounts make central use of essays, non-backtracking counterfactuals and they interpret these counterfactuals in roughly the essay, same fashion. Setting aside complications to do with backwards causation, Lewis's account and the structural equations account have us evaluate a non-backtracking counterfactual in much the same way: we are to hold fixed the past history of the system, imagine that the antecedent is marie realised “miraculously” by a surgical intervention from introduction, outside the system, and then consider how the new state of the system would evolve in curie conformity with the structural equations or laws of the essay introduction, system without any further interventions. How plausible is this new counterfactual approach to causation?

It is too early to say with any confidence, as the approach is still being developed. Nonetheless, some early problems have emerged. Essays! (See Hall 2007; Halpern and Pearl 2005; Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock 2007; Menzies 2004b; Weslake forthcoming.) Consider, for instance, the following example, which is a variant of one described by Hitchcock (2007). An assassin puts poison in the king's coffee. The bodyguard responds by pouring an antidote in the king's coffee. Essays Person Writing! If the bodyguard had not poured the antidote in the coffee, the king would have died. Marie Essays! On the fitness, other hand, the antidote is fatal when taken by itself; and if the poison had not been poured in first, it would have killed the king. The poison and the antidote are both lethal when taken singly but neutralise each other when taken together. In fact, the king drinks the essays, coffee and survives. Suppose we model this scenario using the solved case study on tata nano, following variables: A = 1 if the marie curie, assassin pours poison into the king's coffee, 0 otherwise; G = 1 if the bodyguard responds by pouring antidote into the coffee, 0 otherwise; S = 1 if the king survives, 0 otherwise. And also suppose that we employ these structural equations:

The directed graph for this model is depicted in Figure 2. Testing for active causal processes, we can see that the process that goes directly from the assassin's pouring the poison in the coffee to the king's survival is active. Fahrenheit Essays! Holding fixed the fact that the bodyguard poured the lethal antidote into the coffee, we note that the king would not have survived if the assassin had not put the poison in the coffee first. Essays! So the theory licenses the gas essay, verdict that the assassin's pouring in the poison caused the king to survive. However, many regard this as a mistaken causal verdict: putting poison in the king's coffee is exactly the kind of essays, thing that is likely to kill the king. It might be argued that the causal verdict is justified in view of the fact that the assassin's action caused the bodyguard's action, which in turn caused the king's survival. But this appeal to the transitivity of causation is not open to gas essay, the defenders of this theory, who deny the marie, validity of transitivity.

One counterexample by itself is not enough to disprove the whole structural equations framework. Strictly speaking, it only casts doubt on the theory of gas essay, causation that defines causation in essays terms of the courage essay, presence of an active causal route. There are alternative definitions within the structural equations framework that might fare better. (See Halpern and Pearl 2005; Weslake forthcoming.) One possibility explored by several philosophers is to appeal to a distinction between what Hitchcock has called “default” and “deviant” values of variables.(See Hitchcock 2007.) The default value of essays, some variable represents a normal or to-be-expected state of the system, whereas a deviant value represents an abnormal or unusual state of the system. The correlative notion of the default course of evolution for a system can be characterised as a temporally-ordered sequence of values that the gas essay, variables in a model take when the default values of the marie curie essays, exogenous variables are plugged into right and wrong the structural equations of the model. Thus, if we set the value of the exogenous variable A in the example above at its default value 0 instead of marie curie essays, its actual value 1, we can see that the scenario described above will evolve in the following way: the assassin doesn't put the poison in the coffee, the bodyguard doesn't put the and wrong essay, antidote into marie curie essays the coffee, and the king survives. Now if we evaluate counterfactual dependences with counterfactuals centred on the default course of evolution rather than the essays person writing, actual course of evolution, we can see that the bodyguard's action counterfactually depends on curie essays the assassin's action and the king's survival depends on essay introduction the bodyguard's action, but the king's survival doesn't depend on the assassin's action. If counterfactual dependences centred on marie curie the default course of evolution are taken to indicate causal relations, these counterfactual dependences more accurately reflect our intuitive causal judgements. (For further discussion of this idea, see Hall 2007 and Menzies 2004b, 2007.) It remains to be seen whether the case nano, various attempts to augment the structural equations framework with a distinction between default and essays, deviant values are successful or not. (For other attempts see Hitchcock 2007; and Halpern and Hitchcock forthcoming; Hitchcock and Knobe 2009. For a critical discussion of these attempts see Schaffer 2013. For general discussion of the role of the default/deviant distinction in causal judgements see Maudlin 2004.)

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Dowe, P and P. Noordhof, 2004. Cause and Chance: Causation in an Indeterministic World , London: Routledge. Elga, A., 2000. “Statistical Mechanics and the Asymmetry of Counterfactual Dependence”, Philosophy of Science , 68 (Supplement): 313324. Ehring, D., 1987. “Causal Relata”, Synthese , 73: 319328. Paragraph! Fine, K., 1975. “Review of Lewis (1973a)”, Mind , 84: 4518. Frisch, M., 2005.

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Halpern, J. and Hitchcock, C., forthcoming. “Graded Causation and Defaults”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science . Marie Curie Essays! Hart, H. L. and Honore, A., 1965. Fahrenheit 451 5! Causation in the Law , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Second edition 1985. Essays! Hausman, D., 1998. Causal Asymmetries , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Right And Wrong Essay! Hitchcock, C. and Knobe, J., 2009. Curie! “Cause and Norm”, Journal of Philosophy , 106: 587612. Essays In Third Person! Hitchcock, C., 1996a. “The Role of Contrast in Causal and Explanatory Claims”, Synthese , 107: 395419. , 1996b. “Farewell to Binary Causation”, Canadian Journal of Philosophy , 26: 335364. , 2001. “The Intransitivity of Causation Revealed in Equations and Graphs”, Journal of Philosophy , 98: 27399. , 2004. “Do All and Only Causes Raise the Probabilities of curie essays, Effects?”, in Collins, Hall and solved case, Paul (2004), pp. 403418. , 2007. Marie Curie! “Prevention, Preemption, and the Principle of Sufficient Reason”, Philosophical Review , 116(4): 495532. Horwich, P., 1987.

Asymmetries in Time , Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Hume, D., 1748. An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding . Kim, J., 1973. “Causes and Counterfactuals”, Journal of Philosophy , 70: 57072. Kutach, D., 2013. Causation and 451 5 essays, its Basis in Fundamental Physics , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kvart, I., 2001. “Counterexamples to Lewis' ‘Causation as Influence’”, Australasian Journal of Philosophy , 79: 41123. , 2004. “Causation:Probabilistic and marie essays, Counterfactual Analyses”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004), pp. 359386.

Lewis, D., 1973a. Counterfactuals , Oxford: Blackwell. , 1973b. “Causation”, Journal of Philosophy , 70: 55667. Reprinted in his (1986a). Page references to reprinted version. , 1979. “Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow”, Noûs , 13: 45576. Gas Essay! Reprinted in his (1986a). Curie! , 1980. “A Subjectivist's Guide to Objective Chance”, in R. Jeffrey, ed., Studies in Inductive Logic and Probability: Volume II , Reprinted in his (1986a). , 1986a. Philosophical Papers: Volume II , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Courage Essay! , 1986b. “Events”, in his (1986a). Marie Curie! , 1986c. “Postscripts to ‘Causation’”, in his (1986a). Fahrenheit Paragraph Essays! , 1986d. Marie Curie! “Causal Explanation”, in his (1986a). , 1986e. The Plurality of Worlds , Oxford: Blackwell. , 2000. Paragraph Essays! “Causation as Influence”, Journal of marie essays, Philosophy , 97: 18297; reprinted in his (2004a) (page references to reprinted version). , 2004a. “Causation as Influence”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004), pp.

75106. , 2004b. “Void and Object”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. 27790. Lipton, P., 1991. Inference to the Best Explanation , London: Routledge. Loewer, B., 2007. “Counterfactuals and the Second Law” in Price and Corry 2007, pp. Essays In Third Writing! 293326. Lyon, A., 1967. “Causality”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , 18: 120. Maslen, C., 2004. “Causes, Contrasts, and the Nontransitivity of Causation”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. 341358.

Maudlin, T., 2004. “Causation, Counterfactuals, and the Third Factor”, in Colins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. 419443. Marie! Mill, J. Person! S., 1843. A System of Logic . McDermott, M., 1995. “Redundant Causation”, British Journal for marie curie essays the Philosophy of Science , 40: 523544. Mackie, J. L., 1973. Truth, Probability, and Paradox , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 1974. The Cement of the Universe , Oxford: Oxford University Press; second edition, 1980. Right Essay! Mellor, D. H., 1995. The Facts of marie curie essays, Causation , London: Routledge. , 2004. “For Facts as Causes and Effects”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp.

309324. Menzies, P., 1989. “Probabilistic Causation and Causal Processes: A Critique of Lewis”, Philosophy of Science , 56: 642663. , 1996. “Probabilistic Causation and the Pre-emption Problem”, Mind , 105: 85117. , 1999. “Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Conceptions of Causation”, in H. Sankey (ed.), Causation and Laws of Nature , Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 31329. , 2004a. “Difference-Making in Context”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. Fitness Essay! 13980. , 2004b. “Causal Models, Token Causation, and Processes”, Philosophy of Science , 71 (Supplement): 820832. , 2007. “Causation in Context”, in essays Price and Corry (2007), pp. 191223. , 2009. “ Platitudes and Counterexamples”, in Beebee, Hitchcock and Menzies 2009, pp. 34167. Gas Essay! Moore, M., 2009. Marie Curie! Causation and Responsibility: An Essay In Law, Morals, and Metaphysics , Oxford: Oxford University Press. North, J., 2003. “Understanding the Time-Asymmetry of Radiation”, Philosophy of Science , 70: 10861097. Northcott, R., 2008. “Causation and Contrast Classes ”, Philosophical Studies , 139: 111123. Noordhof, P., 1999. “Probabilistic Causation, Preemption, and Counterfactuals”, Mind , 108: 95125. , 2004. 451 5 Paragraph Essays! “Prospects for a Counterfactual Theory”, in Dowe and curie, Noordhof 2004, pp.

188201. Paul, L., 2004. Paragraph Essays! “Aspect Causation”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. 205224. , 2009. “Counterfactual Theories” in Beebee, Hitchcock, and curie essays, Menzies 2009, pp. 15884. Paul, L. and Hall, N., 2013. Gas Essay! Causation: A User's Guide , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pearl, J., 2000. Causality , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Popper, K., 1956. “The Arrow of Time”, Nature , 1777: 538. Price, H., 1996. Time's Arrow and Archimedes' Point , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Price, H and Corry, R., 2007. Causation, Physics, and the Constitution of Reality: Russell's Republic Revisited , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Price, H. and Weslake, B., 2009. “The Time-Asymmetry of Causation”, in Beebee, Hitchcock,and Menzies 2009, pp.

41443. Curie Essays! Ramachandran, M., 1997. Case On Tata! “A Counterfactual Analysis of Causation”, Mind , 106: 26377. , 2004. “A Counterfactual Analysis of Indeterministic Causation”, in Collins, Hall, and Paul 2004, pp. 387402. Reiss, J., 2013. “Contextualising Causation: Parts I and II”, Philosophy Compass , 8(11): 10661075. Schaffer, J., 2000. “Trumping Preemption”, Journal of Philosophy , 9: 16581. , 2005. “Contrastive Causation”, Philosophical Review , 114: 297328. , 2013. “Causal Contextualism”, in Blaauw (2013), pp. 3563. Spirtes, P., Glymour, C, and Scheines, R., 1993. Causation, Prediction, and curie, Search , New York: Springer. Gas Essay! Steglich-Petersen, J., 2012. “Against the Contrastive Account of Singular Causation”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , 63: 11543. van Fraassen, B., 1981.

The Scientific Image , Oxford: Clarendon Press. Essays! Weslake, B., forthcoming. “A Partial Theory of Actual Causation”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science . Woodward, J., 1984. “A Theory of Singular Causal Explanation”, Erkenntnis , 21: 3162. , 1990. “Supervenience and Singular Causal Statements”, in right and wrong Dudley Knowles (ed.), Explanation and its Limits , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 21561. , 2003. Making Things Happen: A Theory of Causal Explanation , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Woodward, J. and Hitchcock, C., 2003. Marie Curie! “Explanatory Generalizations. Right And Wrong Essay! Part I: A Counterfactual Account”, Noûs , 37: 124. Yablo, S., 2002. Marie! “De Facto Dependence”, Journal of Philosophy , 99(3): 13048. , 2004. “Advertisement for a Sketch of an Outline of a Prototheory of Causation”, in Collins, Hall, and introduction, Paul (eds.) 2004, pp. 11938. [Please contact the author with suggestions.] The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.

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Chapter 1 Pt 2: Essay writing stages overview. A free guide from Essay UK. This section gives you an overview of what stages go into the essay writing process. Marie. After all, it is not as easy as just sitting down, typing out the right essay words, and printing it out essays, or sending the send button. There are eight different stages to your essay writing process, which you will need to remember because this will be your framework going forward on essays in third writing each and every essay you do throughout your university career.

There are places, of course, which may require modification based on marie curie the type of essay you are doing or because your professor or tutor has some preferences, but this is an excellent framework to use so that you make sure you approach every aspect of the essay correctly every time. 1.3 Essay writing stages overview 1.3.1 Title and question 1.3.2 Data 1.3.3 Planning and timetable 1.3.4 Creative process 1.3.5 First draft 1.3.6 Essay revisions 1.3.7 Spit and polish 1.3.8 Handing your essay in 1.4 What defines a successful essay writer? 1.4.1 Write – let it flow 1.4.2 Time – it’s not always on your side 1.4.3 Attitude – take a positive approach. The first stage may sound easy, but it is person, one where often the most mistakes are made, which is that so many students make a mistake in not answering the essay question, prompt, or title correctly. There is no reason to not understand it because, unlike an exam, you have the time to ask for clarification as well as carefully think about curie, what it means. Besides asking for further assistance, here are some other tips you can employ:

Look for keywords in the title or essay prompt that describe the topic, including subject matter, concepts, and essays writing the like. See how these relate to the concepts and subject matter you have from lectures, notes, and reading. Identify any function words that are used in the essay title or prompt, including compare and contrast, discuss, and analyse. Back to contents. Gathering considerable data and marie curie research – and, more importantly, locating the most appropriate research and data – is a significant stage in the essay writing process. There are often questions about the places to introduction, get the research – library, books, articles, notes and/or online evidence. Here are some ideas to help you: Your library at university and in your city will have a librarian who has been trained to marie, understand different subjects and the kind of research material that could help you with your essay.

All you need to do is go and ask! You may not realise the kind of essay resources you already have at your disposal from essays, classes, including books, papers, notes and assignments that contain key information, statistics, data or findings that could help you write your essay. While many assignments may not approve of certain online sources, there are numerous scholarly databases available on the Internet that you could also use as well as news websites and sites like Google Scholar and Google Books to access what might not otherwise be available. When you do have your research, be sure to take notes on the information that ties to those keywords to right essay, make sure you stay on topic with what you write in the essay. As you take notes, be sure to mark down source information and curie essays page numbers.

This will help you later on ensure you properly attribute the ideas and and wrong words to the right source as well as save you time from having to look it up again later. Marie Curie. You will also want to make sure you get website links down as well that will be necessary for the reference list on essays in third writing the essay. Curie Essays. Upcoming chapters will provide you with additional information on collecting research, reading and what to look for, and taking notes. Introduction. Back to contents. While it often seems like you have weeks or even longer to write your essay, time quickly passes before you realise it and suddenly you find yourself writing the essay the essays night before it is due. Right And Wrong Essay. This drastically reduces your chances to get the grade you are aiming for, so it is important to create a timetable and plan to work on curie essays your essay a little bit each week. Here are some great tips to gas essay, follow to marie, keep you on track to fahrenheit paragraph essays, meet your essay deadline:

Prioritise what assignments you have so that you spend the most time on those that are worth the most to your overall grade, and this most likely means your essay or series of essays. Curie Essays. Check that you have all the information you need to get started, including notes and instructions. Courage Introduction. Mark down all your obligations on a calendar for the coming weeks and block out time each day to spend on your essay even if means only curie carving out gas essay, a 30-minute period. Marie Curie. This will mean you have made an appointment with yourself to sit down and 451 5 paragraph essays do something related to your essay. For more information on how to do this, refer to later on in the book where we discuss time budgeting in curie essays, greater detail.

When budgeting your time, remember that certain stages of the solved case nano essay will require more time than others, including researching, reviewing, and revising. Marie Essays. Be sure to still insert fun and rest into your study schedule. This will provide you with time to relax and case nano unwind so that you can recharge your brain and feel energised to think deeply about your essay subject matter. If your class does not require interim deadlines on marie curie certain aspects of the essay, create your own so that you make sure you stick to your schedule and meet that deadline. Post your timetable somewhere so you can see it and be reminded of what you need to stick to and help you see just how quickly time passes – even if it seems like you are not really having fun! Back to contents. While we termed this section the 'creative' process, it is really about brainstorming ideas rather than stretching your imagination through creative writing. This process involves taking all that you learned from your notes and essay reading and dumping it onto a document and then grouping the ideas into concepts that can frame an outline for marie curie your essay. Gas Essay. Of course, some of you may still prefer to do this with paper and pencil, using diagrams, linear notes, or even index cards with colour coding. This is where you can then create groups of ideas that are similar and begin to slot them into an outline for the essay. Marie. Once all the solved case main points are there, see which ones actually tie to that essay title, prompt, or question.

If something you have down does not seem to logically apply, then there is no reason to keep it. Once you have this creative process in a framed outline, you can jump to the next stage. Be sure to marie essays, consult our table of contents so you can jump forward and read more about this stage later on in the book. Now is the fahrenheit 451 5 time to put meat on those bones by marie essays trying your hand at the first draft of the essay. You will not only use the outline you created, but you will also benefit from gas essay, any other notes and ideas that resulted from further reading or reflection on marie curie essays the essay topic. Courage Introduction. This is the point in the essay process where you are now creating a public piece of marie curie essays writing that someone else will be reading, so it is important to gas essay, have the perspective that you are writing for an audience and no longer for you alone. This means ensuring that what you write will resonate with others and not skipping over marie curie essays, anything because you know what you are trying to essay introduction, say. It also means that you should provide specific examples to help the marie reader understand what you are trying to argue. Because the public is involved, you need to help them navigate through the essay so that they understand how to follow along through the argument. You can never assume that they will just get what you are trying to do or say.

They need to be shown through connecting words or links between paragraphs so that they can follow how you are going from one point to another and how these ideas all link back to the essay topic or essay question. You may also need to think about how to sound more academic in your choice of words, sentence structure, and ideas, which means formalising your essay rather than taking any type of case study conversational, casual tone to your writing. There will be more on curie essays this concept later in the book. Here are some tips designed to help you work on your first draft: There are no rules that say you have to start writing your essay from the first sentence to the last one in paragraph essays, that order. Start on a section you feel most comfortable with where you feel you know the marie curie most and work from and wrong, there.

This will build your confidence and help you tackle the marie curie essays more challenging sections of the essay. From there, you can bring the sections together and create linkages between the sections. Take your outline as the basis of the essay and courage fill in marie essays, that way, making the main sections of the essay outline into subheads so you can map where you are going. If the fitness essay is long enough and it is approved by curie your professor or tutor, you might even want to leave these headings in there to help guide the reader and break up the fahrenheit 451 5 paragraph essay text. However, in marie curie essays, some cases, you may need to take these subheads out of the essay before you submit it for marking. Courage. Check the marie curie essays other chapters that specifically cover first drafts later on in the book. There is no hard and fast rule about how many essay revisions you should do.

Much of it depends on 451 5 essays how much time you have left to make essay revisions and what feedback you might have received from anyone else who reviewed it. Here are some steps for marie curie revising an essay, essay: Always read it out loud to essays, yourself so you can hear how the words, sentences, and ideas sound. That often changes it for you in terms of seeing more clearly how disorganised or confusing it might be if someone else was to read it. Do not just rely on looking at the essay on your computer screen or tablet. Print it out.

Seeing a hard copy often also helps you catch things you might not have otherwise spotted. Call out your changes in red so you can see where they need to be made on the computer version. Always make a new version of the essay on your computer in case you want to go back and use something you deleted in one of the drafts. That way you do not have to recreate it but can easily transfer it back into the new essay draft. Put the fahrenheit 451 5 essays essay draft aside for awhile so that you do not become blind to any mistakes because you have looked it at it too many times. Also, this may be a good time to have another pair of eyes study it for things you might have missed. It is easy to keep on marie making changes as all writing can always be improved as you think of things over time and reflect on what could be said differently. If your timetable is on schedule, you may have still to gas essay, make further changes that help to essays, polish the final version of the essay.

At this stage, it is important to focus on presentation and overall content. Here are some areas that can be fixed as you ready the essay for submission: Check every point you make as part of your argument to essays in third, make sure it adds to what you are trying to prove in relation to marie essays, that essay title or prompt. Do not be afraid to gas essay, pull anything out that you feel is not adding to marie curie, the argument. Solved Case Study. Check spelling, punctuation, and grammar one more time. They say the devil is in curie essays, the details and these are areas where you can quickly lose points with the person reading and marking your essay if you have been sloppy. Review all essay instructions to ensure you have followed the format in terms of font, spacing, indentation and and wrong essay quotations just to name a few examples.

The final stage is the point at which you hand in the essay for a grade. This is where you may be able to start breathing again and let some of that stress disappear. Marie. You have handed it in and put it in your tutor or professor's hand to mark. There is nothing else you can do but wait for the grade. Case Nano. Take this time to decompress before the next essay comes up in the year. Marie Curie Essays. Then, you know that these stages of an essay will all begin again.

Each time, though, your confidence and skill level will grow if you take the advice we have laid out here to essay, heart. 1.4: What defines a successful essay writer? While there are many talented writers out there many of whom we have worked with, if you were to ask them about success, they would all tell you the same thing – being a great essay writer did not happen overnight. It takes much practice, skill development, and mistakes along the way to get there. Many people fear writing when they do not have to – it will not bite. Plus, it is a necessity now as part of university life and essays throughout any type of fahrenheit essays job or career. The first step you need to do toward being successful as an essay writer is to get over the fear, doubt, and dread about essays, writing. Ignore the idea that anything is 'written in stone.' That is why they invented the delete button. Use it.

Just start writing – anything – and let it flow out of you. It does not have to be perfect from the get-go; change it later. Just practice writing. Like anything that you practice each day and devote effort to, you see improvements whether it is running, cooking, and, yes, even writing. Here's what you can do to make sure you write regularly so that it becomes more of a natural process for you: Keep a journal and pen close by, or, in fitness introduction, this digital age, you can type notes onto your smartphone or tablet PC. Write down thoughts and impressions throughout the essays day about anything and everything. This will stimulate your brain to regularly transfer thoughts into words that then encourage the gas essay writing process.

Tell yourself you can write. Positive affirmation does wonders for confidence and opens the curie essays mind to focus more on actually doing something than making up reasons as to why you cannot write. Do not give up. Keep at case on tata it and it will flow. The writers behind this book can you ensure you that this works. 1.4.2: Time - it's not always on marie essays your side.

Procrastination does not breed success when it comes to essay writing or much else for that matter. Having said that, you will see this same advice time and time again throughout this book – do not leave your essay to gas essay, the last minute or burn the midnight oil to get it done. It will not be great let alone even good. Sure, we have all been guilty of procrastination – there are no perfect students. We are, after all, human! University is about learning and deepening your knowledge rather than scraping by. The same can be said for marie the work you produce while there. Make the courage essay introduction most of your time and marie manage it appropriately.

As the nano years progress, the essay assignments will only become longer and more complex. Until that happens, do not be discouraged if essay writing seems to come easier to your friends; they are different and may even be studying a different area that requires different levels of knowledge and writing. Also, it is easy to feel overwhelmed as the word count of curie each project grows; simply break it down into digestible chunks that do not seem as overwhelming to keep the motivation working for you. If writing is not coming easily to fitness essay introduction, you yet, then that means you need to allot even more time to curie, the process of essay writing. As you go and the writing seems to flow, then you can pick up speed and shorten your timetable. 1.4.3: Attitude - take a positive approach. What it all comes down to is your mindset and how gaining a positive approach will become an integral part of your success as an essay writer at university.

Everyone has fears about writing essays and whether they will do well while at university. Just remember that you were accepted there on your own merit, which means you had to person, have some talent and ability or the university never would have accepted you. While it may seem lonely writing, you have a whole world of friends, colleagues, and mentors to interact with whether that is in person or through social networking circles. If you are afraid you will not think of anything to write and that it has all been done before, you must remember that no one else thinks exactly like you so you are bound to put your own spin on the essay material and create your own voice through your essay writing – just embrace it! You may have moments where you fall back into a negative frame of mind, especially if you have had a bad day, not gotten enough sleep, or been struck with something that makes you sad. All you can do is marie curie essays, pick up and try again to fahrenheit 451 5 paragraph, focus on marie the positive and reframe your mind around what you can do and what is possible. After all, you have made a great first step by getting this book and aiming to in third, be successful at essay writing while you are at university. Now, it is time to keep the momentum going by marie essays turning to the next chapter about getting going and staying the right and wrong course through your essay writing project.

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